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Chapter I of master Thesis with topic about composite structures

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construction of Melan Arch bridge, Iowa, USA (1894). It was designed by Austrian

engineer: Josef Melan. This bridge used steel frame combined with concrete cover

to increase strength of the structure.

In 1898, an others bridge was constructed by using concrete slab over I-shape steel

beam. In other countries, composite structures were also developed in bridge

engineering with typical structure including steel beam and plain concrete above.

Since 1960s, SCC structure have been studied extensively in design procedure of

strength and serviceability limit state. At that time, composite structure was utilized

in high- rise building because of advantages in strength; time and cost of

construction. In late of 20th century, the trapezoidal steel profile slabs had been

studied commonly in building construction in compare with mere plain concrete.

Recent years, the application of SCC structures are becoming more popular in

multi-stories buildings. These following figures show some outstanding projects

which use steel concrete composite structures.

Austria has 51 floors, servers both commercial and residential purposes.

Total time of erection was only 8 months with speed of 2 – 2.5 floors per

week.

Figure:1.2: Millennium tower, Vienna, Austria.

- Petronas twin tower, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: this building is 452 m height

with 88 floors.

- Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan: one of the highest building in the world with 101

floors, 509 m tall.

In Viet Nam, SCC structures have been applied from the last two decades in

building construction. Engineers take advantage from this structure to create a large

span structures with short time working on site. Most of the big projects using SCC

structures have been built in two cities: Ha Noi and Ho Chi Minh city. There are

several outstanding projects that utilize composite structure:

- Bitexco financial tower in HCM city, 68 floors, 262.5 m height; 6100 m2;

finished in 2010.

- VietinBank Office Tower in Ha Noi city, 68 floors, 368 m height, under

construction.

1.2.1 Introduction

Longitudinal shear connection play a vital role in composite action of the beams. Its

resistance and behavior are preliminary dependent on the type of shear connection

using in composite beams. Shear connection in shallow floor composite beams are

totally different with conventional headed studs in strength as well as behavior.

Previously, this types of shear connectors have not been studied clearly. A literature

review of slim floors, headed studs and several types of shear connectors will

provide guidance for study of shear connection in shallow floor composite beams.

overall depth of the floors in multi- stories building has been developed in

Scandinavia recent years. This has been achieved by using “top hat” beam (also

commonly referred to as “hat beam”) and has led to the wide spread use of “slim

floors” in this region.

Slim floor construction is where the supporting floor beam is contained within the

depth of floor deck (figure 1.10). This provides a solid flat slab appearance similar

to reinforced- concrete flat slab.

The original “hat beam” as its name implies, resembles the shape of a hat. This

enables the floors slab to lie on either side of the beam. There are wide range of

alternative “hat beam” has been constructed in following figures.

In UK, the slim floor beams is formed by UC section combined with single

horizontal plate welded to the bottom flange of the UC section.

section, where the bottom flange is 110 mm wider than top flange. The welding of

additional plate is not required. The ASB was originally developed for use with

deep decking in Slimdeck construction, but it may be used with pre – cast concrete

slabs.

Lawson et at (1997) discuss the benefits of using ASB sections and its design

procedures for precast concrete slabs (SCI- P342), which are in accordance with

BS5950: part 1 and 3. The design procedures included both construction and service

stages. The composite action relied on concrete encasement. It is recommended that

when concrete cover to the top flange is provided, the minimum depth should be

30mm, and the minimum topping (to the PC unit) should be 50mm. The effective

bond stress of 0.9 N/mm2 can be assumed to act on the perimeter of the top flange.

beam is a new composite beam system proposed Korean research group (figure

1.14). This beam has an asymmetric steel assembly with web openings, where the

top plate is welded on the top of inverted structure tees cut.

Ju et al (2003) conducted shear strength test to investigate the effect of the web,

concrete, and stirrup on the vertical shear capacity of the iTECH beam. The result

show that shear stirrup contribute slightly to the vertical shear strength. The vertical

shear strength is calculated based on inner concrete and the web, the outer concrete

is not included for simplicity and safety purposes.

Figure 1.14: The components for vertical shear strength.

A flexural test also have been carried out to investigate flexural behavior of the

iTECH beam. The beam is design as a full composite beam during the service load

state and as a partial composite beam after the yield.

The detailed of longitudinal shear in iTECH have not been study by this research.

1.2.5 Headed shear studs

Headed shear studs have been extensively investigated since their initial use as

shear connection in the 1950s. The current codes of practice provide detailed

specification on the use and design of headed studs.

assumed to provide sufficient resistance to uplift, unless the shear connection is

subjected to direct tension. This shear connection may be considered ductile if

configuration and strength of the stud follow limitation on the use of partial shear

connection.

Design shear resistance of a headed stud automatically welded used in solid slab

and concrete encasement are determine by flowing formulas:

0.8 fu d 2 / 4

PRD (1.1)

v

0.29 d 2 f ck Ecm

Or PRD (1.2)

v

hsc

0.2 1 for 3 ≤ hsc/d ≤ 4 (1.3)

d

For headed stud used with profiled steel sheeting in building, shear resistance of

shear connection should be taken as the resistance in solid slab multiple by the

reduction factor k, given in following expression:

b0 hsc

kl 0.6 1 1 (1.5)

hp

hp

0.7 b0 hsc

kl 1 (1.6)

nr hp hp

Where: hsc is the overall height of the stud, but not greater than hp + 75mm.

strength of one steel headed stud anchor embedded in a solid concrete slab or

composite slab with decking:

Perfobond rib shear connection was first developed by the German company

Leohardt, Andra and partners as an alternative connection to eliminate progressive

slips of studs in bridge that often resulted from fatigue. The perforated holes on

rectangular plate form a series of concrete dowel which provide longitudinal shear

resistance. There were numerous research of perfobond rib shear resistance. In this

thesis, some outstanding and the most updated studies are summarized.

