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# MCG – 1

CO-ORDINATE GEOMETRY

Syllabus :

## Cartesian system of rectangular co-ordinates in a

plane; distance formula, section formula, locus and
its equation, translation of axes, slope of a line,
parallel and perpendicular lines, intercepts of a line
on the coordinate axes.
Straight lines
Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of
lines, angles between two lines, conditions for
concurrence of centroid, orthocentre and
circumcentre of a triangle, equation of family of
lines passing through the point of intersection of
two lines.
Circles, conic sections
Standard form of equation of a circle, general form
of the equation of a circle, its radius and centre,
equation of a circle when the end point of a
diameter are given, points of intersection of a line
and a circle with the centre at the origin and
condition for a line to be tangent to a circle,
equation of the tangent. Sections of cones,
equation of conic sections (parabola, ellipse and
hyperbola) in standard forms, condition for
y = mx + c to be tangent and point (s) of tangency.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 2
CONCEPTS (Straight Line)

## C1 Co-ordinate axes : X-axis and Y-axis together are

called axes of co-ordinates.
OA = PB = x (is known as abscissa)
AB = OP = y (is known as ordinate)

C2 Distance Formula : In Cartesian co-ordinate the distance between the points P(x1, y1) and Q (x2, y2) is
given by

PQ = ( x 1  x 2 ) 2  ( y 1  y 2 ) 2

C3 Condition of Collinearity using the distance formula : For three points to be collinear, prove that the
sum of the distances between two points is equal to the third pair of points.
C4 Section Formula :
1. Internal Division : If (x, y) are the coordinates of the point that divides the line segment joining the points
mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) internally in the ratio m : n, then x  and y  .
mn mn
2. External Division : If (x, y) are the coordinates of the point that divides the line segment joining the points
mx 2  nx1 my 2  ny1
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) externally in the ratio m : n, then x  and y  .
mn mn
Practice Problems :
1. The line x + y = 4 divides the line joining the points (–1, 1) and (5, 7) in the ratio
(a) 2:3 (b) 1:2 (c) 1:1 (d) 4:3

C5 Centroid or centre of gravity Triangle : The centroid of a triangle is the point of intersection of its
medians. The centroid divides the medians in the ratio 2 : 1. If the coordinate of a triangle is (x1y1) (x2y2)
x1  x 2  x 3 y 1  y 2  y 3
(x3y3) then its centroid is , .
3 3
Incentre of a Triangle : The point of intersection of the internal bisectors of the angles of a triangle is the
incentre.
Circumcentre : The circumcentre of a triangle is the point of intersection of the perpendicular bisectors of
the sides of a triangle.
Orthocentre : The orcthocentre of a triangle is the point of intersection of altitudes drawn from vertex of
the triangle to the opposite sides.
Practice Problems :
1. If the orthocentre and centroid of a triangle are (–3, 5) and (3, 3), then its circumcentre is
(a) (6, 2) (b) (3, –1) (c) (–3, 1) (d) (–3, 5)
2. The orthocentre of the triangle formed by the lines xy = 0 and x + y = 1 is

1 1 1 1 1 1
(a)  ,  (b)  ,  (c) (0, 0) (d)  , 
2 2  3 3 4 4

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 3
3. If the vertices P, Q, R are rational points. A rational point is a point both of whose co-ordinates are
rational numbers. Which of the following points of the triangle PQR is always rational point
(a) centroid (b) orthocentre (c) circumcentre (d) All of these
4. Vertices of a  ABC are A (2, 2), B (–4, –4), C (5, –8). Then length of the median through C is

## (a) 65 (b) 117 (c) 85 (d) 113

5. Let PS be the median of the triangle with vertices P(2, 2), Q(6, –1) and R(7, 3). The equation of the
line passing through (1, –1) and parallel to PS is
(a) 2x – 9y – 7 = 0 (b) 2x – 9y – 11 = 0
(c) 2x + 9y – 11 = 0 (d) 2x + 9y + 7 = 0

 ( 3  1)   1 1   1
6. The orthocentre of the triangle with vertices  2,  ,  ,  and  2,   is
 2   2 2   2

 3 3  3  1 5 3  2 1 1
(a)  ,  (b)  2,   (c)  ,  (d)  , 
2 6   2 4 4  2 2
[Answers : (1) a (2) c (3) d (4) c (5) d (6) b]

x1 y1 1
1
C6 Area of a Triangle : Area of the triangle with vertices (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is given by x 2 y2 1
2
x3 y3 1

1
= | {x1 ( y 2  y 3 )  x 2 ( y 3  y1 )  x 3 ( y1  y 2 )} | .
2
Practice Problems :
1. P (3, 1), Q (6, 5) and R (x, y) are three points such that the angle PRQ is a right angle and the area of
 R Q P = 7, then the number of such points R is
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 4
2. The area of a triangle is 5 and two of its vertices are A (2, 1), B (3, –2). The third vertex which lies on
line y = x + 3 is

 7 13  5 5
(a)  ,  (b)  , 
2 2  2 2

 3 3
(c)  ,  (d) both (a) and (c) are correct
 2 2
[Answers : (1) c (2) d]

C7 Locus : When a point moves so as always to satisfy a given condition, or conditions, the path it trace out is
called its Locus under these conditions.
Practice Problems :
1. Locus of centroid of the triangle whose vertices are (a cos t, a sin t), (b sin t, – b cos t) and (1, 0), where
t is a parameter, is
(a) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2 (b) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2
(c) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2 (d) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 4
2. Locus of a point which moves such that sum of the squares of its distances from the sides of a square
of side unity is 9, is
(a) Straight line (b) Circle (c) Parabola (d) None
[Answers : (1) a (2) b]

C8 STRAIGHT LINE : The equation be of the first degree (i.e. if it contain no products, squares, or higher
powers or x and y) then locus corresponding is always a straight line.

Slope of a Straight Line : Let a straight line makes an angle   /2 and 0   < ,  with the positive
2
direction of x-axis. Then tan is called the slope of the line. It is denoted by m.
Slope of Straight Line Joining Two Points :

y 2  y1
Let A(x1, y1) and B(x2, y2) be two points. Then the slope of AB (tan ) is if x1  x2.
x 2  x1
C9 Condition of collinearity of three points A(x1, y1), B(x2, y2) and C(x3, y3) using the concept of slope.

## slope of AB = slope of BC = slope of AC

C10 Angle Between Two Straight Lines : Let  be the acute angle between two straight lines whose slopes are

m1  m 2
m1 and m2 respectively and m1m2  –1, then tan   .
1  m1m 2
Practice Problems :
1. The lines x cos  + y sin  = p1 and x cos  + y sin  = p2 will be perpendicular if

  
(a) = (b)    (c)  (d)  
2 2 2

## C11 A Point and a Straight Line :

ax 1  by 1  c
(i) Perpendicular distance of a point (x1, y1) from a straight ax + by + c = 0 is .
a2  b2

(ii) Coordinates of the foot of perpendicular drawn from a point (x1, y1) to the line ax + by + c = 0 are given by
x  x1 y  y1 ax  by  c
   1 2 12 .
a b a b
Practice Problems :
1. The foot of the perpendicular from point (2, 4) upon x + y = 1 is

1 3  1 3 4 1 3 1
(a)  ,  (b)  ,  (c)  ,  (d)  , 
2 2  2 2 3 2 4 2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 5
C12 Distance between Parallel Lines : Distance parallel lines ax + by + c1 = 0 and ax + by + c2 = 0 is equal to
c1  c 2
.
a 2  b2
C13 Reflection of a point about a line : Coordinates of the image of the point (x1, y1) in the line ax + by + c =
x  x1 y  y1 ax  by  c
0 are given by   2 1 2 12 .
a b a b
Practice Problems :
1. The reflection of the point (4, –13) in the line 5x + y + 6 = 0 is
(a) (–1, –14) (b) (3, 4) (c) (1, 2) (d) (–4, 13)

## C14 Family of Straight Lines :

Let L1  a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and L2  a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 be two non-parallel lines. Then the equation of the
family of straight line passing through the intersection of the lines L1 = 0 and L2 = 0 is L1 + L2  a1x + b1y
+ c1 + (a2x + b2y + c2) = 0.
C15 Concurrent lines : The three lines are concurrent if they meet in a point.
Three lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 & a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are concurrent if

a1 b1 c1
a2 b2 c2  0
a3 b3 c3

Practice Problems :
1. If the lines x + a y + a = 0, b x + y + b = 0 and c x + c y + 1 = 0 (a, b and c being distinct  1) are
a b c
concurrent, then the value of   is
a 1 b 1 c 1
(a) –1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) none of these
2. If the lines x = a + m, y = –2 and y = mx are concurrent, the least value of [a] is
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 22 (d) none of these

3
3. The equation of the line with slope  which is concurrent with the lines 4x + 3y – 7 = 0 and
2
8x + 5y – 1 = 0 is
(a) 3x + 2y – 2 = 0 (b) 3x + 2y – 63 = 0
(c) 2y – 3x – 2 = 0 (d) none of the above
4. Three lines px + qy + r = 0, qx + ry + p = 0 and rx + py + q = 0 are concurrent if
(a) p+q+r=0 (b) p2 + q2 + r2 = pq + qr + rp
(c) p3 + q3 + r3 = 3pqr (d) both (a) and (c) are correct
[Answers : (1) c (2) c (3) a (4) d]

C16 Pair of Straight Lines : ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of straight lines passing through the origin.
If their slopes are m1 and m2, then m1 + m2 = –2h/b and m1m2 = a/b.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 6
Practice Problems :
1. The equation ax2 + hxy + by2 = 0 represents a pair of real and different straight lines through the
origin if
(a) h2 = 4ab (b) h2 < 4ab (c) g2 > 4ab (d) none of these

C17 Angle Between Pair of Straight Lines : Let  be the acute angle between pair of straight lines ax2 + 2hxy

2 h 2  ab
+ by2 = 0 then tan   .
|a b |

Practice Problems :
1. If the angle between the two lines represented by 2x2 + 5xy + 3y2 + 6x + 7y + 4 = 0 is tan–1 (m), then
m is equal to
(a) 1/5 (b) –1 (c) –2/3 (d) none of these
2. The difference of the tangents of the angles which the lines x2(sec2 – sin2) – 2xy tan  + y2sin2 = 0
make with x-axis is
(a) 2 tan  (b) 2 (c) 2 cot  (d) sin 2 
[Answers : (1) a (2) b]

C18 Equation of the Bisectors of the angles between the lines : Equation of the straight lines bisecting the

x 2  y 2 xy
angles between the pair of straight lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is  .
a b h
Practice Problems :
1. If the pair of straight lines x2 – 2pxy – y2 = 0 and x2 – 2qxy – y2 = 0 be such that each pair bisects the
angle between the other pair, then
(a) p = –q (b) pq = 1 (c) pq = –1 (d) p=q

C19 General Equation of Second Degree : General equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents
two straight lines if abc + 2fgh – af2 – bg2 – ch2 = 0.
Practice Problems :
1. If the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of parallel lines, then the distance
between them is

g 2  ac g 2  ac g 2  ac g 2  ac
(a) (b) (c) 2 2 (d) 2
h2  a2 a (a  b ) h  a2 a (a  b )

