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English 5th grade Grammar - Conditionals

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GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS
GRAMMAR: CONDITIONALS

1. LISTENING EXERCISE – Two songs

a) Listen to the songs “You can call me Al” by Paul Simon and “If I were a boy”
by Beyonce. Fill in the missing words.

Paul Simon (°1941) is an American singer-songwriter. You


can call me Al was the lead single from his 7th studio album
Graceland (1986). It’s about a man experiencing a
midlifecrisis, with the protagonist wondering out loud why
life is so difficult. In the videoclip, comedian Chevy Chase
pretends to be the singer, mimicking Simon’s lines.

A man walks down the street


He says why am I _______________ in the middle now
Why am I _______________ in the middle
The rest of my life is so hard
I need a photo-opportunity
I want a shot at redemption
Don't want to end up a _______________
In a cartoon graveyard
Bonedigger Bonedigger
Dogs in the moonlight
Far away my well-lit door
Mr. Beerbelly Beerbelly
Get these mutts away from me
You know I don't find this stuff amusing anymore

If you'll be my bodyguard
I can be your long lost pal
I can call you Betty
And Betty when you call me
You can call me Al

A man walks down the street


He says why am I short of ____________________
Got a short little span of _____________________
And wo my nights are so long
Where's my wife and _____________________
What if I die here
Who'll be my role-model
Now that my role-model is
Gone Gone
He ducked back down the __________________
With some roly-poly little bat-faced girl
All along along
There were incidents and accidents
There were hints and allegations

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If you'll be my bodyguard
I can be your long lost pal
I can call you Betty
And Betty when you call me
You can call me Al
Call me Al

A man walks down the street


It's a street in a strange _________________
Maybe it's the Third ____________________
Maybe it's his first time around
He doesn't speak the _____________________
He holds no currency
He is a foreign man
He is surrounded by the sound
The sound
Cattle in the marketplace
Scatterlings and orphanages
He looks ________________ (2x)
He sees angels in the architecture
Spinning in infinity
He says Amen! and Hallelujah!

If you'll be my bodyguard
I can be your long lost pal
I can call you Betty
And Betty when you call me
You can call me Al
Call me Al

BEYONCE – IF I WERE A BOY

If I were a boy
Even just for a day
I’d roll outta bed in the morning
And throw on what I wanted and go
Drink beer with the _____________
And chase after ________________
I’d kick it with who I wanted
And I’d never get confronted for it.
'Cause they’d stick up for me.

If I were a boy
I think I could __________________
How it feels to love a girl
I swear I’d be a better man.
I’d listen to her
'Cause I know how it ______________
When you lose the one you wanted
'Cause he’s taken you for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

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If I were a boy
I would turn off my ________________
Tell everyone it’s broken
So they’d think that I was sleepin’ alone
I’d put myself ________________
And make the rules as I go
'Cause I know that she’d be faithful
Waitin’ for me to come home (to come home)

If I were a boy
I think I could __________________
How it feels to love a girl
I swear I’d be a better man.
I’d listen to her
'Cause I know how it _________________
When you lose the one you wanted
'Cause he’s taken you for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

It’s a little too late for you to come back


Say it's just a ___________________
Think I’d forgive you like that
If you thought I would wait for you
You thought __________________

But you’re just a boy


You don’t ___________________
How it feels to love a girl someday
You wish you were a better man
You don’t listen to her
You don’t care how it ___________________
Until you lose the one you wanted
'Cause you’ve taken her for granted
And everything you had got destroyed

But you’re just a boy

b) Take a look at the lyrics printed in bold in both songs. How ‘real’ are both
wishes? What’s the main difference between the two lines?

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2. Conditionals - RULES

The 4 Types of Conditionals

0. ZERO CONDITIONAL

- States that something is true or a fact


- Examples: If water reaches 100°, it boils.
If babies are hungry, they cry.
- The if-clause and the main clause use the same verb form (present
simple-present simple, past simple-past simple etc.)

