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Problem Solving

1. A rechargeable flashlight battery is capable of delivering 85 mA for about 12 h. How


much charge can it release at that rate? If its terminals voltage is 1.2 V, how much
energy can the battery deliver?
A. 4406.4 J
B. 4408.7 J
C.4401.3 J
D.4410.5 J

2. The charge entering the positive terminal of an element is q =10sin 4π t mC while the
voltage across the element (plus to minus) is v = 2cos 4πt V. Find the power delivered to
the element at t = 0.3 s
A. 162.5 mW
B. 163.5 mW
C. 164.5 mW
D. 165.5 mW

3. Calculate the energy delivered to the element between 0 and 0.6 in question number 2.
A. 77.12 mJ
B. 78.42 mJ
C. 79.24 mJ
D. 78.34 mJ

4. The figure shows a circuit with five elements. If p1=-205W, p2= 60W, p3=45W, p4=30
W, calculate the power p3 received or delivered by element 3.

A. 70W
B. 60W
C. 80W
D. 50W
5. A 60-W, incandescent bulb operates at 120 V. How many electrons and coulombs flow
through the bulb in one day?
A. 2.324 x10^24 electrons
B. 2.547 x10^23 electrons
C. 2.696 x10^23 electrons
D. 26.96 x10^24 electrons
6. A lightning bolt strikes an airplane with 30 kA for 2 ms. How many coulombs of charge
are deposited on the plane?
A. 50C
B. 56C
C. 58C
D. 60C

7. A 1.8-kW electric heater takes 15 min to boil a quantity of water. If this is done once a
day and power costs 10 cents per kWh, what is the cost of its operation for 30 days?
A. 1.35php
B. 1.39php
C. 1.45php
D. 1.55php

8. A utility company charges 8.5 cents/kWh. If a consumer operates a 40-W light bulb
continuously for one day, how much is the consumer charged?
A. 7.76 cents
B. 8.56 cents
C. 7.36 cents
D. 8.16 cents

9. A 1.2-kW toaster takes roughly 4 minutes to heat four slices of bread. Find the cost of
operating the toaster once per day for 1 month (30 days). Assume energy costs 9
cents/kWh.
A. 23.7 cents
B. 21.6 cents
C. 21.2 cents
D. 23.4 cents

10. A flashlight battery has a rating of 0.8 ampere-hours (Ah) and a lifetime of 10 hours.
(a) How much current can it deliver?
A. 80 mA
B. 70 mA
C. 90 mA
D. 60 mA

11. (b) How much power can it give if its terminal voltage is 6 V?
A. 0.45 W
B. 0.48 W
C. 0.47 W
D. 0.50 W
12. (c) How much energy is stored in the battery in kWh?
A. 0.048 Wh
B. 0.48 MWh
C. 0.0048 kWh
D. 0.0048 Wh

13. A 30-W incandescent lamp is connected to a 120-V source and is left burning
continuously in an otherwise dark staircase. Determine the current through the lamp.
A. 0.52 A
B. 0.45 A
C. 0.25 A
D. 0.025 A

14. An electric stove with four burners and an oven is used in preparing a meal as follows.
Burner 1: 20 minutes Burner 2: 40 minutes
Burner 3: 15 minutes Burner 4: 45 minutes
Oven: 30 minutes
If each burner is rated at 1.2 kW and the oven at 1.8 kW, and electricity costs 12 cents
per kWh, calculate the cost of electricity used in preparing the meal.
A.39.6 cents
B.50.3 cents
C.28.9 cents
D.32.4 cents

A battery may be rated in ampere-hours (Ah). A lead-acid battery is rated at 160 Ah.
15. (a) What is the maximum current it can supply for 40 h?
A.4A
B.3A
C.4.5A
D.3.5A

16. (b) How many days will it last if it is discharged at 1 mA?