## C20 Time saving tips :

1. Three points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) are collinear

y1 y 2 y 3
(i) If   , then these points lie on a straight line passing through the
x1 x 2 x 3
origin.

y1 y 2 y 3 y 2  y1 y 3  y1
(ii) If   is not true but  , then the points lie on a straight
x1 x 2 x 3 x 2  x1 x 3  x1

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 7
line not passing through the origin.
2. OAB is obtuse angled if the points A and B lie in opposite quadrants.
3. If a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are the sides of a triangle, then the area of the
triangle is given by (without solving the vertices).

a1 b1 c1
1
 a2 b2 c2
2C1C 2 C3
a3 b3 c3

when C1, C2, C3 are the co-factors of c1, c2, c3 in the determinant
i.e., C1 = a2b3 – a2b2, C2 = a3b1 – a2b3 and C3 = a1b2 – a2b1.
4. Reflection of the point (, ) about the line y = x is (, ).

y1
5. The line joining the points (x1, y1) and (x1, y2) is divided by the X-axis in the ratio  and by Y-axis in
y2

x1
the ratio  .
x2
6. If (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) be respectively the vertices A, B, C of a triangle, then angle A is acute or
obtuse according as (x1 – x2) (x1 – x3) + (y1 – y2) (y1 – y3) is positive or negative.
7. Area of the triangle formed by the lines of the form y = m1x + c1, y = m2x + c2 and y = m3x + c3 is

1  (c 2  c3 ) 2 (c 3  c1 ) 2 (c1  c 2 ) 2 
    .
2  m 2  m3 m 3  m1 m1  m 2 

2c 2
8. The area of a rohmbus with sides ax ± by ± c = 0 is .
ab
9. The area of a parallelogram formed by the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a1x + b1y + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0, and
a2x + b2y + d2 = 0 is

(c1  d1 )(c 2  d 2 )
.
a1b 2  a 2 b1
10. If the lines represented by a1x2 + 2h1xy + b1y2 = 0 and a2x2 + 2h2xy + b2y2 = 0 are equally inclined to each
a 1  b1 a 2  b 2
other then 
h1 h2
11. Centroid of the triangle obtained by joining the middle points of the sides of a triangle is the same as the
centroid of the original triangle.
12. If two vertices of an equilateral triangle are (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) then co-ordinates of the third vertex are

 x1  x 2  3 ( y1  y 2 ) y1  y 2  3 ( x1  x 2 ) 
 ;  . The vertices of the equilateral triangle do not have
 2 2 
 
integral coordinates.
13. Centroid, orthocentre, circumcentre coincides for the equilateral triangle.
14. Shifting of the origin does not alter the area of triangle.
15. The orthocentre of a triangle having vertices (, ), (, ) and (, ) is (, ).
e.g., the orthocentre of the triangle having vertices (4, 5), (5, 4) and (4, 4) is (4, 4).

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 8
16. The image of the line ax + by + c = 0 about y-axis –ax + by + c = 0.
17. If the circumcentre and centroid of a triangle are respectively (, ), (, ) then orthocentre will be
(3 – 2, 3 – 2).
18. The length of the intercept cut by the lines represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on x-axis is

2 g 2  ac
.
|a|
19. A line passing through (x1, y1) and parallel to ax + by + c = 0 is a (x – x1) + b (y – y1) = 0.
20. Circumcentre of the triangle formed by the origin (0, 0) and the points (x 1, y1) and (x 2, y2) is

##   2 3  2x 2 y1 2y  ( x12  y12 )  ( x12  y12 ) 2x1

 ,  where 1  1 ; 2  1 ; 3  .
 1 1  2x 2 2y2 2y2  ( x 22  y 22 )  ( x 22  y 22 ) 2x 2
21. Circumcentre of the triangle formed by the points (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3) is the same as that of the
triangle formed by the points (0, 0), (x2 – x1, y2 – y1), (x3 – x1, y3 – y1).
22. Orthocentre of the triangle formed by going the points (0, 0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2) is given by [q (y2 – y1), – q (x2
x1x 2  y1 y 2
– x1)] where q  .
x1 y 2  x 2 y1

 1   1  1  1 
23. Orthocentre of the triangle formed by the points  , ,  , ,   ,  is   ,    .
           
24. The product of perpendicular drawn from any point (, ) on the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

a 2  2h  b 2
.
(a  b) 2  4h 2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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C O N C E P T S (Circle)

A circle is the locus of a point moving in a plane so that it always remains at a constant distance from a fixed
point. The fixed point is called its center and the constant distance is called its radius.
C1 Equation of a Circle in different forms :

## Standard Form (x – h)2 + (y – k)2 = r2

here (h, k) is the centre and

## x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is the circle whose center is at (–g, –f)

General Form
and radius is g2  f 2  c .

## Notes : (i) If g2 + f2 – c > 0, then the circle is

called a real circle.
(ii) If g2 + f2 – c = 0, then the circle is
called a point circle.
(iii) If g2 + f2 – c < 0, then the circle is
called an imaginary circle.
(iv) The lengths of intercepts made by
the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0
with x and y axes are
2 g 2  c and 2 f 2  c
respectively.

Diameter Form If the end points of the diameter of a circle are (x1y1) and (x2y2)
then equation of the circle is
(x – x1) (x – x2) + (y – y1) (y – y2) = 0

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 10
C2 Straight Line and a Circle :
Let L = 0 be a line & S = 0 be a circle. If r is the radius of the circle & p is the length of the perpendicular
from the centre on the line, then
(i) p>r  the line does not meet the circle i.e. passes out side the circle.
(ii) p=r  the line touches the circle. (It is tangent to the circle)
(iii) p<r  the line is a sacant of the circle
(iv) p=0  the line is a diameter of the circle
Note the following points :

  ma 2 a 2 
The line y = mx + c touches circle x2 + y2 = a2 if c2 = a2(1 + m2) at point  ,  .
 c c 
Practice Problems :
1. If the straight line y = mx is outside the circle x2 + y2 – 20 y + 90 = 0 then
(a) m>3 (b) m<3 (c) |m| > 3 (d) |m| < 3

## C3 The length of the intercept cut off from a line by a circle :

The intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the co-ordinates axes are 2 g 2  c & 2 f 2  c
respectively. If
g2 = c  circle touches the x axis
Similarly,
f2 = c  circle touches the y-axis
C4 Tangent to a Circle :
Point Form :
(a) Equation of the tangent to the circle S  x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at the point
(x1, y1) is T  xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f (y + y1) + c = 0.
(b) The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = r2 if c2 = r2 (1 + m2). Hence, equation of tangent
 r 2m r 2 
is y  mx  r 1  m 2 and the point of contact is   , .
 c c 

Practice Problems :
1. The tangent to x2 + y2 = 9 which is parallel to y-axis and does not lie in the first quadrant touches, the
circle at the point
(a) (3, 0) (b) (–3, 0) (c) (0, 3) (d) (0, –3)
2 2 2
2. If the line x sin – y cos = a touches the circle x + y = a , then

 
(a)  (b) 0 (c) –     (d) R
2 2
3. If x cos  + y sin  = p is a tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = 2q(x cos  + y sin ) then the set of possible
values of p is
(a) {q} (b) {0, q} (c) {0, 2q} (d) {q, 2q}
[Answers : (1) a (2) d (3) c]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 11
C5 Normal : If a line is normal/orthogonal to a circle then it must pass through the centre of the circle. Using
y1  f
this fact normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at (x1, y1) is y  y 1  ( x  x1 ) .
x1  g
Practice Problems :

 3 3 
1. To which of the following circles the line y – x + 3 = 0 is normal at the point 3  , ?
 2 2
2 2 2 2
 3   3   3   3 
(a) x 3  y  9 (b) x   y  0
 2  2  2  2
(c) x2 + (y – 3)2 = 9 (d) (x – 3)2 + y2 = 9

C6 Length of Tangent : The length of the tangent from the point P(x 1 , y 1 ) to the circle
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is equal to

## x12  y12  2gx 1  2fy1  c  S1

Note : If PQ is a length of the tangent from a point P to a given circle, then PQ2 is called the power of the
point with respect to a given circle.
Practice Problems :
1. If the square of the length of the tangents from a point P to the circle x2 + y2 = a2, x2 + y2 = b2 and
x2 + y2 = c2 are in A.P. Then
(a) a, b, c are in A.P. (b) a, b, c are in A.P.
2 2 2
(c) a , b , c are in A.P. (d) a2, b2, c2 are in G.P.

C7 Combined Equation of Pair of Tangents : Combined equation of the pair of tangents to the circle S  x2
+ y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 drawn from the point (x1, y1) is T2 = SS1, where T and S1 have their usual meaning.
Practice Problems :
1. The angle between a pair of tangents drawn from a point T to the circle
x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 9 sin2  + 13 cos2  = 0 is 2. The equation of the locus of the point T is
(a) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 4 = 0 (b) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y – 9 = 0
(c) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y – 4 = 0 (d) x2 + y2 + 4x – 6y + 9 = 0

C8 Chord of Contact : Let the circle is S  x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord of contact
is given by T = 0.
xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = 0
Practice Problems :
1. If the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 to the circle
x2 + y2 = b2 touches the circle x2 + y2 = c2, then a, b, c are in
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) none of these

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 12
C9 Equation of a Chord in Terms of its Mid Point : Let (x1, y1) be the mid point of a chord of the circle S 
x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord is T = S1.
C10 Director Circle : The locus of the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents to a circle is called
the Director Circle.
Practice Problems :
1. P is the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents to the circle x2 + y2 = a2. Locus of P is
(a) x2 + y2 = 3a2 (b) x2 + y2 = 2a2 (c) x2 + y2 = 4a2 (d) none of these

## C11 Family of Circles :

(i) Let S  x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 be a circle and L  ax + by + k = 0 be a line intersecting S = 0, then the
equation of the family of circles passing through the intersection of the given circle and the line is S +  L
= 0, where  is a parameter.
(ii) Let S = 0 and S’ = 0 be two intersecting circles. Then equation of the family of circles passing through
points of intersection of S = 0 and S’ = 0 is S +  S’ = 0, where   – 1.
C12 Two Circles : Let there be two circles with centers at C1 and C2 and radii r1 and r2 respectively, then
(i) Two circles are exterior to each other if r1 + r2 < C1C2
(ii) Two circles touch each other externally if r1 + r2 = C1C2
(iii) Two circles intersect each other in two points if |r1 – r2| < C1C2 < r1 + r2
(iv) Two circles touch each other internally if |r1 – r2| = C1C2
(v) One circle is interior to the other if C1C2 < |r1 – r2|.
Practice Problems :
1. The two circles x2 + y2 +ax = 0 and x2 + y2 = c2 (with c > 0) touch each other if
(a) c = |a| (b) 2a = |c| (c) 2c = a (d) none of these
2 2 2 2
2. If one of the circles x + y + 2ax + c = 0 and x + y + 2bx + c = 0 lies with in the other, then
(a) ab > 0, c > 0 (b) ab > 0, c < 0 (c) ab < 0, c > 0 (d) none of these
2 2 2 2 2 2
3. The circles whose equations are x + y + c = 2ax and x + y + c – 2by = 0 will touch one another
externally if

