You are on page 1of 241

Municipality of Coron

ECAN Resource Management Plan


2017-2022

Prepared by

College of Human Ecology1 – Department of Community and


Environmental Resource Planning
University of the Philippines, Los Baños

In partnership with

Municipal Government of Coron,


Municipal ECAN Board,
and Palawan Council for Sustainable Development

1
Abrenica, Mark Anthony; Ilagan, Geronima Abigail; Liuag, Hanna Larissa; Napeñas, Arlyn; Tabion, Rochelle
Ann; and Tamina, Roselaine Camille
Municipality of Coron
ECAN Resource Management
Plan
2017-2022

Prepared by

College of Human Ecology1 – Department of Community


and Environmental Resource Planning
University of the Philippines, Los Baños

In partnership with

Municipal Government of Coron,


Municipal ECAN Board,
and Palawan Council for Sustainable Development

1
Abrenica, Mark Anthony; Ilagan, Geronima Abigail; Liuag, Hanna Larissa; Napeñas, Arlyn; Tabion;
Rochelle Ann; and Tamina, Roselaine Camille
Table of Contents
List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... iv
List of Figures ................................................................................................................... vii
Acronyms ......................................................................................................................... viii
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................x
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION .................................................................................1
1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN ........................... 1
1.2 TARGET USERS OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN ...................................... 1
1.3 LEGAL BASES OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN ......................................... 1
1.4 EXISTING LAND USE PLANNING AND REGULATORY
FRAMEWORKS IN PALAWAN .................................................................... 4
CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL PROFILE ...................................................................5
2.1 HISTORY ......................................................................................................... 5
2.2 GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT ............................................................... 5
2.3 POPULATION AND SOCIAL PROFILE ..................................................... 29
2.4 LOCAL ECONOMY ...................................................................................... 50
2.5 INFRASTRUCTURE, PUBLIC FACILITIES AND UTILITIES ................. 61
2.6. LOCAL INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY ................................................... 69
CHAPTER 3: THE ECAN ZONING STRATEGY ..................................................77
3.1. THE ECAN ZONES AS A MANAGEMENT UNIT .................................... 78
3.2. COMPONENTS OF THE ECAN ZONES .................................................... 79
3.3. CRITERIA AND PARAMETERS IN THE DELINEATON OF THE ECAN
ZONES ........................................................................................................... 80
3.4. ALLOWABLE ACTIVITIES IN THE ECAN ZONES................................. 85
3.5. DELINEATION OF THE ECAN ZONES USING GIS ................................ 87
CHAPTER 4: MAJOR STEPS IN THE ECAN ZONING PLAN
PREPARATION...........................................................................................................89
4.1. THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS ................. 89
4.2. GUIDE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DETAILED ECAN ZONING
PLAN .............................................................................................................. 90
CHAPTER 5: INTEGRATED THREAT ANALYSIS ...........................................104
5.1. IDENTIFIED THREATS IN ECAN ZONES .............................................. 106
5.2. CURRENT INTIATIVES IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE ....... 120
5.3. OPPORTUNITIES ....................................................................................... 122
CHAPTER 6: THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT PLAN...............................125
6.1. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT
PLAN ............................................................................................................ 125

ii
6.2. THE ECAN ZONES OF CORON MUNICIPALITY .................................. 125
6.3. RIDGE-TO-REEF ECAN MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND
LAND/WATER USE STRATEGIES .......................................................... 127
6.4. ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES ....................................... 132
6.5. SPECIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS .......................................................... 141
6.6. ECAN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (2017-2022) .................................... 143
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTRATION OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN ...............158
7.1. ADMINISTRATOR AND IMPLEMENTER OF THE ECAN ZONING
PLAN ............................................................................................................ 158
7.2. IMMEDIATE ACTIVITIES ........................................................................ 159
7.3. POSSIBLE SOURCES OF FUNDS............................................................. 160
7.4. MONITORING AND EVALUATION ........................................................ 162
REFERENCES ................................................................................................................163
ANNEXES .......................................................................................................................167
Annex A: Summary Documentation of the ECAN Planning Workshop in Coron ......168
Annex B: Workshop Design for ECANizing Coron ....................................................170
Annex C: Questionnaires Used for Key Informant Interviews ....................................181
Annex D: Attendance Sheets........................................................................................188
Annex E: Computation for Ecological Footprint .........................................................193
Annex F: Incorporating the SEP and ECAN into Local Land Use Plans
(INTEGRATE) .............................................................................................................194
Annex G: Result of Participatory Planning Workshop ................................................203

iii
List of Tables

Table 1. Sections of PCSD Resolution 05-250 related to the ECAN Zoning Plan. ...... 2
Table 2. Laws and issuances related to local land use and development planning. ...... 3
Table 3. Existing Land Area of All Barangays in Coron, Palawan. .............................. 6
Table 4. Islands under the Jurisdiction of Specific Barangay of the Municipality of
Coron.............................................................................................................................. 7
Table 5. Types of Soil of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan. .................................. 12
Table 6. Existing General Land Use. ........................................................................... 16
Table 7. Urban Land Use in Coron, Palawan. ............................................................. 16
Table 8. Covered Barangays with Tenurial Land Area. .............................................. 19
Table 9. Ecological footprint of the Municipality of Coron 1. ...................................... 21
Table 10. Existing Hazards/Constraints in the Municipality of Coron. ....................... 25
Table 11. Fauna Species Found in Coron Municipality. ............................................. 26
Table 12. Land and Sea Cover Classification of Coron, Palawan. .............................. 28
Table 13. Projected Municipal Population of Coron Palawan per Barangay: 2015 –
2025.............................................................................................................................. 30
Table 14. 2010 Population Density in Each Barangay of Coron, Palawan. ................ 30
Table 15. Number of Households and Average Household Size per Barangay. ......... 31
Table 16. Population of Coron by Age and Sex Group. .............................................. 32
Table 17. List of Hospital/ Health Center, 2013. ......................................................... 34
Table 18. Rural Health Unit by Number of Personnel, 2013....................................... 35
Table 19. Ten Leading Causes of Morbidity. .............................................................. 35
Table 20. Ten Leading Causes of Mortality. ............................................................... 35
Table 21. Family Planning Program Beneficiaries, 2013. ........................................... 36
Table 22. Literacy of Household Population 10 Years Old and Over by Age Group
and Sex 2010. ............................................................................................................... 37
Table 23. School-going Population in Coron, Palawan. .............................................. 38
Table 24. Inventory of Schools in Coron, Palawan. .................................................... 39
Table 25. List of Schools in Coron, Palawan and their Location per Barangay. ........ 39
Table 26. Total Enrollees of PSU from 2011-2015. .................................................... 41
Table 27. Total Household and Makeshift Housing in Coron, Palawan. .................... 42
Table 28. Recorded Informal Settlers in Coron, Palawan. .......................................... 43
Table 29. Labor Force Population and Employment Rates. ........................................ 44
Table 30. Households with income below poverty level. ............................................ 45
Table 31. Households with income below the food threshold. .................................... 45
Table 32. Existing Sports and Recreation Facilities by Barangay ............................... 46
Table 33. Personnel and Equipment of Protective Services in Coron. ........................ 47
Table 34. Crime incidences from 2013-2015. ............................................................. 49
Table 35. Distribution of Employment among Different Economic Tiers. ................. 50
Table 36. Major Crops Cultivated in Coron: Total Area Covered, Total Production,
and Yield per Hectare. ................................................................................................. 51
Table 37. Cost of Production and Net Income per Hectare of Major Crops Cultivated
in Coron. ...................................................................................................................... 52

iv
Table 38. Livestock and Poultry Population in Coron. ................................................ 53
Table 39. Total Number of Farmers per Barangay. ..................................................... 54
Table 40. List of Farmers Associations. ...................................................................... 55
Table 41. Existing Agricultural Support Facilities, 2007 ............................................ 55
Table 42. Inventory of Fishing Gears and Fish Caught in Coron. ............................... 56
Table 43. List of Fisher folk’ Associations. ................................................................. 56
Table 44. Production level in aquaculture and existing fishing grounds of Coron...... 57
Table 45. List of Tourism Attractions in Coron, Palawan. .......................................... 58
Table 46. List of Tourism Associations. ...................................................................... 59
Table 47. Business Establishments in Coron, 2016. .................................................... 60
Table 48. Communication facilities in Coron (2014) .................................................. 61
Table 49. Distances of Other Barangays in Coron, Palawan from Poblacion 2 and the
Means of Transportations. ........................................................................................... 62
Table 50. Summarized Inventory of Roads ................................................................. 63
Table 51. Inventory of Bridges along National Highway ............................................ 64
Table 52. Specific Inventory of Roads in Coron, Palawan. ......................................... 65
Table 53. Directory of Municipal Officials in Coron, Palawan ................................... 69
Table 54. National Government Agencies in the Municipality of Coron. ................... 72
Table 55. List of Barangay Chairman in Coron, Palawan. .......................................... 72
Table 56. ECAN Board members in Coron, Palawan. ................................................ 73
Table 57. Number & Percentage Share of Ordinances. ............................................... 74
Table 58. Comparative Income & Expenditure by Year (2004-2013). ....................... 75
Table 59. Revenue by Source by Year (2010-2013).................................................... 76
Table 60. Parameters and criteria in the delineation of terrestrial ECAN zones (from
SEP Law and PCSD Resolution 05-250). .................................................................... 81
Table 61. Parameters and criteria in delineating coastal/marine ECAN zones. .......... 82
Table 62. Activities allowed in the ECAN zones (from PCSD Resolution 05-250 and
PCSD Resolution 06-270)............................................................................................ 85
Table 63. Spatial and non-spatial data sources related to ECAN mapping. ................ 87
Table 64. Data requirements for ECAN zones management planning. ....................... 89
Table 65. NIPAS areas of Palawan Province............................................................... 93
Table 66. Thematic planning modules for use in ECAN planning .............................. 94
Table 67. A sector-based list of spatial data needs for sustainable development
planning (adapted from Loterte-Avillanosa, unpublished). ......................................... 96
Table 68. Sample log frame for the forestry sector (Phil-CSD 2013). ........................ 99
Table 69. Sample core themes for sustainable development planning. ..................... 100
Table 70. Possible sustainability criteria for projects in Palawan. ............................ 101
Table 71. Possible courses of action in the forest and biodiversity sector (Phil-CSD
2013). ......................................................................................................................... 101
Table 72. Possible courses of action in the municipality ........................................... 103
Table 73. Identified Stakeholders Consulted in the Key Informant Interview and
Focused Group Discussion for Integrated Threats Analysis...................................... 106
Table 74. Threat Analysis in Core Zone using DPSIR Matrix .................................. 107

v
Table 75. Threat Analysis in Restricted Use and Transition Zone using DPSIR Matrix
.................................................................................................................................... 110
Table 76. Threat Analysis in Controlled Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix ................. 112
Table 77. Threat Analysis in Traditional Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix ................. 113
Table 78. Threat Analysis in Multiple Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix ..................... 115
Table 79. Threat Analysis in Tribal/Ancestral Zone using DPSIR Matrix................ 119
Table 80. Current initiatives in environmental governance of the local government
unit of Coron, Palawan. ............................................................................................. 120
Table 81. Proposed ECAN Zones of Coron............................................................... 127
Table 82. Ridge-to-reef management framework of ECAN zones............................ 128
Table 83. Recommended strategies to address general threats to sustainable
development of ECAN zones..................................................................................... 130
Table 84. ECAN zones management goals and framework applicable to Coron
Municipality. .............................................................................................................. 132
Table 85. Activities allowed in the ECAN zones (based on PCSD Resolution 05-250
and PCSD Resolution o6-270) vis-à-vis general and specific strategies in each zone.
.................................................................................................................................... 134
Table 86. Action Plan in each of the ECAN Zone and implementing organizations 151
Table 87. Indicative budget for Plan implementation ................................................ 154
Table 88. List of potential foreign funding organizations ......................................... 161
Table 89. Action Plan Matrix for threats identified in ECAN Zones in Coron ........ 206

vi
List of Figures

Figure 1. Hierarchy and linkages of plans (HLURB 2006, modified)................................ 4


Figure 2. Location Map of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan. ....................................... 9
Figure 3. Administrative Boundary Map of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan. .......... 10
Figure 4. Elevation map of Coron, Palawan. .................................................................... 13
Figure 5. Slope Map of Coron, Palawan. .......................................................................... 14
Figure 6. Geologic Map of Coron, Palawan. .................................................................... 15
Figure 7. Land Classification Map of Coron, Palawan. .................................................... 20
Figure 8. Geohazard Map of Coron, Palawan................................................................... 24
Figure 9. Population Pyramid of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan (2007 V.S
2010). ................................................................................................................................ 33
Figure 10. Busuanga Island Grid Map. ............................................................................. 68
Figure 11. Organizational Structure of the Local Government Unit of Coron, Palawan. 71
Figure 12. Configuration of biosphere reserve zones. ...................................................... 77
Figure 13. Terrestrial ECAN zones map of Palawan Province (Kalayaan Municipality,
also in Palawan, is not shown). ......................................................................................... 79
Figure 14. Palawan Tribal Ancestral Zones (TAZ) proclaimed by PCSD. ...................... 92
Figure 15. DPSIR Framework for Threat Analysis. ....................................................... 105
Figure 16. Proposed municipal ECAN zone map of Coron, Palawan. ........................... 126
Figure 17. The positive reinforcing outcomes of SEP-ECAN. ....................................... 133
Figure 18. Institutionalization of the ECAN (Note: The boxed portion in red is the
critical part of EZP Administration.) .............................................................................. 159

vii
Acronyms

ABC Association of Barangay Captains


BFAR Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources
BFARMC Barangay Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Management
Council
BFP Bureau of Fire Protection
BISELCO Busuanga Island Electric Cooperative
CADT Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title
CBFM Community-Based Forest Management
CBMS Community-Based Monitoring System
CBR Crude Birth Rate
CDH Coron District Hospital
CDR Crude Death Rate
CDP Comprehensive Development Plan
CHE College of Human Ecology
CIPC Calamian Island Power Corporation
CLUP Comprehensive Land Use Plan
CLWUP Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plan
CRM Coastal Resources Management
CRWSA Coron Rural Waterworks& Sanitation Association
DA Department of Agriculture
DAR Department of Agrarian Reform
DepEd Department of Education
DCERP Department of Community and Environmental Resource
Planning
DENR- Department of Environment and Natural Resources –
CENRO Community Environment and Natural Resources Office
DILG Department of Interior and Local Government
DOH Department of Health
DOT Department of Tourism
DPSIR Driver Pressure State Impact Response
DPWH Department of Public Works and Highways
DRRMP Disaster Risk and Reduction Management Plan
DSWD Department of Social Welfare and Development
ECAN Environmentally Critical Areas Network
ECC Environmental Compliance Certificate
EP Ecological Profile
ERMP ECAN Resource Management Plan
EZP ECAN Zoning Plan
FAO Food and Agriculture Organization
FGD Focus Group Discussion
FLUP Forest Land Use Plan
FMB Forest Management Bureau
GIS Geographic Information System
GMP General Management Plan
HLURB Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board
HSP Human Settlements Planning
IEC Information Education Campaign
IP Indigenous People

viii
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
LDIP Local Development Investment Plan
LGU Local Government Unit
MAO Municipal Agriculturist’s Office
MDRRMC Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction Management Council
MEO Municipal Engineer’s Office
MENRO Municipal Environmental and Natural Resources Office
MHO Municipal Health Office
MLGU Municipal Local Government Unit
MPA Marine Protected Area
MPDC Municipal Planning and Development Council
MPDO Municipal Planning and Development Office
MSWD Municipal Social and Welfare Development
MTO Municipal Tourism Office
NAPOCOR National Power Corporation
NCIP National Commission for Indigenous Peoples
NGO Non-government Organization
NIA National Irrigation Authority
NIPAS National Integrated Protected Areas System
NSO National Statistics Office
PCSD Palawan Council for Sustainable Development
PCSDS Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff
PNP Philippine National Police
PO Peoples’ Organization
PSA Philippine Statistics Authority
PSU Palawan State University
RHU Rural Health Unit
SB Sangguniang Bayan
SEMP Sustainable Environmental Management Project
SEP Socio-Economic Profile
SEP Strategic Environmental Plan
SWMP Solid Waste Management Plan
WEO Wildlife Enforcement Officer
YKR Yulo King Ranch

