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SS93-3@ PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM AND CANMET PAPER NO. 34 THIS IS A PREPRINT - SUBJECT To CORRECTION FLOW OF OIL AND SAND IN A HORIZONTAL WELL 0. Doan & M. Farouq Ali University of Aborta A. G@ ERL/CANMETtEMR PUBUCATION RESERVED THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE FIFTH PETROLEUM CONFERENCE OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN SECTION, THE PETROLEUMSOCIETYOFCIM,HELDWITHCANMETINREGINAOCTOBERI@.1993. DISCUSSIONOFTHISPAPERISINVITED. SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE TECHNICAL MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR

PUBLICATION IN CIM JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN PRIOR TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING. ABSTRACT Despite the increasing acceptance of horizontal wells as a potentially productive means of recovering oil and gas from underground reservoirs, the hydrodynamics of flow inside a horizontal well remains incompletely understood - especially for multiphase flow. Sand production into a horizontat well presents a formidable problem as the sand deposits at the bottom of the horizontal wel4 and thus reduces the effective size of the flow conduit. This

study focuses on the flow of oil and sand in a horizontal well. The model developed in this study treats the flow of oil and sand as that of a monodisperse, dilute suspension. 7hefluid phase (oil) is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian. The particulate phase, composed of spherical sandparticles, is assumed to behave as a continuum. 7he diffusive movement of the particulate phase is controlled by gravity force. The model allows for the determination of the axial velocity of the fluid phase and particulate phase, and the particulate phase density distribution at different

positions along the horizontal well length. Examination of the dimensionless groups allows for an analysis of the dominant parameters controlling the transport of sand in a horizontat well, including condition(s) promoting sedimentation. The rate of sediment bed buildup is correlated with fluid phase flow and interaction between the fluid phase and the particulate phase. INTRODUCTION Solid-liquid niultiphase flows encompass many different areas of science and engineering, ranging from transport of colloids in rain water, sediment @Port in _ river streams, waste nmport in sewers, bed

fluidization, flotation to slurry pipeline mwportation, drill cuttings removal and @port of fracture proppants etc. As more horizontal wells are drilled to recover oil and gas from oil reservoirs, problems associated with sand production into, and their transport inside dme horizontal wells beconie more prominent - particularly for wells drilled in unconsolidated or fracwmd formtions. Deposition of sand and fines inside these horizontal wells could have adverse impact on their productivity, even negating much of the advantages of horizontal dril@g. Few studies investigating the

hydrodynamic @port of sand and fines in horizontal wells are available in current petroleum literature. This paper attempts to identify parameters goveniing the flow of oil and sand inside a horizontal well, including conditions promoting sand deposition, as well as the rate of sedin-ent buildup at different positions along the horizontal well length. Hydrodynamic Fundamentals From a hydrodynamic viewpoint, the most important and fundamntal aspects of solid-liquid multiphase flow are interphase interaction (i.e. interaction between the fluid phase and the particulate phase) and

intraphase interaction (i.e. interaction among solid particles making

5S93-3'1

PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM AND CANMET PAPER NO. 34

Q. Dcan

S. M. Farouq Ali

Universily of Alberta

A. George

;.

ERUCANMETJEMR

THIS PAPER IS TO BE PRESENTED AT THE FIFTH PETROLEUM CONFERENCE OF THE SOUTH SASKATCHEWAN SECTION, THE

PETROLEUM SOCIETY OF CIM. HELD WITH CANMET IN REGINA OCTOBER 18-20, 1993. DISCUSSION OF THIS PAPER IS INVITED.

SUCH DISCUSSION MAY BE PRESENTED AT THE TECHNICAL MEETING AND WILL BE CONSIDERED FOR PUBUCATION IN CIM

JOURNALS IF FILED IN WRITING WITH THE TECHNICAL PROGRAM CHAIRMAN PRIOR TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE MEETING.

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION

Despite the increasing acceptance of horizontal wells as Solid-liquid multiphase flows encompass many

a potentially productive means of recovering oil and gas different areas of science and engioeering, ranging from

from underground reservoirs, the hydrodynamics of flow transport of colloids in raio water, sediment transport io

inside a horizontal well remains incompletely understood - river streams, waste Ir3DSport io sewers, bed fluidization,

especially for multiphase flow. Sand production into a flotation to slurry pipelioe transportation, drill cuttings

horizontal well presents a formidable problem as the sand removal and transport of fracture proppaots etc. As

deposits at the bOllom of the 11Orizontal well. and thus more horizonlal wells are drilled to recover oil and gas

reduces the effective size of the flow conduit. This study from oil reservoirs, problems associated with sand

focuses on the flow of oil and sand in a horizontal welL production into, and their transport ioside these

horizonlal wells become more promioent - particularly

The model developed in this study treats the flow of oil and for wells drilled in unconsolidated or fractured

sand as that of a monodisperse. dilute suspension. The fluid formations. Deposition of sand and fioes ioside these

phase (oil) is assumed to be incompressible and Newtonian. horizonlal wells could have adverse impact on their

The particulate phase, composed of spherical sand particles, productivity, even negating much of the advantages of

is assumed to behave as a continuum. The diffuSive horizonlal drilling. Few studies investigating the

movement of the particulate phase is controlled by gravity hydrodynamic transport of sand and fines in horizonlal

force. The model allows for the determination of the axial wells are available in current petroleum literature. This

velocity of the fluid phase and particulate phase. and the paper attempts to identify parameters governing the flow

particulate phase density distribution at different positions of oil and sand inside a horizonlal well, including

along the horizontal well length. conditions promoting sand deposition. as well as the rate

of sediment buildup at different positions along the

Examination of the dimensionless groups allows for an

horizontal well length.