1. FIRST CONDITIONAL
- States that something is likely or possible by predicting it.
- Examples: If you study harder, you will pass the exam.
If it rains, I won’t go to the park.
(meaning: ‘I really think this will happen’)
- The if-clause uses the Present Simple form
The main clause uses WILL/ WON’T (or another modal) + bare
infinitive.
- SCHEME 1st CONDITIONAL

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2. SECOND CONDITIONAL
- States that something is less likely or less possible; it’s hypothetical
(tip: you know you have to use this conditional if you can continue the
sentence with ‘but I didn’t/but it’s not’)
- Examples: If I won the Lottery, I would buy a boat (but in reality, I
didn’t win the Lottery)
If I had his number, I would call him (but in reality, I don’t
have his number)
- The if-clause uses the Past Simple verb form
The main clause uses WOULD/WOULDN’T/’D (or another modal)
+ bare infinitive.
- SCHEME 2nd CONDITIONAL

3. THIRD CONDITIONAL
- States that something is impossible to happen, because in reality it
turned out differently. It didn’t happen, it’s AGAINST THE FACTS and
against reality (counterfactual)
- Examples: If I had studied harder, I would have passed my exams.
(but it’s too late now, I failed them)
She would have become a teacher if she had gone to
university (but she didn’t and now she’s a waitress)
- The if-clause uses the Past Perfect (had + Past Participle)
The main clause uses WOULD HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE
- SCHEME THIRD CONDITIONAL:

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3. Conditionals - EXERCISES

a) Complete the FIRST conditional sentences with the correct form of the verb.
1. If you ______________________________(not/slow down), you will have an accident.
2. If I fail my exams, I _____________________________________(be) very unhappy.
3. We can go for a drink if I _____________________________ (finish) my work on time.
4. If it snows tomorrow, I _______________________________________ (wear) a hat.
5. If you __________________________ (speak) English every day, you will learn quicker.
6. Your dinner __________________________________ (not/get) cold if you eat it now.
7. I’ll be on holiday if you __________________________________ (visit) me next week.
8. If you go outside without a sweater, you _______________________________ (get) ill.
9. If you __________________________ (not/help) me, I won’t be able to finish my work.
10. If you drink too much coffee, you __________________________ (not/be able) to sleep.

b) Complete these popular British superstitions (FIRST conditional only).


1. If you ______________ (open) an umbrella indoors, it _____________ (bring) bad luck.
2. If you ___________________(see) two magpies, you _______________(be) very lucky.
3. If you ____________________ (break) a mirror, you ____________________(have)
seven years of bad luck.
4. If you _______________________ (walk) under a ladder, something bad ___________
_______________ (happen) to you.
5. You _________________________ (have) bad luck if you _____________________
(put) your shoes on the table.
6. If a black cat ___________________ (cross) your path, you ___________________
(have) bad luck.

c) Complete the SECOND conditional sentences with the correct form of the verbs.
1. The kitchen __________________________(look) better if we ________________
_________________ (buy) red curtains.
2. I ____________________________ (be) sorry if we ________________________
(not/see) her again.
3. It ____________________________ (be) a pity if Andy ______________________
_____________________________ (not/get) the job.
4. If I _______________________________ (his address), I ____________________
________________________ (go) round and see him.
5. What _________________________________(you do) if you _________________
_____________ (win) the lottery?

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6. It __________________________ (be) quicker) if you _______________________


(use) a computer.
7. If you _________________________ (not/be) so busy, I ______________________
(show) you how to play.
8. If we __________________________ (have) some eggs, I _____________________
(make) you a cake.
9. If you really _________________________(love) me, you _____________________
(buy) me those diamonds.
10. I’m sure Moira _______________________(help) you if you ___________________
_____________________ (ask) her.
11. If it ____________________________ (not be) so cold, I _____________________
(tidy up) the garden.
12. If I ____________________________(have) the keys, I ______________________
(show) you the cellar.

