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Lift Characteristics by Small Inderwater Fin - Swath

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controlling fin

M. Yoshida

Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

G. Oishi

Akishima Laboratories (Mitsui Zosen) Inc., Akishima, Japan

M. Kanda

Akishima Laboratories (Mitsui Zosen) Inc., Akishima, Japan

H. Iwashita

Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan

H. Kihara

National Defense Academy of Japan, Yokosuka, Japan

T. Kinoshita

The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT: The speed reduction, additional resistance or slamming caused by the large amplitude of the ship

motions, should be completely restricted for a high-speed oceangoing vessel because of the delivery punctuality and the high

value of the cargo. A promising ship form for such the oceangoing vessel is a so-called “Resonance-Free SWATH (RFS)”. It

has negative restoring moments due to the extraordinary small water plane area. As a consequence, the resonance peak is

removed from the motion response. The attitude of the RFS with negative restoring moments is adjusted by four pairs of

controlling fins attached to the fore and aft ends of the lower hulls. In the previous works, the quasi-steady values of the lift-

curve slope are usually adopted in the motion equations of the frequency domain. However, when working in waves, the

controlling fins are not in a steady state. The lift coefficient is no longer a constant. In addition, there exist a phase lag

between the movement of the attack angle and the fin-generated lift. In the present work, the theoretical prediction using the

frequency-domain 3D-Rankine Panel Method and the experiment to analyze the phenomena of the lift generation including

the phase lag and the interaction among the fins, the lower hulls and the struts have been carried out. The results show that

the unsteady characteristics of the fin-generated lift are functions of the encounter frequency or the reduced frequency. Also

the effects of the fore fins, the lower hulls and struts on the lift curve-slope of the aft fins are discussed.

A promising ship form for a fast oceangoing

The research and development on the seaworthiness

vessel which motion is reduced completely even in

of the oceangoing ship has been attempted actively

the rough sea is a so-called “Resonance-Free

before1), 2), 3). In some works, the effect of controlling

SWATH (RFS)10), 11)”. It has negative restoring

fins on the motion responses has been studied.

moments due to the extraordinary small water plane

However the value of quasi-steady state has been

area. Accordingly, the attitude of the RFS is adjusted

applied as an approximation of the fin-generated lift

4), 5), 6) by four pairs of controlling fins attached to the fore

, and the unsteady effects on the fin-generated

and aft ends of the lower hulls. As a result, the

lift have not been considered in most of studies.

motion responses of the RFS11) are significantly

When the control of the ship motions by means of

reduced compared with those of the mono-hull and

the fins is discussed, the unsteady characteristics

the trimaran.

such as the time lag and the interaction among the

In this study, some experimental and calculated

fins and the hulls are very important7), 8), 9), since

results regarding the hydrodynamic forces and

they have a profound effect on the magnitude of the

1

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

moment acting on the fins attached to the RFS, −0.019 m. Four pairs of horizontal controlling fins

especially the unsteady characteristics of fin- and two pairs of vertical rudders are attached to the

generated lift, are presented and discussed. lower hulls. Each fin has the following

configuration: plane area A= 0.001518 m2, chord

2 EXPERIMENTS length c=0.0357 m (base side) or 0.0278 m (tip side),

span s=0.0478 m, aspect ratio s2/A=1.51 and the

2.1 Model and model basins

symmetrical wing profile of NACA0012.

In this study, experiments to measure the lift forces

acting on the fore and aft fins of the RFS advancing O P θ

in still water have been carried out. The motion of

G

A

hull is fixed, and the fore fins and the aft fins are 783

x

B

K B

photograph of the RFS model is shown in Figure 1. 435

2000

Also the principal particulars of the model are Detail of A

26.1

Detail of B

21.7

presented in Table 1. 35.7 35.7

83.3

166.7 833.3 833.3 166.7

(from C.L.) (from C.L.)

y

P.V.

O x

A B

783

2000

35.7 F.V.

z 35.7 Detail of B

Detail of A

27.8 27.8

83.3

38.5

Figure 1. Overview of RFS model O y

26.1 φ77

409

166.7 166.7

Table 1. Principal particulars of RFS model 486

Breadth B (m) 0.486

Figure 2. Plan of RFS model (unit: mm)

Draught d (m) 0.112

Water plane area Aw (m2) 0.0473 The experiments have been carried out at Ocean

Height of gravity center KG (m) 0.180 Engineering Basin in The University of Tokyo and

Longitudinal metacentric height GML (m) − 0.019 the Small Towing Tanks of Akishima Laboratories

Radius of gyration yy/L 0.207 (Mitsui Zosen).