analysis of the dominant parameters controlling the

transport ofsand in a horizontal well, including condition(s) Hydrodynamic Fundamentals

promoting sedimentation. V,e rate of sediment bed buildup

is correlated with fluid phase flow and interaction between From a hydrodynamic viewpoint, the most important

and fundamental aspects of solid-liquid multiphase flow

the fluid phase and the particulate phase.

are interphase interaction (i.e. interaction between the

fluid phase and the particulate phase) and intraphase

interaction (i.e. interaction among solid particles making

up the particulate phase)~ Interphase interaction

between the fluid phase and the particulate phase is F = F"(911/2a'p p )/[I+(Pr /2p p )] (2)

mcmifested mainly in the drag force exerted on the where

particles by the fluid stream and the transfer of

momentum from one phase 10 another. 500 [I] reported F" = (Cd /24)[2aprl v - v pl/ll] (3)

equations formulated by Newton and Stokes to

determine the magnitude of the drag force exerted by accounts for any deviation from Stokes' law, and is

the fluid phase on a solid sphere at different fluid flow calculated using the diameter of the solid sphere and the

regimes~ Newton' s equation accounts mainly for the velocity difference. The drag coefficient, Cd, accounts

inertia effect of the fluid phase (turbulent flow), whereas for the effects of turbulence and spheres in a cloud of

Stokes' law is applicable when the viscous effects particles~

predominate over inertia effects (laminar flow)~ Intraphase interaction between solid particles is

Substituting lhese two drag forces into standard drag characterized mainly by the frequency of particle-

coefficient definition resulls in a Cd (drag coefficient) particle collision~ This is defined as the root-mean-

value of 0.44 for Newton's turbulent flow regime; and square velocity of the particles divided by the mean free

for Stokes ' laminar flow Cd = 24/(Re), with the path between collisions. For a suspension with volume

Reynolds Number being defined in terms of the diameter fraction of the particulate phase less than 8%. the effect

of lhe spherical particle. 500 [I] also presented a log- of particle-particle interactions is negligible due to the

log plot correlating the drag coefficient of a sphere with fael that the mean free path between particle-particle

a wide range of sphere Reynolds Numbers. collision is much larger than the interaction length

Meyer [2J developed a generalized drag coefficient between a particle and the surrounding fluid phase.[l)

correlalion applicable for all flow regimes for 000-

Newtonian, power-law fluids. It was compared with Flow 01 Solld"L1quld Suspensions

experimental data and other empirical correlalions La

predict the drag coefficient and terminal sellling Van Deemter and Van der Laan [3] formulated

velocity for fracture proppanls of various mesh sizes. differential equations to describe the mass, momentum

This correlation filled experimental data much closer and energy balance for the flow of a homogeneously

than 5 tokes' law which was found to underestimate the dispersed solid-liquid suspension~ The derivation. which

drag coefFicient and overestimate the terminal settling was based on integral volume elements containing

velocity at large Reynolds Numbers. In addition, the sufficiently numerous particles that it was valid to usc

seWing velocity was deemed to be independent of continuous variables to describe local properties of the

power-law fluid rheological properties such as the fluid system, took into account the effect due 10 differences

consistency index and fluid flow behaviour index at in velocity between the fluid and Ihe particles. The

large flow Reynolds Numbers. stress tensors appearing in the momenLum and energy

500 [I]. based on a correlation of pressure drop versus balance equations were not. however. explicilly defined.

height in a fluidized bed. presented the following Hinze [4] utilized a different approach to derive the

equation for the drag coefficient of a cloud of umform same differential equations for the momentum and

size particles mechanical energy balance. In this case, the

momentum and mechanical energy balance equations

C =200(1-£) II +~ (I)

for the continuous fluid phase were derived first. The

effects of the suspended discrete particles were treated

d £' 2aw,Pr 3£ as akin to those of external forces acting on the fluid

phase. This approach enabled an explicit definition of

This drag coefficient for a panicles cloud reverts to the the shear stress tensors appearing in both of these

coefficient for a single particle as the void fracLion, E, equations.

Thomas (5) experimentally studied the u-ansport of Iarge-

approaches 0.92 and the interstitial velocity, w"

particle suspensions in cylindrical pipes. It was

approaches the free-stream (unobstructed flow area) determined that there was a minimum fluid phase

velocily. W velocity at which a layer of stationary or sliding

The relaxation Lime constanL for momentum transfer, particles started appearing at the bottom of the pipes.

defined as the ratio of the drag force to the product of This minimum transport velocity, also called the

the panicle mass and the difference between the fluid deposition velocity, was directly correlated with the

velocity and the particle velocity, is used to describe volume fraction of the solids.

the linear momentum transfer between the fluid phase Wasp. Kenny and Gandhi [6] presented several

and the particulate phase due to the drag force~ In the empirical correlations, commonly used in the design of

flow of a dilute suspension. 500 [7-8] defined the pipelines to transport heterogeneous slurries, for

relaxation lime constant for the momentum transfer minimum deposition velociLy as funcLions of particle

between the fluid phase and the particulate phase as size, particle sizes distribution and solid volume

follows. concentration.

500 f71 examined the fullv deveIooed flow of dilute

-2

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