ix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This report presents all the technical undertakings upon the formulation of
ECAN Resource Management Plan of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan.
Established by Republic Act No. 7611 otherwise known as the “Strategic
Environmental Plan (SEP) for Palawan Act,” Environmentally Critical Areas Network
(ECAN) was used as the main strategy for the protection of Palawan’s biosphere.
Conforming to this regulation, the Department of Community and Environmental
Resource Planning- College of Human Ecology (DCERP-CHE) at University of the
Philippines Los Baños (UPLB) and the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development
(PCSD) created a partnership to conduct an ECAN Resource Management Planning
of Coron, Palawan.
The Municipality of Coron is geographically located in the northernmost part
of Palawan. It is one of the four municipalities which comprise the Calamian Group
of Islands. With a total land area of 69, 247.2 hectares, it has seven urban barangays,
eleven rural barangays and five rural-island barangays and located in it are 10 marine
protected areas. Coron is home to 349 species of coral reefs, 9 species of sea grass
communities and 2,690.80 hectares of mangrove cover. As of 2010, NSO recorded a
total of 42, 678 residents and 9,775 households in the municipality with a population
density of 62 persons per square kilometer. Aside from Tagalog, the native dialect
such as Cuyunon, Tagbanua, and Kagayanen are commonly used as means of daily
communication. Coron is home to four IP groups namely Agutaynen, Cagayanen,
Cuyunen and Tagbanua. Two barangays in the municipality own CADT’s while the
CADT’s of four more are on process. Its local economy is composed of 42.33%
revenues from the primary sector (Agricultural, Livestock, Fisheries and Forestry)
14.67% Secondary sector (Manufacturing, mining, construction, electricity, gas and
water) and 42.79% Tertiary Sector (Trade, transportation, communication, finance,
real estate and business services) Employment rate in 2010 is at 60.98%. Currently,
Coron’s tourism is prospering and is also a leading livelihood source for the locals.
For its infrastructures, it has a total of 233,415 kilometers of road networks, 16
bridges, 1 cemetery, 1 public hospital, 86 schools, irrigation systems located at
Barangay Borac and San Nicolas, a dry and wet market at Poblacion 3. Energy is
supplied by Calamian Islands Power Corporation (CIPC) and distributed by
BISELCO (Busuanga Island Electric Cooperative), Water, on the other hand comes
from 3 levels of supply system which are Level 1: deep wells, pumped shallow wells,
open dug wells and virgin springs, Level 2: communal water systems and Level 3:
water from Mabentagen Dam distributed by Mactan Rock Inc and CRWSA (Coron
Rural Waterworks& Sanitation Association). At present, the municipality of Coron is
spearheaded by the Mayor, Honorable Clara E. Reyes and the Municipal Vice-Mayor,
Honorable Jim Gerald L. Pe.

Situational analysis plays a vital role in the preparation of the ECAN Resource
Management Plan. In the course of the study, this phase involved the ecological
profiling and threats analysis. In assessing Coron’s ecological situation, both primary
x
and secondary data gathering were conducted. On the other hand, review of existing
plans, Key Informant Interviews (KII) and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) were
performed in identifying threats, opportunities, and proposed action of the key
stakeholders which were all grounded on ECAN zones. The municipal profile and the
threats analysis were presented and verified during the one-day ECAN Resource
Management Planning Workshop on April 26, 2016. Also, identification of major
threats and giving corresponding action plans to those was held. All comments,
suggestions, and recommendations during the workshop were taken into account and
analyzed as part of the preparation of ECAN Resource Management Plan of Coron
Palawan. The major threats in each ECAN zone, which were given prioritized actions
were as of follows:
I. Core Zone
A. Terrestrial
1. Illegal cutting of naturally grown trees
2. Poaching of Fauna Species
3. Kaingin Farming
4. Forest fire/ Grass Fire
B. Coastal
1. Poaching of threatened aquatic species
2. Illegal cutting of mangroves
3. Intrusion of Commercial Fishing Vessel
II. Buffer Zone
A. Restricted and Transitional Zone
1. Kaingin shifting cultivation
2. Timber poaching
B. Controlled Use Zone
1. Timber Poaching
2. Irresponsible use of fire in honey collection
C. Traditional Use Zone
1. Insufficient water supply in agricultural lands
2. Unsustainable collection of honey
III. Multiple Use Zone
1. Improper waste disposal (domestic, industrial, tourism and special
wastes)- both coastal and terrestrial
2. Use of illegal drugs and vices
3. Change in land use of mangrove areas
4. Insufficient hospital facilities, personnel and medicines
5. Narrow roads
IV. Tribal Ancestral Zone

xi
1. Understanding of IPRA Law
2. Lack of waste disposal and management system
3. Presence of communicable diseases & respiratory infections

These mentioned above threats were chosen by the stakeholders as the primary
concerns of each ECAN zones in the municipality. Also, corresponding proposed
actions to respond and resolve these threats were given. Main strategies used in
mitigating the threats were: Information, Education, and communication (IEC)
Campaign, Enforcement, Institutional Capacity Building, Provision of Socio-
Economic Services and Technology, Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Protection, and
Human Resource Management.

xii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN


By virtue of Republic Act 7611 (the 1992 Strategic Environmental Plan for
Palawan Act, or the SEP Law), Palawan Province is to be subdivided according to a
zoning strategy called the ECAN (Environmentally Critical Areas Network). The
ECAN is a graded system of protection and development control over the whole of
Palawan. The need for ECAN Zoning arises from Palawan’s characteristics as an area
with natural resources of high conservation value and, increasingly, as a center of
economic development. Furthermore, Palawan’s ecosystems are fragile and
vulnerable to natural and man-made threats like climate change, pollution,
environmental degradation, and loss of resources.
The projected increase in Palawan population due to high birth rate and in-
migration is also expected to overshoot the carrying capacity of its natural systems.
There is, therefore, a need to plan ahead for the optimal use of resources and the
segregation of Palawan’s land and water territories into zones that will sustain their
land use potential and life-support systems. This ECAN Plan shall cover the basic
strategies for the sustainable development of the Municipality of Coron. The ultimate
goal is to proactively respond to the evolving challenges and opportunities in the
municipality and to address the issues and problems encountered by its environmental
managers while pursuing sustainable development.

1.2 TARGET USERS OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN


The target users of this Plan are the municipality’s local government unit
administrators, district environmental managers, municipal land use planners, NGOs,
academe, and other stakeholders interested in local land use planning. They are the
ones involved in implementing on-site some of the identified plans, programs, and
projects in this Plan.

1.3 LEGAL BASES OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN


The SEP is the rubric of all governmental environmental plans in Palawan.
Section 6 on “legal effects” of the SEP Law provides that the “SEP shall serve as the
framework to guide the government agencies concerned in the formulation and
implementation of plans, programs and projects affecting the environment and natural
resources of Palawan.”
To implement the provisions of the SEP Law, one of the powers and functions
(Section 19) of its administrative body, the PCSD, is to “coordinate with the local
governments to ensure that the latter's plans, programs and projects are aligned with
the plans, programs and policies of the SEP.” The following table summarizes the
relevant provisions of the PCSD Resolution 05-250 and 06-270, which lays down the
SEP Law’s implementing guidelines on the ECAN. These provisions serve as bases
and guide for formulating the ECAN Zoning Plan of Coron and other municipalities
of Palawan.

1
Table 1. Sections of PCSD Resolution 05-250 related to the ECAN Zoning Plan.
Relevant Section of Provisions
PCSD Resolution 05-
250
Section 25. After the approval of the ECAN Map, the LGU through its ECAN
Preparation of the Board and with the assistance of the PCSDS, shall prepare an
ECAN Zoning Plan ECAN Zoning Plan taking into consideration factors relevant to
local land/water use planning.
The ECAN Zoning Plan shall include among others the following:
i. Description of the Area
ii. Goals/Objectives
iii. Zoning Strategy (priorities, methodologies for marking zone
boundaries)
iv. Zone Management (activities regulatory measures policy
directions)
v. Administration
vi. Monitoring and Evaluation
vii. Annexes (maps and references)
Section 26. The ECAN Zoning Plan shall be prepared by the ECAN Board to
LGU Adoption of the be organized or reconstituted in each municipality/city as provided
ECAN Zoning Plan in Sections 37-39 of these guidelines. The Plan shall be presented
for public hearing in the respective locality before final adoption
by the Sangguniang Bayan/Panglunsod and endorsement to the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan for subsequent approval of the Council
through the Council Staff.
Section 39. The Board is vested with the following powers and functions: 9.
Powers and Functions Through the ECAN working teams, undertake the following:
of the ECAN Board a. Provide technical support to the LGU in implementing the
ECAN;
b. Facilitate the flow of activities, documents, information and
decision-making process related to the efficient and effective
implementation of the ECAN;
c. Assist in data acquisition, analysis, monitoring and evaluation
of environmental conditions in the light of SEP and ECAN
targets and objectives;
d. Assist PCSD in the conduct of information and education
activities;
e. Facilitate the formulation of ECAN Zoning Plan and its
harmonization with the Municipal Comprehensive Land and
Water Use Plan; and
f. Other activities in pursuance of sustainable development
objectives.
Chapter III. Section 30. ECAN as Framework for Municipal Planning. The
Harmonization with the ECAN Zoning Plan (EZP) shall serve as the general physical plan
Municipal Land and of every municipality/city. It shall be the basis of other planning
Water Use Plans activities such as land use planning, tourism master planning and
resource management planning as a whole. The Comprehensive
Land and Water Use Plans of the respective LGUs shall be
anchored on the ECAN Zoning Plan.
Section 31. Integration/Harmonization of ECAN Zoning Plan with
the Municipal Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plan. The
implementation of the ECAN Zoning Plan which may include
policy formulation, legislation, setting up of permitting system,
monitoring and other related activities, as hereinafter provided,

2
Relevant Section of Provisions
PCSD Resolution 05-
250
shall be the joint responsibility of the Local Government Units and
the Council Staff through the Municipal ECAN Board. To attain
this objective, the Plan may be integrated into or harmonized with
the Municipal Comprehensive Land & Water Use Plan.

The following table summarizes the national laws and local issuances relevant
to coming up with a local land use and sustainable development planning in the
Municipality of Coron and other areas of Palawan.

Table 2. Laws and issuances related to local land use and development planning.
Law/Issuance Description/Related Provisions
1987 Constitution, Article XIII, Section 1 – The state shall regulate the acquisition,
Article 3 ownership, use and disposition of property and its increments.
Article XII, Section 3 – Lands of the public domain are classified into
agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands and national parks.
Agricultural lands of the public domain may be further classified by law
according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable lands of
the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands.
Section 5 – The State shall protect the rights of indigenous cultural
communities to their ancestral lands to ensure their economic, social,
and cultural well-being.
RA 7160 (Local Vests upon the LGUs the responsibility of land use planning and
Government regulation in their capacity as “promoter” of the general welfare.
Code) Mandates the provincial, city and municipal legislative bodies of the
LGUs to adopt their respective comprehensive land use plan and enact
the same through zoning ordinances (for city and municipal levels)
Sec. 20(c) – The local government units shall, in conformity with
existing laws, continue to prepare their respective comprehensive land
use plans enacted through zoning ordinances which shall be the primary
and dominant bases for the future use of land resources: Provided, That
the requirements for food production, human settlements, and industrial
expansion shall be taken into consideration in the preparation of such
plans
Sec. 3(i) – Local government units shall share with the National
Government the responsibility in the management and maintenance of
ecological balance within their territorial jurisdiction, subject to the
provisions of this Code and national policies.
CLWUP and Zoning Ordinance (LGC Sec. 20, 447, 458, 468)
Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP) and
Local Development Investment Plan (LDIP) (LGC Sec. 109)
RA 6657 Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law
RA 7586 National Integrated Protected Areas System
(NIPAS)
RA 7942 Mineral Resources Development Act
RA 8371 Indigenous Peoples Rights Act
RA 8435 Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act
RA 8550 Fisheries Code
RA 9729 Climate Change Act of 2009
RA 10121 Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010
PD 705 Revised Forestry Code

3
EO 72 Provides for the preparation and implementation of the Comprehensive
Land Use Plans of LGUs pursuant to the Local Government Code

1.4 EXISTING LAND USE PLANNING AND REGULATORY


FRAMEWORKS IN PALAWAN
At the provincial level, the planning situation in Palawan is a preponderance
of overlapping and interconnected mandates, institutions, and plans governing land
use. A flowchart showing the relationship of the several planning documents is shown
in the figure below. It shows multi-objective plans being implemented by multi-level
institutions. The ECAN Plan is shown on the left side of the City/Municipal (C/M)
CLWUP. The ideal case is for the two plans - the ECAN Plan and the CLWUP - to be
“horizontally integrated” with each other.

P ECAN
Plan

C/M ECAN
Plan

Figure 1. Hierarchy and linkages of plans (HLURB 2006, modified).


The red boxes and lines show the City/Municipal (C/M) ECAN Zoning Plan, its linkage and horizontal
integration with the C/M CLWUP and its vertical integration with the Provincial ECAN Zoning Plan.
The Provincial ECAN Zoning Plan is likewise linked and horizontally integrated to the Provincial
CLWUP.

4
CHAPTER 2: ECOLOGICAL PROFILE

2.1 HISTORY
The name Coron, meaning “pot” in Cuyonon was given by Don Nicolas
Manlavi y Ledesma, a native of Cuyo, who migrated to and settled in Banuang Daan,
a barangay about 10 kilometers away from the town proper of Coron. In another
version, the Tagbanuas named the place “Coron” meaning enclosed since the place is
almost bounded by tall mountains on its three sides. That place is now known as
Banuang Daan in Coron Island.
Two groups pioneered inhabitation in Coron. First came the Tagbanuas, a sea-
faring group who lived on fishing and crude agriculture. The Calamianes, a group
who descended from the first wave of Malay immigrants who graced the Philippine
lands between 20 BC and 100 AD came to Coron too. The Tagbanuas and the
Calamianes were the ancestors of the Igorots and Bontocs of the Mountain
Province.(FLUP, 2014) Intermarriages of immigrants from Visayas, Cuyo, Agutyo,
Cagayancillo and other regions caused Calamianens to lose their tribal identity.
During the last centuries of the Spanish regime, the immigrants who settled in
the Calamian group of Islands were the Sandovals and Rodriguezes from Culion, the
Vincuas from Cagayancillo in Coron Island and Don Nicolas Manlavi y Ledesma who
settled in the mainland of Busuanga. In 1749, Pedro Vincua from Cagayancillo led in
establishing an organized government through an authority of the Governor General
to make Coron a “visita” under the jurisdiction of Culion, which was the “matria” at
that time. This was officially named Peñon de Coron and this existed for more than
fifty years.
In 1902, Coron was registered as a town with Don Vicente Sandoval as their
first Alcalde Mayor. The name of the municipality was then changed from Peñon de
Coron to Coron. The early 20th century brought about different industries to Coron.
In 1939, Coron, being a place with mountains rich with mineral reserves experienced
a mining boom until the outbreak of the World War II in 1942. The Japanese occupied
the mining camps in July 1942 and resumed to manganese mining then. Coron was
liberated from the Japanese forces in 1945. On the other hand, deep sea fishing
flourished in Coron in 1947. The population increased due to the opportunities of the
municipality. People from all over the country worked either as fishermen or miners.
Today, the Municipality of Coron is a premier tourist destination for locals
and foreigners for its breathtaking views and scenic places like the beautiful white
sand beaches, marine parks, preserved wreckage of war, dive sites and coral reefs
coupled with excellent services and accommodations, and its hospitable people.