A. 6,667 days
B. 6,668 days
C. 6,669 days
D. 6,670 days

17. A 12-V battery requires a total charge of 40 ampere-hours during recharging. How many
joules are supplied to the battery?
A. 3.728 MJ
B. 2.728 MJ
C. 1.728 MJ
D. 0.728 MJ
18. How much energy does a 10-hp motor deliver in 30 minutes? Assume that 1
horsepower=746 W.
A. 14.34 × 10^6 J
B. 12.42 × 10^6 J
C. 18.45 × 10^6 J
D. 13.43 × 10^6 J

19. A 600-W TV receiver is turned on for 4 hours with nobody watching it. If electricity costs
10 cents/kWh, how much money is wasted?
A. 24 cents
B. 32 cents
C. 45 cents
D. 50 cents
Solutions
1. A. 4406.4 J
q= it = 85 x10-3 x 12 x 60 x 60 = 3,672 C
E = pt = ivt = qv = 3672 x1.2 = 4406.4 J
2. C. 164.5 mW

3. D. 78.34 mJ

4. A. 70W
Σ p = 0 → -205 + 60 + 45 + 30 + p3 = 0
p3 = 205 – 135 = 70 W
5. C. 2.696 x10^23 electrons

6. D. 60C
q = it = (30x10^3) x(2x10^−3) = 60 C
7. A. 1.35php
W = pt = 1.8x(15/60) x30 kWh = 13.5kWh
C = 10cents x13.5 = 1.35php
8. D. 8.16 cents
W = pt = 40 x24 Wh = 0.96 kWh
C = 8.5 cents x0.96 = 8.16 cents
9. B. 21.6 cents

10. A. 80 mA

11. B. 0.48 W
p = vi = 6 × 0.08 = 0.48 W
12. C. 0.0048 kWh
w = pt = 0.48 × 10 Wh = 0.0048 kWh
13. C. 0.25 A

14. A.39.6 cents

15. A.4A

16. A. 6,667 days

17. C.1.728 MJ
W = pt = vit = 12x 40x 60x60 = 1.728 MJ
18. D. 13.43 × 10^6 J
P = 10 hp = 7460 W
W = pt = 7460 × 30 × 60 J = 13.43 ×10^6 J
19. A. 24 cents
W = pt = 600x4 = 2.4 kWh
C = 10cents x2.4 = 24 cents

20. The voltage across a 5-kΩ resistor is 16 V. Find the current through the resistor.
v = iR i = v/R = (16/5) mA = 3.2 mA

21. Find the hot resistance of a lightbulb rated 60 W, 120 V.


p = v2/R → R = v2/p = 14400/60 = 240 ohms
22. A bar of silicon is 4 cm long with a circular cross section. If the resistance of the bar is
240 Ω at room temperature, what is the cross-sectional radius of the bar?

23. At what frequency will an inductor of 5mH have the same reactance as a capacitor of
0.1µF?
1/(2π√LC)=1/(2π√(5×10-3)(0.1×10-6) )=7.12kHz

24. If three 9mH inductors are connected in parallel without mutual inductance, then the
total inductance is
L=L/n= 9mH/3=3mH

25. Two capacitors of capacitance 9µF and 18 µF in series will have a total capacitance of
c= C1C2/(C1+C2)= ((9μF)(18μF))/((9μF)+(18μF))=6μF

26. The open-circuit voltage at the terminal of load RL is 60 V. Under the condition of
maximum power transfer, the load voltage will be
i= 60V/(Rl+r) Vl=(60/(Rl+r))Rl= 60Rl/2Rl=30 V

27. If resonant frequency is 10kHz and quality factor is 50, then


BW=fr/2=10kHz/50=200Hz

28. An ac series circuit is composed of resistance of 20 Ω, inductive reactance of 40 Ω, and a


capacitive reactance of 15 Ω. If current of 1 ampere is flowing, what is the applied
voltage?
Z=20+j40-j15=20+j25=32.02<51.3
29. An emf source of 6.0V is connected to a purely resistive lamp and a current of 2.0
amperes flows. All the wires are resistance-free. What is the resistance of the lamp?

