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A9635032, AIAA Paper 96-3505

A. A. Pashilkar

National Aerospace Labs., Bangalore, India

AIAA Flight Simulation Technologies Conference, San Diego, CA, July 29-31, 1996,

Technical Papers (A96-35001 09-01), Reston, VA, American Institute of Aeronautics and

Astronautics, 1996

In the analysis of aircraft dynamics for 'up and away' flight, the general practice consists of trimming the aircraft

for a specific maneuver at a specified altitude and reach number. In this paper, conditions for quasi-steady

equilibrium are motivated for aircraft dynamics in the ground roll phase. Algorithms for implementation of these

conditions are also described. By use of these algorithms, the locus of trim points is obtained for a comprehensive

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

take-off maneuver of a delta wing aircraft, beginning with ground roll, followed by rotation and ending in lift-off.

This result is compared with approximate calculations wherein the landing gear states are ignored and linear

aerodynamics is assumed. The exact result is also compared with the simulation of the take-off maneuver in a

pilot-in-the-loop simulator. (Author)

Page 1

96-3505

A96-35032 AIAA-96-3505-CP

A. A. Pashilkar*,

National Aerospace Laboratories, Bangalore 560 017, India

Abstract

away flight, the general practice consists of trimming R : normal reaction of main gear (Fig. 4)

the aircraft for a specific manoeuvre at a specified Pe,QB,RB : x, y and z-body axis components of

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

altitude and mach number. In this paper conditions for total rotation rate of aircraft

quasi-steady equilibrium are motivated for aircraft 5 : aircraft wing area

dynamics in the ground roll phase. Algorithms for T ; total thrust force generated by engine(s)

implementation of these conditions are also described. UB,VB,WB : x, y and z-body axis components of

By use of these algorithms, the locus of trim points is total velocity of aircraft

obtained for a comprehensive take-off manoeuvre of a VT : aircraft total velocity of translation

delta wing aircraft beginning with ground roll, VWF : lift-off speed of aircraft

followed by rotation and ending in lift-off. This result Vs : rotation speed of aircraft on ground

is compared with approximate calculations wherein the W : aircraft weight

landing gear states are ignored and linear x,,z, ' distances of thrust point along x-

aerodynamics is assumed. The exact result is also body and z-body axes (Fig. 5)

compared with the simulation of the take-off x

m' zm :

dist. of main landing gear contact

manoeuvre in a pilot in the loop simulator. point in ground axes (Fig. 5)

XE, YE : position of aircraft along x and y

Nomenclature earth fixed axes (on flat earth)

c

m*> CB&,< Cm&, '• elevator derivatives w.r.t drag, lift and a : angle of attack

pitching moment (at eg.) P : angle of sideslip

D, L : aerodynamic drag and lift forces

^ € & a' ^, '• surface deflections of the elevator,

ELS : Engineer-in-the-Loop-Simulator aileron and rudder

F*«,' Fmai* '• ground reaction force on the nose and

main landing gears § pu, '• power lever angle

^pon' Fa,**,* '• ground reaction forces on the port and 9 WF : lift-off pitch attitude of aircraft

starboard main landing gears correspd. to lift-off speed VWF

GFA : Generic Fighter Aircraft 9, : angle of the thrust line with x-body

HE : altitude of the aircraft above the ground axis in the xz plane

k^ : equivalent spring constant of the main <|),0,V : euler angles orienting aircraft body

axes to earth fixed axes

landing gear (Fig. 6) p : atmospheric density

:

'*>»'.» undeflected lengths of the nose and

main landing gears (Fig. 6) Introduction

/„ : deflected length of main landing gears

under load R (Fig. 6) Trim analysis for various aircraft manoeuvres

/ : distance between main and nose (straight and level, level turn etc.) is a standard and

wheel contact points (Fig. 6) accepted procedure1. The author is not aware of similar

m : aircraft mass analysis algorithms for accelerated aircraft manoeuvres

on the ground such as take-off. In this paper the trim

'Scientist, Flight Mechanics & Control Division analysis methods described in reference 1 are

generalised to include aircraft dynamics on the ground.

