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A STUDY ON EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION IN PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES

AT THIRUPUR

ABSTRACT
The present study is made an attempt to identify Job Satisfaction facilities and employee’s
level about Job Satisfaction facilities adopted. To achieve the aforesaid objective data is
gathered from 100 employees of the organization with random sampling technique. It is
found that most of the respondents are aware about the legislative and non - legislative
employee Job Satisfaction facilities provided at the Company, Job Satisfaction facilities like
medical, canteen, working environment, safety measures etc., are provided by the company.
And most of the employees are satisfied with the Job Satisfaction facilities adopted by the
company towards the employee’s Job Satisfaction.

CHAPTER-I
INTRODUCTION
Every individual has certain needs and motives which want to fulfill. Any job which
fulfills their needs and motives. There are some situational factors responsible for job
satisfaction. The important causes of job satisfaction are wage incentive systems, the work
environment, length of working hours, behavior of the supervisor, security, scope for
promotion and recognition of merit. Besides proper evaluation of work, impartial behavior
and social relationship with co-workers etc. are also contributory factors.
The term Job Satisfaction proposes many ideas, meanings and connotations, such as the state
of well-being, health, happiness, prosperity and the development of human resources. As a
total concept of Job Satisfaction, it is a desirable state of existence involving physical,
mental, moral and emotional well-being.
The social concept of Job Satisfaction implies the Job Satisfaction of man, his family, and his
community. Job Satisfaction is called a relative concept, for it is related to time and space.
Changes in it have an impact on the system of Job Satisfaction as well. Job Satisfaction is
also a positive concept. In order to establish a minimum level of Job Satisfaction, it demands
certain minimum acceptable conditions of existence, biologically and socially.
The employee Job Satisfaction schemes can be classified into two categories viz. statutory
and non-statutory Job Satisfaction schemes. The statutory schemes are those schemes that are
compulsory to provide by an organization as compliance to the laws governing employee
health and safety. These include provisions provided in industrial acts like Factories Act
1948, Dock Workers Act (safety, health and Job Satisfaction) 1986, Mines Act 1962. The
non–statutory schemes differ from organization to organization and from industry to industry.
It is a comprehensive term including various services, benefits and facilities offered to
employees by the employer. Through such generous fringe benefits, the employer makes life
worth living for employees. The Job Satisfaction amenities are extended by in addition to
normal wages and other economic rewards available to the employees as per legal provisions.
The significance of Job Satisfaction were accepted as early as 1931 when the Royal
Commission on Employee stated, the benefits are of great importance to the worker which he
is unable to secure by himself. The schemes of employee Job Satisfaction may be regarded as
a wise investment because these would bring a profitable return in form of greater efficiency.
Employee Job Satisfaction facilities in the organization affects on the behavior of the
employees as well as on the productivity of the organization. While getting work done
through employees the management must provide required good facilities to all employees.
The management should provide required good facilities to all employees in such way that
employees become satisfied and they work harder and more efficiently and more effectively.
Job Satisfaction is a broad concept referring to a state of living of an individual or a group, in
a desirable relationship with the total environment – ecological economic and social. It aims
at social development by such means as social legislation, social reform social service, social
work, social action. The object of economics Job Satisfaction is to promote economic
production and productivity and through development by increasing equitable distribution.
Lab our Job Satisfaction is an area of social Job Satisfaction conceptually and operationally.
It covers a broad field and connotes a state of well being, happiness, satisfaction,
conservation and development of human resources.
Employee Job Satisfaction is an area of social Job Satisfaction conceptually and
operationally. It covers a broad field and connotes a state of well-being, happiness,
satisfaction, conservation and development of human resources and also helps to motivation
of employee. The basic propose of employee Job Satisfaction is to enrich the life of
employees and to keep them happy and conducted. Job Satisfaction may be both Statutory
and Non statutory laws require the employer to extend certain benefits to employees in
addition to wages or salaries.

A STUDY ON FRAME WORK OF EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION


INTRODUCTION TO JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction in regards to one’s feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work.
Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of one’s relationship with their
supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfillment in their
work, etc.

Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude
towards job has been defined variously from time to time. In short job satisfaction is a
person’s attitude towards job.

Job satisfaction is an attitude which results from balancing & summation of many specific
likes and dislikes experienced in connection with the job- their evaluation may rest largely
upon one’s success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived
combination of the job and combination towards these ends.

According to pestonejee, Job satisfaction can be taken as a summation of employee’s feelings


in four important areas. These are:

 Job-nature of work (dull, dangerous, interesting), hours of work, fellow workers,


opportunities on the job for promotion and advancement (prospects), overtime
regulations, interest in work, physical environment, and machines and tools.

 Management- supervisory treatment, participation, rewards and punishments, praises


and blames, leaves policy and favoritism.

 Social relations- friends and associates, neighbors, attitudes towards people in


community, participation in social activity socialibility and caste barrier.

 Personal adjustment-health and emotionality.

 Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a
predictor of work behavior such as organizational citizenship, Absenteeism, Turnover.

 Job satisfaction benefits the organization includes reduction in complaints and


grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved punctuality
and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked with a healthier work force and has
been found to be a good indicator of longevity.
 Job satisfaction is not synonyms with organizational morale, which the possessions of
feeling have being accepted by and belonging to a group of employees through
adherence to common goals and confidence in desirability of these goals.

 Morale is the by-product of the group, while job satisfaction is more an individual
state of mind.

 Job Satisfaction is the feeling an employee gets when the job he does fulfils all his
expectations. While morale refers to the attitude of the employees of an organization
and is a group concept, Job satisfaction is the feeling of an individual employee. Job
satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the
appraisal of one’s job; and affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards
one’s job. Job Satisfaction can be an important indicator of how employees feel about
their jobs and p predictor of work behaviors such as organizational citizenship,
absenteeism, and turnover.

DEFINITIONS:

Weiss (2002) has “argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers
should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion),
beliefs and behaviors”.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

There are various personal and organizational factors that influence job satisfaction. The age
of a person does have its influence on his level of job satisfaction. People that are young
usually have a higher level of job satisfaction provided they rightly choose their career. Those
in their twenties or thirties are energetic and have the stamina to work hard and derive
pleasure out of their work. As a person gets older, he gets tired physically and mentally.
Further, he reaches the saturation point at this stage and the work, usually, does not give him
the pleasure it gave earlier.

STEPS TO IMPROVE EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION

The following measures are necessary to improve the satisfaction employees:

 Selection of right man for the right job:


Proper care must take while recruiting persons for various jobs. Persons without
attitude and aptitude for work should not be selected. When it comes to placement of
workers, they should be given jobs in tune with their educational qualification, skills,
attitudes and abilities.
 Satisfactory conditions of service:
All those who have been appointed in the organization should be provided with job
security. They should be given decent pay. Social security benefits like provident fund
insurance etc. should be provided to employees as per the rules.

 Conducive working environment:


The working environmental should be made informal. Undue important need not be
given to hierarchy. The organization should make use of both formal and informal
channels of communication. The bureaucratic approach of the management should go

 Conducive physical conditions:


The place of work should be neat and tidy. There should be free flow of natural light
and air in any workroom. There should be proper provision for canteen. Lunchroom,
etc.
 Better work methods:
Conventional work methods and age-old practices should be given up. The enterprise
should come forward to adopt the latest technology. The employees may be trained to
make use of the various electronic devices in their day-to-day work. This not only
simplifies their work but also makes it more interesting.

 Proper superior-subordinate relationship:


The relationship between the superior and the subordinates should always be cordial.
The superior’s style of functioning must be democratic. He should not make an
attempt to impose his ideas on his subordinates. Whenever necessary and possible, he
can seek his subordinate’s viewpoints. Likewise, the subordinates, on their part, must
repose faith in their superiors and come forward to accept responsibilities.
 Good inter-personal relationship:
The relationship between the employees should also be proper. The work done in any
organization is teamwork. In the absence of proper understanding between the
employees, teamwork is not possible. The employees should not give scope for their
personal interest to clash with those of the organization.
 Job rotation:
If certain jobs are, by nature, dull and monotonous, job rotation may help to break the
monotony of workers, i.e., such jobs may be assigned to operation at a certain level by
rotation
 Provision of suitable incentives:
Only human resources can be induced to work. Inanimate objects like machines
cannot be motivated to work. The management therefore, should offer suitable
incentives to motivate employees to perform better. Incentives need not be in the
forms of money payment. There are also non-monetary incentives. Further, these
incentives may be gives for individual performance or group performance.