V=IR
R=V/I
R = 3.0 Ω
30. What is the equivalent resistance for resistors in series?

we can find RAB.


RAB = R1 + R2
RAB = 1.0 + 2.0
RAB = 3.0 Ω
We can find REF

REF = R4 + R5
REF = 4.0 + 5.0
REF = 9.0 Ω

31. Show that the condition D1 on and D2 on is not valid for the circuit

32. Find Ix:

Iy=−6V/6Ω=−1A
−(−2A)+Ix+Iy=0→Ix=−1A−(−2A)+Ix+Iy=0→Ix=−1A.
33. Find Iy:

−(−2A)+Ix+Iy=0→Ix=−1A−(−2A)+Ix+Iy=0→Ix=−1A.
34. Write an equation that solves for the impedance of this series circuit. The equation need
not solve for the phase angle between voltage and current, but merely provide a scalar
figure for impedance (in ohms):

Ztotal = √{R2 + X2}


35. Draw a phasor diagram showing the trigonometric relationship between resistance,
reactance, and impedance in this series circuit:

Scalar calculations
R = 2.2 kΩ XC = 2.067 kΩ
Zseries = √{R2 + XC2}
Zseries = √{22002 + 20672} = 3019 Ω
Complex number calculations
ZR = 2.2 kΩ ∠ 0o ZC = 2.067 kΩ ∠−90o (Polar form)
ZR = 2.2 kΩ+ j0 Ω ZC = 0 Ω− j2.067 kΩ (Rectangular form)
Zseries = Z1 + Z2 + …Zn (General rule of series impedances)
Zseries = ZR + ZC (Specific application to this circuit)
Zseries = 2.2 kΩ ∠ 0o + 2.067 kΩ ∠−90o = 3.019 kΩ ∠−43.2o
Zseries = (2.2 kΩ+ j0 Ω) + (0 Ω− j2.067 kΩ) = 2.2 kΩ− j2.067 kΩ
36.

37. Find i1 through i4 in the circuit in Fig. 2.96.


38. Using series/parallel resistance combination, find the equivalent resistance seen by the
source in the circuit of Fig. 2.98. Find the overall dissipated power.

39. Calculate Vo and Io in the circuit of the figure


40. Find i and Vo in the circuit of Fig. 2.100.

41. Find R for the circuit in Fig. 2.101.


42. Find Req and io in the circuit of Fig. 2.102.
Evaluate Req for each of the circuits shown
43.

Req = [(1x2.667)/3.667]k = 727.3 Ω.

44.

Req = [(4x12)/16]k = 3 kΩ.

45. Find I in the circuit of Fig. 2.110.


Consider the circuit in Fig. 2.118. Find the equivalent resistance at terminals:

46. (a) a-b

Rab = 50 + 100 / /(150 + 100 + 150) = 50 + 100 / /400 = 130Ω

47. (b) c-d

Rab = 60 + 100 / /(150 + 100 + 150) = 60 + 100 / /400 = 140Ω

48. A three-wire system supplies two loads A and B as shown in Fig. 2.125. Load A consists
of a motor drawing a current of 8 A, while load B is a PC drawing 2 A. Assuming 10 h/day
of use for 365 days and 6 cents/kWh, calculate the annual energy cost of the system.

pA = 110x8 = 880 W, pB = 110x2 = 220 W


Energy cost = $0.06 x 365 x10 x (880 + 220)/1000 = $240.90

49. If an ammeter with an internal resistance of 100 Ω and a current capacity of 2 mA is to


measure 5 A, determine the value of the resistance needed. Calculate the power
dissipated in the shunt resistor.
50. A d’Arsonval meter with an internal resistance of 1 kΩ requires 10 mA to produce
fullscale deflection. Calculate the value of a series resistance needed to measure 50 V of
full scale.