2.2 GEO-PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT


A. Geographical Location and Area
The Municipality of Coron is geographically located in the northernmost part
of Palawan. It is located approximately 367 km away from Manila and 363 km from
Puerto Princesa City. It is situated between the geographical coordinates of 11° 59'

5
55" North latitude and 120° 12' 21" East longitude. Coron is bordered on the west by
the municipality of Busuanga, on the east by Coron Bay, on the southwest by the
municipality of Culion, on the farther south by the municipality of Linapacan and on
the north by Mindoro Island (Figure 2).

B. Political Boundary and Island Jurisdiction


Coron is one of the four municipalities which comprise the Calamian Group of
Islands. It covers half of the Busuanga Island with a total land area of 69 247.2
hectares. The region is divided to the following: seven urban barangays covering
7,173.33 hectares (15.74%), eleven rural barangays with approximately 33,229.85
hectares (72.91%), and five rural-island barangays measuring 5,175.90 hectares
(11.36%). Barangay Bintuan has the largest land area with 6,358.03 hectares
(13.95%) while Barangay Poblacion 3 has the least land area, covering 2.95 hectares
only (Table 3).
Table 3. Existing Land Area of All Barangays in Coron, Palawan.
No. Barangay Land Area (hectares)
A. Urban Poblacion 1 207.6
Poblacion 2 8.6
Poblacion 3 14.2
Poblacion 4 116.1
Poblacion 5 531
Poblacion 6 2,722.7
Tagumpay 2,586.3
Sub-Total 6,186.5
B. Rural
Bintuan 19,805.1
Borac 4,380.7
Buenavista 1,301
Decabobo 1,434.8
Decalachao 7,784.3
Guadalupe 3,854.2
Malawig 866.2
Marcilla 3,360.2
San Jose 1,297.8
San Nicolas 5,347.7
Turda 2,789
Sub-Total 52,221
C. Island Banuang Daan 3,165.2
Bulalacao 1,554.4
Cabugao 3,942
Lajala 1,312.2
Tara 865.9
Total 10,839.7
Grand Total 69,247.2
Source: FLUP, 2014

The islands and islets of the municipality of Coron are under the jurisdiction of
barangays nearby its location. They have a total land area of 3,961.21 hectares. Both

6
Decabobo and Tara have jurisdiction on seven islands, Lajala with six islands, San
Jose and Bulalacao with four islands each, Marcilla and Bintuan with two islands
each, and one island each under the jurisdiction of barangays Buenavista, Cabugao,
Malawig and Turda. The geographical setting of the specific island under the
jurisdiction of each barangay of Coron is presented in Table 4.

Table 4. Islands under the Jurisdiction of Specific Barangay of the Municipality of


Coron.
Barangay Island Area
Bintuan Dibatunan Island 14.45
Sangat Island 522.03
Apo Island 896
Lusong
Decalbe
Buenavista (CR) Licatub Island 173.48
Napasqued Island
Jalenget
Bulalacao Bulalacao Island 1252.61
Guintungauan Island 14.37
Malaposo Island 3.68
Mininlay Island 24.17
Canipo
Malcapuya
Calombuyan Island (small)
Calombuyan Island (big)
Banana Island (Isla de Saging)
Detaytayan Island
Bulog Island 1
Bulog Island 2
Cabugao Delian Island 232.1
Banuang daan Coron Island 7,000
Decabobo Bungay Island 1.46
Cabilauan Island 564.42
Dibuloc Island 9.42
Dicapajan Island 6.52
Dimalanta Island 23.59
Diatoy Island 13.9
Lawi Island 60.58
Cabilauan Island
Dibuyod Island 18.16
Dinanglet Island 2.73
Lajala Malapina Island 39.72
Marinon Island 16.16
Mayanpayan Island 7.34
Uson Island 23.08
CYC Island
Marcilla Dibatang Island 22.01
Dinaran Island 60.19
San Jose (CR) Colocoto Island 0.95
Dimaguiat Island 15.69
Dumumpalit Island 12.95
Malpagalen Island 2.56

7
Tara Buntac Island 141.72
Calanhayoun Island 31.65
Camanga Island 53.28
Camanga Maliit Island 6.99
Lagat Island 32.35
Malubutglubut Island 9.08
Tara Island 519.42
Turda Dimilan Island 9.36
Total 3961.21
Source: FLUP, 2014

8
Figure 2. Location Map of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan.

9
Figure 3. Administrative Boundary Map of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan.

10
C. Topography
Elevation
Coron’s topography features a rugged and mountainous terrain. Among all the
barangays of the municipality, four are at an elevation of 550-62 meters namely,
Banuang Daan, Cabugao, Poblacion VI and Tagumpay. The elevation of the forest
lands which ranges from 0-50 meters to 550-621 meters above sea level, characterizes
the islands and islets within Coron. The highest elevations in the municipality are
found to be at the south and western corner of its boundary with Busuanga which
comprises a part of the Coron Range.
The municipality is surrounded by narrow, sandy beaches and outlined by
sheer, vertical limestone cliffs which reach up to 600 meters and extend as outcrops
up to two kilometers inland. Among its coastal areas, two are relatively flat which
coincides with the residential areas of Banuang Daan and Cabugao. One passage to
such areas is a small cove fringed with strips of mangrove forest.
Meanwhile, among the tallest mountain peaks of the municipality are the
Tundarala with an elevation of 1,040 ft., Cabugao with 1,000 ft., Manaepet with 960
ft., Calindo with 930 ft., and Singay with 870 ft. The specific elevation of each
barangay is further illustrated in Figure 4.

Slope
The slope of the municipality is generally moderate at 8-15 % slopes with an
area of 19,517.86 hectares which, given the appropriate soil management and proper
housing development, are suitable for expansion of agriculture and human
settlements. This slope range covers 31.2% of the 23 barangays. Meanwhile, 24.4% of
the 18 barangays have flat slope of 0.3% which are potentially suitable for urban and
agriculture development. Only about 20% of the municipality has slopes that are
greater than 50% slope and about 38% are areas with less than 18% slope. The least
slope in the municipality is 18-30% which includes 14 of the barangays with an
aggregate area of 9,510.59 hectares which are mainly classified as forest lands. The
specific slopes of each barangay are further illustrated in Table 3 and Figure 4.

Geology
Coron is a wedge-shaped limestone island. It is widely dominated by Permian
Limestone of Jurassic origin with few of its coastal areas being covered by mangrove
forests. The municipality is surrounded with large Granite rock formations which
make up most of its islands. Generally, it is assessed as the Northern Palawan Block
which extensively underlain by metamorphic rocks. This rock formation has been
catalyzed under Luminangcong Formation, interspersed with sedimentary deposits
from Guinio Formation and then formed as the Coron Limestone.
Its geology is underlain by chert and recent alluvial deposit. Chert can be
found in the northern and southern hills of the island. Good outcrops of folded and
fractured chert beds are exposed along the cliffs and foot slopes of the hills. Also, the
municipality has predominantly rough mountainous soils. These areas are found to

11
have abundant reserves of manganese.
The geologic settings of the various barangays of the Municipality of Coron
are divided into three, namely: Cretaceous, Oligo-Miocene, and those with unknown
setting. Nineteen (19) out of the 23 barangays of Coron were of the cretaceous setting.
It covers the largest area of the forest lands. On the other hand, only Banuang Daan
and Cabugao are within the Oligo-Miocene geologic setting and 12 out of 23
barangays belong to an unknown geologic setting. The specific barangays and its
specific areas within the geologic setting could be further discerned in Figure 6.

D. Soils

The municipality has recorded four types of soil namely, Coron clay loam,
Busuanga Loam, Mountain soils and hydrosol. The soils of Coron, particularly those
located in plains, valleys, plateaus, are made up of salty clay loam. Some portion of
the coastal plains on the South are concentrated with hydrosol while some valleys
have rich Busuanga Loam. The soils in the mountains and hillsides have poor fertility
and rocky in nature. This soil type is suitable for the growth of grass and ironwood.
Meanwhile, the lowland areas have been found to be suitable for rice, root crops and
tree crops. Soils in the plain which is made up of alluvial deposits generally lacks
internal drainage, while soil of the uplands are residual soils formed from underlying
bedrock with excessive external drainage (Table 5).

Table 5. Types of Soil of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan.


Soil Type Land Area Coverage (hectares)
Coron clay loam 30,824.16
Busuanga Loam 7,500.00
Mountain soils (undifferentiated) 24,353.04
Hydrosol 6,570.00
Total 69,247.2
Source: FLUP, 2014

12
Figure 4. Elevation map of Coron, Palawan (Source: FLUP, 2014)

13
Figure 5. Slope Map of Coron, Palawan (Source: FLUP, 2014)

14
Figure 6. Geologic Map of Coron, Palawan. (Source: FLUP, 2014)

E. Land Resources

Land Classification

According to the FLUP of Coron in 2014, the municipality possesses four


conventional land classifications such as Alienable and Disposable, Forestlands,
Unclassified Public Forest (UPF) and Bodies of Water. As seen in the Land

15
Classification Map of Coron, nine (9) of its twenty-three (23) barangays were noted to
have areas classified as forestland. On the other hand, there are still land
classifications that do not have data as indicated in Figure 7.

Existing General Land Use


As indicated in Table 6, the predominant land use in the municipality is forest
and grasslands which occupies 46.46% and 36.34% of the total municipal land area,
respectively. Areas utilized for agricultural uses accounts for almost 1,145.32 hectares
(1.69%) of the total land area of Coron. Built-up areas or lands which underwent
processing and are being used as base for dwelling units and infrastructure
utilities/facilities, have an aggregate total of almost 498.48 hectares. These are areas
where concentrations of population are engaged in economic, political, cultural and
social activities.
Table 6. Existing General Land Use.
General Land Use Categories Area (in has.) % to Total Land Area
Built-up Areas 498.48 0.74
Agricultural Areas 1145.32 1.69
Grasslands / Shrubs 31402.93 46.46
Mangrove Forest 2943.77 4.35
Forestlands 24565.50 36.34
CADT Areas 7040.99 10.42
Total 67596.99 100.00
Source: MPDO,2014

Urban Land Use

The Poblacion area is the central district of the municipality where the
Municipal Hall, Rural Health Unit and concentration of commercial establishments
are located. These six poblacion barangays have an aggregate land area of 6,165.07
hectares. This is equivalent to 9.12% of Coron’s total land area. The land uses in these
barangays are still of mixed use, although commercial and tourism establishments
prevail. Meanwhile, 81.87% of the municipality’s total urban land use is allotted for
residential use such as subdivisions, apartments and/or other housing facilities.
Institutions such as schools, hospitals, and churches constitute 5.72% or 28.50
hectares of the total land area of the municipality. Also, commercial establishments
generally located along the main road occupy a total land area of 37.87 hectares.
Lastly, open spaces in the municipality comprise 3.02% or 15.05 hectares of its total
land area (Table 7).

Table 7. Urban Land Use in Coron, Palawan.


Urban Land Use Categories Area (in has.) % to Total Land Area
Residential 408.11 81.87
Commercial 37.87 7.60
Institutional 28.50 5.72
Open Spaces 15.05 3.02
Roads 8.95 1.80
TOTAL 498.48 100.00
Source: MPDO. 2014
16
Tenurial Land Area
Seventeen out of twenty-three barangays is under CADC/CADT tenurial
instruments. For CADC/CADT purposes a total of 18,169.921 hectares are allocated.
On the other hand, 2,206.222 hectares are allotted to CBFMA which are concentrated
in Barangays Guadalupe, Barangay VI, San Nicolas and Tagumpay. In Decabobo and
Barangay V, 17.870 hectares are allotted to FLAg. Lastly, 1,741.99 hectares among
four (4) barangays are allotted to FLGA. The specific barangays and the specific area
for tenurial status could be discerned in Table 8.
The Busuanga Pasture Reserve (BPR), located within the uplands and
grassland areas of Busuanga Island covering portions of both municipalities of
Busuanga and Coron, is another parcel of land with a specific tenurial status. The
40,000 ha of land, known then as the Yulo King Ranch (YKR) and later as BPR, was
declared as a pasture reserve in 1975 by virtue of Proclamation No. 1387, where it
was withdrawn from sale, settlement, or any other form of disposition, exploration, or
exploitation except through lease (PCSD Resolution No. 99-145). It was later
sequestered by the Presidential Commission on Good Government (PCGG) in April
1986, and was later placed under the management of the Bureau of Animal Industry
(BAI) of the Department of Agriculture (DA) (Madrid, 2014). In 2010, President
Macapagal-Arroyo issued Proclamation No. 2057 placing the management and
administration of BPR under the Philippine Forest Corporation (PHILFOREST)
(Office of the President of the Philippines, 2013). PHILFOREST issued the Economic
Productivity out of Idle Lands (EPIL) Tenurial Instruments, awarding titles of the
20,726 ha of the BPR to corporations and individuals to develop the area.
Amidst the identified use of land and proclamations administering the
operations in the area, BPR was gradually encroached by illegal occupants. According
to the CBMS Survey 2011-2013, Barangays in the Municipality of Coron covered by
the BPR such as: Decalachao, San Nicolas, Guadalupe, Bintuan, and San Jose have
recorded a total of 115 families as informal settlers or 18 % of the identified total
informal settlers in the municipality.
In 2013, Proclamation No. 2057 was repealed by President Aquino thru
Proclamation No. 663 and transferred the administration of the BPR from
PHILFOREST to the Forest Management Bureau (FMB) of the DENR (Calica, 2013).
In 2014-2015, the DENR spearheaded the drafting of the Master Plan for the
Busuanga Pasture Reserve in response to various issues and overlapping tenurial
status created by the previous administration handling the BPR, but was later
extended as a Master Plan for the Busuanga Island Chain.
BPR occupies 21,141 ha of the Municipality of Coron and covers portions of
barangays Bintuan, Decalachao, Guadalupe, San Jose and San Nicolas (PCFS, 2014).

17
Ecological Footprint

The fishing ground of Coron has the highest ecological reserve of 326,917
GHa for the year 2015. In 2020, this productive space will still have the highest
reserve whose ecological reserve is 326,383 GHa. The municipality has a large
coastal/marine area covered which could be the reason for its high reserve for fishing
ground. On the other hand, the cropland requirement for food in the municipality
showed the highest ecological overshoot of 13,105.76 GHa for the year 2015. For
2020, the ecological overshoot of the said productive space will increase and will
remain as the highest overshoot. This could be due to the increasing population of the
municipality which exceeds the long term carrying capacity of the ascertained
productive space (Table 9.