 Valuation of employee performance:


The performance of employees needs to be assessed regular intervals. Such an
assessment will level their level of efficiency. Such of those Employees who are
found to be highly efficient may be given suitable rewards. Those employees who are
less efficient may be made to undergo training to acquire better skills. If some
employees are found to be highly inefficiency, such people need not be retained. It is
only these people who spoil the work atmosphere in any organization.

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


Human life has become very complex and completed in now-a-days. In modern society the
needs and requirements of the people are ever increasing and ever changing. When the people
are ever increasing and ever changing, when the peoples needs are not fulfilled they become
dissatisfied. Dissatisfied people are likely to contribute very little for any purpose. Job
satisfaction of industrial workers us very important for the industry to function successfully.
Apart from managerial and technical aspects, employers can be considered as backbone of
any industrial development. To utilize their contribution they should be provided with good
working conditions to boost their job satisfaction. Any business can achieve success and
peace only when the problem of satisfaction and dissatisfaction of workers are felt
understood and solved, problem of efficiency absenteeism labour turnover require a social
skill of understanding human problems and dealing with them scientific investigation serves
the purpose to solve the human problems in the industry.
 Pay.
 The work itself.
 Promotion
 The work group.
 Working condition.
 Supervision.

PAY
Wages do play a significant role in determining of satisfaction. Pay is instrumental in
fulfilling so many needs. Money facilities the obtaining of food, shelter, and clothing and
provides the means to enjoy valued leisure interest outside of work. More over, pay can serve
as symbol of achievement and a source of recognition. Employees often see pay as a
reflection of organization. Fringe benefits have not been found to have strong influence on
job satisfaction as direct wages.

THE WORK ITSELF


Along with pay, the content of the work itself plays a very major role in determining how
satisfied employees are with their jobs. By and large, workers want jobs that are challenging;
they do want to be doing mindless jobs day after day. The two most important aspect of the
work itself that influence job satisfaction are variety and control over work methods and work
place. In general, job with a moderate amount of variety produce the most job satisfaction.
Jobs with too little variety cause workers to feel bored and fatigue. Jobs with too much
variety and stimulation cause workers to feel psychologically stressed and ‘burnout’.

PROMOTION
Promotional opportunities have a moderate impact on job satisfaction. A promotion to a
higher level in an organization typically involves positive changes I supervision, job content
and pay. Jobs that are at the higher level of an organization usually provide workers with
more freedom, more challenging work assignments and high salary.

SUPERVISION
Two dimensions of supervisor style:
 Employee centered or consideration supervisors who establish a supportive personal
relationship with subordinates and take a personal interest in them.
 The other dimension of supervisory style influence participation in decision making,
employee who participates in decision that affect their job, display a much higher
level of satisfaction with supervisor an the overall work situation.

WORK GROUP
Having friendly and co-operative co-workers is a modest source of job satisfaction to
individual employees. The working groups also serve as a social support system of
employees. People often used their co-workers as sounding board for their problem of as a
source of comfort.

WORK CONDITION
The employees desire good working condition because they lead to greater physical comfort.
The working conditions are important to employees because they can influence life outside of
work. If people are require to work long hours and / or overtime, they will have very little felt
for their families, friends and recreation outside work.

DETERMINANTS OF JOB SATISFACTION:

While analyzing the various determinants of job satisfaction, we have to keep in mind that:
all individuals do no derive the same degree of satisfaction though they perform the same job
in the same job environment and at the same time. Therefore, it appears that besides the
nature of job and job environment, there are individual variables which affect job satisfaction.
Thus, all those factors which provide a fit among individual variables, nature of job, and
situational variables determine the degree of job satisfaction. Let us see what these factors
are.
INDIVIDUAL FACTORS:
Individuals have certain expectations from their jobs. If their expectations are met from the
jobs, they feel satisfied. These expectations are based on an individual’s level of education,
age and other factors.
LEVEL OF EDUCATION:
Level of education of an individual is a factor which determines the degree of job
satisfaction. For example, several studies have found negative correlation between the level
of education, particularly higher level of education, and job satisfaction. The possible reason
for this phenomenon may be that highly educated persons have very high expectations from
their jobs which remain unsatisfied. In their case, Peter’s principle which suggests that every
individual tries to reach his level of incompetence, applies more quickly.

AGE:
Individuals experience different degree of job satisfaction at different stages of their life. Job
satisfaction is high at the initial stage, gets gradually reduced, starts rising upto certain stage,
and finally dips to a low degree. The possible reasons for this phenomenon are like this.
When individuals join an organization, they may have some unrealistic assumptions about
what they are going to drive from their work. These assumptions make them more satisfied.
However, when these assumptions fall short of reality, job satisfaction goes down. It starts
rising again as the people start to assess the jobs in right perspective and correct their
assumptions. At the last, particularly at the fag end of the career, job satisfaction goes down
because of fear of retirement and future outcome.

OTHER FACTORS:
Besides the above two factors, there are other individual factors which affect job satisfaction.
If an individual does not have favorable social and family life, he may not feel happy at the
workplace. Similarly, other personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job
satisfaction. Personal problems associated with him may affect his level of job satisfaction.

NATURE OF JOB:
Nature of job determines job satisfaction which is in the form of occupation level and job
content.

OCCUPATION LEVEL:
Higher level jobs provide more satisfaction as compared to lower levels. This happens
because high level jobs carry prestige and status in the society which itself becomes source of
satisfaction for the job holders.
For example, professionals derive more satisfaction as compared to salaried people: factory
workers are least satisfied.

JOB CONTENT:
Job content refers to the intrinsic value of the job which depends on the requirement of skills
for performing it, and the degree of responsibility and growth it offers. A higher content of
these factors provides higher satisfaction. For example, a routine and repetitive lesser
satisfaction; the degree of satisfaction progressively increases in job rotation, job
enlargement, and job enrichment.

SITUATIONAL VARIABLES:
Situational variables related to job satisfaction lie in organizational context – formal and
informal. Formal organization emerges out of the interaction of individuals in the
organization. Some of the important factors which affect job important factors which affect
job satisfaction are given below:

1. WORKING CONDITIONS:
Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of workplace
and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two
ways. First, these provide means job performance. Second, provision of these conditions
affects the individual’s perception about the organization. If these factors are favourable,
individuals experience higher level of job satisfaction.
2. SUPERVISION:
The type of supervision affects job satisfaction as in each type of supervision; the degree of
importance attached to individuals varies. In employee-oriented supervision, there is more
concern for people which is perceived favourably by them and provides them more
satisfaction. In job oriented supervision, there is more emphasis on the performance of the job
and people become secondary. This situation decreases job satisfaction
.
3. EQUITABLE REWARDS:
The type of linkage that is provided between job performance and rewards determines the
degree of job satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on the job performance and
equitable, it offers higher satisfaction. If the reward is perceived to be based on
considerations other than the job performance, it affects job satisfaction adversely.

4. OPPORTUNITY:
It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of job nature and work
environment by they also attach importance to opportunities for promotion that these job
offer. If the present job offers opportunity of promotion is lacking, it reduces satisfaction.

1. Work group: Individuals work in group either created formally of they develop on
their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the workplace. To the extent such groups
are cohesive; the degree of satisfaction is high. If the group is not cohesive, job
satisfaction is low. In a cohesive group, people derive satisfaction out of their
interpersonal interaction and workplace becomes satisfying leading to job satisfaction.

EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION

Job satisfaction has a variety of effects. These effects may be seen in the context of an
individual’s physical and mental health, productivity, absenteeism, and turnover.

Physical and Mental Health:


The degree of job satisfaction affects an individual’s physical and mental
health. Since job satisfaction is a type of mental feeling, its favorableness’ or
unfavourablesness affects the individual psychologically which ultimately affects his physical
health.
For example, Lawler has pointed out that drug abuse, alcoholism and mental and physical
health result from psychologically harmful jobs. Further, since a job is an important part of
life, job satisfaction influences general life satisfaction. The result is that there is spillover
effect which occurs in both directions between job and life satisfaction.