A 20-kΩ/V voltmeter reads 10 V full scale,


51. What series resistance is required to make the meter read 50 V full scale?

52. What power will the series resistor dissipate when the meter reads full scale?

53. Find Vo in the two-way power divider circuit in Fig. 2.132.


54. An ammeter model consists of an ideal ammeter in series with a 20-Ω resistor. It is
connected with a current source and an unknown resistor Rx as shown in Fig. 2.133. The
ammeter reading is noted. When a potentiometer R is added and adjusted until the
ammeter reading drops to one half its previous reading, then R = 65 Ω. What is the value
of Rx?

R = 20 + Rx
65 = 20 + Rx Rx = 45 Ω

55. The circuit in Fig. 2.134 is to control the speed of a motor such that the motor draws
currents 5 A, 3 A, and 1 A when the switch is at high, medium, and low positions,
respectively. The motor can be modeled as a load resistance of 20 mΩ. Determine the
series dropping resistances R1, R2, and R3.

With the switch in high position,


6 = (0.01 + R3 + 0.02) x 5 R3 = 1.17 Ω
At the medium position,
6 = (0.01 + R2 + R3 + 0.02) x 3 R2 + R3 = 1.97
or R2 = 1.97 - 1.17 = 0.8 Ω
At the low position,
6 = (0.01 + R1 + R2 + R3 + 0.02) x 1 R1 + R2 + R3 = 5.97
R1 = 5.97 - 1.97 = 4 Ω
56. Find Zab in the four-way power divider circuit in Fig. 2.135. Assume each element is 1Ω.
Suppose your circuit laboratory has the following standard commercially available
resistors in large quantities: 1.8 Ω, 20 Ω, 300 Ω, 24 kΩ, 56 kΩ
Using series and parallel combinations and a minimum number of available resistors,
how would you obtain the following resistances for an electronic circuit design?
57. 5 Ω

58. 311.8 Ω

59. 40 kΩ

60. 52.32 kΩ
61. A loudspeaker is connected to an amplifier as shown in Fig. 2.139. If a 10-Ω loudspeaker
draws the maximum power of 12 W from the amplifier, determine the maximum power a 4-Ω
loudspeaker will draw.

62. At what frequency will an inductor of 5mH have the same reactance as a capacitor of
0.1µF?
1/(2π√LC)=1/(2π√(5×10-3)(0.1×10-6) )=7.12kHz

63. If three 9mH inductors are connected in parallel without mutual inductance, then the
total inductance is
L=L/n= 9mH/3=3mH

64. Two capacitors of capacitance 9µF and 18 µF in series will have a total capacitance of
c= C1C2/(C1+C2)= ((9μF)(18μF))/((9μF)+(18μF))=6μF

65. The open-circuit voltage at the terminal of load RL is 60 V. Under the condition of
maximum power transfer, the load voltage will be
i= 60V/(Rl+r) Vl=(60/(Rl+r))Rl= 60Rl/2Rl=30 V

66. If resonant frequency is 10kHz and quality factor is 50, then


BW=fr/2=10kHz/50=200Hz
67. An ac series circuit is composed of resistance of 20 Ω, inductive reactance of 40 Ω, and a
capacitive reactance of 15 Ω. If current of 1 ampere is flowing, what is the applied
voltage?
Z=20+j40-j15=20+j25=32.02<51.3
68.

At node number 2, [(v2 + 2) – 0]/10 + v2/4 = 3 or v2 = 8 volts

But, I = [(v2 + 2) – 0]/10 = (8 + 2)/10 = 1 amp and v1 = 8x1 = 8volts

69.
70.
71.
72.
73. Three loads are connected in parallel to a 120∠0° V rms source. Load 1 absorbs 60 kVAR
at pf = 0.85 lagging, load 2 absorbs 90 kW and 50 kVAR leading, and load 3 absorbs 100
kW at pf = 1. (a) Find the equivalent impedance. (b) Calculate the power factor of the
parallel combination. (c) Determine the current supplied by the source.

