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Over an Airfoil

Alisa Mizukami

Introduction

Case introduction to air flow over an airfoil

Simulation results

A structure with curved surfaces

Airfoil: designed to give the most favorable

ratio of lift to drag in flight

Drag & Lift

Can be

modeled as

2

Want high lift, low drag airfoil

The Situation: • Air flow from

airfoil nose (left)

to tail (right)

air flows at specified

angle with respect to

6° the direction of motion

ANSYS

Fluent (v18.2)

• Computational Fluid

Dynamics (CFD) Software

1 Start! 2 Geometry 3 Mesh

Boundary Conditions

Velocity Inlet: Velocity Inlet

Wall Pressure

(Airfoil) Outlet

Defines flow velocity

Pressure Outlet:

Specifies static pressure

(for supersonic flow, pressure

value is taken from upstream

values)

Incompressible Flow

Over an Airfoil Tutorial

1. Incompressible Flow

• 1 m/s, 6° angle of attack

2. Supersonic Flow, Denser Mesh

• 450 m/s, no angle

• 450 m/s, 6° angle of attack

• 450 m/s, no angle, pressure outlet boundary condition

• 450 m/s, no angle, symmetry boundary condition

• 1000 m/s, no angle

3. Supersonic Flow, Larger Domain

• 450 m/s, no angle

• 450 m/s, 6° angle of attack

Cases

Pressure Outlet

Incompressible Wall

Flow Over an

Airfoil

12.5 m

12.5 m

Incompressible 12.5 m

Flow Mesh

• 15,300 Nodes

• 15,000 Elements

element

node

12.5 m

Incompressible

Flow Setup

• Density-Based Solver

• Inviscid

1 m/s

• Mach Number: 0.00292

• Courant Number: (default)

• Iterations: 3,000

• Limit of Residuals: 10-6

(limit set by user)

• Convergence: Yes

1 m/s, 6˚ Angle, Pressure Contour

1 m/s, 6˚ Angle, Mesh Quality

Mesh Drag Lift Lift Error of

Coefficient Coefficient Experimental (%)

Coarser 0.01750 0.596 11.2

accurate

Denser 0.00366 0.681 2.64

Supersonic

Pressure Outlet

Flow Over an Wall

Airfoil 450 m/s

1000 m/s

(Denser Mesh)

12.5 m

12.5 m

Why denser mesh? Cons

Solver takes longer

to process detailed

To capture the thin results in a region

shockwave effect where gas

properties can be

approximated as

the same

Supersonic 12.5 m

Flow Mesh

Denser Mesh:

• 160,800 Nodes

• 160,000 Elements

15,000 Elements

12.5 m

Supersonic

Flow Setup

• Density-Based Solver

• Inviscid

• Ideal Gas

• Energy Equation

450 m/s

• Mach Number: 1.32

• Courant Number: 5 (default)

• Iterations: 5000

• Limit of residuals: 10-5

• Convergence: No

Shockwaves

Small regions in the gas where

gas properties (density,

pressure, temperature) change θ

almost instantaneously.

3 types:

• Normal 𝑐

• Oblique 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 =

𝑣

• Bow

Expansion Waves

• Gradual decrease in

pressure and density

• Isentropic

• Built of infinitesimal

Mach waves

450 m/s, Density Contour

to the airfoil nose

Reflections at pressure outlet (“detached”)

Expansion Waves

Shockwaves

Bow Shockwave

Changing Boundary Conditions

Symmetry

• Geometry is assumed to be

symmetrical across the boundary

• No flux across boundary

Pressure Outlet

• Specifies pressure at this boundary

450 m/s, Symmetry Boundary Condition

Symmetry

Pressure Outlet

Reflections

Symmetry

450 m/s, Velocity Inlet vs Symmetry

Image Transparency

Velocity Inlet 0%

Symmetry 50%

Approximately

same angle

450 m/s, Pressure Outlet Boundary Condition

Pressure Outlet

The location of

abnormality is

random

Pressure Outlet

Initially flow

develops similar to

original boundary

Pressure Outlet conditions

450 m/s, Pressure Outlet Boundary Condition

Divergence

1000 m/s

• Mach Number: 2.94

• Courant Number: 0.1

• Iterations: 10,000

• Limit of Residuals: 10-3

• Convergence: No

1000 m/s, Density Contour

No reflections at pressure outlet airfoil nose than 450 m/s

1000 m/s, Density vs Pressure

1000 m/s, Density vs Pressure

1000 m/s, Velocity Streamline

Velocity Streamline

1000 m/s Animation

Supersonic

Pressure Outlet

Flow Over an Wall

Airfoil 450 m/s

12.5 m

37

Why larger domain? Cons

to hit the pressure calculate additional

values for enlarged

outlet before the area that is

velocity inlet unnecessary

Supersonic Flow 35.0 m

Mesh (Enlarged)

Larger Mesh:

• 201,100 Nodes

• 200,000 Elements

160,000 Elements

12.5 m

450 m/s, Density Contour

No reflections at

pressure outlet

450 m/s, 6˚ Angle, Density

Stronger shock

(larger turn angle)

450 m/s, 6° Angle Animation

Summary

The arc of the C-Mesh domain must be a velocity inlet

The shock must hit the pressure outlet before it hits the

velocity inlet

References

1. NASA, NASA, www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-

12/VirtualAero/BottleRocket/airplane/ldrat.html.

2. Elert, Glenn. “Shock Waves.” Shock Waves – The Physics Hypertextbook,

physics.info/shock/.

3. http://slideplayer.com/slide/4239872/

4. http://www.iaa.ncku.edu.tw/~aeromems/Mach/Ch3.pdf

5. “Compressible Flow.” THERMOPEDIA™, www.thermopedia.com/content/646/.

6. “Supersonic Flow.” The Free Dictionary, Farlex,

encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Supersonic+Flow.

7. Supersonic Expansion by Turning,

farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/336L/Fluid/node209.html.

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