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CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

Syllabus :

plane; distance formula, section formula, locus and

its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line,

parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line

on the coordinate axes.

Straight lines

Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of

lines, angles between two lines, conditions for

concurrence of centroid, orthocentre and

circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of

lines passing through the point of intersection of

two lines.

Circles, conic sections

Standard form of equation of a circle, general form

of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre,

equation of a circle when the end point of a

diameter are given, points of intersection of a line

and a circle with the centre at the origin and

condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,

equation of the tangent. Sections of cones,

equation of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and

hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for

y = mx + c to be tangent and point (s) of tangency.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 2

CONCEPTS (Straight Line)

called axes of co-ordinates.

OA = PB = x (is known as abscissa)

AB = OP = y (is known as ordinate)

C2 Distance Formula : In Cartesian co-ordinate the distance between the points P(x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) is

given by

PQ = ( x 1 x 2 ) 2 ( y 1 y 2 ) 2

C3 Condition of Collinearity using the distance formula : For three points to be collinear, prove that the

sum of the distances between two points is equal to the third pair of points.

C4 Section Formula :

1. Internal Division : If (x, y) are the coordinates of the point that divides the line segment joining the points

mx 2 nx1 my 2 ny1

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) internally in the ratio m : n, then x and y .

mn mn

2. External Division : If (x, y) are the coordinates of the point that divides the line segment joining the points

mx 2 nx1 my 2 ny1

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) externally in the ratio m : n, then x and y .

mn mn

Practice Problems :

1. The line x + y = 4 divides the line joining the points (–1, 1) and (5, 7) in the ratio

(a) 2:3 (b) 1:2 (c) 1:1 (d) 4:3

[Answers : (1) b]

C5 Centroid or centre of gravity Triangle : The centroid of a triangle is the point of intersection of its

medians. The centroid divides the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. If the coordinate of a triangle is (x1y1) (x2y2)

x1 x 2 x 3 y 1 y 2 y 3

(x3y3) then its centroid is , .

3 3

Incentre of a Triangle : The point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle is the

incentre.

Circumcentre : The circumcentre of a triangle is the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of

the sides of a triangle.

Orthocentre : The orcthocentre of a triangle is the point of intersection of altitudes drawn from vertex of

the triangle to the opposite sides.

Practice Problems :

1. If the orthocentre and centroid of a triangle are (–3, 5) and (3, 3), then its circumcentre is

(a) (6, 2) (b) (3, –1) (c) (–3, 1) (d) (–3, 5)

2. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines xy = 0 and x + y = 1 is

1 1 1 1 1 1

(a) , (b) , (c) (0, 0) (d) ,

2 2 3 3 4 4

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 3

3. If the vertices P, Q, R are rational points. A rational point is a point both of whose co-ordinates are

rational numbers. Which of the following points of the triangle PQR is always rational point

(a) centroid (b) orthocentre (c) circumcentre (d) All of these

4. Vertices of a ABC are A (2, 2), B (–4, –4), C (5, –8). Then length of the median through C is

5. Let PS be the median of the triangle with vertices P(2, 2), Q(6, –1) and R(7, 3). The equation of the

line passing through (1, –1) and parallel to PS is

(a) 2x – 9y – 7 = 0 (b) 2x – 9y – 11 = 0

(c) 2x + 9y – 11 = 0 (d) 2x + 9y + 7 = 0

( 3 1) 1 1 1

6. The orthocentre of the triangle with vertices 2, , , and 2, is

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 1 5 3 2 1 1

(a) , (b) 2, (c) , (d) ,

2 6 2 4 4 2 2

[Answers : (1) a (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) b]

x1 y1 1

1

C6 Area of a Triangle : Area of the triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is given by x 2 y2 1

2

x3 y3 1

1

= | {x1 ( y 2 y 3 ) x 2 ( y 3 y1 ) x 3 ( y1 y 2 )} | .

2

Practice Problems :

1. P (3, 1), Q (6, 5) and R (x, y) are three points such that the angle PRQ is a right angle and the area of

R Q P = 7, then the number of such points R is

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4

2. The area of a triangle is 5 and two of its vertices are A (2, 1), B (3, –2). The third vertex which lies on

line y = x + 3 is

7 13 5 5

(a) , (b) ,

2 2 2 2

3 3

(c) , (d) both (a) and (c) are correct

2 2

[Answers : (1) c (2) d]

C7 Locus : When a point moves so as always to satisfy a given condition, or conditions, the path it trace out is

called its Locus under these conditions.

Practice Problems :

1. Locus of centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (a cos t, a sin t), (b sin t, – b cos t) and (1, 0), where

t is a parameter, is

(a) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2 (b) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2

(c) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2 (d) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 4

2. Locus of a point which moves such that sum of the squares of its distances from the sides of a square

of side unity is 9, is

(a) Straight line (b) Circle (c) Parabola (d) None

[Answers : (1) a (2) b]

C8 STRAIGHT LINE : The equation be of the first degree (i.e. if it contain no products, squares, or higher

powers or x and y) then locus corresponding is always a straight line.

Slope of a Straight Line : Let a straight line makes an angle /2 and 0 < , with the positive

2

direction of x-axis. Then tan is called the slope of the line. It is denoted by m.

Slope of Straight Line Joining Two Points :

y 2 y1

Let A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be two points. Then the slope of AB (tan ) is if x1 x2.

x 2 x1

C9 Condition of collinearity of three points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) using the concept of slope.

C10 Angle Between Two Straight Lines : Let be the acute angle between two straight lines whose slopes are

m1 m 2

m1 and m2 respectively and m1m2 –1, then tan .

1 m1m 2

Practice Problems :

1. The lines x cos + y sin = p1 and x cos + y sin = p2 will be perpendicular if

(a) = (b) (c) (d)

2 2 2

[Answers : (1) b]

ax 1 by 1 c

(i) Perpendicular distance of a point (x1, y1) from a straight ax + by + c = 0 is .

a2 b2

(ii) Coordinates of the foot of perpendicular drawn from a point (x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 are given by

x x1 y y1 ax by c

1 2 12 .

a b a b

Practice Problems :

1. The foot of the perpendicular from point (2, 4) upon x + y = 1 is

1 3 1 3 4 1 3 1

(a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,

2 2 2 2 3 2 4 2

[Answers : (1) b]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 5

C12 Distance between Parallel Lines : Distance parallel lines ax + by + c1 = 0 and ax + by + c2 = 0 is equal to

c1 c 2

.

a 2 b2

C13 Reflection of a point about a line : Coordinates of the image of the point (x1, y1) in the line ax + by + c =

x x1 y y1 ax by c

0 are given by 2 1 2 12 .

a b a b

Practice Problems :

1. The reflection of the point (4, –13) in the line 5x + y + 6 = 0 is

(a) (–1, –14) (b) (3, 4) (c) (1, 2) (d) (–4, 13)

[Answers : (1) a]

Let L1 a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and L2 a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 be two non-parallel lines. Then the equation of the

family of straight line passing through the intersection of the lines L1 = 0 and L2 = 0 is L1 + L2 a1x + b1y

+ c1 + (a2x + b2y + c2) = 0.

C15 Concurrent lines : The three lines are concurrent if they meet in a point.

Three lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 & a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are concurrent if

a1 b1 c1

a2 b2 c2 0

a3 b3 c3

Practice Problems :

1. If the lines x + a y + a = 0, b x + y + b = 0 and c x + c y + 1 = 0 (a, b and c being distinct 1) are

a b c

concurrent, then the value of is

a 1 b 1 c 1

(a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) none of these

2. If the lines x = a + m, y = –2 and y = mx are concurrent, the least value of [a] is

(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 22 (d) none of these

3

3. The equation of the line with slope which is concurrent with the lines 4x + 3y – 7 = 0 and

2

8x + 5y – 1 = 0 is

(a) 3x + 2y – 2 = 0 (b) 3x + 2y – 63 = 0

(c) 2y – 3x – 2 = 0 (d) none of the above

4. Three lines px + qy + r = 0, qx + ry + p = 0 and rx + py + q = 0 are concurrent if

(a) p+q+r=0 (b) p2 + q2 + r2 = pq + qr + rp

(c) p3 + q3 + r3 = 3pqr (d) both (a) and (c) are correct

[Answers : (1) c (2) c (3) a (4) d]

C16 Pair of Straight Lines : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of straight lines passing through the origin.

If their slopes are m1 and m2, then m1 + m2 = –2h/b and m1m2 = a/b.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 6

Practice Problems :

1. The equation ax2 + hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of real and different straight lines through the

origin if

(a) h2 = 4ab (b) h2 < 4ab (c) g2 > 4ab (d) none of these

[Answers : (1) c]

C17 Angle Between Pair of Straight Lines : Let be the acute angle between pair of straight lines ax2 + 2hxy

2 h 2 ab

+ by2 = 0 then tan .

|a b |

Practice Problems :

1. If the angle between the two lines represented by 2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 + 6x + 7y + 4 = 0 is tan–1 (m), then

m is equal to

(a) 1/5 (b) –1 (c) –2/3 (d) none of these

2. The difference of the tangents of the angles which the lines x2(sec2 – sin2) – 2xy tan + y2sin2 = 0

make with x-axis is

(a) 2 tan (b) 2 (c) 2 cot (d) sin 2

[Answers : (1) a (2) b]

C18 Equation of the Bisectors of the angles between the lines : Equation of the straight lines bisecting the

x 2 y 2 xy

angles between the pair of straight lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is .

a b h

Practice Problems :

1. If the pair of straight lines x2 – 2pxy – y2 = 0 and x2 – 2qxy – y2 = 0 be such that each pair bisects the

angle between the other pair, then

(a) p = –q (b) pq = 1 (c) pq = –1 (d) p=q

[Answers : (1) c]

C19 General Equation of Second Degree : General equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents

two straight lines if abc + 2fgh – af2 – bg2 – ch2 = 0.

Practice Problems :

1. If the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of parallel lines, then the distance

between them is

g 2 ac g 2 ac g 2 ac g 2 ac

(a) (b) (c) 2 2 (d) 2

h2 a2 a (a b ) h a2 a (a b )

[Answers : (1) c]

1. Three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear

y1 y 2 y 3

(i) If , then these points lie on a straight line passing through the

x1 x 2 x 3

origin.

y1 y 2 y 3 y 2 y1 y 3 y1

(ii) If is not true but , then the points lie on a straight

x1 x 2 x 3 x 2 x1 x 3 x1

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 7

line not passing through the origin.

