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Protocol
Layer 3 Layer 3 Virtual Communication
3/2 interface 3/2 interface Abstraction
Layer 2 Layer 2 Transparency

2/1 interface 2/1 interface Layers and protocols


Layer 1 Layer 1 form network
architecture

Physical Medium
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Information flow supporting virtual


communication in layer 5.
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Open Open
End system End system

Application Application
Presentation Presentation
Session Session
Transport Transport
Network Network
Datalink Datalink
Physical Physical
Medium

•Physical Layer is the lowest layer and is concerned with wiring


and electrical standards.
• It provides an unreliable bit transmission/reception service
to the layer above it.
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Application Layer
Application Layer AH Data Application Layer
Protocol

Presentation
PH Data Presentation Layer
Layer

Session Layer SH Data Session Layer

Transport Layer TH Data Transport Layer

Network Layer NH Data Network Layer

Data Link Layer DH Data Data Link Layer

Physical Layer Bits Physical Layer


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