PRODUCTIVITY:
There are two views about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity:

 A happy worker is a productive worker,


 A happy worker is not necessarily a productive worker.

The first view establishes a direct cause-effect relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity; when job satisfaction increases, productivity increases; when satisfaction
decreases, productivity decreases. The basic logic behind this is that a happy worker will put
more efforts for job performance. However, this may not be true in all cases.
For example, a worker having low expectations from his jobs may feel satisfied but he may
not put his efforts more vigorously because of his low expectations from the job. Therefore,
this view does not explain fully the complex relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity.

The view: That is a satisfied worker is not necessarily a productive worker explains the
relationship between job satisfaction and productivity. Various research studies also support
this view.

This relationship may be explained in terms of the operation of two factors: effect of job
performance on satisfaction and organizational expectations from individuals for job
performance. 1. Job performance leads to job satisfaction and not the other way round. The
basic factor for this phenomenon is the rewards (a source of satisfaction) attached with
performance. There are two types of rewardsintrinsic and extrinsic. The intrinsic reward
stems from the job itself which may be in the form of growth potential, challenging job, etc.
The satisfaction on such a type of reward may help to increase productivity. The extrinsic
reward is subject to control by management such as salary, bonus, etc. Any increase in these
factors does not help to increase productivity though these factors increase job satisfaction.

THE RELATION BETWEEN PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION


ABSENTEEISM:
Absenteeism refers to the frequency of absence of job holder from the workplace
either unexcused absence due to some avoidable reasons or long absence due to some
unavoidable reasons. It is the former type of absence which is a matter of concern. This
absence is due to lack of satisfaction from the job which produces a ‘lack of will to work’ and
alienate a worker form work as for as possible. Thus, job satisfaction is related to
absenteeism.
HIGH

TURNOVER

JOB ABSENCES
SATISFACTION

LOW
LOW HIGH
TURNOVER AND ABSENCES

RELATIONSHIP OF JOB SATISFACTION, EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENCES

EMPLOYEE TURNOVER:
Turnover of employees is the rate at which employees leave the organization within a given
period of time. When an individual feels dissatisfaction in the organization, he tries to
overcome this through the various ways of defense mechanism. If he is not able to do so, he
opts to leave the organization. Thus, in general case, employee turnover is related to job
satisfaction. However, job satisfaction is not the only cause of employee turnover, the other
cause being better opportunity elsewhere.

DIMENSIONS OF JOB SATIFACTION


Job satisfaction is a complex concept and difficult to measure objectively. The level of job
satisfaction is affected by a wide range of variables relating to individual, social, cultural,
organizational factors as stated below:-

DIMENSIONS

INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL


CULTURAL
FACTORS FACTOR

 Individual:- Personality, education, intelligence and abilities, age, marital status,


orientation to work.

 Social factors:-Relationship with co-workers, group working and norms,


opportunities for interaction, informal relations etc.

 Organizational factors:- Nature and size, formal structure, personnel policies and
procedures, industrial relation, nature of work, technology and work organization,
supervision and styles of leadership, management systems, working conditions.

 Environmental factors:-Economic, social, technical and governmental influences.

 Cultural factors:-Attitudes, beliefs and values.

These factors affect job satisfaction of certain individuals in a given set of circumstances
but not necessarily in others. Some workers may be satisfied with certain aspects of their
work and dissatisfied with other aspects .Thus, overall degree of job satisfaction may differ
from person to person.

IMPORTANCE TO STUDY JOB SATISFACTION


The importance to the study of job satisfaction level is very important for executives. Job
satisfaction study importance can be understood by the answer of the following question
1) Is there room for improvement?
2) Who is relatively more dissatisfied?
3) What contributes to the employee satisfaction?
4) What are the effects of negative employee attitudes?

BENEFITS OF JOB SATISFACTION STUDY


Job satisfaction surveys can produce positive, neutral or negative results. If
planned properly and administered, they will usually produce a number of important benefits,
such as-
1. It gives management an indication of general levels of satisfaction in a company.
Surveys also indicate specific areas of satisfaction or dissatisfaction as compared to
employee services and particular group of employee.
2. It leads to valuable communication brought by a job satisfaction survey.
Communication flow in all direction as people plan the survey, take it and discuss the
result. Upward communication is especially fruitful when employee are encouraged to
comment about what is on their minds instead of merely answering questions about
topics important to management.
3. as a survey is safety value, an emotional release. A chance to things gets off. The
survey is an intangible expression of management’s interest in employee welfare,
which gives employees a reason to feel better towards management.
4. Job satisfaction surveys are a useful way to determine certain training needs.
5. Job satisfaction surveys are useful for identifying problem that may arise, comparing
the response to several alternatives and encouraging manager to modify their original
plans. Follow up surveys allows management to evaluate the actual response to a
change and study its success or failure.

IMPORTANCE TO WORKER AND ORGANIZATION

 Frequently, work underlies self-esteem and identity while unemployment lowers self-worth
and produces anxiety. At the same time, monotonous jobs can erode a worker's initiative and
enthusiasm and can lead to absenteeism and unnecessary turnover. Job satisfaction and
occupational success are major factors in personal satisfaction, self-respect, self-esteem, and
self-development. To the worker, job satisfaction brings a pleasurable emotional state that
often leads to a positive work attitude. A satisfied worker is more likely to be creative,
flexible, innovative, and loyal.
 For the organization, job satisfaction of its workers means a work force that is motivated and
committed to high quality performance. Increased productivity the quantity and quality of
output per hour worked seems to be a byproduct of improved quality of working life. It is
important to note that the literature on the relationship between job satisfaction and
productivity is neither conclusive nor consistent.. Unhappy employees, who are motivated by
fear of job loss, will not give 100 percent of their effort for very long. Though fear is a
powerful motivator, it is also a temporary one, and as soon as the threat is lifted performance
will decline.
 Tangible ways in which job satisfaction benefits the organization include reduction in
complaints and grievances, absenteeism, turnover, and termination; as well as improved
punctuality and worker morale. Job satisfaction is also linked to a more healthy work force
and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. And although only little correlation
has been found between job satisfaction and productivity, Brown (1996) notes that some
employers have found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or
delighting customers, thus protecting the "bottom line." No wonder Andrew Carnegie is
quoted as saying: "

CREATING JOB SATISFACTION

What are the elements of a job that create job satisfaction? Organizations can help to create job
satisfaction by putting systems in place that will ensure that workers are challenged and then
rewarded for being successful. Organizations that aspire to creating a work environment that
enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following:

 Flexible work arrangements, possibly including telecommuting


 Training and other professional growth opportunities
 Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to
"put his or her signature" on the finished product
 Opportunities to use one's talents and to be creative
 Opportunities to take responsibility and direct one's own work
 A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity
 An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who
provides timely feedback as well as congenial team members
 Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities
 Up-to-date technology
 Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion

Probably the most important point to bear in mind when considering job satisfaction is that there are
many factors that affect job satisfaction and that what makes workers happy with their jobs varies
from one worker to another and from day to day. Apart from the factors mentioned above, job
satisfaction is also influenced by the employee's personal characteristics, the manager's personal
characteristics and management style, and the nature of the work itself. Managers who want to
maintain a high level of job satisfaction in the work force must try to understand the needs of each
member of the work force.

For example, when creating work teams, managers can enhance worker satisfaction by placing
people with similar backgrounds, experiences, or needs in the same workgroup. Also, managers can
enhance job satisfaction by carefully matching workers with the type of work.

For example, a person who does not pay attention to detail would hardly make a good inspector, and
a shy worker is unlikely to be a good salesperson. As much as possible, managers should match job
tasks to employees' personalities.

Managers who are serious about the job satisfaction of workers can also take other deliberate steps to
create a stimulating work environment. One such step is job enrichment. Job enrichment is a
deliberate upgrading of responsibility, scope, and challenge in the work itself. Job enrichment
usually includes increased responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for growth, learning, and
achievement. Large companies that have used job-enrichment programs to increase employee
motivation and job satisfaction.