Copyright © 1996 by A. A. Pashilkar. Published by the American This results in an exact calculation of the equilibrium

Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. with permission.

points. Further, it is shown that the general practice of

277

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

linearizing the equations of motion about an configured to simulate a single engine, tailless delta

equilibrium point for up and away flight can be wing fighter aircraft (henceforth called the GFA).

extended to the ground roll phase.

1. Derivation of Equilibrium Conditions

The algorithms have been implemented on a

ground based simulator. In most aircraft design cycles, The rigid body dynamics of aircraft is

the flight simulator is brought in at an advanced stage governed by six degrees of freedom, namely the three

where the usefulness of its results in optimising the translations and three rotations along the spatial co-

design is limited. By introducing the flight simulator in ordinates2. The resulting equations3 can be referred in

the preliminary design stage and implementing the standard textbooks. The general aircraft dynamic

trim algorithms presented in this paper, the aircraft equations which are non-linear in nature can be cast in

the following implicit form4.

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

which can be used to further optimise his design.

f(X,X,U) = (I)

These trim algorithms are also very useful in

initialising the aircraft to a deterministic and user

specified flight condition on ground for a take-off or where / is a vector of n scalar non-linear functions

landing simulation. This is helpful for validating the /,. X is the state vector

landing gear modelling across various platforms T

X =[VT a (3 * 0 v P, Q, R* *E Ys HE]

against a given template response. Actual flight data

could also be used as the template. Previously stored and U is the input vector UT = [8 pta 8, 8 „ 8 r ] .

time histories from the same simulator are also The equilibrium or singular point(s) of (1) satisfy the

sufficient to regenerate the response. following condition.

The conditions for quasi-steady equilibrium of X = 0 for some given value of U . (2)

aircraft on the ground are derived in Section 1 of this

paper. The equilibrium point of this set of equations Under the assumptions of constant aircraft

can be obtained by standard numerical constrained mass, flat earth approximation and neglecting

optimisation techniques. The current practice in atmospheric density effects on aircraft motion, the

aircraft industry for take-off analysis makes several equations of motion allow us to decouple the earth co-

simplifying assumptions such as linear aerodynamics ordinates (XE,YE,HE) from the closed set represented

and consideration of only the longitudinal degrees of

by (1). Thus, we obtain a set of nine first order

freedom, resulting in simple formulae used in the

differential equations. The state vector is now given by

conceptual design stage. An example of this approach

is presented in Section 2 of this paper. As preliminary XT=[VT a (3 Ps QB RB * 6 y]. For

design progresses and more aerodynamic data becomes purposes of aircraft performance, stability analysis and

available, the designer may wish to refine his earlier control law design, the aircraft motions need to be

calculations. This may not be an easy undertaking, the analysed for various manoeuvres ( straight level flight,

reason being the high complexity of the aerodynamic turning flight, pull-up , push over etc. ). To obtain the

database of a typical aircraft. If the algorithm commonly used equilibrium points for flight mechanics

implementation is not general enough, asymmetric analysis one has to further reduce the state vector from

operating conditions on take-off (e.g., one engine fail, nine to six, corresponding to aircraft degrees of

cross winds etc.) cannot be tackled. Therefore, there is freedom (XT =[VT a p P, QB RB] ) with

a need for a general trim algorithm for obtaining the constraints on either the eulerangles ( <[>,6,\y ) and/or

flight mechanics parameters of interest, which can their rates. Therefore (2) implies the following

work with any database without assumptions. conditions to be satisfied for equilibrium.

VT,a,$,PB,Qa,Ra=Q,U ^constant (3)

presented in this paper have been coded on the ELS

(Engineer-in-the-Loop Simulator). The ELS at the

Flight Mechanics and Controls Division, NAL, is a six subject to appropriate the constraints. The constraints

degree of freedom, pilot in the loop real time applied depend upon the type of flight mode required1

simulation facility. Presently the ELS has been (straight and level, level turn, pull up etc.).