2. OAB is obtuse angled if the points A and B lie in opposite quadrants.

3. If a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are the sides of a triangle, then the area of the

triangle is given by (without solving the vertices).

a1 b1 c1

1

a2 b2 c2

2C1C 2 C3

a3 b3 c3

when C1, C2, C3 are the co-factors of c1, c2, c3 in the determinant

i.e., C1 = a2b3 – a2b2, C2 = a3b1 – a2b3 and C3 = a1b2 – a2b1.

4. Reflection of the point (, ) about the line y = x is (, ).

y1

5. The line joining the points (x1, y1) and (x1, y2) is divided by the X-axis in the ratio and by Y-axis in

y2

x1

the ratio .

x2

6. If (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) be respectively the vertices A, B, C of a triangle, then angle A is acute or

obtuse according as (x1 – x2) (x1 – x3) + (y1 – y2) (y1 – y3) is positive or negative.

7. Area of the triangle formed by the lines of the form y = m1x + c1, y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3 is

1 (c 2 c3 ) 2 (c 3 c1 ) 2 (c1 c 2 ) 2

.

2 m 2 m3 m 3 m1 m1 m 2

2c 2

8. The area of a rohmbus with sides ax ± by ± c = 0 is .

ab

9. The area of a parallelogram formed by the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a1x + b1y + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, and

a2x + b2y + d2 = 0 is

(c1 d1 )(c 2 d 2 )

.

a1b 2 a 2 b1

10. If the lines represented by a1x2 + 2h1xy + b1y2 = 0 and a2x2 + 2h2xy + b2y2 = 0 are equally inclined to each

a 1 b1 a 2 b 2

other then

h1 h2

11. Centroid of the triangle obtained by joining the middle points of the sides of a triangle is the same as the

centroid of the original triangle.

12. If two vertices of an equilateral triangle are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) then co-ordinates of the third vertex are

x1 x 2 3 ( y1 y 2 ) y1 y 2 3 ( x1 x 2 )

; . The vertices of the equilateral triangle do not have

2 2

integral coordinates.

13. Centroid, orthocentre, circumcentre coincides for the equilateral triangle.

14. Shifting of the origin does not alter the area of triangle.

15. The orthocentre of a triangle having vertices (, ), (, ) and (, ) is (, ).

e.g., the orthocentre of the triangle having vertices (4, 5), (5, 4) and (4, 4) is (4, 4).

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 8

16. The image of the line ax + by + c = 0 about y-axis –ax + by + c = 0.

17. If the circumcentre and centroid of a triangle are respectively (, ), (, ) then orthocentre will be

(3 – 2, 3 – 2).

18. The length of the intercept cut by the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on x-axis is

2 g 2 ac

.

|a|

19. A line passing through (x1, y1) and parallel to ax + by + c = 0 is a (x – x1) + b (y – y1) = 0.

20. Circumcentre of the triangle formed by the origin (0, 0) and the points (x 1, y1) and (x 2, y2) is

, where 1 1 ; 2 1 ; 3 .

1 1 2x 2 2y2 2y2 ( x 22 y 22 ) ( x 22 y 22 ) 2x 2

21. Circumcentre of the triangle formed by the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is the same as that of the

triangle formed by the points (0, 0), (x2 – x1, y2 – y1), (x3 – x1, y3 – y1).

22. Orthocentre of the triangle formed by going the points (0, 0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2) is given by [q (y2 – y1), – q (x2

x1x 2 y1 y 2

– x1)] where q .

x1 y 2 x 2 y1

1 1 1 1

23. Orthocentre of the triangle formed by the points , , , , , is , .

24. The product of perpendicular drawn from any point (, ) on the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

a 2 2h b 2

.

(a b) 2 4h 2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 9

C O N C E P T S (Circle)

A circle is the locus of a point moving in a plane so that it always remains at a constant distance from a fixed

point. The fixed point is called its center and the constant distance is called its radius.

C1 Equation of a Circle in different forms :

here (h, k) is the centre and

r is the radius

General Form

and radius is g2 f 2 c .

called a real circle.

(ii) If g2 + f2 – c = 0, then the circle is

called a point circle.

(iii) If g2 + f2 – c < 0, then the circle is

called an imaginary circle.

(iv) The lengths of intercepts made by

the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

with x and y axes are

2 g 2 c and 2 f 2 c

respectively.

Diameter Form If the end points of the diameter of a circle are (x1y1) and (x2y2)

then equation of the circle is

(x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 10

C2 Straight Line and a Circle :

Let L = 0 be a line & S = 0 be a circle. If r is the radius of the circle & p is the length of the perpendicular

from the centre on the line, then

(i) p>r the line does not meet the circle i.e. passes out side the circle.

(ii) p=r the line touches the circle. (It is tangent to the circle)

(iii) p<r the line is a sacant of the circle

(iv) p=0 the line is a diameter of the circle

Note the following points :

ma 2 a 2

The line y = mx + c touches circle x2 + y2 = a2 if c2 = a2(1 + m2) at point , .

c c

Practice Problems :

1. If the straight line y = mx is outside the circle x2 + y2 – 20 y + 90 = 0 then

(a) m>3 (b) m<3 (c) |m| > 3 (d) |m| < 3

[Answers : (1) d]

The intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the co-ordinates axes are 2 g 2 c & 2 f 2 c

respectively. If

g2 = c circle touches the x axis

Similarly,

f2 = c circle touches the y-axis

C4 Tangent to a Circle :

Point Form :

(a) Equation of the tangent to the circle S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at the point

(x1, y1) is T xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f (y + y1) + c = 0.

(b) The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 if c2 = r2 (1 + m2). Hence, equation of tangent

r 2m r 2

is y mx r 1 m 2 and the point of contact is , .

c c

Practice Problems :

1. The tangent to x2 + y2 = 9 which is parallel to y-axis and does not lie in the first quadrant touches, the

circle at the point

(a) (3, 0) (b) (–3, 0) (c) (0, 3) (d) (0, –3)

2 2 2

2. If the line x sin – y cos = a touches the circle x + y = a , then

(a) (b) 0 (c) – (d) R

2 2

3. If x cos + y sin = p is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 2q(x cos + y sin ) then the set of possible

values of p is

(a) {q} (b) {0, q} (c) {0, 2q} (d) {q, 2q}

[Answers : (1) a (2) d (3) c]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 11

C5 Normal : If a line is normal/orthogonal to a circle then it must pass through the centre of the circle. Using

y1 f

this fact normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at (x1, y1) is y y 1 ( x x1 ) .

x1 g

Practice Problems :

3 3

1. To which of the following circles the line y – x + 3 = 0 is normal at the point 3 , ?

2 2

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

(a) x 3 y 9 (b) x y 0

2 2 2 2

(c) x2 + (y – 3)2 = 9 (d) (x – 3)2 + y2 = 9

[Answers : (1) c]

C6 Length of Tangent : The length of the tangent from the point P(x 1 , y 1 ) to the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is equal to

Note : If PQ is a length of the tangent from a point P to a given circle, then PQ2 is called the power of the

point with respect to a given circle.

Practice Problems :

1. If the square of the length of the tangents from a point P to the circle x2 + y2 = a2, x2 + y2 = b2 and

x2 + y2 = c2 are in A.P. Then

(a) a, b, c are in A.P. (b) a, b, c are in A.P.

2 2 2

(c) a , b , c are in A.P. (d) a2, b2, c2 are in G.P.

[Answers : (1) c]

C7 Combined Equation of Pair of Tangents : Combined equation of the pair of tangents to the circle S x2

+ y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 drawn from the point (x1, y1) is T2 = SS1, where T and S1 have their usual meaning.

Practice Problems :

1. The angle between a pair of tangents drawn from a point T to the circle

x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 9 sin2 + 13 cos2 = 0 is 2. The equation of the locus of the point T is

(a) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 4 = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y – 9 = 0

(c) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y – 4 = 0 (d) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 9 = 0

[Answers : (1) d]

C8 Chord of Contact : Let the circle is S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord of contact

is given by T = 0.

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0

Practice Problems :

1. If the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 to the circle

x2 + y2 = b2 touches the circle x2 + y2 = c2, then a, b, c are in

(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) none of these

[Answers : (1) b]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 12

C9 Equation of a Chord in Terms of its Mid Point : Let (x1, y1) be the mid point of a chord of the circle S

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord is T = S1.

C10 Director Circle : The locus of the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents to a circle is called

the Director Circle.

Practice Problems :

1. P is the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = a2. Locus of P is

(a) x2 + y2 = 3a2 (b) x2 + y2 = 2a2 (c) x2 + y2 = 4a2 (d) none of these

[Answers : (1) b]

(i) Let S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 be a circle and L ax + by + k = 0 be a line intersecting S = 0, then the

equation of the family of circles passing through the intersection of the given circle and the line is S + L

= 0, where is a parameter.

(ii) Let S = 0 and S’ = 0 be two intersecting circles. Then equation of the family of circles passing through

points of intersection of S = 0 and S’ = 0 is S + S’ = 0, where – 1.

C12 Two Circles : Let there be two circles with centers at C1 and C2 and radii r1 and r2 respectively, then

(i) Two circles are exterior to each other if r1 + r2 < C1C2

(ii) Two circles touch each other externally if r1 + r2 = C1C2

(iii) Two circles intersect each other in two points if |r1 – r2| < C1C2 < r1 + r2

(iv) Two circles touch each other internally if |r1 – r2| = C1C2

(v) One circle is interior to the other if C1C2 < |r1 – r2|.