18
Table 8. Covered Barangays with Tenurial Land Area.

CADC/CADT CBFMA FLAg FLGA Total


Barangay Perimeter Perimeter Perimeter Perimeter Perimeter
Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares Hectares
(m) (m) (m) (m) (m)
Banuang Daan 56,259.635 3,147.454 56,259.635 3,147.454
Borac 27,038.300 471.970 8,262.65 132.54 35,300.952 604.510
Buenavista (CR) 34,481.169 1,284.756 34,481.169 1,284.756
Bulalacao 48,750.323 1,450.564 39,756.77 679.25 88,507.093 2,129.814
Cabugao 87,700.694 3,923.417 87,700.694 3,923.417
Decabobo 54,362.817 1,335.008 1,150.989 7.540 55,513.806 1,342.548
Guadalupe 11,976.933 539.824 11,976.933 539.824
Lajala 33,533.74 851.43 33,533.737 851.430
Malawig 24,361.005 850.339 24,361.005 850.339
Marcilla 36,273.231 1,738.842 36,273.231 1,738.842
Barangay V (CR) 2,610.092 10.330 4,185.30 78.77 6,795.392 89.100
Barangay VI (CR) 15,403.973 851.935 15,403.973 851.935
San Jose (CR) 7,766.100 40.870 7,766.100 40.870
San Nicolas (CR) 8,547.332 319.629 13,434.550 491.384 21,981.882 811.013
Tagumpay (CR) 7,927.326 323.079 7,927.326 323.079
Tara 40,846.272 849.692 40,846.272 849.692
Turda 40,746.480 2,757.380 40,746.480 2,757.380
Total 467,133.358 18,169.921 48,742.782 2,206.222 3,761.081 17.870 85,738.46 1,741.99 605,375.680 22,136.003
Source: FLUP,2014

19
Figure 7. Land Classification Map of Coron, Palawan. (Source: FLUP, 2014)

20
Table 9. Ecological footprint of the Municipality of Coron1.

Requirement Overshoot/Reserve Fraction of land area


Year/ Ecological footprint
2013 2015 2020 2013 2015 2020 2013 2015 2020
variable (gha)
Cropland requirement for
17,782 18,831 21,731 (15,053.85) (16,102.65) (19,003.19) 0.23 0.24 0.29
food
Required forest for water 468 496 572 25,543 25,515 25,439 0.39 0.39 0.39
Required forest for timber
4,212 4,460 5,147 21,799 21,551 20,864 0.33 0.33 0.32
and fuelwood
Required fishing ground 3,276 3,469 4,003 327,110 326,917 326,383
Required built-up area 2,808 2,973 3,431 (2,233) (2,398) (2,856) 0.03 0.04 0.04
Required grazing area 936 991 1,144 36,750 36,695 36,542 0.56 0.56 0.56
Carbon dioxide uptake of
14,974 15,858 18,300 13,728 12,845 10,402 0.21 0.20 0.16
forests
Source: Philippine biocapacity of all land use types from Ewing et al. 2010, The Ecological Footprint Atlas 2010, except for forest land for
water, in South West resident, 2001

21
F. Climate

Coron experiences two pronounced seasons such as wet and dry. The rainy
months are from June to November, the rest are relatively dry. The driest months are
February and May. Its weather is characterized as sunny, dry and hot. The exceptions
are the months of July and August, where you can expect rainfall to be at its heaviest
because of the Habagat (southwest monsoon). December, January and February are
the coolest months due to the Amihan (northeast monsoon).
The minimum temperature in Coron ranges from 20°C to 22°C while the
maximum temperature ranges from 32°C to 41°C. Meanwhile, the average high
temperature of the municipality is recorded to be 41°C while the average low
temperature is 25.3°C. The maximum humidity of Coron was recorded to be 78-84%
which usually occurs during the months of June to November while the minimum
humidity was 69% observable on the month of May.

G. Natural Hazards/Constraints

Erosion
Soil erosion is a natural process wherein soil is removed from the land by
water, wind or other media. Rate of erosion is dependent upon physical factors such
as length and degree of slope, rainfall intensity, type and density of vegetation and the
inherent erodibility of the soil.
As reflected on the soil texture data of Coron in FLUP 2014, out of the total
60,973.623 hectares covering the perimeter of 2,302,769.201 meters of the total land
area of the 22 barangays, 7,134.076 hectares with a perimeter of 434,862.582 meters
are free from erosion while other areas are experiencing different intensity of erosion.
Approximately 23,530.884 hectares are slightly eroded while 24,537.654 hectares are
moderately eroded. The remaining 102.533 hectares is unclassified. Only Barangay
Tara was recorded as having not experience any soil erosion in their area. One can
deduce that the degree of soil erosion is affected by various factors particularly
topography, soil, climate, vegetation cover, and land management practices. Since
erosion can cause soil deterioration and low water quality, it is a concern that requires
attention so as to prevent it to reduce land productivity and pollution in water bodies.

Flooding
Coron is susceptible to flooding due to its island and coastal composition. As
shown in figure 8, the barangays that are affected by river and coastal flooding are the
portions of Barangays Poblacion 6, Decalachao, Borac, Guadalupe, and Bintuan.

Storm Surge
A storm surge is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water
commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical
cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones). The severity of which is affected by the
shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, and the timing

22
of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges.
Barangays Bulalacao, Lajala, Malawig, Tara and Turda are susceptible to
typhoon/storm/wave surges as indicated in Table 10.

Landslide
Highly susceptible areas to mass movements/landslide are concentrated along
roads, cut slopes, and stream embankments. They are mostly characterized by steep
slopes, fractured and loosely consolidated rock materials, and thick soil cover. The
barangays in the municipality of Coron that are susceptible to landslides are the
Banuang Daan, Cabugao, Poblacion VI, V, and IV.

H. Man-made Hazards

There are two man-made hazards that affect the municipality namely, domestic
fires and siltation. Domestic fires are generally triggered by the climate or other
human factors in the municipality. It usually occurs in all of its 23 barangays. On the
other hand, siltation triggered by the various human activities in Coron which is
commonly observed in barangays Bintuan, Tagumpay and Poblacion II, respectively.

I. Biological Hazards

The most common biological hazards that are observed in the municipality are
disease outbreaks like diarrhea and dengue which occurs among its barangays. Also,.
Coconut infestation has been observed in barangays Bulalacao and Malawig

J. Societal Hazards

Although not severe, risks posed byarmed conflict, stampede and act of
terrorism triggered by politics are societal hazards that affect all the barangays of the
municipality.

K. Technological Hazards

Poisoning is a common technological hazard in the municipality and can be


observed from all barangays.

23
Figure 8. Geohazard Map of Coron, Palawan. (Source: FLUP, 2014)

24
Table 10. Existing Hazards/Constraints in the Municipality of Coron.
NATURAL HAZARDS TRIGGERING VULNERABLE BARANGAY
PHENOMENA
Flood (river and Coastal Hydrologic(Typhoons) Portion of Barangays Poblacion
Flooding) 6, Decalachao, Borac,
Guadalupe, Bintuan
Typhoon/Storm/wave surges Meteorological –(cyclones) Bulalacao, Lajala, Malawig,
Hydrological – (Typhoons) Tara and Turda
Earthquakes- (tsunami)
Volcanic- (Tsunami)
Pestilence (Rats, golden Kuhol, Biological San Nicolas, Guadalupe, San
and Black Bug) Jose, Decalachao, Bintuan,
Turda, Borac
Land Slide Hydrologic(Typhoons) Banuang Daan, Cabugao,
Poblacion VI, V, IV, Tagumpay,
Borac, Bintuan, Guadalupe,
Marcilla
MAN MADE HAZARDS

Domestic Fire Climatologically/Human All 23 barangays


factor
Siltation Mining Bintuan, Tagumpay, Poblacion II
BIOLOGICAL HAZARDS
Outbreak of Disease Biological- All 23 barangays
(Diarrhea & Dengue outbreak)
Forest Fire Climatologically Bintuan, Decalachao, Poblacion
(extreme temperature, wild VI
fire, drought)
Coconut infestation Biological Bulalacao, Malawig

SOCIETAL HAZARDS
Armed Conflict, Stampede, Act Political All 23 barangays
of Terrorism
TECHNOLOGICAL
HAZARDS
Poisoning Biological All 23 barangays

Source: DRRMP, 2015

25
L. Biological Features

Terrestrial Flora (Coron Framework, 2006)


The dominant families identified in Coron in terms of biomass and areas
covered are Dipterocarpacea family in mid-slopes, the molave type of forest in the
foothills, and the brushlands and grasslands in undulating and level areas.
Mainland Coron is widely vegetated with dipterocarps and Katmon (Dillenia
philippinensis), Mankono (Xanthostemon spp.), Lanete (Wrigthia pubiscens),
Kamagong (Diospyrus philippinensis), Akle (Albizzia akle), Narra (Pterocarpus
indicus), Molave (Vitex parviflora), Antipolo (Artocarpus blancoi), Palasan (Calamus
merrillii) and Limuran (Calamus ornatus. Also, 25% of Coron island’s rolling and
steep hills are covered by tree species such as Taluto (Pterocymbium tinctorium), Ipil
(Instia bijuga), Amugis (Koordersiodendron pinnatum), and Dungon (Heritiera
sylvatica). Moreover, old growth forests are encountered in parts of barangays Borac
and San Nicolas. Grasslands are widely observed in barangays San Jose, Decalachao,
Guadalupe, Bintuan and San Nicolas. Lastly, dipterocarps, ipil and other important
forest tree species are found in San Nicolas, Borac and Bintuan.

Terrestrial Fauna
There are about 361 species from 26 orders and 91 families of wildlife
observed in the municipality of Coron. Moreover, a total of 125 terrestrial species
were observed with the following breakdown: 84 species of birds from 33 families
representing 38.5% of Palawan bird species; 22 mammals from 11 families or 37.9 of
recorded Palawan mammals, 15 reptiles from seven families or 23.4% of Palawan
reptiles; and four amphibians from three families or 19% of Palawan amphibians
(Table 11).
Table 11. Fauna Species Found in Coron Municipality.
Northern Palawan Recorded Number in
Types of wildlife Percent encountered
Records Survey Conducted
Birds 218 84 38.5
Mammals 58 22 37.9
Reptiles 64 15 23.4
Amphibians 21 4 19.0
Total 361 125 34.6
Source: FLUP, 2014

The municipality of Coron is also known for its rare species such as egret,
stork, tern, Philippine Cockatoo, Chest-winged cuckoo, black-nest swiftlet, blue-
winged pitta, flycatchers, Palawan tree shrew, Lesser bamboo Bat, Bearded Pig, Pond
turtles, Griffin’s Skink, White-striped Snake, Philippine Discoglossid frog and
Palawan toad. However, the municipality is also a sanctuary for endangered species of
Palawan Peacock Pheasant (Polyplectron emphanum), Blue-naped Parrot
(Tanygnathus lucionensis salvadorii), Palawan flycatcher (Ficedula platenae), Asiatic
pangolin (Manis javanica), Calamian Deer (Cervus porcinus calamianensis) and

26
Philippine crocodile (Crocodylus mindorensis).
Meanwhile, insectivores and carnivores appeared to dominate among the
fauna species indicating that more prey species are found in the area which support
the predators. Pollinator species were least abundant because of their highly
specialized diet. Pollen and seed eaters are few due to their seasonal food resource.

M. Coastal Resources (Coron Framework 2006)

Coral Reef
Coron serves as a home for coral reefs covering a total of 8,269.45 hectares
and dispersed within the whole locality. Bulalacao has the highest number of corals,
with a total of 2,861.68 hectares, or 34.61% of the total corals existing in the whole
municipality while Poblacion I, II, III and IV lacks the presence of coral reefs.
As of 2006, a total of 342 species distributed among 47 families of reef and
reef-associated fish were recorded to be present in Coron. These were comprised of
rabbitfish (Siganidae), eagle ray (Myliobatidae), snapper (Lutjanidae), bream
(Lethrinidae), soldierfish (Holocentridae), sweetlips (Haemulidae), anchovy
(Engraulidae), pufferfish (Tetraodontidae), filefish (Monacanthidae), wrasse
(Labridae), cardinal fish (Apogonidae), several species of parrotfishes, jacks
(Carangidae) and damselfish (Pomacentridae).
Furthermore, the most dominant species among the 47 fish families are
Pomacentridae (53 species), Labridae (49 species), Chaetodontidae (27 species),
Scaridae (24 species) and Acanthuridae and Serranidae with 18 species each. The
most prevailing fish families in terms of the frequency of occurrence in the stations
surveyed are: parrotfishes (Scaridae), damselfishes (Pomacentridae), wrasses
(Labridae), butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) and snappers (Lutjanidae). However,
the most common and often recorded species found in Coron were the spiny chromis
(Acanthochromis polyacanthus), the staghorn damselfish (Amblyglyphidodon
curacao), the Pacific longnose parrotfish (Hipposcarus longiceps), the barhead
spinefoot (Siganus virgatus), and the small-toothed whiptail (Pentapodus caninus),
and vermiculated angelfish (Chaetodontoplus mesoleucus).

Seagrass Communities
About nine (9) species of sea grass are found in Coron, these are; Enhalus
acoroides (most abundant); Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, Syringodium
isoetifolium Halodule pinifolia, Cymodocea rotundata, C. serrulata, Holodule
unniervis and Halophila sp. (minor or decipiens). The municipality of Coron has
comparably high dense seagrass than of those spared. Bulalacao, have the highest
number of dense seagrass present. On the other hand, highest number of sparse sea
grass present is found in Brgy. Bintuan, covering a total of 133.83 hectares.

Mangrove Forests
There were 18 true and 20 associate mangrove species that were recognized to
exist in Coron. These species belong to 14 families and 27 genera of vascular plants.

27
The most widely distributed species in Coron include: Rhizophora apiculata,
Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Rhizophora
stylosa, Bruguiera cylindricam Lumnitzera littorea, Ceriops tagal, Ceriops decandra,
and Heritiera littorea. The most abundant species are Rhizophora apiculata,
Rhizophora mucronata, Xylocarpus granatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and
Rhizophora stylosa. Coron has a total mangrove area of 2,690.80 hectares in which
25.55 % of it was in Brgy. Bintuan.
Table 12. Land and Sea Cover Classification of Coron, Palawan.
Corals Dense sea grass Sparse sea Mangroves
grass
Barangay Name Ha % Ha % Ha % Ha %
Banwang Daan 102.19 1.24 21.3 0.63 - - - -
Brgy. Pob. I - - 1.51 0.05 - - 5.95 0.22
Brgy. Pob II - - - - - - - -
Brgy. Pob. III - - 0.51 0.02 - - - -
Brgy. Pob. IV - - - - - - - -
Brgy. Pob. V 34.45 0.42 44.66 1.33 - - 49.00 1.82
Brgy. Pob. VI 4.83 0.06 19.05 0.57 - - 104.95 3.90
Bintuan 511.95 6.19 357.55 10.65 133.83 71.38 687.51 25.55
Borac 945.17 11.43 222.17 6.62 0.51 0.27 45.32 1.68
Buenavista 58.28 0.7 235.25 7.01 1.59 0.85 79.80 2.97
Bulalacao 2,861.68 34.61 469.43 13.98 4.04 2.16 165.81 6.16
Cabugao 1,137.46 13.75 197.36 5.88 2.81 1.5 30.60 1.14
Decabobo 270.48 3.27 175.1 5.21 8.49 4.53 99.35 3.69
Decalachao/YKR 90.84 1.1 63.97 1.91 - - 324.39 12.06
Guadalupe 105.92 1.28 231.26 6.89 - - 180.13 6.69
Lajala 361.99 4.38 165.04 4.92 0.73 0.39 142.23 5.29
Malawig 181.7 2.2 335.2 9.98 3.59 1.91 0.54 0.02
Marcilla 379.63 4.59 61.08 1.82 3.93 2.1 221.18 8.22
San Jose 176.74 2.14 98.24 2.93 9.24 4.93 133.36 4.96
San Nicolas 4.27 0.05 54.45 1.62 4.5 2.4 79.08 2.94
Tagumpay 384.34 4.65 80.81 2.41 8.76 4.67 105.39 3.92
Turda 657.54 7.95 523.77 15.6 5.47 2.92 210.68 7.83
Tara n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 19.65 0.73
Grand Total 8,269.45 100 3,357.71 100 187.5 100 2,690.80 100
Source: Coron Framework, 2006

Marine Mammals and Sea Turtles


Dugongs, although seldom sighted in Coron, have been reported to be
observed in the near shore waters of Bulalacao, Decabobo, Malawig, Marcilla, San
Jose, Tara and Turda. Sea turtles were mostly situated among inland barangays where
one species such as, leatherback turtles were often spotted. In addition, turtle nests
were reportedly found all over the municipal’s small island, particularly in the
northeastern part (Malpagalen, Deboyoyan, Dimampalic, Camanga, Lagat and Tinul).
Similarly, common sightings of dolphins in most island barangays (Cabilauan Island)
were reported. On the other hand, whales were mostly found in deep, offshore waters
between Tara, Malawig and Turda.

28
Marine Protected Areas (MPA’s)
There are ten established Marine Protected Area in the municipality of Coron.
The application for MPA in each community is initiated by different private entities
like ECOFISH, Malampaya Foundation, FAO, etc. However, the nearest political unit
or community is envisioned to manage the known MPA’s in Coron, namely: Lajala,
Balisungan, Minugbay-Malbato-Tagpi, Bulalacao, Siete Picados, Sangat-Decalve,
Marcilla, Bintuan, Decabobo, and San Jose. Aside from the barangay level
management and administration, the municipal government and various foundations
involved in some operations in the identified areas put efforts in serving the purpose
of MPA.