74. Two loads connected in parallel draw a total of 2.4 kW at 0.8 pf lagging from a 120-V
rms, 60-Hz line. One load absorbs 1.5 kW at a 0.707 pf lagging. Determine: (a) the pf of
the second load, (b) the parallel element required to correct the pf to 0.9 lagging for the
two loads.
A 240-V rms 60-Hz supply serves a load that is 10 kW (resistive), 15 kVAR (capacitive),
and 22 kVAR (inductive). Find:

75. the apparent power


S = 10 − j15 + j22 = 10 + j7 kVA
S = S = 102 + 72 = 12.21 kVA

76. the current drawn from the supply

77. the kVAR rating and capacitance required to improve the power factor to 0.96 lagging

78. the current drawn from the supply under the new power-factor conditions
79. If v(t) = 160 cos 50t V and i(t) = –20 sin(50t – 30°) A, calculate the instantaneous power
and the average power.

80. The Thevenin impedance of a source is 120 60 Ω Th Z = + j , while the peak Thevenin
voltage is 110 0 V Th V = + j . Determine the maximum available average power from the
source.

Calculate the rms value for each of the following functions:


81. i(t) = 10 A
Irms = 10 A
82. v(t) = 4 + 3 cos 5t V

83. i(t) = 8 – 6 sin 2t A

84. v(t) = 5 sint + 4 cos t V


85. Calculate the rms value of the sum of these three currents: i1 = 8, i2 = 4 sin(t + 10º), i3 =
6 cos(2t + 30º) A

86. An ac motor with impedance ZL = 4.2 + j3.6 Ω is supplied by a 220-V, 60-Hz source. (a)
Find pf, P, and Q. (b) Determine the capacitor required to be connected in parallel with
the motor so that the power factor is corrected to unity.

87. A load consisting of induction motors is drawing 80 kW from a 220-V, 60-Hz power line
at a pf of 0.72 lagging. Find the capacitance of a capacitor required to raise the pf to
0.92.

A 110-V rms, 60-Hz source is applied to a load impedance Z. The apparent power
entering the load is 120 VA at a power factor of 0.707 lagging.

88. Calculate the complex power.

89. Find the rms current supplied to the load.


90. Determine Z.

91. Assuming that Z = R + jω L, find the values of R and L.

92. The voltage applied to a 10- Ω resistor is v(t) = 5 + 3cos(t +10°) + cos(2t + 30°) V
(a) Calculate the rms value of the voltage.
(b) Determine the average power dissipated in the resistor.

93. The voltage across a load and the current through it are given by v(t) = 20 + 60 cos 100t
V , i(t) = 1 – 0.5 sin 100t A
Find:
(a) the rms values of the voltage and of the current
(b) the average power dissipated in the load

For the following voltage and current phasors, calculate the complex power, apparent
power, real power, and reactive power. Specify whether the pf is leading or lagging.
94. V = 220∠30° V rms, I = 0.5∠60° A rms
S = VI* = (220∠30°)(0.5∠- 60°) = 110∠- 30°
S = 95.26 − j55 VA
Apparent power =110 VA
Real power =95.26 W
Reactive power =55 VAR
pf is leading because current leads voltage
95. V = 80∠0° V rms, I = 2.4∠−15° A rms
S = VI* = (120∠0°)(2.4∠15°) = 288∠15°
S = 278.2 + j74.54 VA
Apparent power = 288 VA
Real power = 278.2 W
Reactive power =74.54 VAR
pf is lagging because current lags voltage
96. V = 160∠45° V rms, I = 8.5∠90° A rms
S = VI* = (160∠45°)(8.5∠- 90°) = 1360∠- 45°
S = 961.7 – j961.7 VA
Apparent power =1360 VA
Real power = 961.7 W
Reactive power =- 961.7 VAR
pf is leading because current leads voltage

Determine the complex power for the following cases:


97. P = 269 W, Q = 150 VAR (capacitive)
S = P − jQ = 269 − j150 VA
98. Q = 2000 VAR, pf = 0.9 (leading)

99. S = 600 VA, Q = 450 VAR (inductive)

100. A series RLC circuit has the following parameters: R =1 kΩ, L =1H, and C = 10 nF. What
type of damping does this circuit exhibit?