Practice Problems :

1. The two circles x2 + y2 +ax = 0 and x2 + y2 = c2 (with c > 0) touch each other if

(a) c = |a| (b) 2a = |c| (c) 2c = a (d) none of these

2 2 2 2

2. If one of the circles x + y + 2ax + c = 0 and x + y + 2bx + c = 0 lies with in the other, then

(a) ab > 0, c > 0 (b) ab > 0, c < 0 (c) ab < 0, c > 0 (d) none of these

2 2 2 2 2 2

3. The circles whose equations are x + y + c = 2ax and x + y + c – 2by = 0 will touch one another

externally if

1 1 1 1 1 1

(a) 2

2 2 (b) 2

2 2

b c a c a b

1 1 1

(c) 2

2 2 (d) none of these

a b c

4. If two circles a(x2 + y2) + bx + cy = 0 and A(x2 + y2) + Bx + Cy = 0 touch each other, then

(a) aC = cA (b) bC = cB (c) aB = bA (d) aA = bB = cC

5. The locus of the centre of the circles which touch both the circles x + y = a and x2 + y2 = 4ax

2 2 2

(a) 12 (x – a)2 – 4y2 = 3a2 (b) 9 (x – a)2 – 5y2 = 2a2

(c) 8x2 – 3(y – a)2 = 9a2 (d) none of these

2 2 2 2 2

6. Two circles (x – 1) + (y – 3) = r and x + y – 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 intersect in two distinct points if

(a) 2<r<8 (b) r<2 (c) r=2 (d) r>3

[Answers : (1) a (2) a (3) c (4) b (5) a (6) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 13

C13 Common Tangents to two Circles :

Case Number of Tangents Condition

Practice Problems :

1. The number of common tangents to the circles x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y = 24 is

(a) 0 (b) 1

(c) 3 (d) 4

[Answrs : (1) b]

C14 Angle of Intersection of Two Circles : Let be the angle of intersection of two circles whose centers are

r1 2 r2 2 C1C 2 2

at C1 and C2 and their radii are r1 and r2 respectively, then cos .

2r1r2

Notes :

2 2 2

(i) If = 900, then the circles are said to be Orthogonal and then r1 r2 C 1C 2 .

2gg 2ff c c .

Practice Problems :

1. The circles x2 + y2 + x + y = 0 and x2 + y2 + x – y = 0 intersect at an angle of

(a) /6 (b) /4 (c) /3 (d) /2

2 2 2 2

2. If the circles x + y + 2x + 2ky + 6 = 0 and x + y + 2ky + k = 0, intersect orthogonally then k is

(a) 2 or –3/2 (b) – 2 or – 3/2 (c) 2 or 3/2 (d) – 2 or 3/2

[Answers : (1) d (2) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 14

C O N C E P T S (Parabola)

C1 Conic Sections :

A conic section, or conic is the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that its distance from a fixed

point (focus) is in a constant ratio (eccentricity e) to its perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line

(directrix).

C2 General equation of a conic : Focal directrix property :

The general equation of a conic with focus (p, q) & directrix lx + my + n = 0 is :

(l2 + m2) [(x – p)2 + (y – q)2] = e2 (lx + my + n)2 ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.

C3 Definition and Terminology

A parabola is the locus of a point, whose distance from a fixed point (focus) is equal to perpendicular

distance from a fixed straight line (directix). Four standard forms of the parabola are y2 = 4ax; y2 = –4ax;

x2 = 4ay; x2 = –4ay

For parabola y2 = 4ax

(i) Vertex is (0, 0) (ii) focus is (a, 0)

(iii) Axis is y = 0 (iv) Directrix is x + a = 0

Focal Distance : The distance of a point on the parabola from the focus.

Focal Chord : A chord of the parabola, which passes through the focus. y2 = 4ax

Double Ordinate : A chord of the parabola perpendicular to the axis of the symmetry.

Latus Rectum : A double ordinate passing through the focus or a focal chord perpendicular to the axis of

parabola is called the Latus Rectum (L.R.)

Practice Problems :

1. The latus rectum of a parabola whose focal chord is P S Q such that S P = 3 and S Q = 2 is given by

24 12 6

(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these

5 5 5

2. The length of the latus rectum of the parabola whose focus is (3, 3) and directrix is 3x – 4y – 2 = 0 is

(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 4 (d) none of these

2

3. If the line x – 1 = 0 is the directrix of the parabola y – kx + 8 = 0, then one of the value of k is

(a) 1/8 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 1/4

2

4. y – 2x – 2y + 5 = 0 is

(a) a circle with centre (1, 1) (b) a parabola with vertex (1, 2)

3 1

(c) a parabola with directrix x (d) a parabola with directrix x

2 2

5. The vertex of the parabola x2 + 2y – 8x + 7 = 0 is

(a) (4, 11/2) (b) (4, 9/2) (c) (9/2, 4) (d) none of these

2 2

6. It (at , 2at) are the co-ordinates of one end of a focal chord of the parabola y = 4ax, then the

co-ordinates of the other end are

a 2a a 2a

(a) (at2, – 2at) (b) (–at2, –2at) (c) 2, (d) 2 ,

t t t t

[Answers : (1) a (2) a (3) c (4) c (5) b (6) d]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 15

C4 Line and a Parabola :

The line y = mx + c meets the parabola y2 = 4ax in two points real, coincident or imaginary according as a

cm condition of tangency is c = a/m.

Practice Problems :

1. The line which is parallel to x-axis and crosses the curve y = x at an angle of 450 is

(a) x = 1/4 (b) y = 1/4 (c) y = 1/2 (d) y=1

[Answers : (1) c]

(i) yy1 = 2a(x + x1) at the point (x1, y1) ;

a a 2a

(ii) y mx (m 0) at 2 ,

m m m

(iii) ty = x + at2 at (at2, 2at)

Important Point : Point of intersection of the tangents at the point t1 & t2 is [at1t2, a(t1 + t2)]

Practice Problems :

1. If y = m x + c touches the parabola y2 = 4a (x + a), then

a a a

(a) c (b) c am (c) ca (d) none of these

m m m

[Answers : (1) b]

y1

(i) y y1 ( x x1 ) at ( x1 , y 1 ) ;

2a

(ii) y = mx – 2am – am3 at (am2 – 2am)

(iii) y + tx = 2at + at3 at (at2, 2at)

Practice Problems :

1. If x + y = k is normal to y2 = 12 x, then k is

(a) 3 (b) 9 (c) –9 (d) –3

2

2. Three normals to the parabola y = x are drawn through a point (c, 0) then

1 1 1

(a) c (b) c (c) c (d) none of these

4 2 2

3. If the normal at (1, 2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax meets the parabola again at the point (t2, 2t), then the

value of t is

(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) –3 (d) 1

2

4. If the normals from any point to the parabola y = 4x cuts the line x = 2 in points whose ordinate are

in A.P., then the slopes of the tangents at 3 co-normal points are in

(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) none of these

[Answers : (1) b (2) c (3) c (4) b]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 16

C7 Pair of Tangents :

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1, y1) to the parabola y2 = 4ax is

given by : SS1 = T2 where :

S y2 – 4ax ; S1 = y12 – 4ax1 ; T y y1 – 2a(x + x1)

C8 Chord of Contact :

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1, y1) is

yy1 = 2a (x + x1).

Important Point : The area of the triangle formed by the tangents from the point (x1, y1) & the chord of

contact is (y12 – 4ax1)3/2 2a.

Practice Problems :

1. If the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P to the parabola y2 = 4ax touches the

parabola x2 = 4by, then the locus of P is

(a) a circle (b) an ellipse (c) a parabola (d) a hyperbola

(d)

2. If a chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax which is normal at one end and which subtends a right angle at

vertex then its slope is

1

(a) (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) none of these

2

(b)

[Answers : (1) d (2) b]

Equation of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax whose middle point is

2a

(x1, y1) is y – y1 = ( x x1 ) T S 1

y1

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 17

C O N C E P T S (Ellipse)

C1 Definitions

It is a locus of a point which moves in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point and a fixed

line (not passes through fixed point and all points and line lies in same plane) is constant (e) which is less

than one.

C2 Standard Equation

x2 y 2

Standard equation of an ellipse referred to its principal axes along the co-ordinate axes is 2 2 1 ,

a b

where a > b & b2 = a2(1 – e2).

b2

Eccentricity : e 1 , (0 e 1)

a2

Focii : S (a e, 0) & S (– a e, 0).

a a

Equations of Directrices : x &x .

e e

Major Axis : The line segment AA in which the focii S & S lie is of length 2a & is called the major axis

(a > b) of the ellipse.

Minor Axis : The y-axis intersects the ellipse in the points B ( 0 , b ) & B ( 0 , b ) . The line segment

BB is of length 2b(b < a) is called the minor axis of the ellipse.

Principal Axis : The major & minor axes together are called principal axis of the ellipse.

Vertices : Point of intersection of ellipse with major axis. A (–a, 0) & A (a, 0).

Focal Chord : A chord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.

Double Ordinate : A chord perpendicular to the major axis is called a double ordinate.

Latus Rectum : The focal chord perpendicular to the major axis is called the latus rectum.

Centre : The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it, is called the centre of the conic.

Practice Problems :

1. For the ellipse x2 + 4y2 = 9

1 3

(a) the ecentricity is (b) the latus rectum is

2 2

(c) a focus is (33, 0) (d) a directrix is x = 23

x 2 y2

2. If S and S are two foci of an ellipse 1 (a < b) and P(x1, y1) is a point on it, then SP + SP

a 2 b2

is equal to

(a) 2a (b) 2b (c) a + e x1 (d) b + e y1

3. If the focal distance of an end of the minor axis of an ellipse (referred to its axes as the axes of x and

y respectively) is 2k and the distance between its foci is 2h, then its equation is

x 2 y2 x2 y2

(a) 1 (b) 1

k2 h2 k2 k2 h2

x2 y2 x2 y2

(c) 1 (d) 1

k2 h2 k2 k2 k2 h2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 18

x 2 y2

4. The eccentricity of the ellipse 2 2 1 , it being given that the length of its latusrectum is half of

a b

its major axis is

(a) 1/2 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d) none of these

2 2

5. If P(x, y), F1 = (3, 0), F2 = (–3, 0) and 16x + 25y = 400, then PF1 + PF2 equals

(a) 8 (b) 6 (c) 10 (d) 12

[Answers : (1) d (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c]

x12 y 12

The point P(x1, y1) lies outside, inside or on the ellipse according as ; 1 or 0 .

a2 b2

C4 Line and an Ellipse :

x2 y 2

The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse 1 in two points real, coincident or imaginary according

a2 b2

as c2 is < = or > a2m2 + b2.

x2 y 2

Hence y = mx + c is tangent to the ellipse 1 = 1 if c2 = a2m2 + b2.

a2 b2

C5 Tangents :

2 2 2 x2 y 2

(a) Slope form; y mx a m b is tangent to the ellipse 2 2 1 for all values of

a b

m.

xx1 yy 1 x2 y 2

(b) Point form : 1 is tangent to the ellipse 1 at (x1, y1)

a2 b2 a2 b2

x cos y sin x2 y 2

(c) Parametric form : 1 is tangent to the ellipse 2 2 1 at the point

a b a b

(a cos , b sin ).