N. Water Resources

Surface water is utilized by locals of Coron for everyday living and varied
purposes. Surface water resources include rivers, lakes and springs. Among these are
the Tulbuan River, the Maquinit Hot Spring located in barangay Tagumpay, Lake
Abuyok with an estimated area of 420 square kilometers, Lake Kayangan, Lake
Tangenge, and Barracuda Lake.
Coron has an estimated marine water area of 360,310 hectares or 3,603.1
square kilometers within the entire municipality, stretching from Barangay Bintuan to
Barangay San Jose. This total water area includes 2,139 hectares of mangrove area
and coral reefs that both function as habitat for marine life. Out of the six coral reef
sites surveyed by the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff (PCSDS),
16.67 % of it still exist in excellent condition, while the remaining percentage needed
intense rehabilitation, according to the State of Environment Report in 2004.

2.3 POPULATION AND SOCIAL PROFILE

A. Population Size

According to the 2010 census of the National Statistics Office (NSO), the
municipality of Coron has a total population of 42,941. This phenomenal population
growth can be attributed to the influx of migrants, particularly fishing families who
settled in the coastal barangays of the town. Migrant traders from neighboring
provinces also contributed to population increase. These migrant traders speculate on
the thriving tourism industry in Coron which is anticipated to give opportunities in
business and trade.
The increase in population counts for the period 2000 to 2010 translated to an
annual population growth rate of 5.355 %. In 2020, Coron is projected to have a total
population of 72,348. Table 13 shows the list of population of Coron and its
barangays in 2010 including its projected population in 2020-2025.

29
Table 13. Projected Municipal Population of Coron Palawan per Barangay: 2015 –
2025.
Barangay Base Population
Year
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2025
2010
1. Barangay I 4073 5,295 5,579 5,877 6,192 6,524 6,873 8,921
2. Barangay II 876 1,115 1,174 1,237 1,304 1,373 1,447 1,878
3. Barangay III 632 836 881 928 977.7 1030.05 1,085 1,409
4. Barangay IV 693 892 940 990 1042.88 1098.72 1,158 1,503
5. Barangay V 2875 3,734 3,934 4,145 4,367 4,601 4,847 6,292
6. Barangay VI 2070 2,675 2,819 2,970 3,129 3,296 3,473 4,508
7. Tagumpay 6046 7,859 8,280 8,723 9,190 9,682 10,201 13,241
8. Banuang 818 1,059 1,116 1,175 1,238 1,305 1,375 1,784
Daan
9.. Bintuan 2357 3,066 3,230 3,403 3,585 3,777 3,979 5,165
10. Borac 2,430 3,177 3,347 3,526 3,715 3,914 4,124 5,353
11. Buenavista 940 1,226 1,292 1,361 1,434 1,511 1,592 2,066
12. Bulalacao 2818 3,679 3,876 4,083 4,302 4,532 4,775 6,198
13. Cabugao 1831 2,374 2,502 2,636 2,803 2,953 3,111 4,038
14. Decabobo 1125 1,449 1,527 1,609 1,695 1,785 1,881 2,442
15. Decalachao 1243 1,616 1,703 1,794 1,890 1,991 2,098 2,723
16. Guadalupe 2253 2,898 3,054 3,217 3,389 3,571 3,762 4,883
17. Lajala 1266 1,616 1,703 1,794 1,890 1,991 2,098 2,723
18. Malawig 556 725 763 804 847.34 892.71 941 1,221
19. Marcilla 1179 1,505 1,585 1,670 1,760 1,854 1,953 2,535
20. San Jose 1148 1,505 1,585 1,670 1,760 1,854 1,953 2,535
21. San Nicolas 1969 2,564 2,701 2,846 2,998 3,159 3,328 4,320
22. Tara 1429 1,839 1,938 2,042 2,151 2,266 2,387 3,099
23. Turda 2314 3,010 3,171 3,341 3,520 3,708 3,907 5,071
Total 42941 55,738 58,722 61,867 65,179.92 68,668.48 72,348 93,908
*computed by Practicum Team

B. Population Density
Coron has a total land area of 693.698 km² and has a computed population
density of 61.90 people per square kilometer in 2010.The result reveals that the
proportion between various barangays’ land area and population barangays are
generally different. Among its barangays, Poblacion II has the highest population
density in 2010 with 10186.05 people per square kilometer while Bintuan was the
barangay with the smallest population density of 11.90 people per square kilometer.
Results on specific population density per barangay classification could be discerned
further in the Table 14 presented below.
Table 14. 2010 Population Density in Each Barangay of Coron, Palawan.
Barangay 2010 Population Area (km²) Population Density
Barangay I 4073 2.076 1961.95
Barangay II 876 0.086 10186.05
Barangay III 632 0.142 4450.70
Barangay IV 693 1.161 596.90
Barangay V 2875 5.310 541.43

30
Barangay 2010 Population Area (km²) Population Density
Barangay VI 2070 27.227 76.03
Tagumpay 6046 25.863 233.77
Banuang Daan 818 31.652 25.84
Bintuan 2357 198.051 11.90
Borac 2,430 43.807 55.47
Buenavista 940 13.010 72.25
Bulalacao 2818 15.544 181.30
Cabugao 1831 39.420 46.45
Decabobo 1125 14.348 78.41
Decalachao 1243 77.843 15.97
Guadalupe 2253 38.542 58.46
Lajala 1266 8.662 146.16
Malawig 556 33.602 16.55
Marcilla 1179 12.978 90.85
San Jose 1148 53.477 21.47
San Nicolas 1969 14.348 137.23
Tara 1429 8.659 165.03
Turda 2314 27.890 82.97
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

C. Household Distribution

Table 15 shows that there are 9,775 households in the 23 barangays. Of these,
4,000 or 40.92% are in the rural barangays. Likewise, the lowest number of household
is at Barangay Banuang Daan with only 147 or 1.50% of the total households of the
Municipality. The average household size of the whole municipality of Coron is 4.77.
However, island barangays have a higher average household size at 4.92, followed by
the urban barangays at 4.78, and the rural barangays at 4.68.

Table 15. Number of Households and Average Household Size per Barangay.
Barangay Number of Percentage (%) Average
Household Household Size
A. Urban
1. Barangay I 880 9.00 5.35
2. Barangay II 161 1.65 4.45
3. Barangay III 186 1.90 3.96
4. Barangay IV 177 1.81 4.25
5. Barangay V 780 7.98 4.34
6. Barangay VI 474 4.85 4.56
7. Tagumpay 1,342 13.73 4.97
Sub total 4,000 40.92 4.78
B. Rural
1. Bintuan 546 5.59 4.42
2. Borac 488 4.99 4.77
3. Buenavista 200 2.05 4.57
4. Decabobo 241 2.47 4.88
5. Decalachao 210 2.15 5.31
6. Guadalupe 518 5.30 4.97
7. Malawig 149 1.52 5.05
8. Marcilla 287 2.94 4.55
9. San Jose 232 2.37 4.81
10. San Nicolas 500 5.12 4.43
11. Turda 608 6.22 4.43
Sub total 3,979 40.71 4.68

31
Barangay Number of Percentage (%) Average
Household Household Size
C. Island Barangays
1. Banuang Daan 147 1.50 5.46
2. Bulalacao 596 6.10 4.86
3. Cabugao 444 4.54 5.21
4. Lajala 301 3.08 4.47
5. Tara 308 3.15 4.83
Sub total 1,796 18.37 4.92
Grand Total 9,775 100.00 4.77
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

D. Age-Sex Distribution
According to Philippine Statistical Authority (2010), the male population in
the municipality is dominant over the female population. There are 22,076 males and
20,602 females in the municipality in year 2010. The computed sex ratio shows that
there are 107 males for every 100 females in Coron. Table 23 shows that the highest
population is from age group 5-9 years old. On the other hand, ages 60-64 years old
has the lowest number of population (Table 16).
Table 16. Population of Coron by Age and Sex Group.
Age Group Both Sexes Male Female
0-4 5,463 2,831 2,632
5-9 5,740 3,031 2,709
10-14 5,644 2,895 2,749
15-19 4,631 2,363 2,268
20-24 3,789 1,878 1,911
25-29 3,306 1,697 1,609
30-34 3,002 1,562 1,440
35-39 2,561 1,374 1,187
40-44 2,201 1,182 1,019
45-49 1,771 942 829
50-54 1,501 765 736
55-59 1,051 548 503
60-64 720 366 354
65 and over 1,298 642 656
Total 42,678 22,076 20,602
Source: PSA, 2010

Figure 9 illustrates the distribution of the population according to sex and age
group in the Municipality of Coron. The pyramid has a wide base and assumes a
triangular shape (expansive type) which indicates high fertility in an increasing
rateThe pyramid shows that the municipality’s population is still young with the
population below 15 years old comprising most of the total population. Moreover, the
category 60 and above has the least. High fertility rate may increase the population of
the municipality in a span of 10-15 years given that the young population is expected
to be the reproductive population eventually.

32
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION BY AGE GROUP AND GENDER
CY 2007 vs. CY 2010
65 and over
60 - 64
55 - 59
50 - 54 Female
45 - 49
2010
40 - 44
35 - 39 Male
AGE GROUP

30 - 34 2010
25 - 29 Female
20 - 24
15 - 19 2007
10 - 14
5-9
0- 4

10000 5000 0 5000 10000


Male Female
POPULATION

Figure 9. Population Pyramid of the Municipality of Coron, Palawan (2007 V.S


2010).

E. Dominant Language and Dialect


A mixture of different dialects and languages are understood and spoken by
the population. Due to influx of migrants, various languages were introduced in the
municipality of Coron. Aside from Tagalog, the native dialect such as Cuyunon,
Tagbanua, and Kagayanen were commonly used as means of daily communication.
Aside from Tagalog-based Filipino language, English is also once in a while spoken
and/or understood by the people of the communities while others can speak Chinese
and other foreign languages.
F. Religion
Residents of Coron belong to different religions and have various religious
beliefs. The results of the 2000 and 2007 census show that the dominant religion is
Roman Catholic, followed by Iglesia ni Cristo, Protestant, and Baptist respectively.

G. Indigenous People
Indigenous People of the Calamian Tagbanua community own 22,400 hectares
of the Coron Island which encompassing ancestral land and fishing grounds. The IPs’
culture remains nomadic with fishing and bird’s nest (balinsasayaw) collection as
their primary source of livelihood. Two barangays are present in the island; these are
Banuang Daan with 4,100 hectares and Cabugao with 5,262 hectares. Two barangays
in the municipality have approved CADT in 2012. These are areas within Coron
Island such as Banuang Daan and Cabugao Furthermore, IPs in barangays of
Buenavista, Malawig, Tara, and Turda have CADT application but lack documents.
Political structure is lead by elected leaders which represent the community in
all decision making especially when it involves the right to ancestral domain and
customary rights. Christians though have great influence on who will be elected as
their local leaders. Right to suffrage is also practiced by IP’s. They have a justice

33
system called Panglaw where council of elders collectively decide guilt and impose
penalties.
The LGU has been active regarding IP issues and taxation on tourism related
activities since 2010. The IP’s did not approve the constituents of the IPRA law due to
their lack of knowledge about it therefore, the NCIP Regional Director began
coordinating with the LGU and the tribal elders. In 2014, the NCIP audits tourism
revenues of Coron Island. IP representatives too are invited to sit in the Coron ECAN
Board and LGU to represent their communities.

H. Health
Health Personnel and Facilities, Public and Private
In 2013, the Coron District Hospital (CDH) had a total of 1, 195 admissions
(excluding newborn), 1, 114 total discharged alive and 89 total in – patient deaths, 27
total patients. Table 17 shows the list of hospital/center and their corresponding
location. These health centers/hospitals are located in town proper except for
barangay health centers which are located in all barangays.

Table 17. List of Hospital/ Health Center, 2013.

NAME OF CLASSIFICATION
LOCATION
HOSPITAL/CENTER (PRIVATE OR PUBLIC)

Rural Health Unit (RHU) Public Barangay II, Coron, Palawan


FMC Wellness Center Private Barangay I, Coron, Palawan
Island Doctors Clinic Private Barangay I, Coron, Palawan
Coron District Hospital (CDH) Public Barangay V, Coron, Palawan
Coron Diagnostic Center Private Barangay V, Coron, Palawan
Decalachao, Coron, Palawan
Turda, Coron, Palawan
Birthing Centers (RHU) Public
Bintuan, Coron, Palawan
San Nicolas, Coron, Palawan
Barangay Health Centers Public All barangays
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

Table 18 shows the number of health personnel in the Rural Health Unit of the
municipality. In Coron, there are a total of 105 barangay health workers which
monitor and supervise the barangay level well-being of the populace; the actual
medical facility (RHU) has 1 doctor, 7 nurses, 1 dentist, and 17 midwives. This
personnel count can be identified as relatively not proportionate to the total
population. Amidst all of these, the health unit caters services on child delivery,
EENT Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Orthopedics, Gynecology, and education on
sexually transmitted disease.

34
Table 18. Rural Health Unit by Number of Personnel, 2013.
Rural Health Unit Personnel’s Number of Personnel/s
Doctor 1
Nurses 7
Dentist 1
RSI 1
Midwives 17
Laboratory Aide 2
Driver 2
Utility Worker 2
Medical Technician 1
Barangay Health Workers 105
Total 139
Source: MHO

Leading Causes of Morbidity


The leading cause of morbidity is Urinary Tract Infection in 2015 which
affected 3,536 of the total population. This was followed by Hypertension which
affected 806 of the total population. The third leading cause of morbidity is Bronchitis
which affected 515 of the total population. Table 19 shows other causes of morbidity
in the municipality.

Table 19. Ten Leading Causes of Morbidity.


PERCENT
DISEASES MALE FEMALE TOTAL
ACCOMPLISHMENT
1. UTI 1,613 1,923 3,536 70.42%
2. Hypertension 374 432 806 16.05%
3. Bronchitis 262 253 515 10.26%
4. UTI 160 264 424 8.44%
5. AGE 163 115 278 5.54%
6. Gastritis 51 95 146 2.91%
7. Dermatitis 60 78 138 2.75%
8. Diarrhea 70 65 135 2.69%
9. Pneumonia 58 59 117 2.33%
10. MSS 46 43 89 1.77%
Source: MHO, 2015

Ten Leading Causes of Mortality

The top cause of death in the municipality is Pneumonia with 19 deaths


recorded. This was followed by Sepsis recording a total of 11 deaths (Table 20).

Table 20. Ten Leading Causes of Mortality.


PERCENT
CAUSE OF DEATH MALE FEMALE TOTAL
ACCOMPLISHMENT
1. Pneumonia 9 10 19 0.38%
2. Sepsis 4 7 11 0.22%
3. PTB 6 5 11 0.22%
4. MI 6 4 10 0.20%
5. CVA 6 3 9 0.18%
6. Alcohol Intoxication 4 3 7 0.14%
7. Hypertension 3 3 6 0.12%
8. Cancer 3 2 5 0.10%

35
PERCENT
CAUSE OF DEATH MALE FEMALE TOTAL
ACCOMPLISHMENT
9. BPN 2 1 3 0.06%
10. Diabetes Mellitus 1 2 3 0.06%
Source: MHO, 2015

Other Statistical Data

Statistical values utilized to measure the growth and decline of the population
are the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) and Crude Death Rate (CDR). Aside from the total
fertility rate, crude birth rate or CBR is used to validate the number of children born
per 1,000 populations in a given period.
Based on the 2011 Annual Report of the Municipal Health Office of Coron, it
is shown that out of the 46,578 total population of the Municipality, the Crude Birth
Rate is 1,142 or 26.71%; while the Crude Death Rate per 1,000 populations was 118
or 2.76%. On the other hand, the rate of maternal deaths and infant deaths was 1 or
0.02% and 6 or 5.25% respectively. This just shows that there is a high birth rate and
that their population is increasing and the low death rate suggests that their population
continuously increase.
Family Planning
Family planning services offered by the RHU includes family planning
counseling. The most commonly used method is pills with 1,109 (29%) followed by
injectable DMPA with 987 (26%), and NFP – LAM with 875 (23%). Table 21
enumerates the family planning program beneficiariesin 2013.

Table 21. Family Planning Program Beneficiaries, 2013.