1 1 1 1 1 1
(a) 2
 2  2 (b) 2
 2  2
b c a c a b
1 1 1
(c) 2
 2  2 (d) none of these
a b c
4. If two circles a(x2 + y2) + bx + cy = 0 and A(x2 + y2) + Bx + Cy = 0 touch each other, then
(a) aC = cA (b) bC = cB (c) aB = bA (d) aA = bB = cC
5. The locus of the centre of the circles which touch both the circles x + y = a and x2 + y2 = 4ax
2 2 2

## externally has the equation

(a) 12 (x – a)2 – 4y2 = 3a2 (b) 9 (x – a)2 – 5y2 = 2a2
(c) 8x2 – 3(y – a)2 = 9a2 (d) none of these
2 2 2 2 2
6. Two circles (x – 1) + (y – 3) = r and x + y – 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 intersect in two distinct points if
(a) 2<r<8 (b) r<2 (c) r=2 (d) r>3
[Answers : (1) a (2) a (3) c (4) b (5) a (6) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 13
C13 Common Tangents to two Circles :
Case Number of Tangents Condition

## (Here c1c2 is distance between centres of two circles)

Practice Problems :
1. The number of common tangents to the circles x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y = 24 is
(a) 0 (b) 1
(c) 3 (d) 4
[Answrs : (1) b]

C14 Angle of Intersection of Two Circles : Let  be the angle of intersection of two circles whose centers are

r1 2  r2 2  C1C 2 2
at C1 and C2 and their radii are r1 and r2 respectively, then cos   .
2r1r2

Notes :
2 2 2
(i) If  = 900, then the circles are said to be Orthogonal and then r1  r2  C 1C 2 .

## (ii) Circles x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 and x 2  y 2  2gx  2f y  c  0 are orthogonal ifff

2gg  2ff   c  c .
Practice Problems :
1. The circles x2 + y2 + x + y = 0 and x2 + y2 + x – y = 0 intersect at an angle of
(a) /6 (b) /4 (c) /3 (d) /2
2 2 2 2
2. If the circles x + y + 2x + 2ky + 6 = 0 and x + y + 2ky + k = 0, intersect orthogonally then k is
(a) 2 or –3/2 (b) – 2 or – 3/2 (c) 2 or 3/2 (d) – 2 or 3/2
[Answers : (1) d (2) a]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 14
C O N C E P T S (Parabola)

C1 Conic Sections :
A conic section, or conic is the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that its distance from a fixed
point (focus) is in a constant ratio (eccentricity e) to its perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line
(directrix).
C2 General equation of a conic : Focal directrix property :
The general equation of a conic with focus (p, q) & directrix lx + my + n = 0 is :
(l2 + m2) [(x – p)2 + (y – q)2] = e2 (lx + my + n)2  ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0.
C3 Definition and Terminology
A parabola is the locus of a point, whose distance from a fixed point (focus) is equal to perpendicular
distance from a fixed straight line (directix). Four standard forms of the parabola are y2 = 4ax; y2 = –4ax;
x2 = 4ay; x2 = –4ay
For parabola y2 = 4ax
(i) Vertex is (0, 0) (ii) focus is (a, 0)
(iii) Axis is y = 0 (iv) Directrix is x + a = 0
Focal Distance : The distance of a point on the parabola from the focus.
Focal Chord : A chord of the parabola, which passes through the focus. y2 = 4ax
Double Ordinate : A chord of the parabola perpendicular to the axis of the symmetry.
Latus Rectum : A double ordinate passing through the focus or a focal chord perpendicular to the axis of
parabola is called the Latus Rectum (L.R.)
Practice Problems :
1. The latus rectum of a parabola whose focal chord is P S Q such that S P = 3 and S Q = 2 is given by

24 12 6
(a) (b) (c) (d) none of these
5 5 5
2. The length of the latus rectum of the parabola whose focus is (3, 3) and directrix is 3x – 4y – 2 = 0 is
(a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 4 (d) none of these
2
3. If the line x – 1 = 0 is the directrix of the parabola y – kx + 8 = 0, then one of the value of k is
(a) 1/8 (b) 8 (c) 4 (d) 1/4
2
4. y – 2x – 2y + 5 = 0 is
(a) a circle with centre (1, 1) (b) a parabola with vertex (1, 2)

3 1
(c) a parabola with directrix x  (d) a parabola with directrix x  
2 2
5. The vertex of the parabola x2 + 2y – 8x + 7 = 0 is
(a) (4, 11/2) (b) (4, 9/2) (c) (9/2, 4) (d) none of these
2 2
6. It (at , 2at) are the co-ordinates of one end of a focal chord of the parabola y = 4ax, then the
co-ordinates of the other end are

 a 2a   a 2a 
(a) (at2, – 2at) (b) (–at2, –2at) (c)  2,  (d)  2 , 
t t  t t 
[Answers : (1) a (2) a (3) c (4) c (5) b (6) d]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 15
C4 Line and a Parabola :
The line y = mx + c meets the parabola y2 = 4ax in two points real, coincident or imaginary according as a

 cm  condition of tangency is c = a/m.
Practice Problems :
1. The line which is parallel to x-axis and crosses the curve y = x at an angle of 450 is
(a) x = 1/4 (b) y = 1/4 (c) y = 1/2 (d) y=1

## C5 Tangents to the Parabola y2 = 4ax :

(i) yy1 = 2a(x + x1) at the point (x1, y1) ;

a  a 2a 
(ii) y  mx  (m  0) at  2 , 
m m m 
(iii) ty = x + at2 at (at2, 2at)
Important Point : Point of intersection of the tangents at the point t1 & t2 is [at1t2, a(t1 + t2)]
Practice Problems :
1. If y = m x + c touches the parabola y2 = 4a (x + a), then

a a a
(a) c (b) c  am  (c) ca (d) none of these
m m m

## C6 Normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax :

y1
(i) y  y1   ( x  x1 ) at ( x1 , y 1 ) ;
2a
(ii) y = mx – 2am – am3 at (am2 – 2am)
(iii) y + tx = 2at + at3 at (at2, 2at)
Practice Problems :
1. If x + y = k is normal to y2 = 12 x, then k is
(a) 3 (b) 9 (c) –9 (d) –3
2
2. Three normals to the parabola y = x are drawn through a point (c, 0) then

1 1 1
(a) c (b) c (c) c (d) none of these
4 2 2
3. If the normal at (1, 2) on the parabola y2 = 4ax meets the parabola again at the point (t2, 2t), then the
value of t is
(a) 1 (b) 3 (c) –3 (d) 1
2
4. If the normals from any point to the parabola y = 4x cuts the line x = 2 in points whose ordinate are
in A.P., then the slopes of the tangents at 3 co-normal points are in
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (c) H.P. (d) none of these
[Answers : (1) b (2) c (3) c (4) b]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 16
C7 Pair of Tangents :
The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1, y1) to the parabola y2 = 4ax is
given by : SS1 = T2 where :
S  y2 – 4ax ; S1 = y12 – 4ax1 ; T  y y1 – 2a(x + x1)
C8 Chord of Contact :
Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1, y1) is
yy1 = 2a (x + x1).
Important Point : The area of the triangle formed by the tangents from the point (x1, y1) & the chord of
contact is (y12 – 4ax1)3/2  2a.
Practice Problems :
1. If the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P to the parabola y2 = 4ax touches the
parabola x2 = 4by, then the locus of P is
(a) a circle (b) an ellipse (c) a parabola (d) a hyperbola
(d)
2. If a chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax which is normal at one end and which subtends a right angle at
vertex then its slope is

1
(a) (b) 2 (c) 2 (d) none of these
2
(b)
[Answers : (1) d (2) b]

## C9 Chord with a given middle point :

Equation of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax whose middle point is

2a
(x1, y1) is y – y1 = ( x  x1 )  T  S 1
y1

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 17
C O N C E P T S (Ellipse)

C1 Definitions
It is a locus of a point which moves in such a way that the ratio of its distance from a fixed point and a fixed
line (not passes through fixed point and all points and line lies in same plane) is constant (e) which is less
than one.
C2 Standard Equation

x2 y 2
Standard equation of an ellipse referred to its principal axes along the co-ordinate axes is 2  2  1 ,
a b
where a > b & b2 = a2(1 – e2).

b2
Eccentricity : e  1 , (0  e  1)
a2
Focii : S  (a e, 0) & S  (– a e, 0).
a a
Equations of Directrices : x  &x   .
e e
Major Axis : The line segment AA in which the focii S & S lie is of length 2a & is called the major axis
(a > b) of the ellipse.
Minor Axis : The y-axis intersects the ellipse in the points B   ( 0 ,  b ) & B  ( 0 , b ) . The line segment
BB is of length 2b(b < a) is called the minor axis of the ellipse.
Principal Axis : The major & minor axes together are called principal axis of the ellipse.
Vertices : Point of intersection of ellipse with major axis. A  (–a, 0) & A  (a, 0).
Focal Chord : A chord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.
Double Ordinate : A chord perpendicular to the major axis is called a double ordinate.
Latus Rectum : The focal chord perpendicular to the major axis is called the latus rectum.
Centre : The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it, is called the centre of the conic.
Practice Problems :
1. For the ellipse x2 + 4y2 = 9

1 3
(a) the ecentricity is (b) the latus rectum is
2 2
(c) a focus is (33, 0) (d) a directrix is x = 23

x 2 y2
2. If S and S are two foci of an ellipse   1 (a < b) and P(x1, y1) is a point on it, then SP + SP
a 2 b2
is equal to
(a) 2a (b) 2b (c) a + e x1 (d) b + e y1
3. If the focal distance of an end of the minor axis of an ellipse (referred to its axes as the axes of x and
y respectively) is 2k and the distance between its foci is 2h, then its equation is

x 2 y2 x2 y2
(a)  1 (b)  1
k2 h2 k2 k2  h2

x2 y2 x2 y2
(c)  1 (d)  1
k2 h2  k2 k2 k2  h2
Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 18

x 2 y2
4. The eccentricity of the ellipse 2  2  1 , it being given that the length of its latusrectum is half of
a b
its major axis is
(a) 1/2 (b) 1/2 (c) 2 (d) none of these
2 2
5. If P(x, y), F1 = (3, 0), F2 = (–3, 0) and 16x + 25y = 400, then PF1 + PF2 equals
(a) 8 (b) 6 (c) 10 (d) 12
[Answers : (1) d (2) b (3) b (4) b (5) c]

## C3 Position of a Point w.r.t. an Ellipse :

x12 y 12
The point P(x1, y1) lies outside, inside or on the ellipse according as ;   1   or  0 .
a2 b2
C4 Line and an Ellipse :

x2 y 2
The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse   1 in two points real, coincident or imaginary according
a2 b2
as c2 is < = or > a2m2 + b2.

x2 y 2
Hence y = mx + c is tangent to the ellipse   1 = 1 if c2 = a2m2 + b2.
a2 b2
C5 Tangents :

2 2 2 x2 y 2
(a) Slope form; y  mx  a m  b is tangent to the ellipse 2  2  1 for all values of
a b
m.

xx1 yy 1 x2 y 2
(b) Point form :   1 is tangent to the ellipse   1 at (x1, y1)
a2 b2 a2 b2

x cos  y sin  x2 y 2
(c) Parametric form :   1 is tangent to the ellipse 2  2  1 at the point
a b a b
(a cos , b sin ).
Practice Problems :

x2
1. The number of values of c such that the straight line y = 4x + c touches the curve  y 2  1 is
4
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) Infinite
2 2
2. A point on the ellipse 4x + 9y = 36 where the tangent is equally inclined to the axes is

 9 4   9 4 
(a)  ,  (b)  , 
 13 13   13 13 

 9 4 
(c)  ,  (d) all the above
 13 13 

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 19
2 2
3. On the ellipse 4x + 9y = 1, the points at which the tangents are parallel to the line 8x = 9y are

 2 1  2 1  2 1  2 1
(a)  ,  (b)  ,  (c)   ,  (d)  , 
 5 5  5 5  5 5  5 5
[Answers : (1) c (2) d (3) b]

C6 Normals :

x2 y 2 a2x b2y
(i) Equation of the normal at (x1, y1) to the ellipse   1 is   a2  b2 .
a2 b2 x1 y1

x2 y 2
(ii) Equation of the normal at the point (a cos  . b sin ) to the ellipse 2  2  1 is;
a b
ax . sec – by cosec  = (a2 – b2).