Good management has the potential for creating high morale, high productivity, and a sense of
purpose and meaning for the organization and its employees. Empirical findings show that job
characteristics such as pay, promotional opportunity, task clarity and significance, and skills
utilization, as well as organizational characteristics such as commitment and relationship with
supervisors and co-workers, have significant effects on job satisfaction. These job characteristics can
be carefully managed to enhance job satisfaction.
Of course, a worker who takes some responsibility for his or her job satisfaction will probably find
many more satisfying elements in the work environment. Everett (1995) suggests that employees ask
themselves the following questions:

WORKERS' ROLES IN JOB SATISFACTION

If job satisfaction is a worker benefit, surely the worker must be able to contribute to his or her own
satisfaction and well-being on the job. The following suggestions can help a worker find personal job
satisfaction:

 Seek opportunities to demonstrate skills and talents. This often leads to more challenging
work and greater responsibilities, with attendant increases in pay and other recognition.
 Develop excellent communication skills. Employers value and reward excellent reading,
listening, writing, and speaking skills.
 Know more. Acquire new job-related knowledge that helps you to perform tasks more
efficiently and effectively. This will relieve boredom and often gets one noticed.
 Demonstrate creativity and initiative. Qualities like these are valued by most
organizations and often result in recognition as well as in increased responsibilities and
rewards.
 Develop teamwork and people skills. A large part of job success is the ability to work
well with others to get the job done.
 Accept the diversity in people. Accept people with their differences and their
imperfections and learn how to give and receive criticism constructively.
 See the value in your work. Appreciating the significance of what one does can lead to
satisfaction with the work itself. This helps to give meaning to one's existence, thus
playing a vital role in job satisfaction.
 Learn to de-stress. Plan to avoid burnout by developing healthy stress-management
techniques.

ASSURING JOB SATISFACTION


Assuring job satisfaction, over the longterm, requires careful planning and effort both by
management and by workers. Managers are encouraged to consider such theories as
Herzberg's(1957) and Maslow's (1943) Creating a good blend of factors that contribute to a
stimulating, challenging, supportive, and rewarding work environment is vital. Because of the
relative prominence of pay in the reward system, it is very important that salaries be tied to job
responsibilities and that pay increases be tied to performance rather than seniority.

So, in essence, job satisfaction is a product of the events and conditions that people experience on
their jobs. Brief (1998) wrote: "If a person's work is interesting, her pay is fair, her promotional
opportunities are good, her supervisor is supportive, and her coworkers are friendly, then a
situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job" (p. 91). Very simply put, if the
pleasures associated with one's job outweigh the pains, there is some level of job satisfaction

THEORIES OF JOB SATISFACTION

AFFECT THEORY

Edwin A. Locke’s Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job
satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a
discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory
states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a
position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met.
When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted
both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met),
compared to one who doesn’t value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy
in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be
more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy and less satisfied in a
position with little or no autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too
much of a particular facet will produce stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker
values that facet.

DISPOSITIONAL THEORY

Another well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory]. It is a very general
theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that cause them to have tendencies
toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. This approach became a notable
explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that job satisfaction tends to be stable over
time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates that identical twins have similar
levels of job satisfaction.

TO HERZBERG FOLLOWING FACTORS ACTS AS MOTIVATORS:

o Achievement,
o Recognition,
o Advancement,
o Work itself,
o Possibility of growth, & Responsibility.

INTRODUCTION TO TEXTIXE
A textile or cloth is a flexible woven material consisting of a network of natural or artificial
fibres often referred to as thread or yarn. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of
wool, flax, cotton, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by
weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or pressing fibres together (felt).
The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and
dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these
terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres.
Fabric refers to any material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or
bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be
used synonymously with fabric but often refers to a finished piece of fabric used for a
specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).
Etymology
The word 'textile' is from Latin, from the adjective textilis, meaning 'woven', from
textus, the past participle of the verb texere, 'to weave'.
The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, most recently from the Middle French
fabrique, or 'building, thing made', and earlier as the Latin fabrica 'workshop; an art,
trade; a skillful production, structure, fabric', which is from the Latin faber, or 'artisan
who works in hard materials', from PIE dhabh-, meaning 'to fit together'.
The word 'cloth' derives from the Old English clað, meaning a cloth, woven or felted
material to wrap around one, from Proto-Germanic kalithaz (compare O.Frisian
'klath', Middle Dutch 'cleet', Dutch 'kleed', Middle High German 'kleit', and German
'kleid', all meaning "garment").There are several different types of fabric from two
main sources: manmade and natural. Inside natural, there are two others, plant and
animal. Some examples of animal textiles are silk and wool. An example of a plant
textile is cotton.
History
The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34,000
BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times.
The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been
altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern
manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave, twill, or
satin weave, there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.

Incas have been crafting quipus (or khipus) made of fibres either from a protein, such
as spun and plied thread like wool or hair from camelids such as alpacas, llamas, and
camels, or from a cellulose like cotton for thousands of years. Khipus are a series of
knots along pieces of string. Until recently, they were thought to have been only a
method of accounting, but new evidence discovered by Harvard professor Gary Urton
indicates there may be more to the khipu than just numbers. Preservation of khipus
found in museum and archive collections follow general textile preservation principles
and practice.

During the 15th century, textiles were the largest single industry. Before the 15th century
textiles were produced only in a few towns but during, they shifted into districts like East
Anglia, and the Cotswolds.
Uses

Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for
containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting,
upholstered furnishings, window shades, towels, coverings for tables, beds, and other
flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific
processes such as filtering. Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents, nets,
handkerchiefs, cleaning rags, transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails, and
parachutes; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such
as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Using textiles, children can learn to sew and
quilt and to make collages and toys.

Textiles used for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their
appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles. Technical textiles include
textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles (e.g. implants), geotextiles
(reinforcement of embankments), agro textiles (textiles for crop protection), protective
clothing (e.g. against heat and radiation for fire fighter clothing, against molten metal’s
for welders, stab protection, and bullet proof vests). In all these applications stringent
performance requirements must be met. Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide
nanowires, laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems"
using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements.
Fashion and textile designers
Fashion designers commonly rely on textile designs to set their fashion collections apart
from others. Armani, the late Gianni Versace, and Emilio Pucci can be easily recognized
by their signature print driven designs.
Sources and types

Textiles can be made from many materials. These materials come from four main
sources: animal (wool, silk), plant (cotton, flax, jute), mineral (asbestos, glass fibre), and
synthetic (nylon, polyester, acrylic). In the past, all textiles were made from natural
fibres, including plant, animal, and mineral sources. In the 20th century, these were
supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.

Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest
gossamer to the sturdiest canvas. The relative thickness of fibres in cloth is measured in
deniers. Microfibre refers to fibres made of strands thinner than one denier.

Animal textiles

Animal textiles are commonly made from hair, fur, skin or silk (in the silkworms case).

Wool refers to the hair of the domestic goat or sheep, which is distinguished from other
types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly
crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin
(sometimes called wool grease), which is waterproof and dirtproof Woollen refers to a
bulkier yarn produced from carded, non-parallel fibre, while worsted refers to a finer
yarn spun from longer fibres which have been combed to be parallel. Wool is commonly
used for warm clothing. Cashmere, the hair of the Indian cashmere goat, and mohair,
the hair of the North African angora goat, are types of wool known for their softness.

Other animal textiles which are made from hair or fur are alpaca wool, vicuña wool,
llama wool, and camel hair, generally used in the production of coats, jackets, ponchos,
blankets, and other warm coverings. Angora refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the
angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox.

Wadmal is a coarse cloth made of wool, produced in Scandinavia, mostly 1000~1500


CE.

Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm
which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness. There are two main types of
the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx Mori, and 'wild silk' such as Tussah
silk. Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry
leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on
oak leaves. Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk.

Plant textiles
Grass, rush, hemp, and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire
plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are
utilized. Coir (coconut fibre) is used in making twine, and also in floormats, doormats,
brushes, mattresses, floor tiles, and sacking.

Straw and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also
used for stuffing, as is kapok.

Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice, hemp, and nettle are used in making paper.