NUMBER OF BENEFICIARIES
METHOD
New Current TOTAL
Female Sterilizer/BTL 15 570 585
Male Sterilizer/Vasectomy 0 4 4
Pills 128 981 1,109
IUD 5 16 21
Injectable DMPA 107 880 987
NFP – CM 5 98 103
NFP – SOM 3 96 99
NFP – LAM 256 619 875
Condom 5 25 30
TOTAL 524 3289 3,813
Source: MHO

I. Education
Educational Attainment and Literacy Rate
According to the PSA (2010), literacy rate is 94.87%. These accounts to
29,581 of the population ages 10 years old and above are able to read or write. On the
other hand, 1,614 or 5.13% remains illiterate. There are more literate males than
literate females as presented in Table 22.

36
Table 22. Literacy of Household Population 10 Years Old and Over by Age Group
and Sex 2010.
Household Population 10
Age Group Literate Illiterate
Years Old and Over
and City/
Both Both Both
Municipality Male Female Male Female Male Female
Sexes Sexes Sexes
Total 31,475 16,214 15,261 29,861 15,327 14,534 1,614 887 727
10-14 5,644 2,895 2,749 5,317 2,678 2,639 327 217 110
15-19 4,631 2,363 2,268 4,442 2,260 2,182 189 103 86
20-24 3,789 1,878 1,911 3,667 1,832 1,836 122 46 75
25-29 3,306 1,697 1,609 3,214 1,644 1,570 92 53 39
30-34 3,002 1,562 1,440 2,877 1,487 1,390 125 75 50
35-39 2,561 1,374 1,187 2,437 1,293 1,144 124 81 43
40-44 2,201 1,182 1,019 2,070 1,104 966 131 78 53
45-49 1,771 942 829 1,651 882 769 120 60 60
50-54 1,501 765 736 1,405 723 682 96 42 54
55-59 1,051 548 503 970 528 442 81 20 61
60-64 720 366 354 637 322 315 83 44 39
65 and over 1,298 642 656 1,174 575 599 124 67 57
Source: PSA, 2010

School-Age Population and Participation Rate


School-going population is shown in Table 23. Of the 8,397 six (6) to twelve
(12) year- old residents who were supposed to be in primary school, only 6,092 or
72.55% are attending school. Records also show that only 2,345 or 49.98% of the
4,692 thirteen (13) to sixteen (16) year olds are attending secondary school.
Remaining 2,347 or 50.02% did not pursue high school yet for reasons like lack of
financial support.

37
Table 23. School-going Population in Coron, Palawan.
Total Number of 6-12 years old Number of 6-12 years old Total Number of 13-16 years old Number of 13-16 years old
Attending Not Attending
Barangay Attending High Not Attending High
Male Female Total Elementary Elementary Male Female Total
School School
School School
Banuang Daan 79 62 141 125 16 39 40 79 22 57
Bintuan* 233 202 435 66 369 326 124 450 309 141
Borac 224 202 426 334 92 111 115 226 96 130
Buenavista 93 90 183 157 26 45 50 95 14 81
Bulalacao 340 307 647 522 125 137 136 273 101 172
Cabugao 254 211 465 302 163 122 92 214 67 147
Decabobo* 117 113 230 35 195 74 57 131 41 90
Decalachao 120 106 226 191 35 56 65 121 55 66
Guadalupe 255 228 483 383 100 116 129 245 112 133
Lajala 138 126 264 214 50 60 64 124 57 67
Malawig 74 64 138 95 43 37 36 73 10 63
Marcilla 85 87 172 135 37 47 49 96 47 49
Poblacion I 369 368 737 620 117 200 204 404 265 139
Poblacion II 49 55 104 78 26 35 27 62 43 19
Poblacion III 55 53 108 86 22 36 40 76 43 33
Poblacion IV 55 52 107 91 16 28 32 60 40 20
Poblacion V 280 245 525 426 99 157 155 312 210 102
Poblacion VI 171 162 333 277 56 111 96 207 122 85
San Jose 109 102 211 164 47 52 54 106 35 71
San Nicolas 222 179 401 286 115 119 121 240 115 125
Tagumpay 703 543 1,246 945 301 322 339 661 383 278
Tara 172 150 322 173 149 57 88 145 16 129
Turda 256 237 493 387 106 153 139 292 142 150
Total 4,453 3,944 8,397 6,092 2,305 2,440 2,252 4,692 2,345 2,347
Source: FLUP, 2014

38
Number and Location of Schools, by Level, Public and Private

As of 2013, the municipality of Coron has recorded a total of 86 schools. Of


which, 40 are daycare centers, 35 are elementary schools located in different barangays
(31 public and 4 private) 10 secondary schools (7 public and 3 private) located in both
urban and rural barangays. Unfortunately, there are no secondary schools in the island
barangays which implies hard access to secondary education to those far off (Table 24
& 25).

Table 24. Inventory of Schools in Coron, Palawan.


SCHOOL LEVEL Public Private Total
Pre School 40 - 40
Elementary 31 4 35
Secondary 7 3 10
College 1 - 1
TOTAL 99 7 86
Source: MPDO, 2014

Table 25. List of Schools in Coron, Palawan and their Location per Barangay.
Name of School Location (Sitio/ Barangay)
ELEMENTARY
Public
Banuang Daan ES Banuang Daan
Balisungan ES Tagumpay
Bayang ES Turda
Bayo Bayo PS Tagumpay
Benekan PS San Nicolas
Bintuan ES Bintuan
Borac ES Borac
Buenavista ES Buenavista
Bulalacao ES Bulalacao
Buyot PS Malawig
Cabugao ES Cabugao
Canipo ES Bulalacao
Claudio Sandoval ES Barangay 1
CLaudio Sandoval ES South Annex Barangay 1
Decabobo ES Decabobo
Decalachao ES Decalachao
Diandanao PS Guadalupe
Guadalupe ES Guadalupe
Lajala ES Lajala
Malawig ES Malawig
Malbato ES Bintuan
Maricaban PS San Jose
Marcilla ES Marcilla
San Jose ES San Jose
San Nicolas ES San Nicolas
Sta. Monica ES Guadalupe

39
Name of School Location (Sitio/ Barangay)
Tagum ES Tagumpay
Tagumpay ES Tagumpay
Tara ES Tara
Tulbuan ES Decalachao
Turda ES Turda
Private
CCFT Coron
Christ of the Refuge Learning Center (CRLC) Brgy. 5
Mabentangen ES Mabentangen
St. Augustine's Academy Coron
SECONDARY
Public
Borac NHS (Coron SOF-Borac Annex) Borac
Coron School of Fisheries Brgy. 1
Decalachao Decalachao
Turda Turda
Tagumpay Tagumpay
San Nicholas San Nicholas
Guadalupe Guadalupe
Private
CCFT Coron So. Pali, Poblacion 6
Christ of the Refuge Learning Center (CRLC) Brgy. 5
Saint Augustine's Academy Brgy. 1
TERTIARY
Palawan State University Dipulao, Brgy. 6
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

Tertiary Education

It is preferred by the people of Coron, Busuanga, Linapacan and Culion to send


their children to Puerto Princesa, Batangas or Manila, just to obtain a most desired
college education. However, due to financial constraints, it is estimated that only 20%
of the high school graduates were able to pursue higher education, while 80% were
forced to stop schooling.It is in 1994 when a satellite campus of PSU was established.
It is located in Poblacion 6 offering 7 undergraduate degrees including Bachelor
of Science in Elementary and Secondary Education, Hospitality Management, Tourism,
Business Administration in Marketing and Financial Management and Criminology.
The table below shows the trend of the enrollees in the university. In the
academic year 2015-2016 PSU-Coron had a total of 1,353 enrollees, making them the
second biggest satellite in the Norther Palawan region. The trend shows an increasing
number of college-goers since the year 2011. The degree programs with the highest
enrollees are BS Elementary Education and BS Hospitality Management (Table 26). BS
Entrepreneurship got the lowest number of enrollees and because of this, the degree was
replaced by BS Business Administration. BS Criminology on the other hand, was only
offered in 2012. This representation may show that all their degrees would cater to the

40
labor force that the municipality needs and bring forth service to neighboring
municipalities.

Table 26. Total Enrollees of PSU from 2011-2015.


Degree 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016
1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd
Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem Sem
BEED 142 145 194 194 211 208 318 276 278 232
BSED 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 115 97
BSE 60 55 31 31 0 0 0 0 0 0
BSHM 319 277 246 246 220 194 184 160 173 150
BS Tourism 113 94 114 114 138 116 120 114 115 95
BSBA 83 75 104 104 123 109 141 137 221 204
Marketing
BSBA 81 69 135 135 163 148 241 240 285 284
Financial
BS 0 0 110 110 174 150 237 217 302 291
Criminology
TOTAL 798 715 934 934 1029 925 1241 1144 1489 1353
Source: PSU, 2016

41
J. Housing

In the Community Based Monitoring System of 2011-2013, a total of 9,775


households were recorded. Of which, 136 households or 1.39% of the total
households are made up of very light materials (makeshift housing). Of the 136
households, 40 or 29.41% come from Brgy. Tagumpay while 26 households or
19.12% come from Barangay Buenavista (Table 27). Aside from makeshift housing,
another problem of the community are backlog houses or those that are unfinished or
customer order that have been received but either incomplete or in the process of
completion.

Table 27. Total Household and Makeshift Housing in Coron, Palawan.


Total affected
HH living in makeshift
Total population of
Barangay housing
Households makeshift housing
No. % No. %
Banuang Daan 147 2 1.47 14 2.23
Bintuan 546 3 2.21 16 2.55
Borac 488 2 1.47 5 0.80
Buenavista 200 26 19.12 114 18.15
Bulalacao 596 15 11.03 48 7.64
Cabugao 444 - - - -
Decabobo 241 - - - -
Decalachao 210 - - - -
Guadalupe 518 3 2.21 8 1.27
Lajala 301 7 5.15 31 4.94
Malawig 149 1 0.74 2 0.32
Marcilla 287 2 1.47 11 1.75
Barangay I (Poblacion) 880 18 13.24 90 14.33
Barangay II (Poblacion) 161 1 0.74 3 0.48
Barangay III (Poblacion) 186 - - - -
Barangay IV (Poblacion) 177 1 0.74 4 0.64
Barangay V (Poblacion) 780 1 0.74 6 0.96
Barangay VI (Poblacion) 474 8 5.88 35 5.57
San Jose 232 - - - -
San Nicolas 500 1 0.74 7 1.11
Tagumpay 1,342 40 29.41 215 34.24
Tara 308 5 3.68 19 3.03
Turda 608
Total 9,775 136 100.00 628 100.00
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

Informal settlers recorded are 500 households (CBMS 2011-2013). The total
population of the informal settlers was 2,465. Only barangays of Cabugao and
Malawig have no recorded informal settlers. Although no exact count, CENRO also
mentioned the existence of migrants from Mindoro and neighboring coastal regions
who dwell in the mangrove and restricted areas.

42
Table 28. Recorded Informal Settlers in Coron, Palawan.
Barangay Total Total HH who are Total population of
Households Informal settlers informal settlers
No. % No. %
Banuang Daan 147 1 0.20 6 0.24
Bintuan 546 21 4.20 109 4.42
Borac 488 7 1.40 36 1.46
Buenavista 200 2 0.40 4 0.16
Bulalacao 596 21 4.20 111 4.50
Cabugao 444 - - - -
Decabobo 241 4 0.80 14 0.57
Decalachao 210 14 2.80 66 2.68
Guadalupe 518 59 11.80 310 12.58
Lajala 301 11 2.20 58 2.35
Malawig 149 - - - -
Marcilla 287 2 0.40 11 0.45
Barangay I (Poblacion) 880 142 28.40 692 28.07
Barangay II (Poblacion) 161 6 1.20 23 0.93
Barangay III (Poblacion) 186 1 0.20 8 0.32
Barangay IV (Poblacion) 177 5 1.00 14 0.57
Barangay V (Poblacion) 780 55 11.00 218 8.84
Barangay VI (Poblacion) 474 10 2.00 48 1.95
San Jose 232 9 1.80 43 1.74
San Nicolas 500 12 2.40 42 1.70
Tagumpay 1,342 241 48.20 1296 52.58
Tara 308 5 1.00 24 0.97
Turda 608 12 2.40 46 1.87
Total 9,775 500 100.00 2465 100.00
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

Subdivisions
Based from the windshield survey and validation from the Municipal Social
Welfare and Development Office, there are 2 existing subdivisions in Coron, namely:
Fern Vale Subdivision located in Poblacion 6 and Enriquez Subdivision located in
Poblacion

K. Employment and Income


The developing industries of Coron enable it to provide more jobs for its
citizens. CBMS 2011-2013 survey recorded a total of 15, 346 residents who are
members of the labor force. Of this number, 9,358 or 60.98% are employed. The
remaining 39.02% who are unemployed or may possibly be self-employed, business
owners, farmers or housewives.

43
Table 29. Labor Force Population and Employment Rates.
Number
Househol
of
Number d with Number
Employe
Total of Unemploy of
d
Househol Individu ed Unemploy Employme
Barangay Househol
ds of als in the Members ed nt Rate
ds
2011 Labor of the Individual
Members
Force Labor s
(Labor
Force
Force)
Banuang Daan 147 146 275 1 1 53.09
Bintuan 546 528 838 59 71 63.01
Borac 488 478 919 1 1 52.01
Buenavista 200 193 363 14 16 53.17
Bulalacao 596 568 795 2 3 71.45
Cabugao 444 440 711 0 0 61.88
Decabobo 241 227 412 4 4 55.10
Decalachao 210 203 269 14 20 75.46
Guadalupe 518 506 797 4 5 63.49
Lajala* 301 288 400 3 5 72.00
Malawig 149 148 189 1 1 78.31
Marcilla* 287 191 277 4 4 68.95
Barangay I
880 835 1,321 3 4 63.21
(Poblacion)
Barangay II
161 155 294 4 4 52.72
(Poblacion)
Barangay III
186 179 360 15 21 49.72
(Poblacion)
Barangay IV
177 161 285 2 2 56.49
(Poblacion)
Barangay V
780 750 1,265 40 52 59.29
(Poblacion)
Barangay VI
474 448 759 39 60 59.03
(Poblacion)*
San Jose 232 223 410 34 44 54.39
San Nicolas 500 489 803 9 12 60.90
Tagumpay 1,342 1,317 2,274 48 57 57.92
Tara 308 300 516 41 57 58.14
Turda 608 585 814 0 0 71.87
Total 9,775 9,358 15,346 342 444 60.98
Source: FLUP, 2014

Households below the poverty threshold

Of the 9,775 total households in the Municipality of Coron in 2011, four


thousand three hundred and nine (4,309) or 44.08% of the total were considered the
households below the poverty threshold level. The three most affected barangays to
be below the poverty threshold were Barangay Tagumpay which has 95.45%
households below the poverty threshold; Barangay Buenavista which has 88%
households below the poverty threshold; and Barangay Malawig which has 87.25% of
its households below the poverty threshold. Other specific barangays considered to be
below the poverty threshold level could be discerned in Table 30.

44
Table 30. Households with income below poverty level.
Barangay Total Number of Households Below %
Households of Poverty threshold level
2011
Banuang Daan 147 122 82.99
Bintuan 546 304 55.68
Borac 488 272 55.74
Buenavista 200 176 88.00
Bulalacao 596 449 75.34
Cabugao 444 365 82.21
Decabobo 241 140 58.09
Decalachao 210 106 50.48
Guadalupe 518 165 31.85
Lajala 301 191 63.46
Malawig 149 130 87.25
Marcilla 287 137 47.74
Barangay I (Poblacion) 880 106 12.05
Barangay II (Poblacion) 161 27 16.77
Barangay III (Poblacion) 186 19 10.22
Barangay IV (Poblacion) 177 34 19.21
Barangay V (Poblacion) 780 154 19.74
Barangay VI (Poblacion) 474 98 20.68
San Jose 232 124 53.45
San Nicolas 500 168 33.60
Tagumpay 1,342 363 27.05
Tara 308 294 95.45
Turda 608 365 60.03
Total 9,775 4,309 44.08
Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

Households below the food threshold

Of the 9,775 households of Coron, 2,951 or 30.19% of the total are households
with income below the food threshold. These concerns of the household or the
families on the amount of income they can buy a basket of foods. Barangay Tara is
noted to have a higher number of households, 287 or 93.16% of the 308 which has
income below the food threshold level. It is followed by Barangay Buenavista which
has a total of 165 or 82.50% of the total households of the barangay. The other
barangays with households with income below the food threshold could be observed
further on Table 31.