Jin-Hee Ahn et al (2010) conducted a series of push-out test under static load to

propose equation for estimating shear resistance of shear connection between pre-

stressed concrete and steel bridge girder. Shear resistance of perfobond rib

connector consist of four components: concrete dowel in the holes (horizontal and

vertical shear), shear resistance of transverse bars in rib holes and concrete end-

bearing resistance. The nature bonding between steel and concrete is often ignored

due to difficulty of calculating the bond effect.

Studies on the shear capacity and behavior of the perfobond rib have been

conducted by using push – out and composite beam test as well as numerical

simulation.

Single and twin perfobond rib shear connectors are tested and shear capacity

equation of these connectors are shown follow:

2

d

Q 3.14hsctsc f ck 1.21Atr f y 3.79n f ck for single perfobond rib. (1.8)

2

2

d

Q 2.76hsctsc f ck 1.06 Atr f y 3.32n f ck for twin perfobond rib. (1.9)

2

perfobond rib connector in steel-concrete connection of hybrid bridges. In this

study, push-out test using plug-in type is introduced (figure 1.15), and effect of

interface bond, the dowels of concrete, transverse rebar in the hole of perfobond rib

connection. The connector is embedded in thick concrete block, and its failure

results from the fracture of concrete dowel, by comparison with the cracking of

concrete slab in previous researches.

Figure 1.15: Push-out test model: (a) the separated type of push out specimen; (b)

the plug-in type of push-out specimen.

Equation for prediction of the shear connection resistance regarding the failure

mode of experimental test results. The shear resistance of PBL connector is

assumed in following equation:

Where:

Vbv = b Ab

Vcv = 1.06Acfcu

Vsv = 2.09Asfy

1.2.7 Shear connector in composite shallow cellular floor beams.

Composite shallow cellular beam is new type of floor beam which is commercially

developed by Westok Limited under the trade mark of Ultra Shallow Floor Beam.

The steel section of the composite shallow cellular floor beam is fabricated by

welding two asymmetric cellular tees together along the web. Regularly spaced

openings are formed on the web post. The top and bottom tees are cut form different

parent sections.

The circular web opening of the composite shallow cellular floor beam provide for

reinforcing tie bar, building services and ducting through the structural depth,

minimizing overall floor depth.

Bing Y.Huo and Cedric A.D’Mello carried out series of push-out tests consisting 24

full scale test specimens to study the shear connection under the direct longitudinal

shear force. The aim of this test is investigate shear resistance of concrete infill of

the opening, shear capacity of tie bar, ducting and horizontal shear headed stud.

Figure 1.16a: concrete infill shear connector.

Figure 1.16d: horizontal shear stud connector.

In order to study further shear connection, two flexural tests were carried out to

investigate the shear connection when subject to bending load.

The results of the flexure test were analyzed to develop design methods at the

serviceability limit state (SLS) and ultimate limit state (ULS). The flexural tests

illustrated the effect of partial shear connection on the deflection of the test beam.

Based on the principles of the linear partial interaction method in BS5950 and EC4,

the method for deflection check of shallow cellular floor beams was verified with

test and further calculation.

The finite element analysis was carried out to perform a parametric study on the

concrete infill only shear connection. The results of the parametric study is

confirmation of the developed design method for shear resistance of the shear

connection.

The result of push-out test were used to develop calculation equation of shear

connection.

Rce 1.6758( fcu Ac ) 1.4355( fct At ) (1.10)

Pc 1.6758( fcu Ac ) 1.4355( f ct At ) R add (1.11)

Where:

Ac= tD

At= πD2/4

Rce is the shear resistance of the concrete infill element;

Pc is the shear resistance of the shear connection;

fcu is the concrete cubic compressive strength (MPa);

fct is the concrete tensile splitting strength (MPa);

Ac is the area of concrete in compression (mm2);

At is the area of concrete in tensile splitting (mm2);

t is the thickness of web(mm);

D is the diameter of web opening(mm);

Radd is the shear strength of additional element i.e. tie bar; shear studs.

compression and tensile splitting. It different with previous expressions which based

on shear failure mechanism. Thus, the term of f 'c does not exist.

1.2.8 Shear connection in Deltabeam

The Deltabeam is a new type of composite beam developed by Peikko Group. This

beam consist of a steel trapezoidal box section with web hole, as shown in figure

1.18. The regular hole are perforated for concrete infill that form a shear connection

in composite state.

concrete dowel using parameters of web holes diameter, geometry of the lip and

concrete strength. This push – out test were designed based on assumption that only

concrete outside the steel box and concrete dowel within the lip depth are effective

to the shear resistance mechanism. Therefore, there was a foil parting the concrete

infill to stimulate the concrete dowel shear connection in the push – out test

specimen. The test demonstrated the ductile load – slip behavior of the concrete

dowel, with average maximum slip of 6 -9 mm. The author developed the following

shear resistance expression for determining shear resistance of concrete dowel:

Where fctm is the mean tensile strength of the concrete, kr(fctm) is a resistance factor

that depends on the geometry of the hole and Aøw is the area of the web hole. Three

set of kR are needed for both diameters.

1.2.9 Conclusion

The shear connection that are formed by concrete dowel have been investigated

widely, but the effect of shape of opening and nature bond between steel beam and

concrete slabs have not been studied. From the review of other shear connection,

information of push-out test, shear resistance equations are used to predict shear

resistance of concrete infill without reinforcement in opening.

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