Practice Problems :

x2

1. The number of values of c such that the straight line y = 4x + c touches the curve y 2 1 is

4

(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) Infinite

2 2

2. A point on the ellipse 4x + 9y = 36 where the tangent is equally inclined to the axes is

9 4 9 4

(a) , (b) ,

13 13 13 13

9 4

(c) , (d) all the above

13 13

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 19

2 2

3. On the ellipse 4x + 9y = 1, the points at which the tangents are parallel to the line 8x = 9y are

2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1

(a) , (b) , (c) , (d) ,

5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

[Answers : (1) c (2) d (3) b]

C6 Normals :

x2 y 2 a2x b2y

(i) Equation of the normal at (x1, y1) to the ellipse 1 is a2 b2 .

a2 b2 x1 y1

x2 y 2

(ii) Equation of the normal at the point (a cos . b sin ) to the ellipse 2 2 1 is;

a b

ax . sec – by cosec = (a2 – b2).

(a 2 b 2 )m

(iii) Equation of a normal in terms of its slope ‘m’ is y mx .

a 2 b 2m 2

Practice Problems :

x 2 y2

1. If the normal at any point P on the ellipse 1 meets the axis in G and g respectively, then

a 2 b2

PG:Pg=

(a) a:b (b) a2 : b2 (c) b2 : a2 (d) b:a

x 2 y2

2. The line lx + my + n = 0 is a normal to the ellipse 2 2 1 , if

a b

a 2 b2 (a 2 b2 )2 a 2 b 2 (a 2 b 2 ) 2

(a) (b)

m2 l2 n2 l2 m 2 n2

a 2 b 2 (a 2 b 2 ) 2

(c) (d) none of the above

l2 m 2 n2

[Answers : (1) c (2) b]

C7 Pair of Tangents :

x2 y 2

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1.y1) to the ellipse 1

a2 b2

is given by : SS1 = T2 where :

x2 y 2 x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1

S 2 2 1 ; S1 2 2 1 ; T 2 1

a b a b a2 b

C8 Chord of Contact :

x2 y 2

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1.y1) to the ellipse 1 is T =

a2 b2

xx1 yy 1

0, where T 2 1.

a2 b

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 20

C9 Chord with a given middle point :

x2 y 2

Equation of the chord of the ellipse 1 whose middle point is (x1, y1) is T = S1, where

a2 b2

x12 y 12 xx yy

S1 2

2 1 ; T 21 21 1

a b a b

Practice Problems :

x 2 y2

1. The locus of the middle point of the portion of the tangent of the ellipse 1 included

a 2 b2

between the axes is the curve

x 2 y2 x 2 y2 x 2 b2

(a) 4 (b) 4 (c) 4 (d) none of these

a 2 b2 a 2 b2 a 2 y2

[Answers : (1) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 21

C O N C E P T S (Hyperbola)

C1 Standard Equation & Definition(s)

x2 y 2

Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2 2 1 .

a b

where b2 = a2(e2 – 1)

Eccentricity (e) :

2 b2

e 1 2

a

Practice Problems :

1. If e1 and e2 are the ecentricities of the conic sections 16x2 + 9y2 = 144 and 9x2 – 16y2 = 144, then :

(a) e12 + e22 = 3 (b) e12 + e22 > 3 (c) e12 + e22 < 3 (d) e12 – e22 = 1

[Answers : (1) c]

C2 Conjugate Hyperbola :

x2 y 2 x2 y 2

e.g. 1 & 2 2 1 are conjugate hyperbola of each.

a2 b2 a b

Important Points :

(a) If e1 & e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola & its conjugate then e1–2 + e2–2 = 1.

(b) The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are concyclic and form the vertices of a square.

(c) Two hyperbolas are said to be similar if they have the same eccentricity.

(d) Two similar hyperbolas are said to be equal if they have same latus rectum.

(e) If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate hyperbola is also equilateral.

C3 Position of a Point ‘P’ w.r.t. A Hyperbola :

x12 y 12

The quantity S1 2 2 1 is positive, zero or negative according as the point (x1, y1) lies inside on

a b

or outside the curve.

C4 Line And A Hyperbola :

x2 y2

The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes outside the hyparbola 1 according

a2 b2

as : c2 > or = or < a2m2 – b2, respectively.

C5 Tangents :

x2 y 2

1 , having slope ‘m’.

a2 b2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 22

x2 y 2

(ii) Point Form : Equation of tangent to the hyparbola 1 at the point (x1, y1) is

a2 b2

xx1 yy 1

2 1.

a2 b

x2 y 2

(iii) Parametric Form : Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola 1 at the point.

a2 b2

x sec y tan

(a sec , b tan ) is 1.

a b

Practice Problems :

1. If the line y = 3x + touches the hyperbola 9x2 – 5y2 = 45, then the value of is

(a) 36 (b) 6 (c) 15 (d) 45

(b)

x 2 y2

2. The line x cos + y sin = p touches the hyperbola 1 if

a 2 b2

(a) a2 cos2 – b2sin2 = p2 (b) a2 cos2 – b2sin2 = p

(c) a2 cos2 + b2sin2 = p2 (d) a2 cos2 + b2sin2 = p

(d)

[Answers : (1) b (2) d]

C6. Normals :

x2 y 2

(a) The equation of the normal to the hyperbola 1 at the point P(x1, y1) on it is

a2 b2

a2x b2y

a 2 b 2 a 2e 2

x1 y1

x2 y 2

(b) The equation of the normal at the point P (a sec , b tan ) on the hyperbola 2 2 1 is

a b

ax by

a 2 b 2 a 2e 2 .

sec tan

(a 2 b 2 )m

(c) Equation of normals in terms of the slope ‘m’ are y mx .

a 2 b 2m 2

C7 Pair of Tangents :

The equations to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola

x2 y 2

1 is given by SS1 = T2 where :

a2 b2

x2 y 2 x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1

S 2 2 1 ; S1 2 2 1 ; T 2 1

a b a b a2 b

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 23

Practice Problems :

1. If x = 9 is the chord of contact of the hyperbola x2 – y2 = 9, then the equation of the corresponding

pair of tangents is

(a) 9x2 – 8y2 + 18x – 9 = 0 (b) 9x2 – 8y2 – 18x + 9 = 0

2 2

(c) 9x – 8y – 18x – 9 = 0 (d) 9x2 – 8y2 + 18x + 9 = 0

x 2 y2

2. Number of point (s) outside the hyperbola 1 from where two perpendicular tangents

25 36

can be drawn to the hyperbola is

(a) zero (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3

3. The tangents from (1, 22) to the hyperbola 16x2 – 25y2 = 400 include between them an angle equal

to

(a) (b) (c) (d)

6 3 2 4

[Answers : (1) b (2) a (3) c]

C8 Chord of Contact :

x2 y 2

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1, y1) to the hyperbola 2 2 1 is

a b

xx1 yy 1

T = 0, where T 2 1

a2 b

C9 Chord with a given middle point :

x2 y 2

Equation of the chord of the hyperbola 1 whose middle point is (x1, y1) is T = S1, where

a2 b2

x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1

S1 1 ; T 2 1.

a2 b2 a2 b

Practice Problems :

1. Equation of the chord of the hyperbola 25x2 – 16y2 = 400 which is bisected at the point (6, 2) is

(a) 16x – 75y = 418 (b) 75x – 16y = 200

(c) 25x – 4y = 400 (d) None of these

2. The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y = 0 is

(a) 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y + 2 = 0 (b) 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y – 2 = 0

2 2

(c) 2x + 5xy + 2y = 0 (d) none of the above

[Answers : (1) b (2) a]

The particular kind of hyperbola in which the lengths of the transverse & conjugate axis are equal is called

an Equilateral Hyperbola.

Practice Problems :

1. The equation of the chord joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2

is

x y x y

(a) 1 (b) 1

x1 x 2 y1 y 2 x1 x 2 y1 y 2

x y x y

(c) 1 (d) 1

y1 y 2 x1 x 2 y1 y 2 x1 x 2

[Answers : (1) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 24

INITIAL STEP EXERCISE

1. If the quadrilateral formed by the lines 6. If the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 bisects the

circumference of the circle

ax + by + c = 0, a x by c 0 have

2 2

perpendicular diagonals, then : x y 2gx 2f y c 0 , then the length of the

common chord of these two circles is

2 2

(a) b2 + c2 = b c

2 2 (a) 2 g2 f 2 c

(b) c2 + a 2 = c a

(c)

2

a2 + b2 = a b

2

(b) 2 g 2 f 2 c

(d) none of the above

2. If u = a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and v = a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and (c) 2 g2 f 2 c

a1 b1 c1

, then u + kv = 0 represents : (d) 2 g2 f 2 c

a 2 b2 c2

7. The angle between the tangents from (a, b) to the

(a) u=0 circle x2 + y2 = a2 is

(b) a family of concurrent lines

(c) a family of parallel lines a

(a) tan 1

(d) none of the above S

1

3. If 16a – 40ab + 25b 2 – c 2 = 0, then the line

2

a

(a) (4, –5) and (–4, 5)

(b) 2 tan 1

S

(b) (5, –4) and (–5, 4) 1

(c) (1, –1) and (–1, 1)

(d) none of the above S

(c) 2 tan 1 1

4. If the abscissae and ordinates of two points P and a

Q are the roots of the equation x2 + 2ax – b2 = 0 and

x2 + 2px – q2 = 0 respectively, the the equation of (d) none of these

the circle with P Q as diameter is

(a) x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2py – b2 – q2 = 0 1

(b) 2 2 2

x + y – 2ax – 2py + b + q = 0 2 8. If m i , , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are concyclic points, then

mi

(c) x2 + y2 – 2ax – 2py – b2 – q2 = 0

the value of m1m2m3m4 is

(d) x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2py + b2 + q2 = 0

(a) 1 (b) –1

5. The length of the common chord of the circles

(x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = c2 and (x – b)2 + (y – a)2 = c2 is (c) 0 (d) none of these