Cotton, flax, jute, hemp, modal and even bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Piña
(pineapple fibre) and ramie are also fibres used in clothing, generally with a blend of
other fibres such as cotton. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very
similar to hemp or flax. The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it
tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax.

Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks, velvets, and
taffetas.

Seaweed is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as alginate is


produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is
dissolved, leaving an open area.
Lyocell is a man-made fabric derived from wood pulp. It is often described as a man-
made silk equivalent; it is a tough fabric that is often blended with other fabrics –
cotton, for example.

Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast'
fibres.

Mineral textiles

Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting, and adhesives, "transite"
panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets.

Glass fibre is used in the production of spacesuits, ironing board and mattress covers,
ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-
retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres.

Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production
of cloth-of-gold and jewellery. Hardware cloth (US term only) is a coarse woven mesh of
steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening, but heavier
and with a more open weave. It is sometimes used together with screening on the lower
part of screen doors, to resist scratching by dogs. It serves similar purposes as chicken
wire, such as fences for poultry and traps for animal control.

Synthetic textiles

All synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing.

Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as
cotton.

Aramid fibre (e.g. Twaron) is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and
armor.

Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools, including cashmere, and is often used in
replacement of them.
Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker
nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing.

Spandex (trade name Lycra) is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting
without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear, bras, and swimsuits.

Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are
hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly. A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under
the trade name Tyvek.

Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in
clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away
perspiration.

Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment.

Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth
was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and
America during the 1930s. Milk fibre fabric is not very durable and wrinkles easily, but
has a pH similar to human skin and possesses anti-bacterial properties. It is marketed
as a biodegradable, renewable synthetic fibre.

Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon
fibre reinforced plastic. The fibres are made from polymer fibres through
carbonization.
Production methods

Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer


threads (called the warp) with a set of crossing threads (called the weft). This is done on
a frame or machine known as a loom, of which there are a number of types. Some
weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanised.

Knitting and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a
knitting needle or on a crochet hook, together in a line. The two processes are different
in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to
interlock with another loop, while crocheting never has more than one active loop on
the needle.

Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn is spread into thin tapes, and then
the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite
materials; Spread Tow Fabrics can be made in carbon, aramide, etc.

Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves
tying threads together and is used in making macrame.

Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any
of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace
can be made by either hand or machine.

Carpets, rugs, velvet, velour, and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn
through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.

Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they
become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres,
and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool.

Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding
may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used.

Bark cloth is made by pounding bark until it is soft and flat.

Treatments
Textiles are often dyed, with fabrics available in almost every colour. The dying process
often requires several dozen gallons of water for each pound of clothing.17 Coloured
designs in textiles can be created by weaving together fibres of different colours (tartan
or Uzbek Ikat), adding coloured stitches to finished fabric (embroidery), creating
patterns by resist dyeing methods, tying off areas of cloth and dyeing the rest (tie-
dyeing), or drawing wax designs on cloth and dyeing in between them (batik), or using
various printing processes on finished fabric. Woodblock printing, still used in India
and elsewhere today, is the oldest of these dating back to at least 220 CE in China.
Textiles are also sometimes bleached, making the textile pale or white.
Textiles are sometimes finished by chemical processes to change their characteristics. In
the 19th century and early 20th century starching was commonly used to make clothing
more resistant to stains and wrinkles. Since the 1990s, with advances in technologies
such as permanent press process, finishing agents have been used to strengthen fabrics
and make them wrinkle free.18 More recently, nano materials research has led to
additional advancements, with companies such as Nano-Tex and Nano Horizons
developing permanent treatments based on metallic nano particles for making textiles
more resistant to things such as water, stains, wrinkles, and pathogens such as bacteria
and fungi.19
More so today than ever before, textiles receive a range of treatments before they reach
the end-user. From formaldehyde finishes (to improve crease-resistance) to biocidic
finishes and from flame retardants to dyeing of many types of fabric, the possibilities
are almost endless. However, many of these finishes may also have detrimental effects
on the end user. A number of disperse, acid and reactive dyes (for example) have been
shown to be allergenic to sensitive individuals. Further to this, specific dyes within this
group have also been shown to induce purpuric contact dermatitis.
Although formaldehyde levels in clothing are unlikely to be at levels high enough to
cause an allergic reaction, due to the presence of such a chemical, quality control and
testing are of utmost importance. Flame retardants (mainly in the brominates form) are
also of concern where the environment, and their potential toxicity, is concerned.
Testing for these additives is possible at a number of commercial laboratories; it is also
possible to have textiles tested for according to the Oeko- tex certification standard
which contains limits levels for the use of certain chemicals in textiles products.

TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA


The Textile industry in India traditionally, after agriculture, is the only industry that
has generated huge employment for both skilled and unskilled labor in textiles. The
textile industry continues to be the second largest employment generating sector in
India. It offers direct employment to over 35 million in the country.The share of textiles
in total exports was 11.04% during April–July 2010, as per the Ministry of Textiles.
During 2009-2010, Indian textiles industry was pegged at US $55 billion, 64% of which
services domestic demand. In 2010, there were 2,500 textile weaving factories and 4,135
textile finishing factories in all of India.

History

The archaeological surveys and studies have found that the people of Harrapan Civilization3
knew weaving and the spinning of cotton four thousand years ago. Reference to weaving and
spinning materials is found in the Vedic Literature also.

There was textile trade in India during the early centuries. A block printed and resist-dyed
fabrics, whose origin is from Gujarat is found in tombs of Fostat, Egypt. 3 This proves that
Indian export of cotton textiles to the Egypt or the Nile Civilization in medieval times were to
a large extent. Large quantity of north Indian silk was traded through the silk route in China
to the western countries. The Indian silks were often exchanged with the western countries
for their spices in the barter system. During the late 17th and 18th century there were large
export of the Indian cotton to the western countries to meet the need of the European
industries during industrial revolution. Consequently there was development of nationalist
movement like the famous Swadeshi movement which was headed by the Aurobindo Ghosh.

There was also export of Indian silk, Muslin cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to other
countries by the East Indian Company. Bhilwara is known as textile city.

Production

India is the second largest producer of fibre in the world and the major fibre produced is
cotton. Other fibres produced in India include silk, jute, wool, and man-made fibers. 60% of
the Indian textile Industry is cotton based.
The strong domestic demand and the revival of the Economic markets by 2009 has led to
huge growth of the Indian textile industry. In December 2010, the domestic cotton price was
up by 50% as compared to the December 2009 prices. The causes behind high cotton price
are due to the floods in Pakistan and China. India projected a high production of textile (325
lakh bales for 2010 -11). There has been increase in India's share of global textile trading to
seven percent in five years.5 The rising prices are the major concern of the domestic
producers of the country.
 Man Made Fibers: These include manufacturing of clothes using fiber or filament
synthetic yarns. It is produced in the large power loom factories. They account for the
largest sector of the textile production in India.This sector has a share of 62% of the
India's total production and provides employment to about 4.8 million people.

The Cotton Sector: It is the second most developed sector in the Indian Textile
industries. It provides employment to huge amount of people but its productions and
employment is seasonal depending upon the seasonal nature of the production.

 The Handloom Sector: It is well developed and is mainly dependent on the SHGs for
their funds. Its market share is 13% of the total cloth produced in India.
 The Woolen Sector: India is the 7th largest producer of the wool in the world. India
also produces 1.8% of the world's total wool.
 The Jute Sector: The jute or the golden fiber in India is mainly produced in the
Eastern states of India like Assam and West Bengal. India is the largest producer of
jute in the world.
 The Sericulture and Silk Sector: India is the 2nd largest producer of silk in the world.
India produces 18% of the world's total silk. Mulberry, Eri, Tasar, and Muga are the
main types of silk produced in the country. It is a labor-intensive sector.

Indian Textile Policy

Government of India passed the National Textile Policy in 2000

Textile Organization

The Indian Textile industries are mainly dominated by some government, semi government
and private institutions.