(a 2  b 2 )m
(iii) Equation of a normal in terms of its slope ‘m’ is y  mx  .
a 2  b 2m 2
Practice Problems :

x 2 y2
1. If the normal at any point P on the ellipse   1 meets the axis in G and g respectively, then
a 2 b2
PG:Pg=
(a) a:b (b) a2 : b2 (c) b2 : a2 (d) b:a

x 2 y2
2. The line lx + my + n = 0 is a normal to the ellipse 2  2  1 , if
a b

a 2 b2 (a 2  b2 )2 a 2 b 2 (a 2  b 2 ) 2
(a)   (b)  
m2 l2 n2 l2 m 2 n2

a 2 b 2 (a 2  b 2 ) 2
(c)   (d) none of the above
l2 m 2 n2
[Answers : (1) c (2) b]

C7 Pair of Tangents :

x2 y 2
The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1.y1) to the ellipse  1
a2 b2
is given by : SS1 = T2 where :

x2 y 2 x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1
S  2  2 1 ; S1  2  2  1 ; T  2 1
a b a b a2 b
C8 Chord of Contact :

x2 y 2
Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1.y1) to the ellipse   1 is T =
a2 b2
xx1 yy 1
0, where T  2 1.
a2 b
Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 20
C9 Chord with a given middle point :

x2 y 2
Equation of the chord of the ellipse   1 whose middle point is (x1, y1) is T = S1, where
a2 b2
x12 y 12 xx yy
S1  2
 2  1 ; T  21  21  1
a b a b
Practice Problems :

x 2 y2
1. The locus of the middle point of the portion of the tangent of the ellipse   1 included
a 2 b2
between the axes is the curve

x 2 y2 x 2 y2 x 2 b2
(a)  4 (b)  4 (c)  4 (d) none of these
a 2 b2 a 2 b2 a 2 y2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
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MCG – 21
C O N C E P T S (Hyperbola)

## The Hyperbola is a conic whose eccentricity is greater than unity (e > 1)

C1 Standard Equation & Definition(s)

x2 y 2
Standard equation of the hyperbola is 2  2  1 .
a b
where b2 = a2(e2 – 1)
Eccentricity (e) :

2 b2
e  1 2
a

## Foci : S  (ae, 0) & S  (–ae, 0)

Practice Problems :
1. If e1 and e2 are the ecentricities of the conic sections 16x2 + 9y2 = 144 and 9x2 – 16y2 = 144, then :
(a) e12 + e22 = 3 (b) e12 + e22 > 3 (c) e12 + e22 < 3 (d) e12 – e22 = 1

C2 Conjugate Hyperbola :

x2 y 2 x2 y 2
e.g.   1 &  2  2  1 are conjugate hyperbola of each.
a2 b2 a b
Important Points :
(a) If e1 & e2 are the eccentricities of the hyperbola & its conjugate then e1–2 + e2–2 = 1.
(b) The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are concyclic and form the vertices of a square.
(c) Two hyperbolas are said to be similar if they have the same eccentricity.
(d) Two similar hyperbolas are said to be equal if they have same latus rectum.
(e) If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate hyperbola is also equilateral.
C3 Position of a Point ‘P’ w.r.t. A Hyperbola :

x12 y 12
The quantity S1  2  2  1 is positive, zero or negative according as the point (x1, y1) lies inside on
a b
or outside the curve.
C4 Line And A Hyperbola :

x2 y2
The straight line y = mx + c is a secant, a tangent or passes outside the hyparbola   1 according
a2 b2
as : c2 > or = or < a2m2 – b2, respectively.
C5 Tangents :

## (i) Slope Form : y  mx  a 2m 2  b 2 can be taken as the tangent to the hyperbola

x2 y 2
  1 , having slope ‘m’.
a2 b2

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MCG – 22

x2 y 2
(ii) Point Form : Equation of tangent to the hyparbola   1 at the point (x1, y1) is
a2 b2
xx1 yy 1
 2  1.
a2 b

x2 y 2
(iii) Parametric Form : Equation of the tangent to the hyperbola   1 at the point.
a2 b2
x sec  y tan 
(a sec , b tan ) is  1.
a b
Practice Problems :
1. If the line y = 3x +  touches the hyperbola 9x2 – 5y2 = 45, then the value of  is
(a) 36 (b) 6 (c) 15 (d) 45
(b)

x 2 y2
2. The line x cos  + y sin  = p touches the hyperbola   1 if
a 2 b2
(a) a2 cos2 – b2sin2 = p2 (b) a2 cos2 – b2sin2 = p
(c) a2 cos2 + b2sin2 = p2 (d) a2 cos2 + b2sin2 = p
(d)
[Answers : (1) b (2) d]

C6. Normals :

x2 y 2
(a) The equation of the normal to the hyperbola   1 at the point P(x1, y1) on it is
a2 b2
a2x b2y
  a 2  b 2  a 2e 2
x1 y1

x2 y 2
(b) The equation of the normal at the point P (a sec , b tan ) on the hyperbola 2  2  1 is
a b
ax by
  a 2  b 2  a 2e 2 .
sec  tan 

(a 2  b 2 )m
(c) Equation of normals in terms of the slope ‘m’ are y  mx  .
a 2  b 2m 2
C7 Pair of Tangents :
The equations to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1, y1) to the hyperbola

x2 y 2
  1 is given by SS1 = T2 where :
a2 b2

x2 y 2 x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1
S  2  2 1 ; S1  2  2  1 ; T  2 1
a b a b a2 b

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 23
Practice Problems :
1. If x = 9 is the chord of contact of the hyperbola x2 – y2 = 9, then the equation of the corresponding
pair of tangents is
(a) 9x2 – 8y2 + 18x – 9 = 0 (b) 9x2 – 8y2 – 18x + 9 = 0
2 2
(c) 9x – 8y – 18x – 9 = 0 (d) 9x2 – 8y2 + 18x + 9 = 0

x 2 y2
2. Number of point (s) outside the hyperbola   1 from where two perpendicular tangents
25 36
can be drawn to the hyperbola is
(a) zero (b) 1 (c) 2 (d) 3
3. The tangents from (1, 22) to the hyperbola 16x2 – 25y2 = 400 include between them an angle equal
to
   
(a) (b) (c) (d)
6 3 2 4
[Answers : (1) b (2) a (3) c]

C8 Chord of Contact :

x2 y 2
Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1, y1) to the hyperbola 2  2  1 is
a b
xx1 yy 1
T = 0, where T  2 1
a2 b
C9 Chord with a given middle point :

x2 y 2
Equation of the chord of the hyperbola   1 whose middle point is (x1, y1) is T = S1, where
a2 b2
x12 y 12 xx1 yy 1
S1   1 ; T  2 1.
a2 b2 a2 b
Practice Problems :
1. Equation of the chord of the hyperbola 25x2 – 16y2 = 400 which is bisected at the point (6, 2) is
(a) 16x – 75y = 418 (b) 75x – 16y = 200
(c) 25x – 4y = 400 (d) None of these
2. The combined equation of the asymptotes of the hyperbola 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y = 0 is
(a) 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y + 2 = 0 (b) 2x2 + 5xy + 2y2 + 4x + 5y – 2 = 0
2 2
(c) 2x + 5xy + 2y = 0 (d) none of the above
[Answers : (1) b (2) a]

## C10 Rectangular or Equilateral Hyperbola :

The particular kind of hyperbola in which the lengths of the transverse & conjugate axis are equal is called
an Equilateral Hyperbola.
Practice Problems :
1. The equation of the chord joining two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2
is
x y x y
(a)  1 (b)  1
x1  x 2 y1  y 2 x1  x 2 y1  y 2
x y x y
(c)  1 (d)  1
y1  y 2 x1  x 2 y1  y 2 x1  x 2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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INITIAL STEP EXERCISE

1. If the quadrilateral formed by the lines 6. If the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 bisects the
circumference of the circle
ax + by + c = 0, a x  by  c  0 have
2 2
perpendicular diagonals, then : x  y  2gx  2f y  c  0 , then the length of the
common chord of these two circles is
2 2
(a) b2 + c2 = b  c
2 2 (a) 2 g2  f 2  c
(b) c2 + a 2 = c   a 

(c)
2
a2 + b2 = a   b
2
(b) 2 g  2  f  2  c
(d) none of the above
2. If u = a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and v = a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and (c) 2 g2  f 2  c
a1 b1 c1
  , then u + kv = 0 represents : (d) 2 g2  f 2  c
a 2 b2 c2
7. The angle between the tangents from (a, b) to the
(a) u=0 circle x2 + y2 = a2 is
(b) a family of concurrent lines
(c) a family of parallel lines  a 
(a) tan 1  
(d) none of the above  S 
 1
3. If 16a – 40ab + 25b 2 – c 2 = 0, then the line
2