Mass V (kg) 15.49

Advancing speed U (m/s) 1.918 2.2 Controlling fins

Froude number Fn 0.433

The assembling drawing of the controlling fins is

Reynolds number (hull) Re_hull 4×106

shown in Figure 3. The four sets of fin controlling

Reynolds number (fin) Re_fin 6×104

equipment are installed in the bow and stern ends of

both lower hulls, where the diameter of the lower

The RFS model consists of one upper deck, two hull is about 40 mm. The controlling equipment

struts and twin lower hulls as shown in Figure 2. The consists of DC servomotor, worm gear, fin axis and

cross section of the lower hull is circular with the potentiometer principally. The attack angle of four

maximum diameter of 0.077 m. The horizontal cross pairs of the movable fin equipment can be controlled

section of the strut is elliptical with a length of 0.783 independently. The maximum amplitude of the

m and the maximum breadth of 0.0385 m. The attack angle of each fin is limited to 20 deg, and the

height of the strut is approximately 0.154 m. The maximum frequency of fin oscillation is equal to 3.0

longitudinal metacentric height GML is equal to Hz.

2

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

Also, 0or Kindicates the amplitude, the angular

frequency or the wave number of the incident wave

respectively. edenotes the encounter angular

frequency and g the gravity acceleration. s means

the steady wave field, j the unsteady wave field.

For the steady potential s , the following boundary

conditions at the free surface S F , at the body

surface S H and at the wake sheets S W of the fins are

satisfied.

2s

U2 g s 0 on z=0 (5)

x 2

z

Figure 3. Assembly of controlling fins (unit: mm) s

n1 on SH (6)

n

P P P 0 on SW (7)

2.3 Experimental conditions

The tests of measuring the fin-generated lift have Where n is the unit normal vector on the body

been carried out under the condition of advancing surface pointing into the fluid. Kutta condition that

speed of U=1.918 m/s (Fn=0.433) in still water. the pressure difference P P P between the

During experiment, the fore and aft fins are forced to upside and downside of the wake sheet leading out

rotate sinusoidally in a frequency range of = 0-20 of the trailing edge of the underwater fin is equal to

rad/s with the rotating amplitude of 10 deg zero is described in Equation (7). On the other hand,

respectively. In the mode to control the heave for the unsteady potential j , the following

motion, both fore and aft fins rotate in the same

boundary conditions are satisfied.

phase, while in the mode to control the pitch motion,

they rotate in the inverse phase.

j 2 j j

e j i 2Ue

2

U 2 g 0

3 THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS x x 2

z

on z=0 (8)

3.1 Mathematical formulation j U

nj m j ( j 1 6)

In this study, a three dimensional frequency-domain n ie

Rankine Panel Method (RPM) based on the potential 7

on SH (9)

theory12),13) has been applied to calculate the 0

n n

hydrodynamic forces and moments.

P P P 0

on SW (10)

a) Boundary conditions

Describing as r ( x, y , z ), V ( x s ) ,

When the ship is advancing at the constant forward

speed U in oblique regular waves encountered at the (n1 , n2 , n3 ) n, (n4 , n5 , n6 ) r n (11)

angle of and the fluid is assumed to be irrotational

( m1 , m2 , m3 ) ( n )V , ( m4 , m5 , m6 ) ( n )( r V )

and ideal, the velocity potential governed by

(12)

Laplace’s equation can be expressed as

Where, mj in Equation (12), which is a so-called m-

( x, y, z; t ) U [ x s ( x, y, z )] Re[ ( x, y, z )e iet ] (1)

term, is an influence term from the steady flow to

the unsteady flow on the body surface, that is, it

Where represents the effect of the forward speed on the

unsteady flow. Assuming that the influence of it is

6

gA small,

(0 7 ) ie j j (2)

0 j 1

e 0 KU cos (4)