The major functions of the ministry of Textile are:


 Bhilwara Textiles Industry
 Textile Policy & Coordination
 Man-made Fiber Industry
 Cotton Textile Industry
 Jute Industry
 Silk and sericulture Industry
 Wool Industry
 Decentralized Power loom Sector
 Export Promotion
 Planning & Economic Analysis
 Finance Matters
 Information Technology(IT)

The advisory boards include:

 All India Handlooms Board


 All India Handicrafts Board
 All India Power looms Board
 Advisory Committee under Handlooms Reservation of Articles for Production
 Co-ordination Council of Textiles Research Association
 MM cotton industry

The major export promoting councils include:

 Apparel Export Promotion Council, New Delhi


 Carpet Export Promotion Council, New Delhi
 Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council, Mumbai

The major PSU or Public Sector Undertaking are:

 National Textile Corporation Ltd. (NTC)


 British India Corporation Ltd. (BIC)
 Cotton Corporation of India Ltd. (CCI)
 Jute Corporation of India Ltd. (JCI)
 National Jute Manufacturers Corporation (NJMC)
 Handicrafts and Handlooms Export Corporation (HHEC)
 National Handloom Development Corporation (NHDC)
 Export Promotion Council for Handicrafts, New Delhi
 Handloom Export Promotion Council, Chennai
 Indian Silk Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
 Power loom Development & Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
 Synthetic & Rayon Textiles Export Promotion Council, Mumbai
 Wool & Woolen Export Promotion Council, New Delhi

Other autonomous bodies in this industry are:

 Central Wool Development Board, Jodhpur


 National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
 National Centre for Jute Diversification

The textile Research Associations are:

 South India Textiles Research Association (SITRA), Coimbatore


 Ahmedabad Textiles Industry’s Research Association
 Bombay Textiles Research Association, Mumbai
 Indian Jute Industries Research association, Kolkata
 Man-made Textiles Research Association, Surat
 Synthetic and art silk –Mills Research Association, Mumbai
 Wool Research Association, Thane
 Northern India Textiles Research Association, Ghaziabad

Organized sector

According to Kearney’s ‘Retail Apparel Index’ India ranked as the fourth most promising
market for apparel retailers in 2009.
There is large scope of improvement in the textile industry of India as there is a huge
increase in personal disposable income among the Indians after the 1991 liberalisation. There
is also a large growth of the organised sector in the Indian textile industries.The foreign
brands along with the collaboration of the Indian companies established business in India.
Some of these are Puma, Armani, Benetton, Esprit, Levi Strauss, Hugo Boss, Liz
Claiborne, Crocs etc.
The major Indian Industries include Bombay Dyeing, Fabindia, Grasim Industries,
JCT Limited, Lakshmi Machine Works, Lakshmi Mills and Mysore Silk Factory.

COMPANY PROFILE

Promoted in 1907 by the late G Kuppuswamy Naidu, PKR Textile Company (PKR) was
incorporated as a public limited company in 1910. The flagship of the Coimbatore-based
PKR, its associate companies is PKR Machine Works, PKR Synthetic Machinery
Manufacturers and PKR Auto Looms. PKR is a composite mill manufacturing a range of
cotton, viscose, blended yarn and a variety of grey and processed cloth. The company has
four manufacturing units located at Coimbatore, Singanallur, Kovilpatti and Palladam, all in
Tamilnadu. The company's cloth processing is done by its subsidiary, United Bleachers. PKR
exports cotton yarn and grey cloth to the UK, Germany, Italy, Tamilnadu and Japan. In 1977,
Coimbatore Cotton Mills was amalgamated with the company.
We are a professionally managed company engaged in the field of manufacturing, supplying
and exporting of high quality knitted and hosiery garments. We started with a zeal and
determination to redefine fashion in the industry. Standing on the grounds of style and
elegance, we offer knitted and hosiery garments that are abreast of the changing international
trends.

We combine marketing expertise and creative imagination to deliver designer garments with
unique textures, designs and colors. Each garment is exclusively designed as per the changing
fashion trends that reflect fine craftsmanship and elegance that suit the aesthetic tastes of our
clients all across the globe. We serve our customers with high quality of products along with
a wide range of variety of designs and fabrics.

VISSION
 The opportunity to make a real difference in all aspects of our customer relationships
globally.
 At International Spinning mills Limited, we perform in unison by following our values
and ethical guidelines code of conduct as a source of guidance and inspiration, which
enable us to achieve our vision.
 Each and every member of International mills family plays an important role in this
pursuit. International growth and development is attributed to the contribution of skills,
talents and ideas of its people. International Mills follows its core values of
Accountability, collaboration, Transparency and Stretch.
 We are proud of our commitment that enables us to consistently and measurably enhance
the quality of our products and services to our customers. This is an overarching
aspiration for our company.

MISSION
 Engage effectively, responsibly and profitably in the global Spinning mill industry

 The company seeks a high standard of performance and aims to maintain a long-term
leadership position in the Silk cotton market segments in which it competes.

 This will be achieved through operating efficiency, continued dedication to customer


care, cost effectiveness, innovation and conformance to our values.

 The company aspires to be recognized in the community it operates in as a safe and


environmentally responsible organization.

 The company acknowledges that commercial success and sustained profitable growth
depends on the resourcing, development and retention of its talented human resources. It
will continue to invest in building its organizational capacity and capability.

 The company strives to protect each shareholder’s investment and provide a return,
which meets or exceeds their expectations. This is achieved through continued
commercial success in winning new businesses and retaining old customers, which is
underpinned by the development and provision of new products/services to our
customers, offering a clearly superior value proposition.

OUR PRODUCTS
The ranges of products we deal in are:
• Men's Wear• Beach Wears• Undergarments
• Ladies Wear• Formal Wear• Sleep Wears
• Kid's Wear• Casual Wear• Home Textiles
• Sports Wear • Knit Wear
OUR WORK
 We have developed core competence in the field of supplying stylish and trendy range
of knitted and hosiery garments. Our collection reflects designs from the remotest
antiquity to the most elegant of contemporary statements. Our knitted garments are a
blend of traditional and contemporary styles.
 With the voluminous experience of this industry we have acknowledged the needs and
wants of our customers. Globally we are serving them with quality.
 We source our garments keeping in mind the tastes and preferences of our clients both
in domestic as well as international territory. Our ensembles are noted for their quality
workmanship.
 We ensure that the fabric is of the finest quality and a lot of emphasis is laid on the
designs, color and strength of the fabric used.
 Our garments have made inroads in the international market and have etched a
respectable place for our company by catering to the needs and wants of our clients in
the overseas markets.

OUR RANGE
We believe in offering the best solutions to the clients with an uncompromising nature
towards quality, professionalism as well as ethics. With matchless qualities, we have
explored new dimensions of success in the markets. We have attained a notable name in
the markets of the following products:
 Yarns
 Silk Yarn
 Polyester Yarn
 Leggings
 Different Colors Of Cotton Lycra Leggings
 Double Color Printed Lycra Leggings

CUSTOMIZATION FACILITY
We are focused on offering solutions that are highly innovative and cost efficient.
Leveraging on sophisticated production facility, we have gained a competitive edge over
others by developing flawless products. Our R & D section helps us to bring forth new
and creative range with improved properties. The unit enables us to carry out varied
researches of the market and develop novel product array as per the ever changing
needs. In addition to this, our high technology facilities help us to offer tailor made
solutions to the clients in terms of the following:
 Size
 Color
 Design
 Dimension
 Packaging

QUALITY ASSURANCE
We have dedicated the entire efforts towards providing our esteemed clients with the
supreme quality range of yarns, leggings, etc. These products are designed using
fine quality raw material sourced from the most trusted vendors of the market. Every
single item is passed through regular quality checks to ensure that our valued clients get
the best and error free range. To conduct varied quality tests on the products, we have
developed a separate quality testing lab with modern machines and tools. Our team of
quality controllers checks the product variety for the given below parameters:
 Design
 Color fastness
 Finishing
 Stitching
 Free from wrinkling
 Anti shrinkage