## ax + by + c = 0 passes through the points :

 a 
(a) (4, –5) and (–4, 5)
(b) 2 tan 1  
 S 
(b) (5, –4) and (–5, 4)  1
(c) (1, –1) and (–1, 1)
(d) none of the above  S 
(c) 2 tan 1  1 
4. If the abscissae and ordinates of two points P and  a 
Q are the roots of the equation x2 + 2ax – b2 = 0 and  
x2 + 2px – q2 = 0 respectively, the the equation of (d) none of these
the circle with P Q as diameter is
(a) x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2py – b2 – q2 = 0  1 
(b) 2 2 2
x + y – 2ax – 2py + b + q = 0 2 8. If  m i ,  , i = 1, 2, 3, 4 are concyclic points, then
 mi 
(c) x2 + y2 – 2ax – 2py – b2 – q2 = 0
the value of m1m2m3m4 is
(d) x2 + y2 + 2ax + 2py + b2 + q2 = 0
(a) 1 (b) –1
5. The length of the common chord of the circles
(x – a)2 + (y – b)2 = c2 and (x – b)2 + (y – a)2 = c2 is (c) 0 (d) none of these
9. If a line joining two points A(2, 0) and B(3, 1) is
2 2 rotated about A in the anticlockwise direction
(a) c  (a  b )
through an angle 150, then the equation of the line
in the new position is
(b) 4c 2  2(a  b) 2
(a) 3x – y = 23 (b) 3x + y = 23
(c) x + 3y = 23 (d) none of the
(c) 2c 2  (a  b) 2 above
10. The triangle PQR is inscribed in the circle
(d) 4c 2  (a  b) 2 x2 + y2 = 25. If Q and R have co-ordinates (3, 4) and
(–4, 3) respectively, then Q P R is equal to
(a) /2 (b) /3
(c) /4 (d) /6

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New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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11. If two distinct chords, drawn from the point (p, q) 18. If P (1, 0), Q (–1, 0) and R (2, 0) are three given
on the circle x2 + y2 – px – qy = 0 (where pq  0) are points, then the locus of S satisfying the relation
bisected by the x-axis, then S Q2 + S R2 = 2S P2 is
(a) p2 = q2 (b) p2 = 8q2 (a) a straight line parallel to x-axis
2 2 2 2
(c) p < 8q (d) p > 8q (b) a circle through the origin
12. The centre of the circle passing through the points (c) a circle with centre at the origin
(0, 0), (1, 0) and touching the circle x2 + y2 = 9 is (d) a straight line parallel to y-axis

## 3 1 1 3 19. The lines x + (a – 1)y + 1 = 0 and 2x + a2y – 1 = 0 are

(a)  ,  (b)  ,  perpendicular if
2 2 2 2 (a) |a| = 2 (b) 0<a<1
(c) –1 < a < 0 (d) a = –1
1 1  1 1/ 2 
(c)  ,  (d)  ,2  20. The lines y = mx, y + 2x = 0, y = 2x + k and
2 2 2  y + mx = k form a rhombus if m equals
13. If the circle x2 + y2 = a2 intersects the hyperbola (a) –1 (b) 1/2
xy = c2 in four points P(x1, y1), Q(x2, y2), R(x3, y3)
(c) 1 (d) 2
and S(x4, y4) then
21. The equation of a straight line passing through the
(a) x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 0
point (–5, 4) and which cuts off an intercept of
(b) y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = 0 2 units between the lines x + y + 1 = 0 and
(c) x1x2x3x4 = c4 x + y – 1 = 0 is
(d) All the above (a) x – 2y + 13 = 0 (b) 2x – y + 14 = 0
14. If 2x – 4y = 9 and 6x – 12y + 7 = 0 are common (c) x–y+9=0 (d) x – y + 10 = 0
tangents to a circle, then radius of the circle is 22. The area bounded by the curves x + 2|y| = 1 and
x = 0 is
3 17
(a) (b) (a) 1/4 (b) 1/2
5 6 5 (c) 1 (d) 2
2 2
23. The circle x + y = 4 cuts the circle
2 17 x2 + y2 + 2x + 3y – 5 = 0 in A and B, then centre of
(c) (d)
3 3 5 the circle AB as diameter is
15. The number of integral values of m for which the 2 3
x-co-ordinates of the point of intersection of the lines (a) (0, 0) (b)  , 
3x + 4y = 9 and y = mx + 1 is also an integer is  13 13 
(a) 2 (b) 0
4 6
(c) 4 (d) 1 (c)  ,  (d) (2, –1)
16. If PQ is a double ordinate of the hyperbola  13 13 
24. The equation of a circle passing from two points
x 2 y2 (1, 1) and (2, 2) having the radius 4 times the
  1 such that OPQ is an equilateral
a 2 b2 radius of smallest circle passing from above two
triangle, O being the centre of the hyperbola. Then points is :
the eccentricity e of the hyperbola satisfies (a) x2 + y2 + (15 – 3)x – (15 + 3)y + 4 = 0
(b) x2 + y2 – 3x – 3y + 4 = 0
2 2
(a) 1 e  (b) e (c) x2 + y2 – (15 + 3)x + (15 + 3)y + 4 = 0
3 3
(d) x2 + y2 – 6x – 6y + 4 = 0
2 25. A square is inscribed in the circle
(c) e  3/2 (d) e
3 x2 + y2 – 2x + 4y + 3 = 0
Its sides are parallel to the co-ordinates axes. Then
17. A (1, 3) and C(7, 5) are two opposite vertices of a
one vertex of the square is
square. The equation of a side through A is
(a) (1 + 2, – 2) (b) (1 – 2, – 2)
(a) x + 2y – 7 = 0 (b) x – 2y + 5 = 0
(c) (1, – 2 + 2) (d) None of these
(c) 2x + y – 5 = 0 (d) 2x – y + 1 = 0

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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26. The points (3, 2), (5, 3), (3 + 2t, 2 + t) and
(3 + 2t2, 2 + t2) are 95
(c) y  3x 
(a) vertices of a parallelogram 12
(b) vertices of a rectangle (d) none of these
(c) vertices of a square 32. The equation of the base of an equilateral triangle
(d) none of these is x + y = 2 and the vertex is (2, –1). Length of its
side is
27. Let A = (3, –4), B = (1, 2) and P = (2k – 1, 2k + 1) is
a variable point such that PA + PB is the minimum.
Then k is 1 3
(a)   (b)  
(a) 7/9 (b) 0 2 2
(c) 7/8 (d) none of these
2
 8 (c)   (d) 2
28. The points  0,  , (1, 3) and (82, 30) are vertices
3
 3
33. Given four lines with equations x + 2y – 3 = 0,
of 3x + 4y – 7 = 0, 2x + 3y – 4 = 0, 4x + 5y – 6 = 0, then
(a) an obtuse angled triangle (a) they are all concurrent
(b) an acute angled triangle (b) they are the sides of a quadrilateral
(c) a right angled triangle (c) both (a) and (b)
(d) none of these (d) None of these
29. All points inside the triangle formed by the points 34. A (–1, 1), B (5, 3) are opposite vertices of a square
(1, 3), (5, 0) and (–1, 2) satisfy in xy-plane. The equation of the other diagonal (not
(a) 3x + 2y  0 passing through A, B) of the square is given by
(b) 2x + y – 13  0 (a) x – 3y + 4 = 0 (b) 2x – y + 3 = 0
(c) 2x – 3y – 12  0 (c) y + 3x – 8 = 0 (d) x + 2y – 1 = 0
(d) both (a) and (c) are correct 35. The equation of the line which bisects the obtuse
30. Line L has intercepts a and b on the co-ordinate angle between the lines x – 2y + 4 = 0 and
axes. When the axes are rotated through a given 4x – 3y + 2 = 0 is
angle, keeping the origin fixed, the same line L has (a) (4 – 5)x – (3 – 25) y + (2 – 45) = 0
intercepts p and q, then (b) (3 – 25)x – (4 – 5) y + (2 + 45) = 0
(a) a2 + b2 = p2 + q2 (c) (4 + 5)x – (3 + 25) y + (2 + 45) = 0
1 1 1 1 (d) None
(b) 2
 2  2 2 36. From any point on the circle x2 + y2 = a2 tangents
a b p q
are drawn to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 sin2. The angle
(c) a2 + p2 = b2 + q2 between them is
(a) /2 (b) 
1 1 1 1
(d) 2
 2  2 2 (c) 2 (d) none of these
a p b q
37. The number of common tangents to the circles
31. The equation of the tangent to the ellipse x2 + y2 = 4 and x2 + y2 – 6x – 8y = 24 is
4x2 + 3y2 = 5 which are parallel to the line y = 3x + (a) 0 (b) 1
7 are
(c) 3 (d) 4
155 38. The locus of the mid-points of a chord of the circle
(a) y  3x  x2 + y2 = 4 which subtends a right angle at the
3 origin is
(a) x+y=2 (b) x2 + y2 = 1
155
(b) y  3x  (c) x2 + y2 = 2 (d) x+y=1
12

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New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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39. The locus of the centre of a circle of radius 2 which 46. A common tangent to 9x – 16y 2 = 144 and
2

## rolls on the outside of the circle x2 + y2 = 9 is

x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y – 9 = 0 is
(a) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y + 5 = 0
3 15
(a) y x
(b) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y – 31 = 0 7 7
(c) x2 + y2 + 3x – 6y + 29/4 = 0
(d) none
2 15
(b) y3 x
40. The equation of the common tangent touching the 7 7
circle (x – 3)2 + y2 = 9 and the parabola y2 = 4x above
the x-axis is 3
(c) y2 x  15 7
(a) 3 y = 3x + 1 7
(b) 3 y = –(x + 3)
(d) none of the above
(c) 3 y = x + 3
47. The co-ordinates of an end-point of the latus rec-
(d) 3 y = – (3x + 1) tum of the parabola (y – 1)2 = 4(x + 1) are
41. The triangle formed by the tangent to the curve (a) (0, –3) (b) (0, –1)
f(x) = x2 + bx – b at the point (1, 1) and the co-
(c) (0, 1) (d) (1, 3)
ordinates axes lies in the first quadrant. If its area
is 2, then the value of b is 48. An equilateral triangle is inscribed in the parabola
y2 = 4ax whose one vertex is at the vertex of the
(a) –1 (b) 3
parabola. Then length of its side is
(c) –3 (d) 1
(a) 4a 3 (b) 2a 3
42. The tangents to the hyperbola x – y2 = 3 are paral-
2
(c) 16a 3 (d) 8a 3
lel to the straight line 2x + y + 8 = 0 at the following
points 49. If the segment intercepted by the parabola y2 = 4ax
with the line lx + my + n = 0 subtends a right angle
(a) (2, 1) (b) (2, –1)
at the vertex, then
(c) (–2, 1) (d) (–2, –1)
(a) 4al + n = 0
43. If the lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2 = 0
(b) 4al + 4am + n = 0
cut the co-ordinates axes is concylic points, then
(c) 4am + n = 0
(a) a1a2 = b1b2 (b) a1b1 = a2b2
(d) al + n = 0
(c) a1b2 = a2b1 (d) none of these
50. The ecentricity of the ellipse which meets the
44. The ecentricity of the hyperbola whose latus rec-
tum is 8 and conjugate axis is equal to half of the x y
distance between foci is straight line   1 on the axis of x and the
7 2
2 4 x y
(a) (b) straight line   1 on the axis of y and whose
3 3 3 5
axes lie along the axes of co-ordinates is :
4
(c) (d) none of these
3 3 2 3
(a) (b)
7 7
x2 y2
45. The equation   1 represents :
12  k 8  k 2 6
(c) (d) none of these
(a) a hyperbola if k < 8 7
(b) an ellipse if k > 8
(c) a hyperbola if 8 < k < 12
(d) none of the above