In addition, the infinite water depth condition and

3

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

the radiation condition at the infinite far field are Here Lf or La indicates the lift generated by the fore

satisfied for s and j . or aft fin, (xf, yf, zf) or (xa, ya, za) the coordinate of

the fore or aft fin, and l0 z f z a .

b) Hydrodynamic forces and lift forces

c) Kutta condition

The pressure in the unsteady flow

When the difference of the velocity potential

P( x, y, z; t ) Re[ p( x, y, z ) e iet ] (14) between the upside and downside of the wake sheet

SW in the unsteady problem is expressed by j , the

is obtained by Bernoulli equation as follows. following equation is obtained.

p ( x, y,z ) (i e U ) (15) P (i e U ) j ( x , y , z ) 0

x on SW (21)

x

Indicating k , the solution of Equation (21) is

the unsteady hydrodynamic forces and moments Fi U

are evaluated as follows. described as follows.

H

In this study, the hull has no oscillation and only the Accordingly,

fin rotates around its axis in still water. Accordingly, j ( xT , yT , z T ) jT jT A( yT , z T ) e ikxT (23)

the diffraction problem is not solved and only the A( yT , zT ) ( ) e

jT

jT

ikxT

(24)

radiation problem is discussed now. The boundary

condition at the body surface of Equation (9) is Where the coordinate at the trailing edge of the fin is

rewritten as follows. expressed as (xT, yT, zT), velocity potential at the

upside and downside of the trailing edge as T and

5

0 on SH except for fin surface (17) T respectively. Substituting this into Equation (22),

n

5 U U

n 5 m 5 n 5 n 3 on fin surface j ( x, yT , zT ) ( jT jT ) e ik ( x xT ) (25)

n i e i e

(18)

In the case of the steady problem, k in Equation (25)

is equal to zero.

Where n means the unit normal vector which is

transformed into the coordinate system whose origin

is put at the rotating axis of the fin. And then, the 3.2 Numerical methods

hydrodynamic forces and moments produced by the Boundary conditions (5)-(7) and (8)–(10) are solved

pitch motion of the fin around its axis are calculated by using the boundary element method. In the case

as follows. of unsteady problem, the integral equation is derived

as follows:

Fi U 5

e2 S 5 n i dS , (i 1, 3, 5)

5 H

i e x j ( P) G( P, Q)

S j (Q)dS

(19) 2 H n

j (Q)

S j (Q) G ( P, Q)dS

Accordingly, the fin-generated lift force is calculated F

n n

as follows. G ( P, Q) (26)

S j (Q)dS

W n

1 F F1 l0 j (Q)

Lf F3 5 S

2 xf

H n

G( P, Q)dS

(20)

1 F F1 l0

La F3 5

2 Where

xa

4

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

P ( x, y, z ), Q ( x, y, z) (27) Where *j ( k ) indicates the value of the velocity

G ( P, Q )

1

, r PQ potential j of k-th panel and

(28)

4 r

G( Pk , Q)

Next expression is obtained from Equation (25). G * (k , l )

* S (l ) G( Pk , Q) dS (35)

Gn (k , l )

n

j (Q) ( jT jT ) eik ( x xT ) (29)

Here Pk denotes the representative position of the k-

The velocity potentials j (Q) on the free-surface, the th panel and S (l ) the area of the l-th panel. Also,

hull- surface and the fin-surface are unknowns in the has only of the value in the case that l lies on the

integral equation (26). In this study, the spline finite panel next to the trailing edge, and then l is equal to

element method14) developed by Sclavounos and +1 on the top surface panel, -1 on the under surface

Nakos is adopted to solve the free-surface problem. panel. In the result, Equation (33) is reduced to the

That is, the velocity potential j on the free-surface simultaneous equation in which *j and m are

z=0 is described as follows. regarded as unknowns.

