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Diversity Policies and Practices in the Civil Service:

The Philippine Experience 1

I. Introduction

The Philippines is a country of diverse culture, ethnicity, language and


racial origin. There are eight (8) major languages and more than 100 sub-
languages and dialects. For example, if one goes to the province of Bulacan2
and travels from one town to another, which may just be a distance of one or two
kilometers, one would notice distinct variations in the sub-languages and dialects
used. The fact that the country has about 7,100 islands reinforces this diversity.

This paper will explain the policies, practices and initiatives of the
Philippine government to address the issues of diversity in the workplace along
the processes of recruitment, appointment, promotion and retention. It will also
highlight some issues and concerns and recommendations to address them.

It is important to bear in mind that within the larger national situation and
context, there are bigger issues of diversity that should be recognized and
addressed. The causes and consequences of these bigger issues of diversity are
complex. It is enough for now that these are noted and placed in this larger
perspective. The most important issue of diversity is the worsening gap between
the rich and the poor. From the National Statistics Office, in 2002, there are 5.2
million poor families. Only about thirty (30) families (out of approximately 15
million families) own ninety (90%) percent of the national wealth. Roughly, about
13 out of every 100 Filipino families are considered as core poor in 2000. This

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A paper delivered by Assistant Commissioner MARY ANN Z. FERNANDEZ during the International Public
Management Association for Human Resources (IPMA-HR)) Annual Conference, Panel on Diversity Policies and
Practices in Selected Countries, on 9-13 September 2003, Marriott Downtown Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. The
assistance of Ms. Marites Jacobo and Ms. Edith Almirez, both Senior Personnel Specialist of the Philippine Civil
Service Commission is acknowledged.
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Bulacan is one of the biggest provinces in the Philippines, located in the central plains of Luzon. It is also known as
th
the cradle of noble heroes, being one of the eight (8) provinces that rallied against the Spanish rule in the 19
century. The province is the major political unit at the local level.
means that the per capita annual incomes of these families are not sufficient to
buy their basic necessities.

Another important phenomenon in the Philippine society is the fact that


about seven (7) million Filipinos are working in 100 countries all over the world.
They have helped significantly in providing stability and keeping the economy
afloat. Their annual remittance of about US$8 billion is bigger than the total
exports of the country of about US$ 6 billion. Many of them have achieved their
highest career advancement and potentials abroad. However, many, especially
women, have been trapped in employment situations that are difficult, abusive
and unprotected. The Philippines has been very proactive in bringing out the
issues and concerns of Filipino migrant workers in various regional and
international fora.

II. Brief Background on Personnel Administration in the Philippines

Appointments in the Philippine civil service are made in accordance with


the principle of merit and fitness. Opportunities for government employment are
open to all provided they meet the qualification requirements. A major
requirement is an eligibility which is obtained through an examination. For every
position in government, minimum standards are set pertaining to education,
training, experience and eligibility requirements. These standards have been
upgraded, e.g., a higher minimum passing mark in the eligibility examination from
70 to 80 and a masteral degree for division chief position. Only those who meet
the minimum requirements of the vacant position shall be considered for
permanent position.

The development and retention of highly competent professional


workforce are continuing concerns of the government. The Philippine Civil
Service Commission (PCSC) made a policy that employees are to be provided
with at least two (2) human resource development interventions every year for
their personal growth and career advancement. A scholarship program (local

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and foreign) was established to provide educational and other learning
opportunities for various levels of personnel.

The competence of the employees in the civil service is gauged through


the administration of performance evaluation system which is done every six (6)
months. Those who perform well and exceed the target by more than 50% may
be given an Outstanding rating. The employee could also be a candidate for
promotion and may be rewarded through other forms of incentives. On the other
hand, a Poor performance could be a ground for separation from the service.
There is an Honor Awards Program conferred by the President of the Philippines
which recognizes outstanding employees every year.

III. General Policy and Legal Framework

The legal and policy environment on diversity may be described as


positive and reflective of international conventions and are quite comprehensive
for some sectors especially on women. There are several landmark legislations
and policies to ensure that women, persons with disabilities and indigenous
people are empowered and given equal access to economic, social and political
opportunities.

The highest law of the land, the Philippine Constitution, states in the Bill of
Rights that “no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due
process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws.”
Full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and the
promotion of full employment and quality of employment opportunities for all are
also guaranteed.