9. If a line joining two points A(2, 0) and B(3, 1) is

2 2 rotated about A in the anticlockwise direction

(a) c (a b )

through an angle 150, then the equation of the line

in the new position is

(b) 4c 2 2(a b) 2

(a) 3x – y = 23 (b) 3x + y = 23

(c) x + 3y = 23 (d) none of the

(c) 2c 2 (a b) 2 above

10. The triangle PQR is inscribed in the circle

(d) 4c 2 (a b) 2 x2 + y2 = 25. If Q and R have co-ordinates (3, 4) and

(–4, 3) respectively, then Q P R is equal to

(a) /2 (b) /3

(c) /4 (d) /6

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11. If two distinct chords, drawn from the point (p, q) 18. If P (1, 0), Q (–1, 0) and R (2, 0) are three given

on the circle x2 + y2 – px – qy = 0 (where pq 0) are points, then the locus of S satisfying the relation

bisected by the x-axis, then S Q2 + S R2 = 2S P2 is

(a) p2 = q2 (b) p2 = 8q2 (a) a straight line parallel to x-axis

2 2 2 2

(c) p < 8q (d) p > 8q (b) a circle through the origin

12. The centre of the circle passing through the points (c) a circle with centre at the origin

(0, 0), (1, 0) and touching the circle x2 + y2 = 9 is (d) a straight line parallel to y-axis

(a) , (b) , perpendicular if

2 2 2 2 (a) |a| = 2 (b) 0<a<1

(c) –1 < a < 0 (d) a = –1

1 1 1 1/ 2

(c) , (d) ,2 20. The lines y = mx, y + 2x = 0, y = 2x + k and

2 2 2 y + mx = k form a rhombus if m equals

13. If the circle x2 + y2 = a2 intersects the hyperbola (a) –1 (b) 1/2

xy = c2 in four points P(x1, y1), Q(x2, y2), R(x3, y3)

(c) 1 (d) 2

and S(x4, y4) then

21. The equation of a straight line passing through the

(a) x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0

point (–5, 4) and which cuts off an intercept of

(b) y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = 0 2 units between the lines x + y + 1 = 0 and

(c) x1x2x3x4 = c4 x + y – 1 = 0 is

(d) All the above (a) x – 2y + 13 = 0 (b) 2x – y + 14 = 0

14. If 2x – 4y = 9 and 6x – 12y + 7 = 0 are common (c) x–y+9=0 (d) x – y + 10 = 0

tangents to a circle, then radius of the circle is 22. The area bounded by the curves x + 2|y| = 1 and

x = 0 is

3 17

(a) (b) (a) 1/4 (b) 1/2

5 6 5 (c) 1 (d) 2

2 2

23. The circle x + y = 4 cuts the circle

2 17 x2 + y2 + 2x + 3y – 5 = 0 in A and B, then centre of

(c) (d)

3 3 5 the circle AB as diameter is

15. The number of integral values of m for which the 2 3

x-co-ordinates of the point of intersection of the lines (a) (0, 0) (b) ,

3x + 4y = 9 and y = mx + 1 is also an integer is 13 13

(a) 2 (b) 0

4 6

(c) 4 (d) 1 (c) , (d) (2, –1)

16. If PQ is a double ordinate of the hyperbola 13 13

24. The equation of a circle passing from two points

x 2 y2 (1, 1) and (2, 2) having the radius 4 times the

1 such that OPQ is an equilateral

a 2 b2 radius of smallest circle passing from above two

triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then points is :

the eccentricity e of the hyperbola satisfies (a) x2 + y2 + (15 – 3)x – (15 + 3)y + 4 = 0

(b) x2 + y2 – 3x – 3y + 4 = 0

2 2

(a) 1 e (b) e (c) x2 + y2 – (15 + 3)x + (15 + 3)y + 4 = 0

3 3

(d) x2 + y2 – 6x – 6y + 4 = 0

2 25. A square is inscribed in the circle

(c) e 3/2 (d) e

3 x2 + y2 – 2x + 4y + 3 = 0

Its sides are parallel to the co-ordinates axes. Then

17. A (1, 3) and C(7, 5) are two opposite vertices of a

one vertex of the square is

square. The equation of a side through A is

(a) (1 + 2, – 2) (b) (1 – 2, – 2)

(a) x + 2y – 7 = 0 (b) x – 2y + 5 = 0

(c) (1, – 2 + 2) (d) None of these

(c) 2x + y – 5 = 0 (d) 2x – y + 1 = 0

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26. The points (3, 2), (5, 3), (3 + 2t, 2 + t) and

(3 + 2t2, 2 + t2) are 95

(c) y 3x

(a) vertices of a parallelogram 12

(b) vertices of a rectangle (d) none of these

(c) vertices of a square 32. The equation of the base of an equilateral triangle

(d) none of these is x + y = 2 and the vertex is (2, –1). Length of its

side is

27. Let A = (3, –4), B = (1, 2) and P = (2k – 1, 2k + 1) is

a variable point such that PA + PB is the minimum.

Then k is 1 3

(a) (b)

(a) 7/9 (b) 0 2 2

(c) 7/8 (d) none of these

2

8 (c) (d) 2

28. The points 0, , (1, 3) and (82, 30) are vertices

3

3

33. Given four lines with equations x + 2y – 3 = 0,

of 3x + 4y – 7 = 0, 2x + 3y – 4 = 0, 4x + 5y – 6 = 0, then

(a) an obtuse angled triangle (a) they are all concurrent

(b) an acute angled triangle (b) they are the sides of a quadrilateral

(c) a right angled triangle (c) both (a) and (b)

(d) none of these (d) None of these

29. All points inside the triangle formed by the points 34. A (–1, 1), B (5, 3) are opposite vertices of a square

(1, 3), (5, 0) and (–1, 2) satisfy in xy-plane. The equation of the other diagonal (not

(a) 3x + 2y 0 passing through A, B) of the square is given by

(b) 2x + y – 13 0 (a) x – 3y + 4 = 0 (b) 2x – y + 3 = 0

(c) 2x – 3y – 12 0 (c) y + 3x – 8 = 0 (d) x + 2y – 1 = 0

(d) both (a) and (c) are correct 35. The equation of the line which bisects the obtuse

30. Line L has intercepts a and b on the co-ordinate angle between the lines x – 2y + 4 = 0 and

axes. When the axes are rotated through a given 4x – 3y + 2 = 0 is

angle, keeping the origin fixed, the same line L has (a) (4 – 5)x – (3 – 25) y + (2 – 45) = 0

intercepts p and q, then (b) (3 – 25)x – (4 – 5) y + (2 + 45) = 0

(a) a2 + b2 = p2 + q2 (c) (4 + 5)x – (3 + 25) y + (2 + 45) = 0

1 1 1 1 (d) None

(b) 2

2 2 2 36. From any point on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 tangents

a b p q

are drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 sin2. The angle

(c) a2 + p2 = b2 + q2 between them is

(a) /2 (b)

1 1 1 1

(d) 2

2 2 2 (c) 2 (d) none of these

a p b q

37. The number of common tangents to the circles

31. The equation of the tangent to the ellipse x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y = 24 is

4x2 + 3y2 = 5 which are parallel to the line y = 3x + (a) 0 (b) 1

7 are

(c) 3 (d) 4

155 38. The locus of the mid-points of a chord of the circle

(a) y 3x x2 + y2 = 4 which subtends a right angle at the

3 origin is

(a) x+y=2 (b) x2 + y2 = 1

155

(b) y 3x (c) x2 + y2 = 2 (d) x+y=1

12

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39. The locus of the centre of a circle of radius 2 which 46. A common tangent to 9x – 16y 2 = 144 and

2

x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y – 9 = 0 is

(a) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y + 5 = 0

3 15

(a) y x

(b) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y – 31 = 0 7 7

(c) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y + 29/4 = 0

(d) none

2 15

(b) y3 x

40. The equation of the common tangent touching the 7 7

circle (x – 3)2 + y2 = 9 and the parabola y2 = 4x above

the x-axis is 3

(c) y2 x 15 7

(a) 3 y = 3x + 1 7

(b) 3 y = –(x + 3)

(d) none of the above

(c) 3 y = x + 3

47. The co-ordinates of an end-point of the latus rec-

(d) 3 y = – (3x + 1) tum of the parabola (y – 1)2 = 4(x + 1) are

41. The triangle formed by the tangent to the curve (a) (0, –3) (b) (0, –1)

f(x) = x2 + bx – b at the point (1, 1) and the co-

(c) (0, 1) (d) (1, 3)

ordinates axes lies in the first quadrant. If its area

is 2, then the value of b is 48. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola

y2 = 4ax whose one vertex is at the vertex of the

(a) –1 (b) 3

parabola. Then length of its side is

(c) –3 (d) 1

(a) 4a 3 (b) 2a 3

42. The tangents to the hyperbola x – y2 = 3 are paral-

2

(c) 16a 3 (d) 8a 3

lel to the straight line 2x + y + 8 = 0 at the following

points 49. If the segment intercepted by the parabola y2 = 4ax

with the line lx + my + n = 0 subtends a right angle

(a) (2, 1) (b) (2, –1)

at the vertex, then

(c) (–2, 1) (d) (–2, –1)

(a) 4al + n = 0

43. If the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

(b) 4al + 4am + n = 0

cut the co-ordinates axes is concylic points, then

(c) 4am + n = 0

(a) a1a2 = b1b2 (b) a1b1 = a2b2

(d) al + n = 0

(c) a1b2 = a2b1 (d) none of these

50. The ecentricity of the ellipse which meets the

44. The ecentricity of the hyperbola whose latus rec-

tum is 8 and conjugate axis is equal to half of the x y

distance between foci is straight line 1 on the axis of x and the

7 2

2 4 x y

(a) (b) straight line 1 on the axis of y and whose

3 3 3 5

axes lie along the axes of co-ordinates is :

4

(c) (d) none of these

3 3 2 3

(a) (b)

7 7

x2 y2

45. The equation 1 represents :

12 k 8 k 2 6

(c) (d) none of these

(a) a hyperbola if k < 8 7

(b) an ellipse if k > 8

(c) a hyperbola if 8 < k < 12

(d) none of the above

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51. If and are ecentric angles of the ends of a 58. Length of chord of parabola x 2 = 4ay passing

through vertex and having slope tan is

x 2 y2

focal chord of the ellipse 2 2 1 , then (a) 4|a| cosec cot

a b (b) 4|a| sec tan

(c) 4|a| cos cot

tan tan is equal to

2 2 (d) 4|a| sin tan

59. If M is the foot of perpendicular drawn from a point

1 e e 1 P on a parabola y2 = 4ax to its directrix and SPM is

(a) (b)