d) FIRST or SECOND conditional? Underline the correct verb forms and write (1)
for FIRST conditional, (2) for SECOND conditional.
1. If she comes / came late again, she’ll lose her job.
2. I’ll let you know if I find / found out what’s happening.
3. If we live / lived in a town, life would be easier.
4. I’m sure he wouldn’t mind if we arrive / arrived early.
5. We’ll / We’d phone you if we have time.
6. If I won the lottery, I will / would give you half the money.
7. It will / would be a pity if she married Fred.
8. If I’m free on Saturday, I will / would go to the mountains.
9. She will / would have a nervous breakdown if she goes on like this.
10. I know I’ll feel better if I stop / stopped smoking.

e) FIRST or SECOND conditional? Complete the sentences.


1. It’ll be quicker if we _________________________________ (get) a taxi to the airport.
2. If you stopped smoking, you ____________________________________ (feel) better.
3. What would you do if you ____________________________________(lose) your job?
4. If you buy the food, I _____________________________________________ (cook).
5. I think he‘d be happier if he __________________________________ (not live) alone.
6. I’ll be very surprised if Maria __________________________(not get lost) coming here.
7. Where will she live if he _______________________________ (get) the job in Moscow?
8. If she didn’t have to look after her mother, she _____________________(enjoy) life more.

f) Complete the THIRD conditional sentences with the correct form of the verb.
1. We ______________________________ if our best player ___________________
_______________________ injured. (win, not be)

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2. If she _____________________________ he was so mean, she _________________


_______________________________________ him. (know, not marry)
3. I _________________________________ you some money if you ______________
_______________________ me. (lend, ask)
4. If we _____________________________ more time, we _____________________
__________________________________ another day in London. (have, spend)
5. I _______________________________ to help you if you ____________________
_____________________________ me about it earlier. (be able, tell)
6. If you _____________________________ me yesterday, I ____________________
_____________________________ my plans. (ask, changed)
7. You ________________________________ the weekend if you ________________
_____________________________ with us. (enjoy, come)

g) Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets. (THIRD
conditional)
1. If I’d known it was going to rain, I ________________________________________
(take) my umbrella with me.
2. She _______________________________________ (arrive) home earlier if the
traffic hadn’t been so bad.
3. Do you think he would have accepted if we ___________________________________
(offer) him more money?
4. We ________________________________________ (not serve) meat if you’d told us
he was a vegetarian.
5. I don’t think he would have read the book if I _________________________________
(not recommend) it last Christmas.
6. _______________________________ you _______________________ (go) to the
party if he had invited you?
7. He would never have started the training course if he ____________________________
(know) it was going to be so hard.
8. I ______________________________________________ (buy) you a present if I’d
known it was your birthday.
9. If you __________________________________________ (go) to bed earlier, you
wouldn’t have been so tired.
10. Joe wouldn’t have crashed if he _______________________________________ (not
drive) so fast.
11. We would have a dog if we _______________________________________ (live) in
the countryside.
12. If you’d looked after the plants, they _______________________________________
(not die).
13. You ____________________________________________ (hear) the news if you‘d
been watching the TV.

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14. They wouldn’t have bought the flat if they __________________________________


(know) what the neighbours were like.

h) Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first (THIRD
conditional)
Example: I didn’t buy the car because the bank didn’t give me a loan. -> If the bank had given me a
loan, I would have bought the car.
1. We didn’t go shopping because we didn’t have enough time. -> If we had had more time,
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2. He didn’t come to the cinema because he wasn’t interested in the film. -> He would have come
to the cinema if _____________________________________________________
3. I didn’t finish the report because I had so many calls. -> I would have finished the report if
________________________________________________________________
4. They moved house because the company closed. -> If the company hadn’t closed, ________
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5. We didn’t have a barbecue because it was so cold. -> We would have had a barbecue if
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6. Luke missed the train. He was late for the interview. -> If Luke hadn’t missed the train,
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7. It started snowing. We didn’t reach the top of the mountains. -> If it hadn’t started snowing,
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8. Millie didn’t buy the jacket. She didn’t have enough money. -> Millie would have bought the
jacket if ___________________________________________________________

i) Mixed exercise. Use the correct tense(s).