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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51. If  and  are ecentric angles of the ends of a 58. Length of chord of parabola x 2 = 4ay passing
through vertex and having slope tan  is
x 2 y2
focal chord of the ellipse 2  2  1 , then (a) 4|a| cosec  cot 
a b (b) 4|a| sec  tan 
  (c) 4|a| cos  cot 
tan tan is equal to
2 2 (d) 4|a| sin  tan 
59. If M is the foot of perpendicular drawn from a point
1 e e 1 P on a parabola y2 = 4ax to its directrix and SPM is
(a) (b)
1 e e 1 an equilateral triangle, where S is the focus, then
SP is equal to
e 1
(c) (d) none of these (a) a (b) 2a
e 1 (c) 3a (d) 4a
52. The equation of the parabola whose vertex and the 60. The condition that the parabola y2 = 4c (x – d) and
focus lie on the axis of x at distances a and a1 from y2 = 4ax have a common normal other than x-axis
the origin respectively is (a > 0, c > 0) is
(a) y2 = 4(a1 – a) x (a) 2a < 2c + d (b) 2a > 2c + d
(b) y2 = 4(a1 – a) (x – a) (c) 2a < 2c – d (d) 2a > 2c – d
(c) y2 = 4 (a1 – a) (x – a1) 61. 2 2
The equation 8x + 8xy + 2y + 26x + 13y + 15 = 0
(d) None of these represents a pair of straight lines. The distance
53. The locus of the point of intersection of normals at between them is
the point on the parabola where tangents drawn
meet at the directrix is
7 7
(a) (b)
(a) a parabola (b) a circle 5 2 5
(c) an ellipse (d) a hyperbola
7
54. The equation (c) (d) none of these
5
x 2  ( y  3) 2  x 2  ( y  3) 2  6 represents 62. The equation x2 + y2 + 4x + 6y + 13 = 0 represents
(a) a circle (b) a line segment (a) a circle
(c) a pair of lines (d) none of these (b) a pair of two straight lines
2
55. x = sin t, y = 2 sin t are the parametric equations of (c) a pair of coindent straight lines
(a) a parabola (d) a point
(b) a portion of a parabola 63. The centre of the circle passing through points
(c) a hyperbola (0, 0), (1, 0) and touching the circle x2 + y2 = 9
(d) none of these (a) (3/2, 1/2) (b) (1/2, 3/2)
56. If two distinct chords of a parabola y2 = 4ax, pass- (c) (1/2, 1/2) (d) (1/2, –2½)
ing through (a, 2a) are bisected on the line x + y = 1, 64. The curve described parametrically by
then length of the latus-rectum can be x = t2 + t + 1, y = t2 – t + 1 represents :
(a) 6 (b) 1 (a) a pair of straight lines
(c) 4 (d) 5 (b) an ellipse
57. The radius of the circle passing through the foci of (c) a parabola
the ellipse x2/16 + y2/9 = 1, and having its centre at (d) a hyperbola
(0, 3) is
65. The parametric representation (2 + t 2, 2t + 1)
(a) 4 (b) 3 represents
(c) (1/2) (d) 7/2 (a) a parabola with focus S at (2, 1)
(b) a parabola with vertex at (2, 1)
(c) an ellipse with centre at (2, 1)
(d) none of the above

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 29
FINAL STEP EXERCISE
1. If a variable line drawn through the point of (a) x+y=0 (b) x–y=0
(c) xy=0 (d) none of these
x y
intersection of straight lines   1 and 8. The distance between the chords of the tangents to
  the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 from the origin
and the point (g, f) is
x y
  1 meets the co-ordinates axes in A and B,
  1 2
(a) g2 + f2 (b) (g  f 2  c)
then the locus of the mid point of A B is 2
(a)   (x + y) = x y ( + )
(b)   (x + y) = 2 x y ( + )
1 g2  f 2  c 1 g2  f 2  c
(c) . (d) .
(c) ( + ) (x + y) = 2   x y 2 g2  f 2 2 g2  f 2
(d) none of the above 9. The circle x2 + y 2 – 6x – 10y + c = 0 does not
2. The area of the parallelogram formed by the lines intersect or touch both axes of co-ordinates and the
3x – 4y + 1 = 0, 3x – 4y + 3 = 0, 4x – 3y – 1 = 0 and point (1, 4) lies inside the circle. Then range of
4x – 3y – 2 = 0 is possible values of c is given by
(a) 25 < c < 29 (b) c > 29
1
(a) square units (c) c > 25 (d) c < 25
6 2 2
10. If the circle C1 : x + y = 16 intersects another circle
2 C2 of radius 5 in such a manner that the common
b) square units chord is of maximum length and has a slope equal
7 to 3/4, the co-ordinates of the centre of C2 are
3  9 12   9 12 
(c) square units   , ;  , 
8 (a)
 5 5  5 5 
(d) none of these
3. If a variable line passes through the point of  9 12   9 12 
intersection of the lines x + 2y – 1 = 0 and (b)   , ;  , 
 5 5  5 5 
2x – y – 1 = 0 and meets the co-ordinates axes in A
and B, then the locus of the mid point of AB is
 12 9   12 9 
(a) x + 3y = 0 (b) x + 3y = 10 (c)  , ;   , 
 5 5  5 5
(c) x + 3y = 10xy (d) none of these
4. 2 2
If a chord of a circle x + y = 8 makes equal (d) none of the above
intercepts of length ‘a’ on the co-ordinates axes, then 11. If the straight lines ax + by + c = 0 and x cos  + y
(a) |a| < 8 (b) |a| < 42 sin  = c enclose an angle /4 between them and
meet the straight line x sin  – y cos  = 0 in the
(c) |a| < 4 (d) |a| > 4 same point, then
5. The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 (a) a2 + b2 = c2 (b) a 2 + b2 = 2
which makes with the axes a triangle of area a2 is
(c) a2 + b2 = 2c2 (d) a 2 + b2 = 4
(a) x ± y = 2a (b) x ± y = 2 a
12. The point A(2, 1) is translated parallel to the line
(c) x + y = 2a2 (d) none of these x – y = 3 by a distance 4 units. If the new position
6. If a circle of constant radius 3k passes through the A  is in the third quadrant, then co-ordinates of
origin and meets the axes at A and B, the locus of
A  aree
the centroid of OAB is
(a) (2 + 22, 1 + 22)
(a) x2 + y2 = k2 (b) x2 + y2 = 2k2
(b) (– 2 + 2, – 1 – 22)
(c) x2 + y2 = 3k2 (d) none of the
above (c) (2 – 22, 1 – 22)
7. The tangents to x2 + y2 = a2 having inclination  (d) both (a) and (c) are correct
and  intersect at P. If cot  + cot  = 0, then the
locus of P is

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 30
13. The point of intersection of the common chords of 19. If one of the diagonals of a square is along the line
three circles described on the three sides of a x = 2y and one of the vertices is (3, 0), then its sides
triangle as diameter is through this vertex are given by the equations
(a) centroid of the triangle (a) y – 3x + 9 = 0, 3y + x – 3 = 0
(b) orthocentre of the triangle (b) y + 3x + 9 = 0, 3y + x – 3 = 0
(c) circumcentre of the triangle (c) y – 3x + 9 = 0, 3y – x + 3 = 0
(d) incentre of the triangle (d) y – 3x + 3 = 0, 3y + x + 9 = 0
14. Let PQ and RS be tangents at the extremities of the 20. Area of the parallelogram formed by the lines
diameter PR of a circle of radius r. If PS and RQ y = mx, y = mx + 1, y = nx and y = nx + 1 equals
intersect at a point X on the circumference of the
circle, then 2r equals |mn| 2
(a) (b)
(m  n ) 2 |mn|
PQ  RS
(a) PQ.RS (b)
2 1 1
(c) (d)
|mn| |mn|
2PQ.RS PQ 2  RS2
(c) (d) 21. AB is a diameter of a circle and C is any point on
PQ  RS 2 the circumference of the circle. Then
15. Let AB be a chord of the circle x 2 + y 2 = r 2 (a) The area of ABC is maximum when it
subtending a right angle at the centre. Then the is isosceles
locus of the centroid of the triangle PAB as P moves
(b) The area of ABC is minimum when it is
on the circle is
isosceles
(a) a parabola (b) a circle
(c) The perimeter of ABC is maximum
(c) an ellipse (d) a pair of when it is isosceles
straight lines
(d) None of these
16. Let L be a straight line passing through the origin
22. The image of the pair of lines represented by
and L 2 be the straight line x + y = 1. If the
ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 by the line mirror y = 0 is
intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 – x + 3y = 0 on
L1 and L2 are equal, then which of the following (a) ax2 – 2hxy – by2 = 0
equations can represent L1 ? (b) bx2 – 2hxy + ay2 = 0
(a) x+y=0 (b) x–y=0 (c) bx2 + 2hxy + ay2 = 0
(c) x + 7y = 0 (d) x – 7y = 0 (d) ax2 – 2hxy + by2 = 0
17. Let P Q R be a right angled triangle isosceles right 23. The point (4, 1) undergoes the following three
angled at P (2, 1). If the equation of the line Q R is transformations sucessively
2x + y = 3, then the equation of the pair of lines
(a) Reflection about the line y = x
P Q and P R is
(b) Transformation through a distance 2
(a) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy + 20x + 10y + 25 = 0
units along the positive direction of x-axis
(b) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy – 20x – 10y + 25 = 0
(c) Rotation through angle /4 about the
(c) 3x2 – 3y2 + 8xy + 10x + 15y + 20 = 0 origin in the anticlockwise direction. The
(d) 3x2 – 3y2 – 8xy – 10x – 15y – 20 = 0 final position of the point is given by the
coordinates
18. The equation to a pair of opposite sides of a
parallelogram are x2 – 5x + 6 = 0 and y2 – 6y + 5 = 0.
The equations to its diagonals are  1 7 
(a)  ,  (b) (–2, 72)
(a) x + y = 13 and y = 4x – 7  2 2
(b) 4x + y = 13 and 4y = x – 7
(c) 4x + y = 13 and y = 4x – 7  1 7 
(c)  ,  (d) (2, 72)
(d) y – 4x = 13 and y + 4x = 7  2 2