1 e e 1 an equilateral triangle, where S is the focus, then

SP is equal to

e 1

(c) (d) none of these (a) a (b) 2a

e 1 (c) 3a (d) 4a

52. The equation of the parabola whose vertex and the 60. The condition that the parabola y2 = 4c (x – d) and

focus lie on the axis of x at distances a and a1 from y2 = 4ax have a common normal other than x-axis

the origin respectively is (a > 0, c > 0) is

(a) y2 = 4(a1 – a) x (a) 2a < 2c + d (b) 2a > 2c + d

(b) y2 = 4(a1 – a) (x – a) (c) 2a < 2c – d (d) 2a > 2c – d

(c) y2 = 4 (a1 – a) (x – a1) 61. 2 2

The equation 8x + 8xy + 2y + 26x + 13y + 15 = 0

(d) None of these represents a pair of straight lines. The distance

53. The locus of the point of intersection of normals at between them is

the point on the parabola where tangents drawn

meet at the directrix is

7 7

(a) (b)

(a) a parabola (b) a circle 5 2 5

(c) an ellipse (d) a hyperbola

7

54. The equation (c) (d) none of these

5

x 2 ( y 3) 2 x 2 ( y 3) 2 6 represents 62. The equation x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 13 = 0 represents

(a) a circle (b) a line segment (a) a circle

(c) a pair of lines (d) none of these (b) a pair of two straight lines

2

55. x = sin t, y = 2 sin t are the parametric equations of (c) a pair of coindent straight lines

(a) a parabola (d) a point

(b) a portion of a parabola 63. The centre of the circle passing through points

(c) a hyperbola (0, 0), (1, 0) and touching the circle x2 + y2 = 9

(d) none of these (a) (3/2, 1/2) (b) (1/2, 3/2)

56. If two distinct chords of a parabola y2 = 4ax, pass- (c) (1/2, 1/2) (d) (1/2, –2½)

ing through (a, 2a) are bisected on the line x + y = 1, 64. The curve described parametrically by

then length of the latus-rectum can be x = t2 + t + 1, y = t2 – t + 1 represents :

(a) 6 (b) 1 (a) a pair of straight lines

(c) 4 (d) 5 (b) an ellipse

57. The radius of the circle passing through the foci of (c) a parabola

the ellipse x2/16 + y2/9 = 1, and having its centre at (d) a hyperbola

(0, 3) is

65. The parametric representation (2 + t 2, 2t + 1)

(a) 4 (b) 3 represents

(c) (1/2) (d) 7/2 (a) a parabola with focus S at (2, 1)

(b) a parabola with vertex at (2, 1)

(c) an ellipse with centre at (2, 1)

(d) none of the above

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FINAL STEP EXERCISE

1. If a variable line drawn through the point of (a) x+y=0 (b) x–y=0

(c) xy=0 (d) none of these

x y

intersection of straight lines 1 and 8. The distance between the chords of the tangents to

the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 from the origin

and the point (g, f) is

x y

1 meets the co-ordinates axes in A and B,

1 2

(a) g2 + f2 (b) (g f 2 c)

then the locus of the mid point of A B is 2

(a) (x + y) = x y ( + )

(b) (x + y) = 2 x y ( + )

1 g2 f 2 c 1 g2 f 2 c

(c) . (d) .

(c) ( + ) (x + y) = 2 x y 2 g2 f 2 2 g2 f 2

(d) none of the above 9. The circle x2 + y 2 – 6x – 10y + c = 0 does not

2. The area of the parallelogram formed by the lines intersect or touch both axes of co-ordinates and the

3x – 4y + 1 = 0, 3x – 4y + 3 = 0, 4x – 3y – 1 = 0 and point (1, 4) lies inside the circle. Then range of

4x – 3y – 2 = 0 is possible values of c is given by

(a) 25 < c < 29 (b) c > 29

1

(a) square units (c) c > 25 (d) c < 25

6 2 2

10. If the circle C1 : x + y = 16 intersects another circle

2 C2 of radius 5 in such a manner that the common

b) square units chord is of maximum length and has a slope equal

7 to 3/4, the co-ordinates of the centre of C2 are

3 9 12 9 12

(c) square units , ; ,

8 (a)

5 5 5 5

(d) none of these

3. If a variable line passes through the point of 9 12 9 12

intersection of the lines x + 2y – 1 = 0 and (b) , ; ,

5 5 5 5

2x – y – 1 = 0 and meets the co-ordinates axes in A

and B, then the locus of the mid point of AB is

12 9 12 9

(a) x + 3y = 0 (b) x + 3y = 10 (c) , ; ,

5 5 5 5

(c) x + 3y = 10xy (d) none of these

4. 2 2

If a chord of a circle x + y = 8 makes equal (d) none of the above

intercepts of length ‘a’ on the co-ordinates axes, then 11. If the straight lines ax + by + c = 0 and x cos + y

(a) |a| < 8 (b) |a| < 42 sin = c enclose an angle /4 between them and

meet the straight line x sin – y cos = 0 in the

(c) |a| < 4 (d) |a| > 4 same point, then

5. The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 (a) a2 + b2 = c2 (b) a 2 + b2 = 2

which makes with the axes a triangle of area a2 is

(c) a2 + b2 = 2c2 (d) a 2 + b2 = 4

(a) x ± y = 2a (b) x ± y = 2 a

12. The point A(2, 1) is translated parallel to the line

(c) x + y = 2a2 (d) none of these x – y = 3 by a distance 4 units. If the new position

6. If a circle of constant radius 3k passes through the A is in the third quadrant, then co-ordinates of

origin and meets the axes at A and B, the locus of

A aree

the centroid of OAB is

(a) (2 + 22, 1 + 22)

(a) x2 + y2 = k2 (b) x2 + y2 = 2k2

(b) (– 2 + 2, – 1 – 22)

(c) x2 + y2 = 3k2 (d) none of the

above (c) (2 – 22, 1 – 22)

7. The tangents to x2 + y2 = a2 having inclination (d) both (a) and (c) are correct

and intersect at P. If cot + cot = 0, then the

locus of P is

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13. The point of intersection of the common chords of 19. If one of the diagonals of a square is along the line

three circles described on the three sides of a x = 2y and one of the vertices is (3, 0), then its sides

triangle as diameter is through this vertex are given by the equations

(a) centroid of the triangle (a) y – 3x + 9 = 0, 3y + x – 3 = 0

(b) orthocentre of the triangle (b) y + 3x + 9 = 0, 3y + x – 3 = 0

(c) circumcentre of the triangle (c) y – 3x + 9 = 0, 3y – x + 3 = 0

(d) incentre of the triangle (d) y – 3x + 3 = 0, 3y + x + 9 = 0

14. Let PQ and RS be tangents at the extremities of the 20. Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines

diameter PR of a circle of radius r. If PS and RQ y = mx, y = mx + 1, y = nx and y = nx + 1 equals

intersect at a point X on the circumference of the

circle, then 2r equals |mn| 2

(a) (b)

(m n ) 2 |mn|

PQ RS

(a) PQ.RS (b)

2 1 1

(c) (d)

|mn| |mn|

2PQ.RS PQ 2 RS2

(c) (d) 21. AB is a diameter of a circle and C is any point on

PQ RS 2 the circumference of the circle. Then

15. Let AB be a chord of the circle x 2 + y 2 = r 2 (a) The area of ABC is maximum when it

subtending a right angle at the centre. Then the is isosceles

locus of the centroid of the triangle PAB as P moves

(b) The area of ABC is minimum when it is

on the circle is

isosceles

(a) a parabola (b) a circle

(c) The perimeter of ABC is maximum

(c) an ellipse (d) a pair of when it is isosceles

straight lines

(d) None of these

16. Let L be a straight line passing through the origin

22. The image of the pair of lines represented by

and L 2 be the straight line x + y = 1. If the

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 by the line mirror y = 0 is

intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 – x + 3y = 0 on

L1 and L2 are equal, then which of the following (a) ax2 – 2hxy – by2 = 0

equations can represent L1 ? (b) bx2 – 2hxy + ay2 = 0

(a) x+y=0 (b) x–y=0 (c) bx2 + 2hxy + ay2 = 0

(c) x + 7y = 0 (d) x – 7y = 0 (d) ax2 – 2hxy + by2 = 0

17. Let P Q R be a right angled triangle isosceles right 23. The point (4, 1) undergoes the following three

angled at P (2, 1). If the equation of the line Q R is transformations sucessively

2x + y = 3, then the equation of the pair of lines

(a) Reflection about the line y = x

P Q and P R is

(b) Transformation through a distance 2

(a) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy + 20x + 10y + 25 = 0

units along the positive direction of x-axis

(b) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy – 20x – 10y + 25 = 0

(c) Rotation through angle /4 about the

(c) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy + 10x + 15y + 20 = 0 origin in the anticlockwise direction. The

(d) 3x2 – 3y2 – 8xy – 10x – 15y – 20 = 0 final position of the point is given by the

coordinates

18. The equation to a pair of opposite sides of a

parallelogram are x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 and y2 – 6y + 5 = 0.

