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EXPERIMENT-3

Structural simulation study of long channel n-MOSFET and p-MOSFET.

Determination of the following:

a) Current voltage characteristics (Ids-Vds & Ids-Vds)


b) Threshold voltage
c) Electric field profile across the channel
d) Electrostatics potential across the channel
e) Electrostatics potential across the thickness of the device
f) Band structure

Theory:
A perspective view of n-MOS diode is shown in figure 3.1.the energy band diagram is shown in
figure 3.2.The work function is the energy difference between Fermi level and vaccum level (ie
q∅m for metal and q∅s for semiconductor)

When and ideal mos diode is biased with positive or negative bias voltage three cases may exit
at the semiconductor surface for the case of p-type semiconductor:

Accumulation:
when a –ve voltage is applied to the metal plate access positive carriers(holes) will be induced
at the Sio2-Si interface.In this case the bands near the semiconductor surface are bent upwards
from the equation
(𝑬𝒊 −𝑬𝒇 )
pp=𝜼𝒊 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

The upward bending of the energy band at the semiconductor surface causes an increase in the
energy (Ei-EF),which in turn gives rise to an enhanced concentration an accumulation of holes
near the oxide semiconductor surface this is caused accumulation.

Depletion:
When a small positive voltage (v>0 is applied to and ideal MOS diode,the energy band near the
semiconductor surface are bend downwards and the majority carriers(holes) are depleted this
is called depletion case
Inversion:
When a large positive voltage is applied the energy band bends downwards even more so that
instrinsic level at the surface crosses over the Fermi level,this means the positive voltage starts
to induced access negative carriers(electron) at the Si-Sio2 interface.The electron concentration
in the semiconductor depends experimentally on the energy difference EF-Ei and is given by
(𝑬𝒇 −𝑬𝒊 )
np=𝜼𝒊 𝒆 𝑲𝑻

In this case (Ef-Ei)>0,therefore e- concentration at the interface is larger than (*) and the holes
concentration is less than (*) thus the number of e- at the surface is now inverted this is called
inversion case.

Threshold voltage:
Initially the concentration of e- at the surface is less than that of holes in the bulk as the gate
voltage increases the band near the surface bend more causing concentration of e- to be equal
to concentration of holes in bulk.This is the onset of strong inversion and the voltage is refered
as threshold voltage.

When strong inversion occurs the width of the depletion region will not increase with a
further increase in applied voltage this condition takes place at a metal-plate that causes the
surface potential Ψ𝑠 to reach Ψ𝑠 (inv)
𝑞𝑁𝐴 𝑊
VT=

Flat band voltage:

The condition when bands become flat at the surface is called flat band condition and the
corresponding voltage to achieve this condition is called flat band voltage.

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