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 31
24. If p1, p2, p3 be the perpendiculars from the point 28. If C is the centre and A and B are the points on the
(m2, 2m), (mm’, m + m’) and (m’2, 2m’) respectively conic 4x 2 + 9y 2 – 8x – 36 y + 4 = 0 such that

sin 2  
on the line x cos   y sin    0 then AĈB  , then CA–2 + CB–2 is equal to
cos  2
p1, p2, p3 are in
5 13
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. (a) (b)
36 36
(c) H.P. (d) None
25. Consider a circle with its centre lying on the focus 15 16
(c) (d)
of the parabola y2 = 2p x such that it touches the 36 36
directrix of the parabola. Then, a point of intersec-
tion of the circle and the parabola is  c
29. If the normal at  ct ,  on the curve xy = c2 meets
p  p   t
(a)  , p (b)  ,p 
2  2  the curve again in ' t' then
 p   p  1 1
(c)  , p (d)  ,  p (a) t   (b) t  
 2   2  t3 t
1 1
x 2 y2 (c) t  (d) t2  
26. Let E be the ellipse   1 and C be the circle t2 t2
9 4
x2 + y2 = 9. Let P and Q be the points (1, 2) and (2, 1) 30. The two parabolas y2 = 4x and x2 = 4y intersect at a
respectively. Then : point P, whose abscissa is not zero, such that
(a) they both touches each other at P
(a) Q lies inside C but outside E
(b) they cut at right angles at P
(b) Q lies outside both C and E
(c) the tangents to each other at P make
(c) P lies inside both C and E complementary angles with the x-axis
(d) P lies inside C but outside E (d) none of the above
31. If P S Q is the focal chord of the parabola y2 = 8 x
1 such that S P = 6. Then length S Q is
27. An ellipse has ecentricity and one focus at the
2 (a) 6 (b) 4
(c) 3 (d) none of these
point P
 1  . Its one directrix is the common tan- 32. The point on the curve y2 = ax, the tangent at which
, 1
2  makes an angle of 450 with x-axis will be given by
gent, nearer to the point P to the circle x2 + y2 = 1
and the hyperbola x2 – y2 = 1. The equation of the
a a  a a
(a)  ,  (b)  , 
ellipse in standard form is 2 4  2 4

 1
2
a a  a a
(a) 9 x    12( y  1) 2  1 (c)  ,  (d)  , 
 3 4 2  4 2

 1
2 x 2 y2
9 x    12( y  1) 2  1 33. P is a variable point on the ellipse   1 with
(b)
3 a 2 b2

AA as the major axis, then the maximum value of
2 the area of the triangle APA  is
 1
(c) 9 x    12( y  1) 2  1 (a) ab (b) 2ab
 3
(c) ab/2 (d) none of these
2
 1
(d) 9 x    12( y  1) 2  1
 3

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 32
39. If a straight line L is perpendicular to the line
x 2 y2 5x – y = 1 such that area of the  formed by the line
34. The line x = at , meets the ellipse 2  2  1 in
2

## a b L and the co-ordinates axes is 5, then the equation

real points iff of the line L is
(a) |t| < 2 (b) |t| > 1 (a) x + 5y + 5 = 0 (b) x + 5y ± 2 = 0
(c) |t|  1 (d) none of these (c) x + 5y ± 5 = 0 (d) x + 5y ±2 = 0
35. If chords of contact of tangents from two points 40. If ,  and  are the parametric angles of three
points P, Q and R respectively, on the circle
x2 y2 x2 + y2 = 1 and A is the point (–1, 0). If the length of
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) to the ellipse   1 are at
a2 b2 the chords AP, AQ, AR are in G.P., then

x1 x 2   
cos , cos , cos are in
right angles, then
y1 y 2 is equal to 2 2 2
(a) A.P. (b) G.P.
2 2 (c) H.P. (d) none of these
a b
(a) (b) 
b2 a2

a4 b4
(c)  (d) 
b4 a4
36. If  1 and  2 are the ordinates of two points A and B
on the parabola and  3 is the ordinate of the point
of intersection of tangents at A and B, then
(a)  1,  2,  3 are in A.P.
(b)  1,  2,  3 are in G.P.
(c)  1,  2,  3 are in H.P.
(d) none of these
37. The centre of a circle passing through the point
(0, 1) and touching the curve y = x2 at (2, 4) is

  16 27    16 5 
(a)  ,  (b)  , 
 5 10   7 10 

  16 53 
(c)  ,  (d) None of these
 5 10 

x 2 y2
38. From any point on the hyperbola  1,
a 2 b2
x 2 y2
tangents are drawn to the hyperbola   2.
a 2 b2
The area cut off by the chord of contact on the as-
ymptotes is equal to

ab
(a) (b) ab
2
(c) 2ab (d) 4ab

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 33

## 1. c 21. c 41. c 61. b

2. a 22. b 42. b 62. d
3. a 23. b 43. a 63. d
4. a 24. a 44. a 64. c
5. b 25. d 45. c 65. a
6. a 26. d 46. b
7. b 27. c 47. b
8. a 28. d 48. d
9. a 29. d 49. a
10. c 30. b 50. c
11. d 31. b 51. b
12. d 32. c 52. b
13. d 33. c 53. a
14. b 34. c 54. b
15. a 35. a 55. b
16. d 36. c 56. b
17. c 37. b 57. a
18. d 38. c 58. b
19. d 39. b 59. d
20. d 40. c 60. a

## 1. b 11. b 21. a 31. c

2. b 12. d 22. d 32. c
3. c 13. b 23. c 33. a
4. c 14. a 24. b 34. c
5. b 15. b 25. a 35. a
6. d 16. b 26. d 36. d
7. c 17. b 27. b 37. c
8. d 18. c 28. a 38. d
9. a 19. a 29. a 39. d
10. a 20. d 30. b 40. b

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 34
AIEEE ANALYSIS [2002]

1. The greatest distance of the point P (10, 7) from the 6. The radius of the circle passing through the foci of
circle
x2 y 2
the ellipse   1 and having its centre at
x2 + y2 – 4x – 2y – 20 = 0 is 16 9
(a) 10 (b) 5 (0, 3) is

## (c) 15 (d) none of these (a) 4 (b) 7/2

2. The incentre of the triangle with vertices (1, 3), (c) 3 (d) 12
(0, 0) and (2, 0) is 7. The equation of the chord joining two points
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) on the rectangular hyperbola
 1  1 3 xy = c2 is
 1,   , 
(a)   (b) 2 2 
 3   x y
(a)  1
x1  x 2 y 1  y 2
  2 1 
 1, 3   , 
(c)  2  (d) 3 
   3 x y
(b)  1
x1  x 2 y 1  y 2
3. Three straight lines
2x + 11y – 5 = 0, 24x + 7y – 20 = 0 and x y
(c)  1
4x – 3y – 2 = 0 y 1  y 2 x1  x 2
(a) form a triangle
x y
(b) are only concurrent (d)  1
y 1  y 2 x1  x 2
(c) are concurrent with one line bisecting the
angle between the other two 8. A triangle with vertices (4, 0), (–1, –1), (3, 5) is
(d) none of these (a) isosceles and right angled
4. The equation to the ellipse whose foci are (± 2, 0) (b) right angled but not isosceles
1 (c) neither right angled nor isosceles
and eccentricity is is
2
(d) isosceles but not right angled

## x2 y 2 x2 y 2 9. The equation of the directrix of the parabola

(a)  1 (b)  1 y2 + 4y + 4x + 2 = 0 is
12 16 16 8
(a) x = –1 (b) x = 3/2
2 2
x y
(c)  1 (d) none of these (c) x = –3/2 (d) x=1
16 12
10. The equation of the tangent to the circle
5. A straight line through the point (2, 2) intersects x 2 + y 2 + 4x – 4y + 4 = 0 which make equal
the lines 3x + y = 0 and 3x – y = 0 at the points A intercepts on the positive coordinates axes is
and B. The equation to the line AB so that the OAB
is equilateral is (a) x+y=2 (b) x + y = 22

## (c) x+y–4=0 (d) none of these

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 35
AIEEE ANALYSIS [2003]

x 2 y2
11. The foci of the ellipse   1 and the 16. If the pair of straight lines x2 – 2pxy – y2 = 0 and
16 b 2 x2 – 2qxy – y2 = 0 be such that each pair bisects the
angle between the other pair, then
x 2 y2 1
hyperbola   coincide. Then the (a) p = –q (b) pq = 1
144 81 25 (c) pq = –1 (d) p=q
value of b2 is
17. Locus of centroid of the triangle whose vertices are
(a) 5 (b) 7 (a cos t, a sin t), (b sin t, – b cos t) and (1, 0), where
(c) 9 (d) 1 t is a parameter, is
12. 2
The normal at the point (bt , 2bt1) on a parabola
1
(a) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2
meets the parabola again in the point (bt22, 2bt2), (b) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 + b2
then
(c) (3x + 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2
2 (d) (3x – 1)2 + (3y)2 = a2 – b2
(a) t 2   t1 
t1 18. If x1, x2, x3 and y1, y2, y3 are both in G.P. with the
same common ratio, then the points
2 (x1, y1), (x2, y2) and (x3, y3)
(b) t 2  t1 
t1 (a) lie on an ellipse
(b) lie on circle
2 (c) are vertices of triangle
(c) t 2  t1 
t1 (d) lie on a straight line
2 19. If the equation the locus of point equidistant from
(d) t 2   t1  the point (a1, b1) and (a2, b2) is (a1 –a2)x + (b1 – b2) y
t1 + c = 0, then the value of ‘c’ is
13. If the two circles (x – 1) 2 + (y – 3) 2 = r 2 and (a) a12  a 22  b12  b 22
x2 + y2 – 8x + 2y + 8 = 0 intersect in two distinct
points, then 1 2
(a) r<2 (b) r=2 (b) (a 1  a 22  b12  b 22 )
2
(c) r>2 (d) 2<r<8
14. The lines 2x – 3y = 5 and 3x – 4y = 7 are diameters (c) a 12  b12  a 22  b 22
of a circle having area as 154 sq. units. Then the
1 2
equation of the circle is
2 2
(d)
2

a 2  b 22  a 12  b12 
(a) x + y + 2x – 2y = 47
(b) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y = 47
(c) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y = 62
(d) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y = 62
15. A square of side a lies above the x-axis and has one
vertex at the origin. The side passing through the

 
origin makes an angle  0     with the
 4
positive direction of x-axis. The equation of its
diagonal not passing through the origin is
(a) y(cos  + sin ) + x(sin  – cos ) = a
(b) y(cos  + sin ) + x(sin  + cos ) = a
(c) y(cos  + sin ) + x(cos  – sin ) = a
(d) y(cos  – sin ) – x(sin  – cos ) = a