278

Based on (3), one can derive equilibrium QB that of 8 1 , PB that of 8 a and the RB equation is a

conditions for the various phases of the take-off strong function of 8,. In the case of aircraft resting on

manoeuvre (Fig. la). These will be discussed in the

following sections. both wheels, a depends on 0 ( constraint (4b) ),

which in turn depends on the force and moment

1.1 Phases of Take-off Manoeuvre balance at equilibrium (see Fig. 2). Also in most cases

8,, the elevator angle is preset during ground roll.

For deriving the trim point conditions the Therefore, we need to replace a and 8, with some

manoeuvre has been divided into three phases as other appropriate control variables. The most obvious

shown in Figure Ib. They are - the accelerated ground choice is the forces on the nose (Fnose) and main

roll, the nose wheel lift-off point and rotation to lift-off (Fmain) wheels respectively making

pitch attitude. In what follows, these phases are

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

examined separately and appropriate trim conditions

we have to satisfy (4a) subject to constraints (4b), for

defined.

fixed values of the mach number, elevator setting 8,.

a. Accelerated ground roll with thrust set to and throttle setting 8f ! a .

fixed value (usually at max, dry): Since the aircraft is

accelerating on the runway, all the six accelerations When the aircraft reaches rotation speed VR,

terms in (3) are non zero. A reasonable estimate of the the pilot applies back stick ( up elevator ) to ease the

equilibrium state of the aircraft is obtained if the VT aircraft nose up to the desired take-off attitude.

equation is ignored. For this phase of flight all body Between the time he starts rotation and the point at

axis angular rates are close to zero. Further, the bank which nose wheel lifts off the ground, a trim condition

angle (<)>) and the yaw angle (v|O are also equal to can be defined which satisfies (4). Therefore, we can

zero. Thus, we have the following conditions to be use the trim algorithm described above to obtain the

satisfied at trim point. locus of such trim points as a function of the stick

deflection (or equivalently the elevator deflection).

(4a)

b. Rotation on both wheels till nose-wheel lift-

<|),<|>,\ji,6 = 0 and 6 =a <4b) off point: For determination of the exact point of nose

wheel lift-off, further conditions need to be satisfied.

The case of asymmetries arising out of single engine These conditions are as follows.

failure where above assumptions are violated, is

examined in the concluding part of Section 1. i. Ground reaction force on (6a)

nose wheel is zero (Fnosc = 0)

Equations (4a,b) are in the form of a

constrained minimisation problem with equality ii. Nose tire is just touching (6b)

constraints. The Newton-Raphson algorithm is suitable the ground (in undeflected state).

for this problem. The following is a commonly used

cost function. The two constraints in (6) have to be imposed

in addition to those specified in (4b). Since Fnose is

now identically zero, elevator deflection can be taken

(5)

as a control variable. Thus for nose wheel-off trim, the

condition (4a) has to be satisfied subject to the

In order to satisfy each of the equations in constraints specified in (4b) and (6). The control

(4a), we need to select the five control variables. The variables are now F^ ,p,8 e ,8^,8 r . For a fixed mach

choice of these variables should be such that each

equation in (4a) is strongly influenced by at least one number and throttle setting 8 ph the user can determine

different variable. At the same time these control the minimum elevator required to just lift nose wheel

variables must ensure a unique solution. To select such off the ground. In aircraft preliminary design, the

variables we appeal to the physics of the problem. In designer may want to determine the rotation speed for

up and away flight, the usual control variables1 are a given maximum elevator deflection. In such a case,

a,p,8 ( ,8 a ,8 r . It can be argued that the d equation is one can replace elevator deflection with mach number

as a control variable. Then for a given maximum

a strong function of a , the p equation that of P , the

279

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

elevator deflection the user can determine the used, ( particularly ) as well as the distances

minimum speed at which rotation can be initiated.