For women, the state upholds the fundamental equality between women
and men before the law and recognizes the role of women in nation building.
Accordingly, women shall be protected by providing safe and healthful working
conditions, taking into account their maternal functions, facilities and
opportunities that will enable them to realize their full potential.
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For disabled persons, the state has guaranteed the establishment of a
special agency for disabled persons for their rehabilitation, self-development and
self-reliance and their integration into the mainstream of society.

For indigenous peoples, the Constitution recognizes, respects and


protects their rights and ensures the preservation and development of their
cultures, traditions, and institutions.

The Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan (MTPDP) for 2001-2004


of the Macapagal-Arroyo Administration likewise contains pertinent provisions
that seek to protect the rights of diverse groups. The MTPDP embodies the
antipoverty and overall development framework of the administration to prepare
all Filipinos for the new economy and to expand and equalize access to
economic and social opportunities, particularly of women, persons with
disabilities, the elderly and indigenous groups.

IV. Laws and Policies on Diversity to Address Specific Sectors

This section will highlight laws, policies and practices to promote


empowerment and mainstreaming for each sector. There are six (6) sectors
covered in this paper, viz: women, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples
and ethnic communities, employees in the local governments, public sector
unions and the elderly. Public sector unions were included to highlight an
important and current advocacy of the PCSC.

1) Women

The Philippines is internationally recognized for the status accorded to Filipino


women. Within the Asian region the Philippines is a forerunner in pushing for
gender equality and women empowerment particularly in the workplace.

Much has been achieved for this sector. A lynchpin legislation is the Women
in Development and Nation Building Act (RA 7192) which was passed during
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the watch of President Corazon C. Aquino. Among the important features of
this law are the following

(a) the allocation of a substantial portion of official development assistance


(ODA) to women in development programs/projects/activities;
(b) the review/revision of all government regulations, circulars, issuances
and procedures to remove gender bias;
(c) the active participation of women and women’s organizations in
development programs; and,
(d) the equal right of women and men to enter into contracts, become
member in clubs, gain admission to military schools and, as a spouse
who does household work full-time, get social security insurance and
housing.

As early as 1975, an organization, the National Commission on the Role of


Filipino Women (NCRFW), was created to review, evaluate and recommend
measures, including priorities to ensure the full integration of women for
economic, social and cultural development at all levels and to ensure further
equality between women and men. The NCRFW had been reorganized
several times to make it more responsive to the needs of the Filipino women.
All government agencies have been enjoined to establish their own Gender
and Development (GAD) focal persons. The NCRFW also oversees the
implementation of the Institutional Strengthening Project Phase II which aims
to strengthen the capabilities of oversight agencies in mainstreaming gender
concerns in planning, policy formulation, program development and
implementation, and monitoring and evaluation. There were also a number of
programs that addressed violence against women (VAW) and women’s lack
of economic empowerment, namely: the National Family Violence Prevention
Program and the Productivity Skills and Capability Building Program.

The MTPDP further ensures that programs and projects financed by the
national budget and official development assistance (ODA) appropriately
integrate women and gender concerns.
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As the central personnel agency of the government, the PCSC has been very
proactive in mainstreaming gender and development concerns in the
recruitment, appointment, promotion and retention processes. The following
policies, programs and initiatives are significant milestones:

(a) A full flexi-time schedule which allows the employees to start and end
work at a time convenient to him/her provided that the same shall not be
prejudicial to the prompt and efficient delivery of service and shall not
disrupt the daily operations of the office. Work hours shall be from 7:00
a.m. to 7:00 p.m. Thus, employees are given the option to set their work
schedule provided that the core working hours of 9:30 a.m. to 4:00 p.m.
are observed. Moreover, employees are required to render at least forty
hours of work in a week.

(b) The maternity leave policy has been made more flexible. A woman is now
given the option to return to her work before the expiration of her two-
month leave. This allows her to receive the benefits granted under the
Maternity Leave Law and the salary for actual services rendered effective
the day she reports for work. In 1998, the maternity leave policy was
expanded to include unmarried women and contractual employees.

(c) The PCSC established in 1989 a model Day Care Center for the
employees’ children where the play-study method is used. In addition, a
Breastfeeding Center has been put up. Other agencies are being
encouraged to put up their own day-care and breastfeeding centers.

(d) There were affirmative policies which specifically state that no pregnant
women shall be discriminated against on matters of promotion and career
development. In 1990, the policy which prevents women with children
below two (2) years old and without the consent of their husbands from
attending foreign training and scholarship opportunities, was removed.

