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High-altitude platforms for wireless communications

Article (PDF Available)  in Electronics &Communications Engineering Journal 13(3):127 - 137 · July 2001 with 2,750 Reads
DOI: 10.1049/ecej:20010303 · Source: IEEE Xplore

Cite this publication

Tim Tozer
29.23 · The University of York

Abstract

The demand for high-capacity wireless services is bringing increasing challenges, especially for delivery of the “last mile”. Terrestrially, the
need for line-of-sight propagation paths represents a constraint unless very large numbers of base-station masts are deployed, while
satellite systems have capacity limitations. An emerging solution is offered by high-altitude platforms (HAPs) operating in the stratosphere
at altitudes of up to 22 km to provide communication facilities that can exploit the best features of both terrestrial and satellite schemes.
This paper outlines the application and features of HAPs, and some specific development programmes. Particular consideration is given to
the use of HAPs for delivery of future broadband wireless communications

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Citations (277) References (10)

... Therefore, any classi- fication of UAVs needs to take into consideration their various
features as they are widely used for a variety of civilian operations [23]. The use of
UAVs as an aerial base station in communications networks, can be categorized based
on their operating platform, which can be a Low Altitude Platform (LAP) [24]- [26] or
High Altitude Platform (HAP) [27] - [29]. ...

... Afterword, UAVs switch to data dissemination mode and setup a multi-hop
communications link with the GCS. HAP Aircraft Helios (NASA) [27] Heliplat(Europe)
[28], [36] Balloon Project Loon Balloon (Google) [37] Airship Zeppelin NT [27] Finally, the
location of the targeted object, and related videos and images are transmitted to the
GCS. Figure 7, illustrates the use of multi-UAV systems in support of SAR operations
[43]. ...

... Afterword, UAVs switch to data dissemination mode and setup a multi-hop
communications link with the GCS. HAP Aircraft Helios (NASA) [27] Heliplat(Europe)
[28], [36] Balloon Project Loon Balloon (Google) [37] Airship Zeppelin NT [27] Finally,
the location of the targeted object, and related videos and images are transmitted to the
GCS. Figure 7, illustrates the use of multi-UAV systems in support of SAR operations
[43]. ...

Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: A Survey on Civil Applications and Key Research Challenges ...
Preprint Full-text available Apr 2018
Hazim Shakhatreh · Ahmad Sawalmeh · Ala Al-Fuqaha · Zuochao Dou · Mohsen Guizani
View Show abstract

... HAPs have the best features of both satellite and terrestrial communications [2]. For
example, a HAP not only has larger coverage area than terrestrial systems, lower cost
than launching a satellite or deploying a terrestrial network with a large number of
basestations, environmental friendliness by making use of solar energy but also can be
upgraded or repaired more easily than satellite systems [3] . HAPs are recently
receiving a lot of interests as promising candidates for the establishment of
communication systems for disaster relief, new services and applications in urban
environment, and for the provision of basic access to remote areas [4]. ...

All-optical two-way relaying free-space optical communications for HAP-based broadband


backhaul networks ...
Article Full-text available Mar 2018 · OPT COMMUN

Minh Q. Vu · Nga T.T. Nguyen · Hien T.T. Pham · Ngoc T. Dang

View Show abstract

... Monte Carlo simulation is a statistical tool that incorporate stochastic characters in a
deterministic mathematical model [45] . In our case, we can easily calculate total
energy collected by the solar panels using the Equation (13). ...

New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near-space flight vehicle for
defense and security ...
Article Jan 2018
A.C. Idris · N. Dollah · M.R. Saad · S. Sojipto · M.R.A. Rahman

View

... In the field of environment protection, UAS are used for oil field observations, water
resources protection ( Lomax et al., 2005), illegal fishing, etc. In communication
department, UAS are used as a substitute for satellite and broadband communication (
Ayyagari et al., 2000, Tozer and Grace, 2001 ). UAS are also used for infrastructure
protection, agricultural uses ( Zhang and Kovacs, 2012) and homeland security (
Bolkcom, 2004). ...

(PDF) Development of Long Range Radio Control System for an Unmanned Disaster Relief
Helicopter ...
Article Full-text available Oct 2017
Umair Iqbal · Usman Rashid · Mohsin Jamil · Yasar Ayaz · Syed Irtiza Ali Shah

View Show abstract

... The flat of perpendicular movement of HAPS could be analyzed and covered in term
of carrier to interference level as in[7]. Productivity of HAPS can be determined
according to the directivity of the antenna array, However, the antennas should be
directly connected to the earth station with a minimum frozenly zoon [8] . So, rotation
and horizontal and vertical displacements are the main area of concern.As in the
stratospheric region wind is a strong reason for deviation of the aerial platform, this
was taken into account, along with rotational movement, in the study to find out the
issues on whether the platform can provide reliable services without temporal outages.
...