In order to calculate the minimum elevator

c. Roll on the ground at fixed attitude with required to just lift the nose wheel off the ground, one

nose wheel off : For the case of nose wheel off the more relation between the aircraft attitude and R or 5 „

ground, the constraints are same as in (4b) and the is needed. This can be obtained from the geometry in

equations to be minimised are as in (4a). Since the Figure 4.

nose wheel is off the ground, the control variables

chosen are *L, ,p,8.,8,,,8 p .

6 =tan"' (10)

In case of asymmetries arising out of engine or single

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

If the strut deflection vs. force characteristics is linear

be set to a fixed value, while F^ can be split into two over the range of interest, lm is related to lm and

forces (one each for either of the main gear struts) F^ normal reaction force R in a direct way as follows.

and Fmrica,d . Also the bank angle (<)>) must be reset D

every cycle depending on the values of the three (ID

concludes the derivation of the trim algorithms for the

complete ground roll phase. In the next section The factor of two in equation (11) accounts for

approximate equations for trim on ground are derived. the presence of two main gears on the aircraft. The

minimum elevator required to lift the nose wheel off

2 Approximate Equations for Aircraft Trim on the the ground, main wheel reaction force and pitch

Ground attitude at nose wheel lift-off point can now be found

using equations (8), (9) (10) and (11) after a few

The approximate equations for aircraft trim iterations. The results of this method are compared

on the ground can be derived by considering the with the exact values in Section 4. In the next section

simplified pitch plane equations only (Fig. 3). The implementation issues for the exact formulation of

force and moment balance equations are as follows. Section 1 are discussed.

Tcos(Q-Q,)-D-\iR = mx (7)

The trim constraints explained in section 1

Vertical force balance can be implemented with minor modifications to the up

Tsir\(Q-Q,) + L + R=W (8) and away trim algorithms1. For aircraft on ground, the

force and moment contributions arise from the

Pitching moment balance following sources - aerodynamic forces and moments,

T(z, cos9 , - x, sinG , ) + M - R(xm =0 (9) propulsive forces and moments, gravitational forces

and ground reaction forces and moments (due to

The lift, drag and pitching moment terms can undercarriages). The contributions from aerodynamics,

be expanded using the aerodynamic derivative propulsion, and gravitational forces and moments are

formulation. There are three equations and an equal already computed in the up and away trim algorithms.

number of unknowns (9,^? and 8,) provided forward The flowchart for calculating the forces and moments

due to the landing gear model in the aircraft body axis

speed, forward acceleration and the thrust are fixed. is presented in Figure 5. This portion of the code is

Unfortunately, (7) above is poorly conditioned with common to all the algorithms described above. Hence

respect to the pitch attitude 6 . The remaining two

it can be coded as a separate module.

equations (8) and (9) can be solved simultaneously for

R and 81 , provided 9 is known. Using (8) and (9), an 4. Comparison of Results

estimate of the elevator required to hold a given pitch

attitude while rolling on the ground at a given speed The values obtained by the approximate

and thrust setting can be computed. This computation method outlined in Section 2 are compared with the

is sensitive to the values of aerodynamic derivatives 'exact' values computed by the corresponding trim

280

algorithm described in Section l.lc in Table 1 for the pitch rate, more elevator deflection over and above that

GFA. It is seen that for all the values in Table 1, the shown in the trim plots of Figure 6 is required. Exactly

error is within Ideg. how much more will obviously depend upon the

control effectiveness of the aircraft in pitch and its

The results of the computations of the inertia.

minimum elevator point using equations of Section 2

are compared with those obtained from the trim Conclusions

algorithm described in Section l.lb in Table 2 for

various configurations of the GFA. Again the An extension of the equilibrium trim analysis

agreement is good for the predicted elevator deflection to the ground roll phase has been proposed. Its

(within l.Sdeg) and the pitch attitude at nose wheel applicability has been demonstrated by comparison

lift-off (within Ideg). The normal reaction force is with six degree of freedom simulation of a typical