The equations to its diagonals are 1 7

(a) , (b) (–2, 72)

(a) x + y = 13 and y = 4x – 7 2 2

(b) 4x + y = 13 and 4y = x – 7

(c) 4x + y = 13 and y = 4x – 7 1 7

(c) , (d) (2, 72)

(d) y – 4x = 13 and y + 4x = 7 2 2

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24. If p1, p2, p3 be the perpendiculars from the point 28. If C is the centre and A and B are the points on the

(m2, 2m), (mm’, m + m’) and (m’2, 2m’) respectively conic 4x 2 + 9y 2 – 8x – 36 y + 4 = 0 such that

sin 2

on the line x cos y sin 0 then AĈB , then CA–2 + CB–2 is equal to

cos 2

p1, p2, p3 are in

5 13

(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (a) (b)

36 36

(c) H.P. (d) None

25. Consider a circle with its centre lying on the focus 15 16

(c) (d)

of the parabola y2 = 2p x such that it touches the 36 36

directrix of the parabola. Then, a point of intersec-

tion of the circle and the parabola is c

29. If the normal at ct , on the curve xy = c2 meets

p p t

(a) , p (b) ,p

2 2 the curve again in ' t' then

p p 1 1

(c) , p (d) , p (a) t (b) t

2 2 t3 t

1 1

x 2 y2 (c) t (d) t2

26. Let E be the ellipse 1 and C be the circle t2 t2

9 4

x2 + y2 = 9. Let P and Q be the points (1, 2) and (2, 1) 30. The two parabolas y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y intersect at a

respectively. Then : point P, whose abscissa is not zero, such that

(a) they both touches each other at P

(a) Q lies inside C but outside E

(b) they cut at right angles at P

(b) Q lies outside both C and E

(c) the tangents to each other at P make

(c) P lies inside both C and E complementary angles with the x-axis

(d) P lies inside C but outside E (d) none of the above

31. If P S Q is the focal chord of the parabola y2 = 8 x

1 such that S P = 6. Then length S Q is

27. An ellipse has ecentricity and one focus at the

2 (a) 6 (b) 4

(c) 3 (d) none of these

point P

1 . Its one directrix is the common tan- 32. The point on the curve y2 = ax, the tangent at which

, 1

2 makes an angle of 450 with x-axis will be given by

gent, nearer to the point P to the circle x2 + y2 = 1

and the hyperbola x2 – y2 = 1. The equation of the

a a a a

(a) , (b) ,

ellipse in standard form is 2 4 2 4

1

2

a a a a

(a) 9 x 12( y 1) 2 1 (c) , (d) ,

3 4 2 4 2

1

2 x 2 y2

9 x 12( y 1) 2 1 33. P is a variable point on the ellipse 1 with

(b)

3 a 2 b2

AA as the major axis, then the maximum value of

2 the area of the triangle APA is

1

(c) 9 x 12( y 1) 2 1 (a) ab (b) 2ab

3

(c) ab/2 (d) none of these

2

1

(d) 9 x 12( y 1) 2 1

3

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 32

39. If a straight line L is perpendicular to the line

x 2 y2 5x – y = 1 such that area of the formed by the line

34. The line x = at , meets the ellipse 2 2 1 in

2

real points iff of the line L is

(a) |t| < 2 (b) |t| > 1 (a) x + 5y + 5 = 0 (b) x + 5y ± 2 = 0

(c) |t| 1 (d) none of these (c) x + 5y ± 5 = 0 (d) x + 5y ±2 = 0

35. If chords of contact of tangents from two points 40. If , and are the parametric angles of three

points P, Q and R respectively, on the circle

x2 y2 x2 + y2 = 1 and A is the point (–1, 0). If the length of

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) to the ellipse 1 are at

a2 b2 the chords AP, AQ, AR are in G.P., then

x1 x 2

cos , cos , cos are in

right angles, then

y1 y 2 is equal to 2 2 2

(a) A.P. (b) G.P.

2 2 (c) H.P. (d) none of these

a b

(a) (b)

b2 a2

a4 b4

(c) (d)

b4 a4

36. If 1 and 2 are the ordinates of two points A and B

on the parabola and 3 is the ordinate of the point

of intersection of tangents at A and B, then

(a) 1, 2, 3 are in A.P.

(b) 1, 2, 3 are in G.P.

(c) 1, 2, 3 are in H.P.

(d) none of these

37. The centre of a circle passing through the point

(0, 1) and touching the curve y = x2 at (2, 4) is

16 27 16 5

(a) , (b) ,

5 10 7 10

16 53

(c) , (d) None of these

5 10

x 2 y2

38. From any point on the hyperbola 1,

a 2 b2

x 2 y2

tangents are drawn to the hyperbola 2.

a 2 b2

The area cut off by the chord of contact on the as-

ymptotes is equal to

ab

(a) (b) ab

2

(c) 2ab (d) 4ab

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 33

ANSWERS (INITIAL STEP EXERCISE)

2. a 22. b 42. b 62. d

3. a 23. b 43. a 63. d

4. a 24. a 44. a 64. c

5. b 25. d 45. c 65. a

6. a 26. d 46. b

7. b 27. c 47. b

8. a 28. d 48. d

9. a 29. d 49. a

10. c 30. b 50. c

11. d 31. b 51. b

12. d 32. c 52. b

13. d 33. c 53. a

14. b 34. c 54. b

15. a 35. a 55. b

16. d 36. c 56. b

17. c 37. b 57. a

18. d 38. c 58. b

19. d 39. b 59. d

20. d 40. c 60. a

2. b 12. d 22. d 32. c

3. c 13. b 23. c 33. a

4. c 14. a 24. b 34. c

5. b 15. b 25. a 35. a

6. d 16. b 26. d 36. d

7. c 17. b 27. b 37. c

8. d 18. c 28. a 38. d

9. a 19. a 29. a 39. d

10. a 20. d 30. b 40. b

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 34

AIEEE ANALYSIS [2002]

1. The greatest distance of the point P (10, 7) from the 6. The radius of the circle passing through the foci of

circle

x2 y 2

the ellipse 1 and having its centre at

x2 + y2 – 4x – 2y – 20 = 0 is 16 9

(a) 10 (b) 5 (0, 3) is

2. The incentre of the triangle with vertices (1, 3), (c) 3 (d) 12

(0, 0) and (2, 0) is 7. The equation of the chord joining two points

(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the rectangular hyperbola

1 1 3 xy = c2 is

1, ,

(a) (b) 2 2

3 x y

(a) 1

x1 x 2 y 1 y 2

2 1

1, 3 ,

(c) 2 (d) 3

3 x y

(b) 1

x1 x 2 y 1 y 2

3. Three straight lines

2x + 11y – 5 = 0, 24x + 7y – 20 = 0 and x y

(c) 1

4x – 3y – 2 = 0 y 1 y 2 x1 x 2

(a) form a triangle

x y

(b) are only concurrent (d) 1

y 1 y 2 x1 x 2

(c) are concurrent with one line bisecting the

angle between the other two 8. A triangle with vertices (4, 0), (–1, –1), (3, 5) is

(d) none of these (a) isosceles and right angled

4. The equation to the ellipse whose foci are (± 2, 0) (b) right angled but not isosceles

1 (c) neither right angled nor isosceles

and eccentricity is is

2

(d) isosceles but not right angled

(a) 1 (b) 1 y2 + 4y + 4x + 2 = 0 is

12 16 16 8

(a) x = –1 (b) x = 3/2

2 2

x y

(c) 1 (d) none of these (c) x = –3/2 (d) x=1

16 12

10. The equation of the tangent to the circle

5. A straight line through the point (2, 2) intersects x 2 + y 2 + 4x – 4y + 4 = 0 which make equal

the lines 3x + y = 0 and 3x – y = 0 at the points A intercepts on the positive coordinates axes is

and B. The equation to the line AB so that the OAB

is equilateral is (a) x+y=2 (b) x + y = 22

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 35

AIEEE ANALYSIS [2003]

x 2 y2

11. The foci of the ellipse 1 and the 16. If the pair of straight lines x2 – 2pxy – y2 = 0 and

16 b 2 x2 – 2qxy – y2 = 0 be such that each pair bisects the

angle between the other pair, then

x 2 y2 1

hyperbola coincide. Then the (a) p = –q (b) pq = 1

144 81 25 (c) pq = –1 (d) p=q

value of b2 is

17. Locus of centroid of the triangle whose vertices are

(a) 5 (b) 7 (a cos t, a sin t), (b sin t, – b cos t) and (1, 0), where

(c) 9 (d) 1 t is a parameter, is

12. 2

The normal at the point (bt , 2bt1) on a parabola

1

(a) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2

meets the parabola again in the point (bt22, 2bt2), (b) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2

then

(c) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2

2 (d) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2

(a) t 2 t1

t1 18. If x1, x2, x3 and y1, y2, y3 are both in G.P. with the

same common ratio, then the points

2 (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)

(b) t 2 t1

t1 (a) lie on an ellipse

(b) lie on circle

2 (c) are vertices of triangle

(c) t 2 t1

t1 (d) lie on a straight line

2 19. If the equation the locus of point equidistant from

(d) t 2 t1 the point (a1, b1) and (a2, b2) is (a1 –a2)x + (b1 – b2) y

t1 + c = 0, then the value of ‘c’ is

13. If the two circles (x – 1) 2 + (y – 3) 2 = r 2 and (a) a12 a 22 b12 b 22

x2 + y2 – 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 intersect in two distinct

points, then 1 2

(a) r<2 (b) r=2 (b) (a 1 a 22 b12 b 22 )

2

(c) r>2 (d) 2<r<8

14. The lines 2x – 3y = 5 and 3x – 4y = 7 are diameters (c) a 12 b12 a 22 b 22

of a circle having area as 154 sq. units. Then the

1 2

equation of the circle is

2 2

(d)

2

a 2 b 22 a 12 b12

(a) x + y + 2x – 2y = 47

(b) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y = 47

(c) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y = 62

(d) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y = 62

15. A square of side a lies above the x-axis and has one

vertex at the origin. The side passing through the

origin makes an angle 0 with the

4

positive direction of x-axis. The equation of its

diagonal not passing through the origin is

(a) y(cos + sin ) + x(sin – cos ) = a

(b) y(cos + sin ) + x(sin + cos ) = a

(c) y(cos + sin ) + x(cos – sin ) = a

(d) y(cos – sin ) – x(sin – cos ) = a

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 36

AIEEE ANALYSIS [2004/2005]

20. Let A (2, –3) and B(–2, 1) be vertices of a triangle 27. The intercept on the line y = x by the circle

ABC. If the centroid of this triangle moves on the x2 + y2 – 2x = 0 is AB. Equation of the circle on AB

line 2x + 3y = 1, then the locus of the vertex C is the as a diameter is

line (a) x2 + y2 + x + y = 0

(a) 3x + 2y = 5 (b) 2x – 3y = 7 (b) x2 + y2 – x + y = 0

(c) 2x + 3y = 9 (d) 3x – 2y = 3 (c) x2 + y2 – x – y = 0

[2004] (d) x2 + y2 + x – y = 0

21. The equation of the straight line passing through [2004]

the point (4, 3) and making intercepts on the 28. The line parallel to the x-axis and passing through

co-ordinates axes whose sum is –1 is the intersection of the lines ax + 2by + 3b = 0 and

x y x y bx – 2ay – 3a = 0 where (a, b) (0, 0) is

(a) 1 and 1

2 3 2 1 2

(a) below the x-axis at a distance of from

3

x y x y

(b) 1 and 1 it

2 3 2 1

3

x y x y (b) below the x-axis at a distance of from

(c) 1 and 1 2

2 3 2 1 it

x y x y 2

(d) 1 and 1 (c) above the x-axis at a distance of from

2 3 2 1 3

[2004] it

22. If the sum of the slopes of the line given by

x2 – 2cxy – 7y2 = 0 is four times their product, then 3

(d) above the x-axis at a distance of from

c has the value 2

(a) 2 (b) –1 it

(c) 1 (d) –2 [2005]