Table 31. Households with income below the food threshold.


Total Number of Household Below Food
Barangay Households Threshold Level (P10,054.00 per %
of 2011 capita)
Banuang Daan 147 107 72.79
Bintuan 546 199 36.45
Borac 488 154 31.56
Buenavista 200 165 82.50
Bulalacao 596 383 64.26

45
Total Number of Household Below Food
Barangay Households Threshold Level (P10,054.00 per %
of 2011 capita)
Cabugao 444 283 63.74
Decabobo 241 110 45.64
Decalachao 210 82 39.05
Guadalupe 518 82 15.83
Lajala 301 134 44.52
Malawig 149 123 82.55
Marcilla 287 108 37.63
Barangay I (Poblacion) 880 49 5.57
Barangay II (Poblacion) 161 19 11.80
Barangay III (Poblacion) 186 12 6.45
Barangay IV (Poblacion) 177 22 12.43
Barangay V (Poblacion) 780 78 10.00
Barangay VI (Poblacion) 474 53 11.18
San Jose 232 112 48.28
San Nicolas 500 82 16.40
Tagumpay 1,342 127 9.46
Tara 308 287 93.18
Turda 608 180 29.61
Total 9,775 2,951 30.19

Source: CBMS Survey 2011-2013

L. Recreation and Sports Facilities


Aside from recreation purposes, Coron also sees sports facilities as a
community builder. There are basketball courts in each barangay which measures for
about 510 square meters each. The other major sports facility in the municipality
included the Coron Sports Complex located at Poblacion I particularly within the
Coron School of Fisheries Campus. The complex included an oval track,
soccer/football/baseball diamond, basketball court, volleyball court, tennis court and
grandstand with bleachers. Aside from this, there are also cockpits in some
communities.

Table 32. Existing Sports and Recreation Facilities by Barangay


Facilities Location Area (sq.m.) Physical Condition Ownership
Gymnasium Poblacion 2 864 Good Public
Basketball Court Balisungan, Tagumpay 510 Good Public
Villa Enriquez, Brgy. Pob. 1 510 Good Public
PNP Compound Brgy. Pob.1 510 Good Public
Purok 1, Brgy. Tagumpay 510 Good Public
Brgy. Pob. 2 510 Good Public
Brgy. Pob. 5 510 Good Public
So. Mangahan, Tagumpay 510 Good Public
Brgy. Borac 510 Good Public
2-Unit Brgy. Turda 510 Good Public
Brgy. Malawig 510 Good Public
Brgy. Buenavista 510 Good Public
Brgy. Banuang Daan 510 Good Public
Brgy. Cabugao 510 Good Public
Brgy. San Jose 510 Good Public
46
Facilities Location Area (sq.m.) Physical Condition Ownership
Brgy. Decabobo 510 Good Public
Brgy. San Nicolas 510 Good Public
Brgy. Bintuan 510 Good Public
So. Malbato, Brgy. Bintuan 510 Good Public
Brgy. Decalachao 510 Good Public
YKR 510 Good Public
Brgy. Guadalupe 510 Good Public
So. Sta. Monica, Guadalupe 510 Good Public
Brgy. Marcilla 510 Good Public
Brgy. Lajala 510 Good Public
So. Leleon, Brgy. Lajala 510 Good Public
So. Canipo, Brgy. Bulalacao 510 Good Public
Brgy. Tara 510 Fair Public
Tennis Court Municipal Plaza, Pob. 2 Good Public
Volleyball Court Municipal Plaza, Brgy. 1 Good Public
Brgy. Borac Good Public
Playfield/Athletic Coron School of Fisheries
10,000 Good Public
Field (with oval Barangay 1
track, basketball
court, volleyball
court, soccer/
Brgy. San Nicolas
football field,
softball/ baseball
diamond)
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

M. Protective Services
Personnel and Facilities

In CBMS 2011-2013, there are 22 police officers in the municipality with a


police-resident ratio of 1:1875. With a national standard of 1:1500, the municipality
still lacked 6 officers to reach that standard. Fortunately, in 2016, PNP Coron has
achieved the national standard for policemen to resident ratio. On the other hand, the
Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) Coron has 3 serviceable fire trucks, one fire pumps, 8
fire hoses, 2 nozzles, and 1 suction hose. Also, Central Bakery and Airport Fire
Protection are existing providers of fire protection services. Barangay councilors and
volunteers work hand in hand in reinforcing safety measures throughout the
municipality.

Table 33. Personnel and Equipment of Protective Services in Coron.


Number Personnel Facilities/Equipment
Type of
Location of to Pop'n. Condition
Services Vehicle Others
Personnel Ratio
Detention Cell
Operation
Room
Police Head-
Brgy. 1 24 1:500 1 Patrol Investigation Serviceable
quarters
Room
WCPD Room
Admin Room
1 MC
Jeep
3 fire
Fire Station 4 1:10,315 1 fire pump Serviceable
trucks

47
8 fire hoses
2 nozzles
1 suction hose
2 Fire helmets
1 pair boots
1 gloves set
1 fire jacket

Source: PNP Coron and Ecological Profile, 2014

Incidences of Crimes
According to the data given by PNP Coron, there were a total of 534 Index
crimes committed, 229 cleared, and 106 solved in the last three years. On the other
hand, 718 non index crimes were recorded, 419 of those were cleared and 172 solved.
It appears that through the years, there is a decrease in recorded crime incidences.
Having a strengthened PNP with more personnel, better strategy and better operating
procedures, they were able to make significant decrease in any form of crime.

48
Table 34. Crime incidences from 2013-2015.
INDEX CRIMES NON-INDEX CRIMES
Year Against Persons Against Property Total Total

Other Non-Index

Crime Volume

Total Cleared
Special Laws

Total Solved
Physical Injury

Cattle Rustling

Index Crimes
Car napping

Non Index
Homicide

Robbery
Murder

Cleared

Cleared
Solved

Solved
Theft
Total

Total
Rape
2013 4 0 178 4 186 10 118 19 1 148 334 140 30 128 388 516 275 49 850 415 79
2014 7 0 40 2 49 11 40 2 0 53 102 39 36 37 85 122 87 78 224 126 114
2015 3 0 32 12 47 6 40 3 2 51 98 50 40 46 34 80 57 45 178 107 85
Source: PNP Coron

49
N. Other Delivered Social Services

Women Welfare Program


The municipality gives assistance to women in difficult circumstances like
those who are victims of human trafficking, abused women and their children, and
solo parents. MSWD services also include counseling, case management, case
conference and temporary shelter. The department also has programs on women
empowerment, livelihood assistance and capacity building.
Person with Disability Program
The municipality provides PWD identification cards, issues purchase booklet
for medicine and groceries to assist their daily lives, provide medical assistance to
those in need and issues assistive devices to most of them. there is also an office for
the persons with disability to address whatever problems they may have.
Community and Family Welfare Program
To address the need for family and community building, the municipality
offers Family Development Sessions, Parent Effectiveness Service (PES), conducts
responsible parenthood seminars, gives pre-marital counseling for those in need and
Cash for work program. They also provide Emergency Shelter Assistance happen
there be a need.

Children and Youth Welfare Program


Aside from the daycare program for toddlers, their care for the children and
youth is also evident through their Assistance to Children in need of Special
Protection like the abandoned and neglected children. They also assist children in
conflict with the law which includes case management, case conference, counseling
and referrals.

2.4 LOCAL ECONOMY

Coron’s economy revolves on both primary and tertiary sector. The primary
sector includes the fishing, farming, forestry, and all agriculture-related activities,
while the tertiary is brought about by the strong tourism potential of the municipality.
On the other hand, the secondary sector which is mainly composed of manufacturing
undertakings are improved and boosted as increasing demands from both primary and
secondary sector arise. The table presented below provides a general overview of the
apparent economic activities existing in Coron.

Table 35. Distribution of Employment among Different Economic Tiers.


Economic Tier Data Employment
Representation
Primary: Agricultural and livestock, fisheries, and forestry 42.33%

Secondary: Manufacturing, mining, construction, electricity, gas and 14.67%

50
Economic Tier Data Employment
Representation
water
Tertiary: Trade, transportation and communication, finance, real 42.79%
estate, business services, community and personal services
Unspecified .21%
Source: CBMS, 2011-2013

A. Primary Sector

Agricultural Crops

In the latest survey conducted by the Municipal Agriculture Office in 2013,


Coron has a total agricultural area of 1,946 hectares devoted mainly for rice,
vegetables, corn and other crops. This area represents 28% of the municipality’s total
land area which reflects a 25.54% increase from the recorded 1,550 hectares in 2006.
Out of this total land area, rice land occupies the largest portion with 1,106 hectares.
The rice production is concentrated in barangays of Borac, San Nicolas, Turda, and
Bintuan while in Poblacion VI, Decalachao, Turda, Guadalupe, Decabobo including
the earlier mentioned barangays are the area for the other type of crops. The summary
of the crop production in Coron was presented in Table 36.

Table 36. Major Crops Cultivated in Coron: Total Area Covered, Total Production,
and Yield per Hectare.
2006 2013
Major Crop Area planted Total Yield Area Total Yield
(Ha) production per planted production per
(MT) Ha (Ha) (MT) Ha
Rice 944 2,403.48 3 1,106 3,517.08 3.18
Vegetables 36 1,075.00 50 50 1,230.35 73
(assorted)
Corn 45 11.25 0.25 75 18.75 0.25
Cassava 75 125.00 5 150 150.00 5
Cashew 450 540 1.36 565 769.67 1.36
Source: Municipal Agriculture Office, 2016

Generally, the crops produced are either served as source of food for the
people of Coron or as source of income for those who were producing them. The
produced agricultural products are marketed locally. Outside markets are Manila,
Mindoro, Southern Palawan and Batangas which deals through the local traders.

51
Table 37. Cost of Production and Net Income per Hectare of Major Crops Cultivated
in Coron.
2006 2013
Crop Cost of Net Income Cost of Net Income
production (PHP/ ha) production (PHP/ ha)
(PHP/ ha) (PHP/ ha)
Rice 18,500.00 13,000.00 27,000.00 20,700.00
Vegetable 25,000.00 12,000.00 50,000.00 30,000.00
Corn 10,000.00 15,000.00 25,000.00 35,000.00
Cassava 10,000.00 12,000.00 25,000.00 35,000.00
Source: Municipal Agriculture Office, 2016

As shown in Table 37, the cost of production for cultivating crops such as rice,
vegetable, corn, and cassava per hectare have evidently increased from 2006 to 2013.
Unlike the baseline year, the net income in 2013 is more significant. The net return
for rice and varieties of vegetablestherefore is positive.

Livestock and Poultry

Livestock and poultry production in the municipality of Coron are dominated


by backyard type of farming, nonetheless all barangays are producing livestock and
poultry as alternative source of income. Aggregated area devoted for livestock and
poultry production is estimated at 2,852.66 hectares, inclusive of existing pasture
leases and permits with a total area of 2,702.66 hectares.
In the inventory of animals in 2013, it revealed the following numbers; for
livestock, swine has the highest population with 4, 640 heads followed by goats with
1,430 heads and cattle with 2,868 heads. For poultry, chicken population was
accounted at 6,672 and ducks being raised has numbered 605. These mentioned
figures of animal population are comparably higher to the inventory in 2006.
In both years, barangays of Borac, San Nicolas, Guadalupe and Bulalacao
have the most number of livestock and poultry as seen in Table 38.

52
Table 38. Livestock and Poultry Population in Coron.

Livestock Population (2006) Poultry Population Livestock Population (2013) Poultry Population
(2006) (2013)
Barangay Cattle Carabao Goat Swine Duck Chicken Cattle Carabao Goat Swine Duck Chicken
Banuang Daan 4 - 5 27 - 165 10 - 5 58 - 198

Bintuan 54 82 134 365 18 324 100 94 150 470 26 432


Borac 100 98 167 356 100 399 125 177 245 493 133 578
Buenavista 18 23 43 110 10 178 25 43 56 145 15 248
Bulalacao 10 2 19 130 3 100 20 5 26 234 5 231
Cabugao 15 1 5 25 - 98 23 2 5 45 - 134
Decabobo 75 45 25 100 18 120 80 55 25 134 27 248
Decalachao 534 123 123 231` 46 347 945 174 136 367 56 543
Guadalupe 87 100 115 256 48 268 115 130 150 355 67 498
Lajala 45 1 7 43 - 187 67 2 10 78 - 209
Malawig 15 8 18 35 - 122 28 15 21 58 - 134
Marcilla 25 6 47 42 - 187 35 10 55 78 - 265
Poblacion 1 - - - 43 - 143 - - - 56 - 187
Poblacion 2 - - - 15 - 34 - - - 23 - 50
Poblacion 3 - - - 14 - 25 - - - 15 - 50
Poblacion 4 - - - 37 - 98 - - - 34 - 132
Poblacion 5 - - - 137 - 99 - - - 145 - 154
Poblacion 6 10 13 33 254 15 267 32 2-5 43 300 20 389
San Jose 54 20 49 132 48 128 75 40 75 178 54 234
San Nicolas 434 112 145 358 65 387 975 155 234 543 95 554

Tagumpay 15 18 32 268 15 298 30 24 45 432 23 487


Tara 20 10 18 41 - 134 56 15 35 76 168
Turda 67 65 98 276 54 298 127 75 114 323 84 549
TOTAL 1582 727 1083 3064 440 4406 2868 1041 1430 4640 605 6672
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

53
In Table 39, the total number of farmers for each barangay was presented. The
areas where crop production and animal raising were concentrated were also the
larger account of the municipality’s total number of farmers. Specifically, they were
situated in Borac, Bintuan, San Nicolas, Guadalupe, and Decalachao. On the other
hand, they were least observed in the Poblacion areas were center of commerce and
trade exist.

Table 39. Total Number of Farmers per Barangay.


Barangay Number of Farmers
Banuang Daan 75
Bintuan 384
Borac 595
Buenavista 173
Bulalacao 197
Cabugao 39
Decabobo 48
Decalachao 213
Guadalupe 268
Lajala 2
Malawig 16
Marcilla 17
Poblacion 1 133
Poblacion 2 4
Poblacion 3 14
Poblacion 4 6
Poblacion 5 84
Poblacion 6 94
San Jose 60
San Nicolas 339
Tagumpay 136
Tara 46
Turda 93
TOTAL 3036
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

There are at least twelve registered farmers’ associations in Coron as shown in


the table 40. This has doubled since 2006, when only six associations were registered.
These organizations are currently doing various activities and operations for the
betterment of the municipality’s agricultural sector, specifically the farming and
fishing industry.

54
Table 40. List of Farmers Associations.
Name of Organizations Barangay Number of
Address Members

Borac Vegetables Growers Association Borac 40


Borac Farmers Association (BFA) Borac 48
Barangay Turda Farmers/ Fisher folk Association Turda 24
(BTFA)
Barangay Decalachao Farmers Association (BDFA) Decalachao 66
Diandanao Farmers Association (DFA) Guadalupe 20
Sitio Benecan Farmers Association (SBFA) San Nicolas 19
Samahan ng Magsasaka sa Sitio Minanga (SMSM) Turda 20
Samahan ng Magsasaka ng Buenadeca (SMBD) Buenavista 24
Samahan ng Magsasaka sa Sitio Balisungan (SMSB) Tagumpay 36
Katabidan Y ang Magsasaka Eg Mangingisda ang Borac 35
Barangay Borac (KMMBB)

SJDBD Guadalupe 25
Barangay San Jose Farmers Association San Jose 30
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

Support Facilities in Agriculture


Agricultural processing involves the use of different simple machines for
actual preparation of both inputs and outputs. In the municipality of Coron, most
providers of these services are privately owned and managed. Table 41 shows the
existing facilities that aids agricultural activities in the municipality.