(PDF) Stratospheric Winds and Rain Effect on HAPS Backhaul Link Performance ...
Article Full-text available Aug 2017
Lway Faisal Abdulrazak

View Show abstract


... In the first period, these various application opportunities have encouraged
researchers and developers to focus more on improving the flight efficiency of a single
drone. However, in many real-world situations there is a need to develop a drone system
that is able to last much longer than the endurance of an individual UAV[12] [13] [14]
[15]. A solution is to use a fleet of small-scale drones combined with methods and
algorithms that leverage collaboration between multiple (possibly miniature) drones. ...

Designing a Softwarized Network Deployed on a Fleet of Drones for Rural Zone Monitoring ...
Article Full-text available Mar 2017
Corrado Rametta · Giovanni Schembra

View Show abstract

... There is a global interest in design and development of High Altitude Airships [1],
which can serve as a long endurance platform for deployment of equipment for several
commercial and strategic applications e.g., next generation wireless broadband
telecommunications [2] , digital broadcasting [3], coastal surveillance [4], remote
sensing and GPS augmented navigation systems [5], and space based applications [6].
These airships are designed to be able to maintain a quasi-stationary position at
altitudes of around 20 km, where ambient winds are of low magnitude. ...

Conceptual Design, Initial Sizing and Sensitivity Analyses of a High Altitude Airship using
revised Volumetric Drag ...
Conference Paper Full-text available Mar 2017
Shaik Subhani · Rajkumar S Pant

View Show abstract

... Tethered Balloon is the newest technology for wireless communication which
operates at troposphere layer for atmospheric research and subsequently and wireless
communication. Zeppelin Company launched a craft in 2000, followed by many
projects which focused on the design of Balloon for various applications and proper
operation in different altitudes [8] . Then, in 2003, CAPANINA project focused on
providing broadband services [9]. ...

(PDF) Performance Evaluation of Broadband Service Delivery via Tethered Balloon


Technology ...
Conference Paper Full-text available Dec 2016
Saeed Hamood Alsamhi · Sachin Kumar Gupta · N S Rajput

View Show abstract

... High Altitude Platforms (HAPs) are widely regarded as flexible, non-pollutant and
cost effective alternatives to satellite and terrestrial communication infrastructures [1] .
Within the HAP coverage area, mobile users are usually not evenly distributed. ...

... As for sparse users, the asymptotically orthogonality holds, and the closed form
capacity is obtained via random geometry theorem. The size of a HAP can reaches tens
of meters [1] , which is sufficiently large to accommodate an UPA of hundreds
antennas[8]. The channel correlation model of UPA under LOS propagations is first
obtained for users within the hotspot. ...

... 1) Approximation of Hospot User Correlation: Since NLOS components between


different users can be sufficiently low, the user correlation majorly depends on their
LOS component. Moreover, LOS usually plays the dominant role for HAPbased
communication [1] especially in the high elevation angle area. For L and S band
frequency, as given by the measurement data in[13], when the elevation angle is over 40
degree, the K factor is greater than 2.5, which indicates a strong LOS condition. ...

Capacity Analysis of Massive MIMO on High Altitude Platforms ...


Conference Paper Dec 2016

Qi Xi · Chen He · Lingge Jiang · Ji Tian · Yuxiang Shen


Qi Xi · Chen He · Lingge Jiang · Ji Tian · Yuxiang Shen

View

... High altitude pseudo-satellites (HAPS), also called high-altitude or high-altitude long
endurance platforms, are aircraft that can fly arbitrary tracks, such as fixed rotating
circles, at altitudes between 17 km and 50 km in the stratosphere. They have been
playing an important role on the study of future missions in wireless communications
and Earth observation with optical or radar sen- sors [1] [2][3][4][5][6] . This emerging
technology offers an alternative to low Earth orbit (LEO) or geostationary Earth orbit
(GEO) satellite missions to provide constant line-of-sight communication links and
continuous monitoring of a certain region of interest at relatively low costs. ...

Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Circular SAR for High Altitude Pseudo-Satellites ...


Conference Paper Full-text available Oct 2016
Octavio Ponce · Felipe Queiroz De Almeida · Tobias Rommel

View Show abstract


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