ORGANIZATION CHART

Chair man

Board of directors

Technical Non-Technical
General Manager Secretary

Production manager Account Department

Spinning master Special Department

Supervisor Time Office


Quality control Store

Skilled workers Security

Semi skilled worker unskilled worker

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERTURE

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1. Report of National Commission on Employee (2002), Government of India, made
recommendations in the area of Employee Job Satisfaction which include social
security, extending the application of the Provident Fund, gratuity and unemployment
insurance etc. Shobha, Mishra & Manju Bhagat, in their “Principles for Successful
Implementation of Employee Job Satisfaction”, stated that Employee absenteeism in
Indian industries can be reduced to a great extent by provision of good housing, health
and family care, canteen, educational and training facilities and provision of Job
Satisfaction activities.
2. A. Sabarirajan, T. Meharajan, B.Arun (2001) analyzed the study on employee Job
Satisfaction in industry. The study shows that 15% of the employees are employees
are satisfied with their Job Satisfaction.39 % of the employees is average with their
Job Satisfaction. 16% of them are in highly dissatisfied level. This study throws light
on the impact of Job Satisfaction on QWL among the employees of district.” While
describing the Job Satisfaction in , A.J.Todd (1933) was analyzed that the Employee
Job Satisfaction is the voluntary efforts of the employers to establish, within the
existing industrial system, working and sometimes living and cultural conditions of
the employees beyond what is required by law, the custom of the industry and the
conditions of the market.
3. V. V. Gir+i National Employee Institute(1999-2000), a fully funded autonomous
body of the Ministry of Employee, it was conducted action-oriented research and
provides training to grass root level workers in the trade union movement, both in the
urban and rural areas, and also to officers dealing with industrial relations, personal
management, EmployeeJob Satisfaction, etc.
4. In the view of K.K. Chaudhuri, in his “Human Resources: A Relook to the
Workplace”, states that HR policies are being made flexible. From leaves to
compensations, perks to office facilities, many companies are willing to customize
policies to suit different employee segments.
5. Conventions and Recommendations of ILO (1949) sets forth a fundamental
principle at its 26th conference held in Philadelphia recommended some of the
measures in the area of Job Satisfaction which includes adequate protection for life
and health of workers in all occupations, provision for child Job Satisfaction and
maternity protection, provision of adequate nutrition, housing and facilities for
recreation and culture, the assurance of equality of educational and vocational
opportunity etc.
6. A Study done by P.R. China in 2003, Great expectations are being placed on firms
to act with increasing social responsibility, which is adding a new dimension to the
role of management and the vision of companies. They argue that social Job
Satisfaction activities are strategic investments for firm. They can create intangible
assets that help companies overcome entry barriers, facilitate globalization, and
outcompete local rivals. They are simple contribution, topic contribution,
colemployeeation with non-profit organizations or government organizations, and
establishment of corporation charity fund.
7. The purpose of literature review is to identify the problem statement, understand the
secondary data that has been gathered in the field of study and make new findings on
the problem statement.
8. Hoppock defined job satisfaction as any combination of psychological, physiological
and environmental circumstances that cause a person truthfully to say I am satisfied
with my job (Hoppock, 1935).
9. According to this approach although job satisfaction is under the influence of many
external factors, it remains something internal that has to do with the way how the
employee feels. That is job satisfaction presents a set of factors that cause a feeling of
satisfaction.
10. Vroom in his definition on job satisfaction focuses on the role of the employee in the
workplace. Thus he defines job satisfaction as affective orientations on the part of
individuals toward work roles which they are presently occupying (Vroom, 1964).
11. One of the most often cited definitions on job satisfaction is the one given by Spector
according to whom job satisfaction has to do with the way how people feel about their
job and its various aspects.
12. It has to do with the extent to which people like or dislike their job. That’s why job
satisfaction and job dissatisfaction can appear in any given work situation.
13. Job satisfaction represents a combination of positive or negative feelings that workers
have towards their work. Meanwhile, when a worker employed in a business
organization, brings with it the needs, desires and experiences which determinates
14. Job satisfaction represents the extent to which expectations are and match the real
awards. Job satisfaction is closely linked to that individual's behavior in the work
place (Davis et al., 1985). Job satisfaction is a worker’s sense of achievement and
success on the job.
15. It is generally perceived to be directly linked to productivity as well as to personal
well- being. Job satisfaction implies doing a job one enjoys, doing it well and being
rewarded for one’s efforts. Job satisfaction further implies enthusiasm and happiness
with one’s work.
16. Job satisfaction is the key ingredient that leads to recognition, income, promotion, and
the achievement of other goals that lead to a feeling of fulfillment (Kaliski, 2007). Job
satisfaction can be defined also as the extent to which a worker is content with the
rewards he or she gets out of his or her job, particularly in terms of intrinsic
motivation (Statt, 2004).
17. The term job satisfactions refer to the attitude and feelings people have about their
work. Positive and favorable attitudes towards the job indicate job satisfaction.
Negative and unfavorable attitudes towards the job indicate job dissatisfaction
(Armstrong, 2006). J
18. job satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that people have about their
current job. People’s levels of degrees of job satisfaction can range from extreme
satisfaction to extreme dissatisfaction. In addition to having attitudes about their jobs
as a whole.
19. People also can have attitudes about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of
work they do, their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates and their pay (George et
al., 2008)
20. . Job satisfaction is a complex and multifaceted concept which can mean different
things to different people. Job satisfaction is usually linked with motivation, but the
nature of this relationship is not clear. Satisfaction is not the same as motivation. Job
satisfaction is more of an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be
associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative
(Mullins, 2005).
21. We consider that job satisfaction represents a feeling that appears as a result of the
perception that the job enables the material and psychological needs (Aziri, 2008).
The importance of job satisfaction specially emerges to surface if had in mind the
many negative consequences of job dissatisfaction such a lack of loyalty, increased
22. They proceed from the assumption that the objectives set at the highest level and high
expectations for success in work provides achievement and success in performing
tasks. Success is analyzed as a factor that creates job satisfaction.
23. satisfaction is under the influence of a series of factors such as: The nature of work,
Salary, Advancement opportunities, Management, Work groups and Work conditions.
When talking about factors of Spector (1997) lists three important features of job
satisfaction. First, organizations should be guided by human values.
24. Such organizations will be oriented towards treating workers fairly and with respect.
In such cases the assessment of job satisfaction may serve as a good indicator of
employee effectiveness. High levels of job satisfaction may be sign of a good
emotional and mental state of employees. Second, the behavior of workers depending
on their level of job satisfaction will affect the functioning and activities of the
organization's business. From this it can be concluded that job satisfaction will result
in positive behavior and vice versa, dissatisfaction from the work will result in
negative behavior of employees.
25. Third, job satisfaction may serve as indicators of organizational activities. Through
job satisfaction evaluation different levels of satisfaction in different organizational
units can be defined, but in turn can serve as a good indication regarding in which
organizational unit changes that would boost performance should be made.
26. Christen, Iyer and Soberman (2006) provide a model of job satisfaction presented in
Figure 1 in which the following elements are included: atisfaction the fact that they
can also cause job dissatisfaction must be kept in mind. Therefore the issue weather
job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are two opposite and excludable phenomena?
There is no consensus regarding this issue among authors.
27. In fact the main idea is that employees in their work environment are under the
influence of factors that cause job satisfaction and factors that cause job
dissatisfaction.
28. Therefore al factors that have derived from a large empirical research and decided in
factors that cause job satisfaction (motivators) and factors that cause job
dissatisfaction (hygiene factors) Barriball (2005) mentioned the traditional model of
job satisfaction focuses on all the feelings about job of an individual
29. . However, what makes a job satisfying or dissatisfying does not depend only on the
nature of the job, but also on the expectations that individuals have of what their job
should provide. Maslow (1954 cited in Huber, 2006) arranged human needs along a
five level hierarchy from physiological needs, safety and security, belonging, esteem
to self- actualization. In Maslow’s pyramid, needs at the lower levels must be fulfilled
before those rise to a higher level.
30. According to Maslow’s theory, some researchers have approached on job satisfaction
from the perspective of need fulfillment (Regis & Porto, 2006; Worf, 1970). Job
satisfaction as a match between what individuals perceive they need and what rewards
they perceive they receive from their jobs (Huber, 2006).
31. However, overtime, Maslow’s theory has diminished in value. In the current trend, the
approach of job satisfaction focuses on cognitive process rather than on basic needs in
the studies (Huber, 2006; Spector, 1997).
32. Another approach as proposed by Herzberg (Herzberg et al., 1959; cited in Huber,
2006) is based on the Maslow’s theory. Herzberg and colleagues built Herzberg’s
motivation hygiene theory of job satisfaction. Theory proposed that there are two
different categories of needs, which are intrinsic (motivators) and extrinsic (hygiene)
factors. Theory postulates that job satisfaction and/or is dissatisfaction is the function
of
33. Brown Frode, Year: 2006: In their study “changes in HRM and job satisfaction”,
1998- 2004 evidence from the work place employment relations survey examined that
their significant increases in satisfaction with the sense of achievement from work
between 1998 and 2004; a number of other measures of job quality are found to have
increased over this period as well.
34. It also finds a decline in the incidence of many formal human resource management
practices the paper reports a week association between formal HRM practices and
satisfaction with sense of achievements improvements in perceptions of job security,
the climate of employment relation and managerial responsiveness are the most
important factors in explaining the rise in satisfaction with sense of achievement
between 1998-2004. Author:
35. Harter & Frank L, Year: 2002: From their study they Analysis to examine the
relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and
the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee
turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial
practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and
these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes in management
practices that increase employee satisfaction may increase business-unit outcomes,
including profit.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHDOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
A Research design is simply the framework or plan for a study. The design may be a specific
presentation of the various steps in the process of Research. For this descriptive design was
used. Descriptive research includes survey and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. The
major purpose of descriptive research is description of the state of affairs, as it exists at
present. In this method the researcher has no control over the variables. He / She can only
report what has happened and what is happening.