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 36
AIEEE ANALYSIS [2004/2005]
20. Let A (2, –3) and B(–2, 1) be vertices of a triangle 27. The intercept on the line y = x by the circle
ABC. If the centroid of this triangle moves on the x2 + y2 – 2x = 0 is AB. Equation of the circle on AB
line 2x + 3y = 1, then the locus of the vertex C is the as a diameter is
line (a) x2 + y2 + x + y = 0
(a) 3x + 2y = 5 (b) 2x – 3y = 7 (b) x2 + y2 – x + y = 0
(c) 2x + 3y = 9 (d) 3x – 2y = 3 (c) x2 + y2 – x – y = 0
[2004] (d) x2 + y2 + x – y = 0
21. The equation of the straight line passing through [2004]
the point (4, 3) and making intercepts on the 28. The line parallel to the x-axis and passing through
co-ordinates axes whose sum is –1 is the intersection of the lines ax + 2by + 3b = 0 and
x y x y bx – 2ay – 3a = 0 where (a, b)  (0, 0) is
(a)   1 and  1
2 3 2 1 2
(a) below the x-axis at a distance of from
3
x y x y
(b)   1 and  1 it
2 3 2 1
3
x y x y (b) below the x-axis at a distance of from
(c)   1 and   1 2
2 3 2 1 it
x y x y 2
(d)   1 and  1 (c) above the x-axis at a distance of from
2 3 2 1 3
[2004] it
22. If the sum of the slopes of the line given by
x2 – 2cxy – 7y2 = 0 is four times their product, then 3
(d) above the x-axis at a distance of from
c has the value 2
(a) 2 (b) –1 it
(c) 1 (d) –2 [2005]
[2004] 29. If non-zero numbers a, b, c are in H.P., then the
23. If one of the lines given by 6x2 – xy + 4cy2 = 0 is
3x + 4y = 0, then c equals x y 1
straight line    0 always passes through
(a) 3 (b) –1 a b c
(c) 1 (d) –3 a fixed point, that point is
[2004] (a) (–1, –2) (b) (–1, 2)
24. If a circle passes through the point (a, b) and cuts
the circle x2 + y2 = 4 orthogonally, then the locus of 1
(c) (1,  ) (d) (1, –2)
its centre is 2
(a) 2ax – 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 [2005]
(b) 2ax + 2by – (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 30. If a vertex of a triangle is (1, 1) and the mid points
(c) 2ax + 2by + (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 of two sides through this vertex are (–1, 2) and
(d) 2ax – 2by – (a2 + b2 + 4) = 0 (3, 2), then the centroid of the triangle is
[2004]
25. A variable circle passes through the fixed point  1 7   7
A(p, q) and touches x-axis. The locus of the other (a)  ,  (b)   1, 
end of the diameter through A is
 3 3  3
(a) (y – p)2 = 4qx (b) (x – q)2 = 4py
1 7  7
(c) 2
(x – p) = 4qy (d) (y – q)2 = 4px (c)  ,  (d) 1, 
[2004] 3 3  3
26. If the lines 2x + 3y + 1 = 0 and 3x – y – 4 = 0 lie along [2005]
diameters of a circle of circumference 10, then the 31. If the circles x 2 + y 2 + 2ax + cy + a = 0 and
equation of the circle is x2 + y2 – 3ax + dy – 1 = 0 intersect in two distinct
(a) x2 + y2 + 2x + 2y – 23 = 0 points P and Q then the line 5x + by – a = 0 passes
(b) x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y – 23 = 0 through P and Q for
(c) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y – 23 = 0 (a) no value of a
(d) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 23 = 0 (b) exactly one value of a
[2004]

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 37
(c) exactly two values of a 37. Area of the greatest rectangle that can be inscribed
(d) infinitely many values of a
[2005] x 2 y2
in the ellipse   1 is
32. A circle touches the x-axis and also touches the circle a 2 b2
with centre at (0, 3) and radius 2, the locus of the (a) ab (b) 2ab
centre of the circle is
(a) a circle (b) an ellipse a
(c) a parabola (d) a hyperbola (c) (d) ab
b
[2005] [2005]
33. If a circle passes through the point (a, b) and cuts 38. Let P be the point (1, 0) and Q a point on y2 = 8x.
the circle x 2 + y 2 = p 2 orthogonally, then the The locus of mid point of PQ is
equation of the locus of its centre is (a) y2 + 4x + 2 = 0 (b) y2 – 4x + 2 = 0
(a) 2ax + 2by – (a2 – b2 + p2) = 0 (c) x2 – 4y + 2 = 0 (d) x2 + 4y + 2 = 0
(b) x2 + y2 – 3ax – 4by + (a2 + b2 – p2) = 0 [2005]
(c) 2ax + 2by – (a2 + b2 + p2) = 0
(d) x2 + y2 – 2ax – 3by + (a2 – b2 – p2) = 0 39. An ellipse has OB as semi minor axis, F and F its
[2005] foci and the angle FBF is a right angle. Then the
34. If the pair of lines ax2 + 2(a + b)xy + by2 = 0 lie eccentricity of the ellipse is
along diameters of a circle and divide the circle into
four sectors such that the area of one of the sectors 1 1
(a) (b)
in thrice the area of another sector then 2 2
(a) 3a2 – 2ab + 3b2 = 0
(b) 3a2 – 10ab + 3b2 = 0 1 1
(c) 3a2 + 2ab + 3b2 = 0 (c) (d)
3 4
(d) 3a2 + 10ab + 3b2 = 0
[2005] [2005]
35. If a  0 and the line 2bx + 3cy + 4d = 0 passes 40. The locus of a point P (, ) moving under the con-
through the point of intersection of the parabola dition that the line y = x +  is a tangent to the
y2 = 4ax and x2 = 4ay, then x 2 y2
(a) d2 + (2b – 3c)2 = 0 hyperbola   1 is
(b) d2 + (3b + 2c)2 = 0 a 2 b2
(c) d2(2b + 3c)2 = 0 (a) a circle (b) an ellipse
(d) d2 + (2b + 3c)2 = 0 (c) a hyperbola (d) a parabola
[2004] [2005]
36. The eccentricity of an ellipse, with its centre at the
origin, is 1/2. If one of the directrices is x = 4, then
the equation of the ellipse is
(a) 4x2 + 3y2 = 12 (b) 3x2 + 4y2 = 12
2 2
(c) 3x + 4y = 1 (d) 4x2 + 3y2 = 1
[2004]

## AIEEE ANALYSIS [2006]

41. The locus of the vertices of the family of parabolas
(a) 3x + 4y = 25 (b) x+y=7
a3x2 a2x
y   2a is (c) 3x – 4y + 7 = 0 (d) 4x + 3y = 24
3 2
43. In an ellipse, the distance between its foci is 6 and
64 105 minor axis is 8. Then its eccentricity is
(a) xy  (b) xy 
105 64 (a) 1/5 (b) 3/5
(c) 1/2 (d) 4/5
3 35
(c) xy  (d) xy 
4 16
42. A straight line through the point A(3, 4) is such that
its intercept between the axes is bisected at A. Its
equation is

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 38
2 2
44. Let C be the circle with centre (0, 0) and radius 3 (a) x + y – 2x + 2y – 47 = 0
units. The equation of the locus of the mid point of (b) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 47 = 0
the chords of the circle C that subtend an angle of
(c) x2 + y2 + 2x – 2y – 62 = 0
2
at its centre is (d) x2 + y2 – 2x + 2y – 62 = 0
3
46. If (a, a2) falls inside the angle made by the linear
(a) x2 + y2 = 9/4 (b) x2 + y2 = 3/2
x
(c) x2 + y2 = 1 (d) x2 + y2 = 27/4 equation y  , x > 0 and y = 3x, x > 0, then a
2
45. If the lines 3x – 4y – 7 = 0 and 2x – 3y – 5 = 0 are two belongs to
diameters of a circle of area 49 square units, the
equation of the circle is  1  1
(a)   3,   (b)  0, 
 2  2

 1 
(c) (3, ) (d)  , 3
 2 

## x2 y2 50. Let P = (–1, 0) Q = (0, 0) and R = (3, 33) be three

47. For the hyperbola   1 , which of the points. The equation of the bisector of the angle
cos 2  sin 2 
PQR is
following remains constant when  varies ?
(a) Abscissae of vertices 3
(a) xy  0 (b) x + 3 y = 0
(b) Abscissae of foci 2
(c) Eccentricity
(d) Directrix 3
(c) 3 x + y = 0 (d) x y0
48. The equation of a tangent to the parabola y2 = 8x is 2
y = x + 2. The point on this line from which the 51. If one of the lines of my2 + (1 – m2) xy – mx2 = 0 is a
other tangent to the parabola is perpendicular to bisector of the angle between the lines xy = 0, then
the given tangent is m is
(a) (2, 4) (b) (–2, 0) (a) ±1 (b) 2
(c) (–1, 1) (d) (0, 2) (c) –1/2 (d) –2
49. Let A (h, k), B (1, 1) and C (2, 1) be the vertices of a 52. Consider a family of circles which are passing
right angled triangle with AC as its hypotenuse. If through the point (–1, 1) and are tangent to x-axis.
the area of the triangle is 1, then the set of values If (h, k) are the co-ordinates of the centre of the
which ‘k’ can take is given by circles, then the set of values of k is given by the
(a) {–1, 3} (b) {–3, –2} interval
(c) {1, 3} (d) (0, 2} (a) –½  k  ½ (b) k½
(c) 0<k<½ (d) k½

1. c 2. a 3. c 4. c 5. a 6. a 7. a
8. a 9. b 10. b 11. b 12. a 13. d 14. b
15. c 16. c 17. a 18. d 19. d 20. c 21. d
22. a 23. d 24. b 25. c 26. c 27. c 28. b
29. d 30. d 31. a 32. c 33. c 34. c 35. c
36. b 37. b 38. b 39. b 40. c 41. b 42. d
43. b 44. a 45. a 46. d 47. b 48. b 49. a
50. c 51. a 52. d

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MCG – 39
TEST YOURSELF
9. If the area of the triangle inscribed in the parabola
1. The straight lines x + y – 4 = 0, 3x + y – 4 = 0 and y 2 = 4ax with one vertex at the vertex of the
x + 3y – 4 = 0 form a triangle which is parabola and other two vertices at the extremities
(a) isosceles (b) right angled of a focal chord is 5a2/2, then the length of the focal
(c) equilateral (d) none of these chord is
2. The centroid of a triangle lies at the origin and the (a) 3a (b) 5a
coordinates of its two vertices are (–8, 7) and (9, 4). (c) 25a/4 (d) none of these
The area of the triangle is 10. The coordinates of a point common to a directrix
(a) 95/6 (b) 285/2 and an asymptote of the hyperbola x2/25 – y2/16 = 1
(c) 190/3 (d) 285 are
3. Two equal sides of an isosceles triangle are given (a) ( 25 / 41 , 20 / 3)
by 7x – y + 3 = 0 and x + y – 3 = 0 and the third side
passes through the point (1, 10), the slope m of the (b) ( 20 / 41 ,  25 / 41 )
third side is given by
(a) m2 – 1 = 0 (c) (25/3, 20/3)
(b) m2 – 3 = 0 (d) (25 / 41 , 20 / 41 )
(c) 3m2 – 1 = 0
(d) 3m2 + 8m – 3 = 0
4. The equation ax2 + 2hxy + ay2 = 0 represents a pair
of coincident lines through the origin if
(a) h = 2a (b) 2h = a
2
(c) h =a (d) h2 = a2
5. An equation of the normal at the point (2, 3) to the
circle x2 + y2 – 2x – 2y – 3 = 0 is
(a) 2x + y – 7 = 0 (b) x + 2y – 3 = 0
(c) 2x – y – 1 = 0 (d) x – 2y + 1 = 0
6. The number of circles touching the coordinates axes
and the line x + y = 1 is
(a) exactly one (b) two
(c) three (d) four
7. If (a cos i, a sin i) i = 1, 2, 3 represent the vertices
of an equilateral triangle inscribed in a circle, then
(a) cos 1 + cos 2 + cos 3 = 0
(b) sin 1 + sin 2 + sin 3  0
(c) tan 1 + tan 2 + tan 3 = 0
(d) cot 1 + cot 2 + cot 3 = 0
8. The length of the chord of the parabola y2 = 4ax
whose equation is y – x2 + 4a2 = 0 is