NF

j ( x, y ) m Bm ( x, y ) 4

(30)

m 1

4.1 Unsteady characteristics of fin-generated lift

Here B m ( x, y ) is the two-dimensional cubic B-spline The experimental results of measuring the fin-

function, m the spline coefficients and N F the generated lift for the RFS model are presented in

number of panels on free-surface. Then, the free- Figure 4. In the figure, CL3 indicates the lift-curve

surface condition is expressed as follows. slope with respect to the attack angle operated in the

heave control mode while CL5 denotes that in the

j j pitch control mode. The unsteady characteristics of

NF 2

k

m C k B m ( x, y ) (31) the fin-generated lift such as the time lag of

n z m 1 k 0 x k generating lift (i.e. the phase lag) and the interaction

among the fore fins, the aft fins, the struts and the

Where lower hulls are shown in the figure. As a whole, the

amplitude of the lift-curve slope gets smaller slightly

1 and the phase lag becomes larger slightly as the

C0 K e , C1 i 2 , C2 (32)

K0 frequency increases. This is the feature, which is

e2 U e g generally as predicted. Considering the figure in

Ke , , K0 2 (33)

g g U detail, it can be seen as follows. The amplitude of

the lift-curve slope of the aft fin has periodical

Assuming that the surface SF , SH or SW consists of fluctuation in both cases of the heave and pitch

control modes, while there exists no fluctuation for

NF , or NW panels respectively and the value of

NH that of the fore fin. Also, as regarding the phase lag,

the velocity potential is constant in each panel, the there seems to be same feature. It is understood that

integral equation (26) is discretized as follows. the lift-generation of the aft fin is affected by the

wake sheet of the fore fin in general. Furthermore,

*j (k ) NH

NW

regarding the hollow and hump of the periodic

*j (l ) G n* (k , l ) *j (l ) G * (k , n) e ik ( xn xT ) fluctuation with respect to the frequency there

2 l 1 n 1

NH NF

seems to be inverse feature in the amplitude and the

m N H

phase lag of the lift-curve slope when comparing the

m N H 1

control modes of heave and pitch.

*

NH NF 2

k Next, the calculated results are also shown in

G n (k , l ) Bm N H G (k , l ) C k k Bm N H

*

l N H 1 k 0

N H (l )* condition that the wake sheet of the fore fin pass 25

G * (k , l ) mm above the aft fin. This is confirmed by the

j

(34) fin.

5

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

5

150 Exp Fore fin

Cal Fore fin

4 100

|CL3| (1/rad)

50

3

0

2

-50

1 Cal Fore fin

-150

0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

(rad/s) (rad/s)

5

150 Exp Aft fin

Cal Aft fin

4 100

50

|CL3| (1/rad)

3

0

2

-50

Cal Aft fin

-150

0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

(rad/s) (rad/s)

(a) Heave control mode

5

150 Exp Fore fin

Cal Fore fin

4 100

Phase lag of CL5 (deg)

50

|CL5| (1/rad)

3

0

2

-50

Cal Fore fin

-150

0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

(rad/s) (rad/s)

5

150 Exp Aft fin

Cal Aft fin

4 100

Phase lag of CL5 (deg)

50

|CL5| (1/rad)

3

0

2

-50

1 Cal Aft fin

-150

0

0 5 10 15 20 0 5 10 15 20

(rad/s) (rad/s)

(b) Pitch control mode

6

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

the experimental results in the case of the amplitude

One of the important problems to determine the

of the lift-curve slope agree well with each other

seaworthiness of the RFS in waves is the effect of

while the calculated results demonstrate only the

the lift generated by the small underwater

tendency of the experimental results in the case of

controlling fins on the ship motion responses,

the phase lag.

especially the negative influence of the unsteady

Next, considering the lift-curve slope with respect

characteristics of the lift on the magnitude of the

to the attack angle in the steady state, it is expressed

control gains for ship motions.

as

In this study, the experiments in the model basin

and the theoretical calculations by using the

C L ( kW ( B ) k B (W ) )(C L )W (36) frequency-domain 3D-Rankine Panel Method to

evaluate the unsteady lift characteristics have been

based on the body-fin effect4), 15), where carried out.

Firstly, it is observed that the amplitude and the

(C L ) W ( B ) (C L ) B (W ) phase lag of the lift curve slope for the aft fin have

kW ( B ) , k B (W ) (37)

(C L ) W (C L ) W periodical fluctuations with respect to the angular

frequency in both cases of the heave and pitch

in which the subscript W represents the case of the control modes, while there exists no fluctuation for

fin alone, B(W) the case of the lift on the body that of the fore fin. This is caused by the influence of

induced by the fin, and W(B) the case of the lift on the wake sheet of the fore fin.

