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The two-tailed P value equals 0.4457

By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant.

Confidence interval:

The mean of female employees minus male employees equals 0.0571

95% confidence interval of this difference: From -0.1007 to 0.2150

t = 0.7886

df = 12

standard error of difference = 0.072

Learn more:

GraphPad's web site includes portions of the manual for GraphPad Prism that can help you learn

statistics. First, review the meaning of P values and confidence intervals . Then learn how to

interpret results from an unpaired or paired t test. These links include GraphPad's popular analysis

checklists .

Group female employees male employees

Mean 3.6900 3.6329

SD 0.1482 0.1216

SEM 0.0560 0.0460

N 7 7

Content

P value and statistical significance:

The two-tailed P value equals 0.0446

By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be statistically significant.

Confidence interval:

The mean of female employees minus male employees equals 0.1712

95% confidence interval of this difference: From 0.0048 to 0.3377

t = 2.2061

df = 14

standard error of difference = 0.078

Learn more:

GraphPad's web site includes portions of the manual for GraphPad Prism that can help you learn

statistics. First, review the meaning of P values and confidence intervals . Then learn how to

interpret results from an unpaired or paired t test. These links include GraphPad's popular analysis

checklists .

Group female employees male employees

Mean 3.7688 3.5975

SD 0.1759 0.1313

SEM 0.0622 0.0464

N 8 8

Language

The two-tailed P value equals 0.1150

By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant.

Confidence interval:

The mean of female employees minus male employees equals 0.1220

95% confidence interval of this difference: From -0.0371 to 0.2811

t = 1.7679

df = 8

standard error of difference = 0.069

Learn more:

GraphPad's web site includes portions of the manual for GraphPad Prism that can help you learn

statistics. First, review the meaning of P values and confidence intervals . Then learn how to

interpret results from an unpaired or paired t test. These links include GraphPad's popular analysis

checklists .

Group female employees male employees

Mean 3.8660 3.7440

SD 0.1387 0.0677

SEM 0.0620 0.0303

N 5 5

Evaluation

The two-tailed P value equals 0.1450

By conventional criteria, this difference is considered to be not statistically significant.

Confidence interval:

The mean of female employees minus male employees equals -0.0950

95% confidence interval of this difference: From -0.2260 to 0.0360

t = 1.5235

df = 18

standard error of difference = 0.062

GraphPad's web site includes portions of the manual for GraphPad Prism that can help you learn

statistics. First, review the meaning of P values and confidence intervals . Then learn how to

interpret results from an unpaired or paired t test. These links include GraphPad's popular analysis

checklists .

Group female employees male employees

Mean 3.5680 3.6630

SD 0.1434 0.1354

SEM 0.0453 0.0428

N 10 10

Associated Topics || Dr. Math Home || Search Dr. Math

T-Tests, P-Values, and Statistical Significance

Date: 03/18/2004 at 22:15:49

From: Matt

Subject: What does the t test tell you?

the results the teacher wants a t-test. I have calculated it and lots

of other information. Could you tell me what this information means

and how I interpret it?

What does the t-value and two-tailed P-value tell me and how do they

compare to each other? Is this information "significant" enough to

say that variable 2 came from the same family as variable 1?

Here is my data:

Variable 1 Variable 2

Mean 0.562 0.09152

Variance 0.00097 0.003081962

Observations 5 5

Pooled Variance 0.002025981

Hypothesized Mean Difference 0

df 8

t Stat 16.52697943

P(T<=t) one-tail 9.06766E-08

t Critical one-tail 1.85954832

P(T<=t) two-tail 1.81353E-07

t Critical two-tail 2.306005626

From: Doctor Achilles

Subject: Re: What does the t test tell you?

Hi Matt,

A t-test tells you the probability that two sets of values come from

different groups. Using a one-tailed P-value assumes you already know

before you even see the values which group should be larger and which

should be smaller. Since this is usually not true, you should almost

always use a two-tailed test.

Let's say, for example, that I have the following hypothesis: "The

average age of trees in Yellowstone National Park is significantly

different than the average age of trees in Yosemite National Park."

How would I test that (let's assume that I have a way to accurately

determine the age of a tree without cutting it down)? I don't have

the resources to check the ages of all the trees in each park, so I

will take a small random sample from each park and then use a t-test

to compare them.

A two-tailed P-value of 0.6, for example, would mean that there is a

0.6 (or 60%) chance that the two sets of values come from the same

group. In other words, there is a 60% chance that the average age of

the trees in each park is the same, and that whatever difference I

may have seen in my random sample can be explained by the fact that I

only sampled a small portion of the trees. If I got a P-value of

0.6, I would say that there is no significant difference between the

ages of the two populations.

A two-tailed P-value of 0.1 would mean that there is a 0.1 (or 10%

chance) that the two sets come from the same group. In this case,

there is a pretty good chance that the ages of the two populations is

different. However, in order to be on the safe side, it is

traditional in science to say that a P-value of 0.1 is NOT

significant. Why? Because if 0.1 were considered significant, then

10% of all scientific findings would be false. So even if I got a P-

value of 0.1, I couldn't say anything for sure, the most I could say

is that more study is probably required.

P < 0.05. So if there is less than a 5% chance that two sets came

from the same group, then it is considered a significant difference

between the two sets.

relationship that I don't know off the top of my head between a t-

value and a P-value that depends on the size of the samples (and one

or two other variables). Larger t-values translate into smaller P-

values. So the larger the t-value is the more likely the difference

is significant. A "critical t-value" is the minimum t-value you need

in order to have P < 0.05. If your t-value is greater than or equal

to the critical t-value, then you will have a significant difference.

is 16.52697943. So, your t-value is greater than the critical t-

value, therefore the difference between the two sets is significant.

1.81353E-07 or 0.000000181353; this is extremely small (much less

than 0.05).

(If I were you, I'd go back and recheck that you entered all the

values correctly, since this difference is much more significant than

one usually gets with only 5 samples in each set; but if you did, then

congratulations: you have found a big effect of whatever you were

testing!)

like to talk about some of this more, please write back.

http://mathforum.org/dr.math/

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