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(e) There were provisions for reproductive health concerns which include
annual Pap smear and mammography tests for women ages 35 and
above.

(f) A Committee on Decorum and Investigation (CODI) was created in all


government agencies to ensure proper investigation in the handling of
sexual harassment cases with representation from the GAD Focal
Persons.

(g) Policies and initiatives to promote and ensure a sexual harassment free
environment were also formulated, e.g.,

The Administrative Rules on Sexual Harassment Cases which provide


uniform interpretation on the prosecution, investigation and resolution
of sexual harassment cases in the public sector;

The Manual on How to Handle Sexual Harassment Cases was drafted


to serve as a tool to aid the CODI as well as victims of sexual
harassment in understanding the issue of sexual harassment and
provide step-by-step procedures in handling such cases;

An intensive information campaign was undertaken to promote


awareness of the Administrative Rules on Sexual Harassment and a
thorough understanding of the issue on sexual harassment.

There are other laws passed which address women’s career concerns, to wit:

a) RA 8551, Reform and Reorganization of the Philippine National Police


(PNP) mandates that ten percent (10%) of the police force should be
women. However, the same law has required a height requirement,
which is 5 feet and 2 inches for women and 5 feet and 4 inches for men.
These height requirements have been found to be discriminatory in the
light of the average height of Filipinos which is lower than what has been
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prescribed; and,

b) The Solo Parents’ Welfare Act of 2000 which basically relieve solo
parents of the burden and fear of responsibility of raising a family alone
by institutionalizing adequate state assistance and relevant support
services both for the solo parents and their children.

2) Persons with Disabilities (PWDs)

Republic Act 7277 otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Disabled Persons
was passed in 1992. This law strongly prohibits employment discrimination
against a qualified disabled person in regard to application, hiring, promotion,
compensation and other employment conditions. The government
guarantees that five (5%) percent of all casual, emergency and contractual
positions in the three (3) departments, i.e., social welfare and development,
health, and education, and other government agencies engaged in social
development shall be reserved for disabled persons.

With this law, a National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons
(NCWDP) was established to formulate policies on disability, to coordinate
the functions of public and private entities and international organizations
operating in the Philippines and to enforce laws on disability prevention,
rehabilitation and equalization of opportunities for persons with disabilities.

The Magna Carta explicitly provides that “no entity, whether public or private,
shall discriminate against a qualified disabled person by reason of disability in
regard to job application procedures, the hiring, promotion, or discharge of
employees, employee compensation, job training, and other terms,
conditions, and privileges of employment.” The law likewise prohibits the
following acts of discrimination:

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(a) Limiting, segregating or classifying a disabled job applicant;
(b) Using qualification standards or selection criteria that tend to screen out a
disabled person unless such standards are shown to be job-related for the
position in question;
(c) Utilizing standards, criteria, or methods of administration that:
(1) have the effect of discrimination on the basis of disability, or
(2) perpetuate the discrimination of others who are subject to common
administrative control;
(d) Providing less compensation or other forms of remuneration and benefits
to a qualified disabled employee, by reason of his disability, than the
amount to which a non-disabled person performing the same work is
entitled;
(e) Favoring a non-disabled employee over a qualified disabled employee
with respect to promotion, training opportunities, study and scholarship
grants;
(f) Failing to select or administer in the most effective manner employment
tests which accurately reflect the skills, aptitude or other factor of the
disabled applicant; and,
(g) Excluding disabled persons from membership in labor unions or similar
organizations.

As contained in the MTPDP, a certain percentage of the national budget has


been assigned for projects and facilities that will enhance the mobility, safety
and welfare of persons with disability. To support this affirmative action,
Administrative Order (AO) No. 101 was passed directing the Department of
Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and Commission on Higher Education
(CHED) to provide architectural or structural features for PWDs in schools
and other establishments. For 1999 and 2000, DPWH undertook construction
of access facilities in 21 schools, 20 government buildings and seven state
universities and colleges. The government also launched the Assistance
Package for Disabled Persons Program.

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The PCSC, for its part, has issued several advocacy circulars and
implemented affirmative programs.