the fin induced by the body. For low aspect ratio fins, Secondly, the calculated results for the amplitude

of the lift coincide very well with the experimental

(CL)W is evaluated by Whicker and Fehlner 16) as

results, while the calculated results for the phase lag

demonstrate only the tendency of the experimental

1.8 Ae results.

(CL )W per radian (38)

1.8 Ae 2 4 Thirdly, regarding the magnitude of the lift-curve

slope in the steady state, it can be seen that the

and average value is approximately equal to 3.2 1/rad in

the experiments. This is equivalent to the value that

is predicted by the previous studies of the

r2

Ae ( r0 ) /c (39) aerodynamics.

r0

6 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

where Ae is the effective aspect ratio, r indicates the

This study has been performed by the assist of grant-

radius of the body, r0 denotes the transverse distance

in-aid for scientific research (No. 23246151), Japan

from the body axis to the tip of the fin and c

Society for the Promotion of Science.

represents the average chord length of the fin. As r is

0.02375 m, r0 is 0.07155 m and c is 0.0318 m in the

7 REFERENCES

case of the RFS model, it is obtained Ae = 2.0 and

then (CL)W = 2.44 1/rad. Also kW(B) or kB(W) is equal 1) Takarada, N., Takezawa, S., Hirayama, T., Wang, X.,

Kobayashi, K. and Sakurai, H. (1992) R&D of a

to 0.93 or 0.35 respectively in accordance with the displacement-type high speed ship (Part 4: Seakeeping

study of Pitts et al15). Accordingly, the lift-curve qualities in high speed range), Journal of the Society of Naval

slope in the steady state, CL , is calculated as 3.12 Architects of Japan, Vol. 171, 73–82.

1/rad from Equation (36). On the other hand, in

Figure 4, it can be seen that the experimental results 2) Papanikolaou, A., Zaraphonitis, G. and Androulakakis,

of the CLare approximately equal to 3.2 1/rad when M. (1991) Preliminary design of a high-speed SWATH

passenger/car ferry, Journal Marine Technology, SNAME, Vol.

the frequency close in on the steady state =0 rad/s,

28, No. 3, 129–141.

especially in the case of the fore fins. From this, it

can be confirmed that the estimation of the fin- 3) Armstrong, T. and Holden, K. (2003) A new generation of

generated lift by means of aerodynamics theory large fast ferry – from concept to contact reality, 7th

works well in the hydrodynamic problem. International Conference on Fast Sea Transportation

(FAST2003), 75–84.

7

X HSMV - Naples, October 2014

Small-Waterplane-Area, Twin-Hull (SWATH) ships in waves,

DTNSRDC Report, SPD–76–0046.

stability, and wave load of Small-Waterplane-Area Twin-Hull

Ships, SNAME Transactions, Vol. 85, 9–4130.

Seakeeping of A Semi-Submerged Catamaran (SSC) Vessel,

Transactions of the West-Japan Society of Naval Architects,

Vol. 63, 97–114.

Characteristics of hydrofoil moving at constant speed under

sinusoidal waves, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of

Japan, Vol. 112, 1-14.

Characteristics of hydrofoil performing heave and pitch while

moving at constant forward speed in still water, Journal of the

Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 112, 14-19.

Unsteady Hydrodynamic Forces on a Lifting Body (Second

Report, Interaction of Lift between Body and Wing), Journal of

the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 168, 243–251.

of the CS-Swath as a Transocean High Speed Ship,

Transactions of RINA, Vol.142 (B), 136–149.

Kinoshita, T. (to be published) Superior seaworthiness of a

Resonance-Free fast oceangoing SWATH, Trans RINA, Intl J

Maritime Eng.

Seakeeping Estimations of Fast Ships with Transom Stern,

Journal of the Japan Society of Naval Architects and Ocean

Engineers, Vol. 7, 195-206.

(2002) A study on the hydrodynamic interaction between

submerged lifting and non-lifting bodies advancing in waves,

Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, Vol. 192,

209-218.

analysis of panel method for free-surface flow with forward

speed, 17th Symposium on Naval Hydrodynamics, The Hague.

Lift and center of pressure of wing-body-tail combinations at

subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds, National Advisory

Committee for Aeronautics, Report 1307.

Characteristics of a Family of Low-Aspect-Ratio, All-Movable

Control Surfaces for Application to Ship Design, David Taylor

Model Basin Report 933.

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