[2004] 29. If non-zero numbers a, b, c are in H.P., then the

23. If one of the lines given by 6x2 – xy + 4cy2 = 0 is

3x + 4y = 0, then c equals x y 1

straight line 0 always passes through

(a) 3 (b) –1 a b c

(c) 1 (d) –3 a fixed point, that point is

[2004] (a) (–1, –2) (b) (–1, 2)

24. If a circle passes through the point (a, b) and cuts

the circle x2 + y2 = 4 orthogonally, then the locus of 1

(c) (1, ) (d) (1, –2)

its centre is 2

(a) 2ax – 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 [2005]

(b) 2ax + 2by – (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 30. If a vertex of a triangle is (1, 1) and the mid points

(c) 2ax + 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 of two sides through this vertex are (–1, 2) and

(d) 2ax – 2by – (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 (3, 2), then the centroid of the triangle is

[2004]

25. A variable circle passes through the fixed point 1 7 7

A(p, q) and touches x-axis. The locus of the other (a) , (b) 1,

end of the diameter through A is

3 3 3

(a) (y – p)2 = 4qx (b) (x – q)2 = 4py

1 7 7

(c) 2

(x – p) = 4qy (d) (y – q)2 = 4px (c) , (d) 1,

[2004] 3 3 3

26. If the lines 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 and 3x – y – 4 = 0 lie along [2005]

diameters of a circle of circumference 10, then the 31. If the circles x 2 + y 2 + 2ax + cy + a = 0 and

equation of the circle is x2 + y2 – 3ax + dy – 1 = 0 intersect in two distinct

(a) x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y – 23 = 0 points P and Q then the line 5x + by – a = 0 passes

(b) x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y – 23 = 0 through P and Q for

(c) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y – 23 = 0 (a) no value of a

(d) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 23 = 0 (b) exactly one value of a

[2004]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 37

(c) exactly two values of a 37. Area of the greatest rectangle that can be inscribed

(d) infinitely many values of a

[2005] x 2 y2

in the ellipse 1 is

32. A circle touches the x-axis and also touches the circle a 2 b2

with centre at (0, 3) and radius 2, the locus of the (a) ab (b) 2ab

centre of the circle is

(a) a circle (b) an ellipse a

(c) a parabola (d) a hyperbola (c) (d) ab

b

[2005] [2005]

33. If a circle passes through the point (a, b) and cuts 38. Let P be the point (1, 0) and Q a point on y2 = 8x.

the circle x 2 + y 2 = p 2 orthogonally, then the The locus of mid point of PQ is

equation of the locus of its centre is (a) y2 + 4x + 2 = 0 (b) y2 – 4x + 2 = 0

(a) 2ax + 2by – (a2 – b2 + p2) = 0 (c) x2 – 4y + 2 = 0 (d) x2 + 4y + 2 = 0

(b) x2 + y2 – 3ax – 4by + (a2 + b2 – p2) = 0 [2005]

(c) 2ax + 2by – (a2 + b2 + p2) = 0

(d) x2 + y2 – 2ax – 3by + (a2 – b2 – p2) = 0 39. An ellipse has OB as semi minor axis, F and F its

[2005] foci and the angle FBF is a right angle. Then the

34. If the pair of lines ax2 + 2(a + b)xy + by2 = 0 lie eccentricity of the ellipse is

along diameters of a circle and divide the circle into

four sectors such that the area of one of the sectors 1 1

(a) (b)

in thrice the area of another sector then 2 2

(a) 3a2 – 2ab + 3b2 = 0

(b) 3a2 – 10ab + 3b2 = 0 1 1

(c) 3a2 + 2ab + 3b2 = 0 (c) (d)

3 4

(d) 3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 0

[2005] [2005]

35. If a 0 and the line 2bx + 3cy + 4d = 0 passes 40. The locus of a point P (, ) moving under the con-

through the point of intersection of the parabola dition that the line y = x + is a tangent to the

y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay, then x 2 y2

(a) d2 + (2b – 3c)2 = 0 hyperbola 1 is

(b) d2 + (3b + 2c)2 = 0 a 2 b2

(c) d2(2b + 3c)2 = 0 (a) a circle (b) an ellipse

(d) d2 + (2b + 3c)2 = 0 (c) a hyperbola (d) a parabola

[2004] [2005]

36. The eccentricity of an ellipse, with its centre at the

origin, is 1/2. If one of the directrices is x = 4, then

the equation of the ellipse is

(a) 4x2 + 3y2 = 12 (b) 3x2 + 4y2 = 12

2 2

(c) 3x + 4y = 1 (d) 4x2 + 3y2 = 1

[2004]

41. The locus of the vertices of the family of parabolas

(a) 3x + 4y = 25 (b) x+y=7

a3x2 a2x

y 2a is (c) 3x – 4y + 7 = 0 (d) 4x + 3y = 24

3 2

43. In an ellipse, the distance between its foci is 6 and

64 105 minor axis is 8. Then its eccentricity is

(a) xy (b) xy

105 64 (a) 1/5 (b) 3/5

(c) 1/2 (d) 4/5

3 35

(c) xy (d) xy

4 16

42. A straight line through the point A(3, 4) is such that

its intercept between the axes is bisected at A. Its

equation is

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 38

2 2

44. Let C be the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius 3 (a) x + y – 2x + 2y – 47 = 0

units. The equation of the locus of the mid point of (b) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 47 = 0

the chords of the circle C that subtend an angle of

(c) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 62 = 0

2

at its centre is (d) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y – 62 = 0

3

46. If (a, a2) falls inside the angle made by the linear

(a) x2 + y2 = 9/4 (b) x2 + y2 = 3/2

x

(c) x2 + y2 = 1 (d) x2 + y2 = 27/4 equation y , x > 0 and y = 3x, x > 0, then a

2

45. If the lines 3x – 4y – 7 = 0 and 2x – 3y – 5 = 0 are two belongs to

diameters of a circle of area 49 square units, the

equation of the circle is 1 1

(a) 3, (b) 0,

2 2

1

(c) (3, ) (d) , 3

2

47. For the hyperbola 1 , which of the points. The equation of the bisector of the angle

cos 2 sin 2

PQR is

following remains constant when varies ?

(a) Abscissae of vertices 3

(a) xy 0 (b) x + 3 y = 0

(b) Abscissae of foci 2

(c) Eccentricity

(d) Directrix 3

(c) 3 x + y = 0 (d) x y0

48. The equation of a tangent to the parabola y2 = 8x is 2

y = x + 2. The point on this line from which the 51. If one of the lines of my2 + (1 – m2) xy – mx2 = 0 is a

other tangent to the parabola is perpendicular to bisector of the angle between the lines xy = 0, then

the given tangent is m is

(a) (2, 4) (b) (–2, 0) (a) ±1 (b) 2

(c) (–1, 1) (d) (0, 2) (c) –1/2 (d) –2

49. Let A (h, k), B (1, 1) and C (2, 1) be the vertices of a 52. Consider a family of circles which are passing

right angled triangle with AC as its hypotenuse. If through the point (–1, 1) and are tangent to x-axis.

the area of the triangle is 1, then the set of values If (h, k) are the co-ordinates of the centre of the

which ‘k’ can take is given by circles, then the set of values of k is given by the

(a) {–1, 3} (b) {–3, –2} interval

(c) {1, 3} (d) (0, 2} (a) –½ k ½ (b) k½

(c) 0<k<½ (d) k½

1. c 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. a 6. a 7. a

8. a 9. b 10. b 11. b 12. a 13. d 14. b

15. c 16. c 17. a 18. d 19. d 20. c 21. d

22. a 23. d 24. b 25. c 26. c 27. c 28. b

29. d 30. d 31. a 32. c 33. c 34. c 35. c

36. b 37. b 38. b 39. b 40. c 41. b 42. d

43. b 44. a 45. a 46. d 47. b 48. b 49. a

50. c 51. a 52. d

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

MCG – 39

TEST YOURSELF

9. If the area of the triangle inscribed in the parabola

1. The straight lines x + y – 4 = 0, 3x + y – 4 = 0 and y 2 = 4ax with one vertex at the vertex of the

x + 3y – 4 = 0 form a triangle which is parabola and other two vertices at the extremities

(a) isosceles (b) right angled of a focal chord is 5a2/2, then the length of the focal

(c) equilateral (d) none of these chord is

2. The centroid of a triangle lies at the origin and the (a) 3a (b) 5a

coordinates of its two vertices are (–8, 7) and (9, 4). (c) 25a/4 (d) none of these

The area of the triangle is 10. The coordinates of a point common to a directrix

(a) 95/6 (b) 285/2 and an asymptote of the hyperbola x2/25 – y2/16 = 1

(c) 190/3 (d) 285 are

3. Two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are given (a) ( 25 / 41 , 20 / 3)

by 7x – y + 3 = 0 and x + y – 3 = 0 and the third side

passes through the point (1, 10), the slope m of the (b) ( 20 / 41 , 25 / 41 )

third side is given by

(a) m2 – 1 = 0 (c) (25/3, 20/3)

(b) m2 – 3 = 0 (d) (25 / 41 , 20 / 41 )

(c) 3m2 – 1 = 0

(d) 3m2 + 8m – 3 = 0

4. The equation ax2 + 2hxy + ay2 = 0 represents a pair

of coincident lines through the origin if

(a) h = 2a (b) 2h = a

2

(c) h =a (d) h2 = a2

5. An equation of the normal at the point (2, 3) to the

circle x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y – 3 = 0 is

(a) 2x + y – 7 = 0 (b) x + 2y – 3 = 0

(c) 2x – y – 1 = 0 (d) x – 2y + 1 = 0

6. The number of circles touching the coordinates axes

and the line x + y = 1 is

(a) exactly one (b) two

(c) three (d) four

7. If (a cos i, a sin i) i = 1, 2, 3 represent the vertices

of an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, then

(a) cos 1 + cos 2 + cos 3 = 0

(b) sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3 0

(c) tan 1 + tan 2 + tan 3 = 0

(d) cot 1 + cot 2 + cot 3 = 0

8. The length of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax

whose equation is y – x2 + 4a2 = 0 is

ANSWERS

(a) 2 11 a (b) 4 2a

1. a 6. c

(c) 8 2a (d) 6 3a

2. b 7. a

3. d 8. d

4. d 9. c

5. c 10. d

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road

New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111

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