In 1990, the PCSC issued a memorandum circular explicitly stating that


disabled persons may apply and take civil service examinations. The MC
further clarified that “a healthy government workforce” should not be
interpreted to disqualify or disenfranchise persons who are merely crippled,
deaf, mute or blind and those who only suffer partial physical disabilities,
which deformities do not render them incapable and unable to perform the
duties of certain positions in government. The MC was reiterated in 1999 with
a directive to enjoin all government agencies to provide employment
opportunities to qualified persons with disabilities in all government agencies.

In September 1999, a major initiative was the development of a computer-


assisted test for visually impaired people known as the CAT-VIP. This
technology uses a special gadget called a voice synthesizer and a screen
access program that enables the visually impaired to “read” the test questions
displayed on the screen. It converts machine-readable text to audible
speech. The time limit for the examination has been extended from three (3)
hours to four (4) hours for the professional level and for the subprofessional
level, from 2 1/2 hours to 3 1/2 hours.

Those who pass the examination shall be conferred an eligibility which is an


entrance requirement for all those seeking permanent appointment in the
government. The PCSC has no statistics on the number of PWDs who took
and passed the examinations.

The PCSC, through an inventory in 2001, recorded a total of 1,444 PWDs


employed in government, with the following breakdown: National Agencies -
468; Government Owned and Controlled Corporations – 99; Local
Government Units – 857; and local water districts – 20.

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3) Indigenous Peoples and Ethnic Communities

Comprised of 110 ethnolinguistic groups, the indigenous peoples constitute a


significant segment of Philippine society. These communities have been
isolated and have fallen behind the mainstream population in terms of socio-
economic development. Cognizant of the need to speed up the development
of these communities and to hasten their integration into society, the
Philippine government enacted several laws to protect their ancestral domain
and promote respect for their distinct way of life.

A landmark legislation for indigenous peoples was passed in 1997. Republic


Act 8371, otherwise known as the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997, is
an act to recognize, protect and promote the rights of indigenous cultural
communities/indigenous peoples. To oversee the strict implementation of the
law, the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) was created to
primarily protect and promote the interest and well being of the indigenous
peoples with due regard to their beliefs, customs, traditions and institutions.
As such, it shall serve as the primary government agency responsible for the
formulation and implementation of pertinent and appropriate policies, plans
and programs to carry out the policies set forth in the new law.

Responsive to the intent of the law, the PCSC has issued a circular to
encourage appointment of “natives” or indigenous people in a certain region,
the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), whose population is composed
mostly of ethnic groups and communities.

In the 60’s and 70’s, the PCSC conferred eligibilities to members of the
cultural communities through a testimonial procedure. This process, however,
was abused by some individuals who made false claims of their membership
in certain cultural groups to secure civil service eligibilities. It defeated the
purpose of responding to the needs of the members of cultural and ethnic
groups. To end this practice, the Commission conducted the Cultural
Community Examination (CCE) in 1989, a customized examination for
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cultural and ethnic groups in the country that is more responsive to the kind
and level of education and the limited development opportunities that they are
exposed to. The examination, however, was stopped for reasons which were
not very clear. It is said that it was stopped in view of the low passing rate,
i.e., out of the 18,031 examinees, only 1, 755 passed. Another reason
invoked the merit and fitness principle and enjoined them to take the regular
examinations. There may be a need to take a deeper look into this and
consider the possibility of reviving the examination.

In the case of Muslims in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao


(ARMM), the PCSC statistics show that they have performed poorly in the
career examinations. In 2000 and 2001, passing rate ranged between .35%
and 1.86%.

4) Employees in the Local Government Units (LGUs)

One major breakthrough affecting local government units was the passage of
the Local Government Code (LGC). This law (RA 2171) sets the foundation
for truly sustainable development and self-reliant local government units. It
has also afforded autonomy to local government relative to its personnel
functions. Like any other head of office, a local chief executive was accorded
powers and/or rights on personnel administration. Among others, they
include the right to appoint, promote and to exercise such other personnel
actions as reassignment and detail which are generally considered as
management prerogatives. These powers also included the right to discipline
and to impose the corresponding penalties. In the exercise of these powers,
however, certain laws, rules and regulations have to be observed.

Freed from an overly centralized government, the LGC spurred major


changes by devolving more powers and resources to Local Government Units
(LGUs) and allowing people’s participation in local governance. The Code
allowed each LGU to grow in the direction it has determined for itself and in
accordance with its own capabilities.
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A major plus-factor in work diversity is the imposition of the residency
requirement among appointive local officials in the provincial, city and
municipal levels, e.g., secretary, treasurer, assessor, accountant, health
officer, among others. Local appointive officials are required to be a resident
of the locality for at least six (6) months immediately preceding their
appointment.