1. English is important in this job. If Isabel ______________________________(not/
speak) it, she __________________________________ (not/ understand) most of
our hotel guests.
2. Tony misread the map. That's why he got lost. If he ___________________________
(read) the map properly, he ___________________________________________
(not/get) lost.
3. If you're not using your old digital camera, why ________________________________
(you/not/ sell) it? If I ________________________(be) you, I _________________
(advertise) it on the internet and sell it.
4. - You had the car key with you all the time, didn't you? - Don't be silly! If I______________
_____________________________ (have) the car key, I _____________________

(not/ ask) you for it right now, would I?

5. If the weather ___________________________(not/ be) so miserable yesterday, we


_______________________________________(go) out fishing.
6. I ____________________________________(not/ bother) going out fishing

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tomorrow unless the weather______________________________(get) better.


7. If I _______________________________(see) a lion in the middle of a city, I
_____________________________ (assume) it had escaped from the local zoo or a
circus.
8. Alex and Jennifer are happily married. If Alex ____________________________
(not/be) such a kind person, Jennifer _______________________________ (not
/want) to marry him.
9. If I __________________________________ (win) the lottery, I ____________
(pinch) myself to make sure I wasn't dreaming.
10. If you __________________________________________ (study) the map as you
said you would the night before, we _____________________________________
(not/ be) lost now.
11. If he ___________________________________(not/ study) English, he _____
__________________________________(not /find) the job he has now.
12. If someone ____________________________(ring) the bell at four in the morning,
__________________________________ (you/answer) the door?

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KEY CONDITIONALS
Exercise f
1. would have won – hadn’t been
2. had known – wouldn’t have married
3. would have lent – had asked
4. had had – would have spent
5. would have been able – had told
6. had asked – would have changed
7. would have enjoyed – had come

Exercise g
1. I would have taken
2. would have arrived
3. had offered
4. wouldn’t have served
5. hadn’t recommended
6. Would you have gone
7. had known
8. would have bought
9. had gone
10. hadn’t driven
11. had lived
12. wouldn’t have died
13. would have heard
14. had known

Exercise h
1. would have gone shopping
2. he had been interested in the film
3. if I hadn’t had so many calls.
4. they wouldn’t have moved house.
5. it hadn’t been so cold.
6. wouldn’t have been late for the interview.
7. we would have reached the top…
8. if she had had enough money.

Exercise i
1. English is important in this job. If Isabel didn't speak (not speak) it, she wouldn't
understand (not understand) most of our hotel guests.
2. Tony misread the map. That's why he got lost. If he had read (read) the map properly,
he wouldn't have got (not get) lost.

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3. If you're not using your old digital camera, why don't you sell (you/not sell) it? If I
were (be) you, I would advertise (advertise) it on the internet and sell it.

4. You had the car key with you all the time, didn't you?
Don't be silly! If I had had (have) the car key, I wouldn't be asking (not ask) you for it
right now, would I?

5. If the weather hadn't been (not be) so miserable yesterday, we would have gone
(go) out fishing.

6. I won't bother (not bother) going out fishing tomorrow unless the weather gets
(get) better.

7. If I saw (see) a lion in the middle of a city, I would assume (assume) it had escaped from the
local zoo or a circus.
8. Alex and Jennifer are happily married. If Alex hadn't been (not be) such a kind person,
Jennifer wouldn't have wanted (not want) to marry him.
9. If I won (win) the lottery, I would pinch (pinch) myself to make sure I wasn't
dreaming.
10. If you had studied (study) the map as you said you would the night before, we
wouldn't be (not be) lost now.

11. If he hadn't studied (not study) English, he wouldn't have found (not find) the job he has
now.
12. If someone rang (ring) the bell at four in the morning, would you answer
(you/answer) the door?

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