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Introduction

In the 1980s the software packages that allowed for queries


and analyses of spatial data became known as Geographic
Information System (GIS).
As their functionality matured, their application
spread to all disciplines working with spatial data. GIS
is defined as an information system that is used to:
•input,
•store,
•retrieve,
•manipulate,
•analyze and
• output
geographically referenced data or geo-spatial data, in
order to support decision making for planning and
management.
 Why GIS Matters?

◦ Almost everything that happens, happens


somewhere. Knowing where something
happens can be critically important

◦ With a single collection of tools, GIS is able to


bridge the gap between curiosity-driven science
and practical problem-solving.
Different definitions of a GIS have evolved in
different areas and disciplines. Some of the GIS
definitions are:

A GIS is a special case of information systems


where the database consists of observations on
spatially distributed features, activities and events,
which are definable in space as points, lines and
areas to retrieve data for ad hoc queries and
analyses (Dueker, 1979).
GIS is a powerful set of tools for storing and
retrieving at will, transforming and displaying spatial
data from the real world for a particular set of
purposes (Burrough, 1986).

GIS is a computer-based system that provides four


sets of capabilities to handle geo-referenced data:
data input,
data management,
manipulation and analysis
and data output (Aronoff, 1989).
GIS is an information system that is designed to
work with data referenced by spatial or geographic
co-ordinates. In other words GIS is both a database
system with specific capabilities for spatially
referenced data as well as a set of operations for
working with the data (Star and Estes, 1990).
The most important feature with the GIS is that it
handles information in a digital format.
A computer-based
system capable of
holding and using Hydrology
data describing places
Landuse
on the earth’s surface
Districts
Topography
Soils
The real world
consists of many
geographies which
can be represented as
a number of related
data layers.

GIS IS NOT THE DECISION MAKING TOOL


GIS IS SUPPORTING TOOL FOR DECISION MAKERS
Development of GIS

Computer Science Earth Science

Geography
CAD/CAM Remote Sensing

Military Studies Spatial Mathematics


GIS

Cartography Urban Planning

Surveying and Photogrammetry Civil Engineering


Components of GIS

GIS ABSTRACTION
OR
SIMPLIFICATION

USERS
SOFTWARE
TOOLS + DATABASE

THE REAL WORLD

RESULTS
Geographic data

The basic requirement for displaying these objects is that it


must be possible to connect them to a position.
Geographical positions are described by an x co-ordinate
and a y co-ordinate that indicate the position in a two-
dimensional co-ordinate system.
Depending on the scale, the
object types can also be
dynamic. For example, on the
map of Africa, the city of
Nairobi would be
represented as a point while
on a map of central Kenya, it
would be presented as a
polygon.

continuous surfaces must be


represented differently on a
map.
Geographical data is not only
geometrical data but is also
composed of what is called
attribute data. Attribute data is
data that provides information
about the geometrical objects.

Attribute data is data that


provides information
about the geometrical
objects.
Vector Representation
Original map
The Vector Data Model

Features of Spatial Object

Points (Example : Location of house)


Lines (Example : Railway)
Polygons (Examples : Forest area)

The location of features on the earth’s surface are


referred to map positions using an XY coordinate
system (termed a Cartesian Coordinate System).
Vector representation
Point A Singly XY pair Y Coordinate
Line Series of XY pair
Polygon A closed loop of XY coordinate pairs
22 11
that define the boundary 21
X Coordinate
Raster Representation

 Row

 Column

 Cell Size

 Resolution
Buildings

Road
River
Y RASTER MODEL
ROW

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Cell Size

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Resolution

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
File Coordinate
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 Starting Row, Column
Geographic Coordinate
5 5 6 6 9 9 9 9

5 5 61 62 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 9 9 9 9

7 7 7 7 9 9 9 9

COLUMN

X
(0,0)
Raster and Vector Data Models:
Advantages and Disadvantages

RASTER MODEL VECTOR MODEL

Advantages Advantages

- simple data structure - compact data structure


- easy and efficient overlaying - efficient for network analysis
- compatible with RS imagery - efficient projection transformation
- high spatial variability is efficiently represented - accurate map output
- simple for own programming
- same grid cells for several attributes

Disadvantages Disadvantages

- inefficient use of computer storage - complex data structure


- errors in perimeter, area, and shape - difficult overlay operations
- difficult network analysis - high spatial variability is inefficiently represented
- inefficient projection transformations - not compatible with RS imagery
- loss of information when using large cells
- less accurate (although attractive) maps
Integration of Vector and Raster System - Hybrid
System

Raster
Vector Raster
Vector
Handling Handling
Conversion

Vector Input Vector Data Vector Raster Data Raster Input


Display

Vector Output Raster Raster Output


Display

1. Computer Cartography 1. Remote Sensing


2. Photogrammetry Spatial Vector-Raster
Spatial Analysis 2. GPS
3. Existing Data Analysis Conversion
3. Scanner
4. Existing Data
Principal Components and Functions of an Ideal GIS

Data from Other Geographic Information Reports


Maps Systems

Tabular Data Geographic Information System Maps

Database Management

Collection Input Storage and Manipulation Output and Photographic


Field Data
and Correction Retrieval and Analysis Reporting Products

Data from
Other Digital Statistics
Database

Data to Other
Remote
Other Geographic External Statistical Digital
Sensing
Information Systems Packages Database

Global
Positioning Data Input
System to Models