According to key informants from the Department of Interior and Local


Government, the residency requirement has many benefits. Being a resident
of the area, an appointee is expected to be more accountable for his/her
performance. The appointee is relatively more committed and dedicated to
the job as he/she is more accustomed and acclimatized to the work area.
There is also the element of safe and secure work environment.

On the downside, however, this requirement has been used by many political
leaders to push for or ensure appointment of their proteges who barely meet
the minimum requirements when there may be better-qualified applicants
outside the community or locality. For example, the Department of Finance is
seeking the amendment of the law to remove this requirement for treasurers3
in the local government. It is argued that there is a need to have a check-
and-balance arrangement between the mayor and the treasurer to ensure
proper fiscal management of the community resources.

5) Public Sector Unions

Executive Order No. 180 restored the right of workers in the public sector to
self-organization. This right has been denied public sector employees
starting 1972 when martial law was declared over the country. The directive

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Persons in charge of the treasury office; Takes custody and proper management of the funds of the LGU.

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provides that government employees shall not be discriminated against in
respect to their employment by reason of their membership in employees’
organizations or participation in the normal activities of their organization.
Their employment shall not be subject to the condition that they shall not join
or shall relinquish their membership in the employees’ organizations.

At present, there are 1,645 public sector unions with 278,115 members from
the total of about 1.4 million human resource in government operating in
various parts of the country. One of the major concerns of unions is the
inadequate support and lack of appreciation of management on the benefits
of public sector unionism. Despite the limited number of PSU members vis-à-
vis the total number of government employees, they have an active role in
pushing for the welfare of employees nationwide. Among its various
achievements are the installation of women-friendly facilities, promotion of
physical fitness, flexi-time arrangement and setting up of grievance
machineries.

The PCSC, as an advocate of employee empowerment in the public sector


has encouraged public sector unions to draw up a Checklist of Reasonable
Working Conditions to establish a working environment which will promote
harmonious relationship between the management and the unions and to
contribute to the attainment of a responsible public service.

To oversee the management of personnel relations programs particularly


settlement of disputes between management and unions, the Public Sector
Labor Management Council (PSLMC) was created. The PSLMC issued a
recent policy which provides the prerogative to the union in the use of the
50% of the total savings of an agency. These could be used for the
improvement of working conditions, employee assistance, among others.

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6) Elderly

The Philippines has a relatively young population. As of 2002, older persons


represent 8.4 percent of our total population. However, that number is
growing at a faster rate than in many other countries and is expected to
increase to 18.1 percent of the total population, or exceed 11.1 million by
2025.

Guided by the Philippine Constitution, laws that recognize the positive role of
older persons in our society have been enacted, encouraging older persons
to contribute to nation-building and to mobilize their families and the
communities they live with, to reaffirm the Filipino tradition of caring for older
persons. These laws further granted benefits and special privileges to older
persons as well as created the office for senior citizens' affairs nationwide. A
republic act in 1995 established senior citizens’ centers to serve as venues
for the delivery of integrated and comprehensive services to older persons.
The organizations of older persons manage these centers with the support of
the local and national governments.

Based on the Vienna Plan of Action on Ageing and the Macao Plan of Action
on Ageing for Asia and the Pacific, the Philippines adopted the Philippine
Plan of Action for Older Persons in 1999. The plan of action addresses eight
major areas of concern: namely, older persons and the family; social position
of older persons; health and nutrition; housing, transportation and
environment; income security, maintenance and employment; social services
and the community; continuing education/learning; and, older persons and the
market.

V. Strengths of the Philippines on the Issue of Diversity

As can be gleaned in the numerous policies for women, persons with


disabilities, indigenous peoples, PSU members, LGU employees and the elderly
there exists a strong legal and policy framework for these groups. Their rights

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and privileges have a strong foundation in the Constitution and in the MTPDP.
Moreover, as a signatory to the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), the Philippines is committed to
implement this as well as other international agreements to improve the situation
of Filipino women.

The government has not been remiss in setting up strong institutional and
support systems to look after the welfare of each of these groups. There is the
National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, the National Council for
Indigenous Peoples, the National Commission on the Welfare of Disabled
Persons, and the Public Sector Labor Management Council.