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

predicted with a fair degree of accuracy (within 6% of fighter aircraft. It is argued that due to the nature of the

total weight). This is due to the approximation take-off rotation manoeuvre, the proposed trim strategy

involved in representing the main landing gear by an is equally applicable to all class of aircraft and for all

equivalent spring (Fig. 4). types of control mechanisms (conventional or fly-by-

wire). The comparison also shows that linearisation of

The results of the trim algorithm for the GFA the equations of motion in the take-off phase is

are plotted in Figure 6 in the pitch attitude vs. elevator meaningful. An approximate method for the

deflection plane for various speeds of rotation computation of the parameters of interest to the aircraft

(200kmph, 220krnph and 240kmph). The initial design engineer is also presented. This method can be

decreasing segment of each curve corresponds to used in the preliminary design stage and gives

accelerated ground roll on all wheels. The lowest point reasonably accurate results. The advantages of the

of each curve corresponds to the nose wheel lift off approximate method is mat it relies on a minimum of

point. The increasing segment of each curve information about the aircraft and landing gear

corresponds to the rotation upto 0 WF ( which for this parameters. It is noted that a simulator platform is the

aircraft is 13deg ) after nose wheel lift-off. The ideal environment for the analysis and application of

maximum up elevator deflection required reflects the the trim algorithms presented in this paper.

static stability (for a given speed) that must be

overcome in order to lift the nose wheel off the ground. Acknowledgements

In Figure 8 a typical simulation result of a The author is grateful to Wg. Cdr. B. B. Misra

take-off run is presented. The GFA is actually unstable of the Indian Air Force for interesting discussions.

in pitch in the low mach number range. It has been Thanks are due to Mrs. Padma Madhuranath of the

stabilised by the use of pitch rate and normal Right Mechanics & Control Division, National

acceleration feedback. It is clear that the nose wheel Aerospace Laboratories and Dr. Pradeep of the Indian

(EV04) leaves the ground just as the elevator crosses Institute of Science for their comments.

the minimum elevator required point. The rotation was

initiated by the pilot at about 210kmph with a back References

stick (PSTICK) of roughly 75% of full back stick

deflection (42mm). The plots in the second column of [1] Antoniewicz, R.F.; Duke, E.L.; and Patterson, B.P.:

Figure 8 show that take-off occurred at about lOsec "User's Manual for Interactive LINEAR, a FORTRAN

(EV03). Program to Derive Linear Aircraft Models". NASA TP

2835, 1988.

In Figure 7, the results of the simulation (as [2] Etkin, B.: "Dynamics of Flight, Stability and

presented in Figure 8) are plotted with the results of Control', John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Chapt. 4, 1959,

trim analysis (Fig. 6) in the 9 vs. elevator deflection pp94.

8 1 plane. The simulation results are quite close to the [3] Padma Madhuranath; and Alok Khare: "CLASS-

Closed Loop Aircraft Flight Simulation Software",

trim calculations, since, the pilot is attempting to

NAL PD FC 9207, October 1992, pp 23.

execute a smooth rotation manoeuvre and therefore, he

[4] Stevens, B.L.; and Lewis, F.L.: "Aircraft Control

needs to apply only an incremental elevator deflection

and Simulation", John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Chapt. 2,

over and above that which is already required to

Sec 2.5., 1992, pp90

overcome the static stability (Fig. 6). For a non-zero

281

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Table 1. Exact and Predicted Elevator as Function of Pitch Attitude

c *

6 8e §e error e 5c o *

5e error 6 §e c *

8e error

1.00 0 - - 0.99 0 . . 0.94 0 - -

1.57 -5 . - 1.67 -5 . - 1.82 -5 - -

2.50 -10 - - 3.08 -10 - - 3.26 -10 - - -

3.40 -15 - - 3.48 -15 - - 3.50 -13.6 -13.9 -0.3

3.60 -20.0 - - 3.56 -16.6 -16.7 -0.1 5.00 -11.4 -11.4 +0.0

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

3.62 -20.6 -20.3 +0.3 5.0 -14.3 -14.0 +0.3 10.0 -5.7 -5.7 +0.0

5.0 -18.1 -17.4 +0.7 10.0 -7.0 -7.4 -0.4 13.0 -4.4 -3.9 +0.5

10.0 -9.6 -9.5 +0.1 15.0 -4.7 -4.0 +0.7

15.0 -5.7 -5.2 +0.5

nose wheel lift-off at nose wheel lift- reaction force at

CONFIGURATION (deg) off nose wheel lift-off

(deg) (% of total weight)