RESEARCH DESIGN
The methodology adapted to collecting information from a sample size of 100 respondents by
using simple random sampling technique, in order to analyze and interpret the respondent’s
opinions and views with respect to the Job Satisfaction provided by PKR FASHIONS
CLOTHES AT THIRUPUR
DATA COLLECTION
The entire study is based on both the primary data and Secondary data.
PRIMARY DATA:
For collecting the primary data, the questionnaire method was employed. Each respondent
was given a questionnaire and they answered it and returned back in two weeks’ time.
 Questionnaire: A Questionnaire has been prepared and distributed among the
respondents (employees) for both executives and non-executives.
 Interview: Personal Interview and interaction with the respondents (employees).
 Observation: by observing the working environment.

SECONDARY DATA
For secondary data the researcher depends on various company records, websites and
journals etc. The secondary data is that which have been already collected by someone or else
which have been passed through statistical data can be categorized into two broad categories
named published and unpublished statistics.
PILOT SURVEY:
Pilot survey was conducted with the employees of the organization is helped the researcher to
have incite to the strength and weakness of questionnaires. The resold pilot survey suggestion
obtained from experience employees uncertain changes were made the questionnaires pilot
survey also enable the researcher would take time and administrator the questionnaires.
SAMPLING DESIGN
The total number of employees working in “PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES AT
THIRUPUR” is 100. The total number of questionnaires issued to the employees is 60 but
only questionnaires were used for the study.
DATA SOURCES
Primary data was collected by the questionnaire based marked survey. Secondary data was
obtained from journals, magazines newspapers, books and the internet.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
For doing the survey research, structured questionnaire with both open ended and close end
equations were used.
DATA ANALYSIS:
The mode of survey was personal interview with the respondents during the filling up of the
questionnaire.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:
The sampling used for this study was probability sampling. Since the study is only meant
for certain specific categories within the total population, a stratified random
sample was used. Three groups of categories have been taken into account viz.
students professionals and general public.
SAMPLE SIZE
A sample size of 100 respondents is used for the study.
TOOLS OF THE STUDY
HYPOTHESIS STUDY
Percentage analysis and chi-square are used for analyzing the data collected.
Percentages are obtained when ratios are multiplied by 150

No. of respondents
Percentage of respondents = ---------------------------- X 100
Total No.of respondents
CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS:
Chi-square test = (O-E)2/E
Degrees of freedom = V = (r-1) (C-1)
Where O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
R = Number of rows
C = Number of columns
Level of significance = 5%.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Employee satisfaction and retention have always been important issues for physicians. After
all, high levels of absenteeism and staff turnover can affect your bottom line, as temps,
recruitment and retraining take their toll. But few practices (in fact, few organizations) have
made job satisfaction a top priority, perhaps because they have failed to understand the
significant opportunity that lies in front of them. Satisfied employees tend to be more
productive, creative and committed to their employers, and recent studies have shown a direct
correlation between staff satisfaction and patient Satisfaction.1 Family physicians who can
create work environments that attract, motivate and retain hard-working individuals will be
better positioned to succeed in a competitive health care environment that demands quality
and cost-efficiency. What's more, physicians may even discover that by creating a positive
workplace for their employees, they’ve increased their own job satisfaction as well
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
 The study "Employee job satisfaction” provided by PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES
thrown light to the Job Satisfaction of employee who marks in the organization.
 This study wills help the top management to improve their employee Job Satisfaction
in favorable for employees of PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES
 The Study covers the whole organization is taken into consideration and the survey is
conducted among the workers through the Questionnaire and also present study is
restricted to PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES
 and data is analyzed based on the information provided by employees of the PKR
FASHIONS CLOTHES

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY:

 As the study revolves around the reward system of the organization and in spite of
keeping serious and sincere efforts there are several limitations. There are as follows.
 The information is collected by 110 employees only.
 The investigation access to the staff was limited due to the shift system.
 Information received from the respondents neither may not be accurate. So the
received information will not give a true and fair view of the actual position.
 Due to time constraint, the research work has been undertaken within the stipulated
time of 3 weeks
 Due to time limitation, sample size for the project study is limited to only 110
employers.

ANNEXURE
A STUDY ON EMPLOYEES JOB SATISFACTION IN PKR FASHIONS CLOTHES
AT THIRUPUR

QUESTIONARIES
1. Age (years)
a) Below – 20 years
b) 20-30 years
c) 30-40 years
d) 40-50 years
e) 50 years and above
2. Gender
a. Male
b. Female
c. others

3. Educational qualification
a) SSLC/ITI
b) HSC/DIPLOMA
c) Graduate/BE
d) Post graduate ME/M.TECH

4. Monthly salary
a) Below 20000
b) 20000-30000
c) 30000-40000
d) 40000-50000
e) 50000& above

5. Experience of the employee (years)


a) Below 5years
b) 5-10 years
c) 10-15 years
d) 15-20 years
e) 20 years and above

6. Awareness towards the statutory and non-statutory employee Job Satisfaction


measures in this company?
a. Yes
b. No

7. Adequate Canteen facility has been provided by the company


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree
8.. Sufficient Transport and parking facilities are available
f) Strongly disagree
g) Disagree
h) Neutral
i) Agree
j) Strongly agree

09. Quality of Uniform and ID card provided by the company


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

10. Sufficient rest room/wash rooms/Recreational facilities are provided


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

11. Adequate Employee counseling is provided by the company


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

12. Attitude of the employees towards Job Satisfaction facilities adopted by the organization
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

13. Safety facilities and standards adopted in Company are ensuring adequate safety to
employees and thus preventing the accident?
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

14. Suffieient Provision of safety equipments (glasses, Masks, helmets, shoes etc) provided to
the employees during work
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

15. Satisfactory of Working conditions of the Company with respect to Ventilation, Lighting,
Temperature, Seating arrangement, Spacing of machinery and Cleanliness inside working
premises are provided
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

16. I am very much involved personally in my job.


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

17. I like the nature work that i do


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

18. My work gives me a sense of Accomplishment


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

19. I am proud to say that I work at sears


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

20. The amount of work i am expected so do influence my overall attitude about the job
positively
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

21. My physical working condition influence my general attitude of job satisfaction


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

22. The way my boss treated me and supervised me influenced my overall attitude about my
job
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

23. I feel this company has bright prospects


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

24. Sear is making the change necessary to complete effectively


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

25. I understand our business strategy


a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree
26. I we and understand the link between my job and company strategy
a) Strongly disagree
b) Disagree
c) Neutral
d) Agree
e) Strongly agree

27. Factor controlled by the management


Factor SA DA N A SDA
Wage group
Promotional opportunities
Transfer policy
Duration of work time