The PCSC, through its quasi-judicial functions, has the power to act on
complaints involving discrimination and harassment. From 1995, the PCSC has
received thirty-eight (38) cases on sexual harassment which has led to fifteen
(15) dismissals, seven (7) suspensions and two (2) acquittals.

The strong institutional and support system put in place is further


strengthened by the active involvement of non-government organizations (NGOs)
and civil society organizations (CSOs) in the country. There exists a workable
partnership between government agencies and NGOs/CSOs in so far as the
implementation and monitoring of programs and policies are concerned. The
NGOs and CSOs also serve as vigilant watchdogs to ensure that such programs
and policies are properly implemented.

VI. Continuing Challenges and Recommendations

1) There is need to intensify actions to help women break the glass-ceiling and
thus increase their level of participation in the top level decision-making
positions. Out of 5,000 positions in the third or executive/managerial level of
the bureaucracy, only 30% are women. Key initiatives will include changing
mindsets of appointing authorities and the benefits of equal representation

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and participation of women and men in decision-making and training
programs and leadership.

2) There is need to improve the career mobility of local government employees


into national career positions. Oftentimes, they are stuck in their careers in
the local governments. There should be mechanisms to allow them to obtain
information and for them to be automatically considered for vacancies in the
national career positions. Relatedly, there is a need to study their working
conditions vis-à-vis national government employees.

3) The PCSC needs to undertake policy study on addressing the dilemma on


ensuring a balance between the merit and fitness principle in recruitment and
the principle of equality. There is need to assess whether the PCSC
examination for PWDs is really responsive, i.e., is the compensatory extra
hour for the examination adequate? In the case of the indigenous peoples,
similar concerns must be raised. The existing civil service examinations are
all in the English language. These tests have been developed by experts
most of whom are based in Metro Manila and schooled in the best
universities. There may be some insidious forms of discrimination resulting
from these situations.

4) There is need to improve the recency and regularity of generating information


regarding the five (5) sectors to allow comparison over time and to determine
if improvements have been achieved. It may be noted that the PCSC does
not disaggregate information on the number of PWDs who have passed the
civil service eligibility examination as these information are lumped into the
overall results. There is need to know the extent of representation of the
PWDs and indigenous peoples in the public sector workforce.

5) There is need to improve and strengthen the information, education,


communication and advocacy on the policies and issues affecting the five (5)
sectors. Critical to these activities will be the participation and involvement of
NGOs and civil societies.
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6) While there are enough laws in the Philippines addressing diversity, most of
which can even be considered advanced, much still needs to be done in
terms of ensuring the effective implementation and enforcement of such laws.
With the limited budgetary support from government, most programs and
policies for women, persons with disabilities and the indigenous peoples,
cannot be adequately undertaken. For example, not all government entities
are able to establish day care centers because their budgets will not allow
them this expense.

7) In the course of gathering data for this paper, there was difficulty in looking for
papers, researches and books that touched directly on diversity. Diversity, as
a word, is sparsely used. In its place, the terms “indigenous”, “native”,
“disadvantaged”, and “marginalized” were adopted. In most resource
materials that were found in libraries, the word diversity is usually coined with
bio to mean the variety of plant and animal life in the Philippine ecosystem.
There may be a need to undertake advocacy, education and communication
activities to introduce this word, build consensus, and reiterate its benefits
and importance, especially in a country with as diverse a culture and origin as
the Philippines.

REFERENCES:

http://www.ncip.gov.ph

http://www.ncrfw.gov.ph

http://www.ncwdp.gov.ph

Rules and Regulations Implementing the Local Government Code of 1991

Republic Act No. 8371, The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997

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Republic Act No. 7192, Women in Development and Nation-Building Act

Republic Act No. 7277, Magna Carta for Disabled Persons and Implementing Rules
And Regulations

Government and Politics of the Philippines. Raul P. de Guzman and Mila Reforma,
Oxford University Press. College of Public Administration, University of the
Philippines, 1988

The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, 1987.

Policies on Public Sector Unionism, Civil Service Commission, Diliman, Quezon


City, 2001.

Government Personnel/Positions Inventory 1997. Civil Service Commission, Quezon


City, 1997

Executive Order No. 180, Providing Guidelines for the Exercise of the Right to
Organize of Government Employees, Creating a Public Sector Labor-
Management Council, and For Other Purposes

Omnibus Rules Implementing Book V of Executive Order No. 292 and Other Civil
Service Rules

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