o *

9 9* oe 5e R R*

CONFIG 1 (200kmph) 3.80 3.06 -18.6 -19.6 55.1 58.0

CONFIG 1 (220kmph) 3.74 3.02 -14.9 -16.0 53.3 57.0

CONFIG 1 (240kmph) 3.67 2.98 -12.1 -13.3 51.3 56.1

CONFIG 2 (200kmph) 3.74 3.02 -17.6 -18.8 54.7 57.7

CONFIG 2 (220kmph) 3.68 2.99 -14.1 -15.4 52.9 56.8

CONFIG 2 (240kmph) 3.62 2.95 -11.5 -12.8 50.9 55.9

CONFIG 3 (200kmph) 3.62 3.03 -20.6 -21.7 58.3 61.0

CONFIG 3 (220kmph) 3.56 2.99 -16.6 -17.8 56.3 60.0

CONFIG 3 (240kmph) 3.50 2.95 -13.6 -14.8 54.0 58.9

Time

Figure la. Typical Pitch Attitude and Flight Path Angle Time Histories for Take-off

282

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

Accelerated Ground Roll

'GROUND RUN Trim

Q Q 'NWLIFT OFF Trim

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

'ROTATION' Trim

e.g.

Total x-body fora

R/2

283

ENTER

Determine tyre deflections using Fmain and Fnose Using strut and tyre deflections determine body axis

MM, Ntd coordinates of tyre patch point w.rt aircraft c.g

Fmain Fnose

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

Mtd Ntd

Convert body axis coordinates of tyre patch w.r.t aircraft

c.g into ground axis

obtain horizontal forces at tyre patch

Note : For ROTATION and NWLIFT OFF

Transform the forces and moments at wheel axle to aircraft

set Fnose = 0

c.g using the force system at wheel axles and the

coordinates of the wheel axle in body axis

Check for the type of trim demanded by user :

Fmabx,Fmabz, Fnabx,Fnabz

1. If trim is GROUND ROLL or NWLIFT OFF:

gear locations

Use forces at wheel axle to calculate axial forces

b. reset aircraft altitude based on distances at landing

in the oleo-stnits

gear locations

Fmsax,Fnsax

2. If trim is ROTATION:

Use axial forces on struts to calculate axial deflections landing gear location and user specified pitch

in the oleo-struts attitude

Msd,Nsd

Fnsax

f RETURN J

284

-j________T81H ELEVUOR AS FUNCTION OF IHETH________|-

DLE

(d«g)

-25.000

THETA (flag)

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology on October 1, 2012 | http://arc.aiaa.org | DOI: 10.2514/6.1996-3505

HAL/ELS

10.000

THET* (deg)

SIMULATION OF A TAKE-OFF

C KAU/ELS

1.000 1.000

EV04 EV03

.000 ——!_

.000 TIKE (sec) 11.950 .000 TIKE (sec)

OLE i—i-T^^^-^rr^r^^^^rnn-^* ALTITUDE

de

<-20.0001——:——•

9> ::::::t:::::-::::::-:::::i::::::!::::

'"•'—'.——'.— 1.6501 >—a—a—0—ii n n

TIKE (sec) TIME (sec)

V3CLE5Q4 /SEC080 /CLASS 3.0 BATCH ; H>CH- .04 ALT- 1.67« FUEL- 1 SUT-AUTO TRIM-bR/FH U/C-ON | 08:33:08 PH Hon 01 Apr 96

285

American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics

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