Table 41. Existing Agricultural Support Facilities, 2007


Post-Harvest Facilities & Support
Number Type/Capacity Remarks
Services
Rice Mills 29 80-150 cavans Private
8 blocks per production
Cold Storage/Ice plant 2 Private
cycle
Public &
Multi-Purpose Drying Pavement (Solar) 21 448 Square meters
Private
Mechanical Dryer 3 80-100 Private
Portable Threshers 32 80-100 Bags Private
6 60-1000 cavans Private
7 120-1500 cavans Private
Warehouses
2 30-200 cavans Private
1 50 cavans Private
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

55
Fisheries

Fishing is the most dominant primary industry in Coron. It strengthens the


characteristic attached to the province of Palawan as one of the major fish supplier in
the country. Coron’s fishing industry delivers both live fish and fresh fish to the
communities and its traders. With its neighboring municipalities such as Busuanga
and Culion which make up the Calamian Island, Coron has been distinguished as one
of the main suppliers of fresh fishes nationwide. In addition, Barangay Guadalupe
serves as the pool for the production of live fishes.
The trade movement of fish is a conventional operation in the fishing industry
of the municipality. Fish catch is done by fisher folk and sold to barangay buyers,
who have been practically their business partners throughout the years. Barangay
buyers then sell the fish to fish dealers or export the catch directly to Metro Manila
and other traders. Table 42 illustrates the fishing gears used in daily fishing activities
of various fishermen in different barangays.
Table 42. Inventory of Fishing Gears and Fish Caught in Coron.
Fishing Gears Caught Fishes Barangay
Bottom Set Gill Net Alumahan, Danggit, Lapulapu Banuang Daan
Simple Hook and Line Mangagat, Kanuping, Apahap Bintuan
Crab Pot (Bobo) Maya-maya, Sagisi, Lipti, Tanigi Buenavista
Squid Jiggers Tuna, Tambacol, Bisugo, Bulalacao
Fish Corral (Baklad) Dalagambukid, Galunggong, Cabugao
Multiple hand line Matambaka, Talakitok, Tursillo, Decabobo
Drift Gill Net Samaral, Banak, Labahita, Balo, Lajala
Spear gun Sapsap, Salay-salay, Parrot fish Marcilla
Bottom set long line Suran San Jose
Bag Net Alimasag, alimango, lobster, San Nicolas
Bag Net Pitik, Hipon, Sugpo, Shells Tagumpay
Bag Net Pusit, Pugita, Balatan Turda
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

There are associations within the municipality which facilitates the


cooperative and sustainable fishing practices. As of 2014, there are exactly ten
registered fishing associations. The name of associations, their barangay address and
total number of members were shown in Table 43.

Table 43. List of Fisher folk’ Associations.


Barangay Number of
Name of Associations
Address members

Samahan ng Bagong Silang sa Barangay Buenavista (SBSBB) Buenavista 25


Samahan ng Magtatambalang sa Marupo (SAMMARU) Tagumpay 40
Samahan ng Magtatambalang sa Sitio Bayang (SAMASIBAY) Turda 29
San Jose Fisher Folk Association (SJFA) San Jose 15

56
Barangay Number of
Name of Associations
Address members

Decabobo Seaweed Growers Association (DSGA) Decabobo 53


Macilla Seaweed Growers Association (MSGA) Marcilla 53
Samahan ng Magsasaka at Mangingisdang Katutubong
Turda 25
Tagbanua Brgy. Turda
Barangay San Nicolas Fisher Folk Association (BSNFA) San Nicolas 26
Barangay Bulalacao Fisher Folk Association (BBFA) Bulalacao 25
MDA-island Fisher Folk Association Bintuan 30
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

Aquaculture

Seaweeds are also one of the products of the municipality. Areas for this
purpose are located in the coastal portions of barangays Bintuan, Borac, Buenavista,
Cabugao, Decabobo, Lajala, Marcilla, San Jose, San Nicolas, Tagumpay and Turda.
In 2007, total seaweeds produced in Coron reached 225 metric tons valued at 11.25
million pesos.

Table 44. Production level in aquaculture and existing fishing grounds of Coron.
Fishing Grounds Barangay Production
Volume Value
Marine Bintuan 15 750,000.00
(seaweeds) Borac 4 200,000.00
Buenavista 10 500,000.00
Cabugao 7 350,000.00
Decabobo 75 3,750,000.00
Lajala 6 300,000.00
Marcilla 43 2,150,000.00
San Jose 5 250,000.00
San Nicolas 10 500,000.00
Tagumpay 45 2,250,000.00
Turda 5 250,000.00
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

B. Secondary Sector

Manufacturing

Majority of the production related to manufacturing is on handicrafts. The


following are locally made products made by the residents of Coron:

1. Sawali, or the dried bamboo stalks, which are woven mats that are used as
substitutes to plywood filling house walls. A 10ft x 4ftroll of sawali sells for
about PhP80.00 and a sawali-maker sells an average of 20 rolls in a week;
2. Tsinelas (slippers) made out of the pandan plant, created in Barangay
Decabobo;

57
3. Banayan, which are woven products, such as baskets, bilao (circular trays) and
placemats, created out of buho and rattan. Banayan is the product of women
livelihood in Coron; and
4. Banig (mats), woven by the Tagbanuas.
Another secondary economic activity that has contributed to the local
economy is the engagement of residents in construction of tourism facilities. With
investors’ construction of accommodation establishments, as well as diving facilities,
tour operator offices, tourism workspaces, and the like, CBMS 2011-2013 results
reflect that at least 13% of Coron’s population is engaged in the construction industry,
electricity, water, and gas services.

C. Tertiary Sector

Tourism
Coron has become one of the most popular tourism destinations not only in the
country but in the whole world. From its agricultural state, it has evolved into a
premier destination as its tourism prospered in 2008. As of the first quarter of 2016,
the number of tourist has exceeded the target and prospect influx of people for the
whole year. The last year’s tourist population was estimated to be 60,000. As of first
quarter this year, the total tourists numbered 120,000. The following 26 tourist
attractions, facilities, and activities presented in Table 45 have together caused
influxes of visits, creations of tour packages, and word-of-mouth recommendations
that created the hype for Coron’s tourism.

Table 45. List of Tourism Attractions in Coron, Palawan.


Name of Attraction / Facility / Activity Type
Atuwayan Beach Sports and Recreational
Banana Island Resort Sports and Recreational Facilities
Banol Beach Sports and Recreational Facilities
Barracuda Lake Nature
Beach 91 Sports and Recreational
Bintuan Marine Park Nature
Bird Watching Sports and Recreational
CYC Sports and Recreational
Everly Souvenir Shop Shopping
Japanese Shipwrecks Sports and Recreational
Kayaking at Uruyukan Channel Sports and Recreational
Kayangan Lake Nature
Majika Souvenir Shop Shopping
Malcapuya Island Resort Sports and Recreational Facilities
Mangrove Nature
Maquinit Hotspring Health and Wellness
Market of Dried Fish, Native Delicacies, Fish, Fruits and Open Air Market
Etc.
Mt. Darala Sports and Recreational
Mt. Tapyas Sports and Recreational

58
Name of Attraction / Facility / Activity Type
Siete Pecados Marine Park Nature
Skeleton Wreck Sports and Recreational Facilities
Smith Point Spot and Recreational
Twin Lagoon Sports and Recreational
Twin Peaks Nature
Village Souvenir Shop Shopping
Vivian Beach Sports and Recreational
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

In order to strengthen the tourism capability of the municipality, various


organizations were established. In Table 46, nine groups from the tourism private
sector have established their presence in the municipality, representing several
tourism sectors: tours, transport, diving, and developmental tourism.

Table 46. List of Tourism Associations.


Groups Year Established Number of Members
Coron Association of Tourism
Establishments
2013 234 members
Association of Coron Tour
2014 90 members
Operators
Calamianes Tour Boats
2001 148 members
Association
Coron Licensed Tour Guide
55 members
Association
Abuh Tourist Van Transport
2011 30 members
Services
Coron Service Transport
Operators and Drivers 2011 35 members
Association (COSTODA)
(1) Coron Conservation
(CCCNI) (local) and
(2) Society for Sustainable 2011 20 members (combined)
Tourism Development
Inc. (international
counterpart)
Coron Dive Operators 2008 13 members
Source: CBMS Survey, 2011-2013

Trade, Commerce, Finance and Industry


As reflected in Master list of Business Establishments in Coron 2016, there are
1,963 registered commercial/business establishments in operation. Of the various
industries and businesses, the vast majorities are composed of tourism support
services, general good commodities, dry and wet goods, and food-related structures
and facilities. Sari-sari stores, public market stalls, backyard industries, banking and
finance, lending institutions, automotive, communications, and other livelihood
activities comprised the underground economy. In the first quarter of 2016, the
registered economic establishments in the municipality have earned Php
1,895,199,342.70 (Municipal Treasury Office)

59
One of the vital services needed in support of the economic development of
the municipality is credit and finance. Financial support was extended to farmers,
fishermen and business enterprises and income generating projects of the people
especially those related to agriculture, fishery and tourism services. Services of this
kind are mostly provided by rural banks, money lending institutions and other
financial intermediaries in the municipality. Several money remittance industries and
courier services in Coron are 2Go, National Postal Office, Cebuana Lhuiller, Smart
Padala, Globe G-Cash, Palawan Express Padala, Penafrancia, Western Union, and
LBC Padala. In addition, there are existing banks within the municipality such as
Agribank, Landbank, Bank of the Philippine Island (BPI), Metrobank, and Philippine
National Bank (PNB).

Table 47. Business Establishments in Coron, 2016.


Classification of Establishments Frequency Percent Share (%)
Agriculture and Fishery- Related 68 3.5 %
Automotive 32 1.6 %
Communications 28 1.4 %
Construction-Related 47 2.4 %
Courier and Money Transfer 32 1.6 %
Dry and Wet Goods 267 13.6 %
Food-Related 183 9.3 %
General Goods and Commodities 628 32.0 %
Others 114 5.8 %
Tourism Support 564 28.7 %
Total 1963 100%
Source: Municipal Treasury, 2016

60
2.5 INFRASTRUCTURE, PUBLIC FACILITIES AND UTILITIES

Social infrastructures and basic social services are critical factors to consider
in planning for the desired settlement pattern and hierarchy that would complement
the overall physical and spatial development of the town. Being considered as a first
class municipality of Palawan, Coron’s infrastructure is managing to cope with its
continuous development, particularly as an international tourist destination.

A. Cemetery

The municipal cemetery, whose total land area covers 1.670 hectares, is
located in Sitio Dinagpan, Poblacion V. In 2008, the occupancy rate was estimated at
85 percent of the total holding capacity which is 5,484 burials. In this regard,
additional land is necessary, thus, a new cemetery located at Poblacion 1 with a total
of 5.084 hectares with an estimated capacity of 16,669 burials is provided. However,
the occupied plots are at about 70 percent already and the available burial plots are
only 2,500.

B. Communication Facilities

The mainland barangays can subscribe to CATV, the cable television provider
in the municipality for the access to Manila based-broadcasts. Almost all the island
barangays have subscriber of postpaid television broadcast via satellite through
Cignal, Dream and GSAT. The Provincial Radio Communication System which is
used only for transmitting provincial announcements is located within the municipal
compound in Poblacion 2. Two radio stations are present, the Radyo Kasimanua
which focuses their broadcast on health, religion and government related
announcements unlike the Radio Natin DZRH. Both the Globe Telecom Incorporated
and Smart Communications have cell sites in the municipality. They cater 8,000
Globe users and 12,000 Smart users. The main transmitter of both
telecommunications is located at Mt. Dalara, Poblacion 6 (Table 48).

Table 48. Communication facilities in Coron (2014)


Services Barangay Location
Broadcasting Service
Cable TV Poblacion 1
Radio Natin DZRH Poblacion 1
Radio Kasimanua Station Poblacion 4
Bandera Radio Station (During Election Campaign) Poblacion 3
Telecommunication Service
Poblacion 4, Poblacion 6, Guadalupe, San Jose,
Globe cell site (5)
Turda
Smart cell site (4) Poblacion 4, Poblacion 6, Guadalupe, San Jose

61
C. Irrigation System

Aside from fishing sector, the municipality has large agricultural lands. Coron
has two irrigation systems located respectively at Barangay Borac and San Nicolas
which caters a combined service area of 338 hectares.

D. Public Market

The dry and wet market is relocated at Poblacion 3 near the reclamation area
after super typhoon Yolanda in 2013 wrecked the original area for trade and
commerce. The provincial government of Palawan is planning to construct a
permanent market at Poblacion 6 which will be near and along the national highway.

E. Transportation

Land Transportation

In the municipality, the primary public transportation is tricycle within its 18


mainland barangays. Fare starts at Php 10.00 per person. The five (5) remaining
barangays are islands and can be reached through motor boats. There are also public
vans routing from the mainland barangays going to Francisco Reyes Airport located at
Barangay Decalachao, Coron and vice-versa. Table 49 shows the means of
transportation of each barangay towards the center Poblacion.

Table 49. Distances of Other Barangays in Coron, Palawan from Poblacion 2 and the
Means of Transportations.
Barangays Distance Transportation System
Banuang Daan 10 kms Motor boat
Bintuan 25 kms (adjacent) Bus, Jeepney
Borac 18 kms (adjacent) Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles
Buenavista 55 kms Motor boat, Private vehicles
Bulalacao 60 n.m. Motor boat
Cabugao 12 kms Motor boat
Decabobo 40 kms (adjacent) Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles
Decalachao 35 kms (adjacent) Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles, Tricycle
Guadalupe 9 kms Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles, Tricycle
Lajala 2.5 n.m. Motor boat
Malawig 60 n.m. Motor boat
Marcilla 19.6 kms Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles
Poblacion 1 within town Motorcycle, Tricycle, Walking distance
Poblacion 2 within town Motorcycle, Tricycle, Walking distance
Poblacion 3 within town Motorcycle, Tricycle, Walking distance
Poblacion 4 within town Motorcycle, Tricycle, Walking distance
Poblacion 5 within town Motorcycle, Tricycle, Walking distance
Poblacion 6 3 kms Motorcycle, Private vehicles, Tricycle
San Jose 45 kms Motorcycle, Private vehicles, Tricycle
San Nicolas 14 kms Motorcycle, Private vehicles, Tricycle
Tagumpay 1.5 kms Motorcycle, Private vehicles, Tricycle
Tara 55 n.m. Motor boat
Turda 40 n.m. Jeepney, Motor boat, Private vehicles

62
Source: CBMS Survey, 2011

Air and Marine Transportation

With the booming tourism industry of Coron, air and sea travel become more
accessible and convenient for the tourists. The Cebu Pacific Airlines, Philippine
Airlines, and Skyjet Airlines have everyday flights from Manila (Ninoy Aquino
International Airport, Paranaque) to Coron (Francisco Reyes Airport, Decalachao).
Moreover, Air Juan Airlines has a scheduled flight twice a week. There is also a private
airstrip located in Sitio Banga, Poblacion 6 with runway dimension of about 850 by 28
meters. The sea port is located at Barangay Tagumpay which accommodates big vessel
such as 2 Go Travel. On the other hand, transportation from Poblacion to Island
Barangays includes boats whether motor-operated or not.

Inventory of Roads
Coron has a total of 233.415 kilometers road networks which are classified
into national and local roads (provincial, city/municipality and barangay). Table 50
shows the municipality’s summarized road networks, while Table 52 shows the
specific and detailed inventory of these roads.

Table 50. Summarized Inventory of Roads

Road Surface (Meters)


Administrative Length Width
Classification (Kilometres) (Meters) Concrete Gravel Earthfill

National 33.689 6.7 27.646 6.043 -


Provincial 122.6 6.1 24.745 81.655 16.2
City/Municipality 7.68 4 7.68 - -
Barangay 69.446 4 5.01 66.126 -
TOTAL 233.415 - 60.071 152.134 16.2
Source: Consolidated data from MEO, DPWH-PAL1DEO, Actual survey, 2013

More than half of the total road network measuring 152.134 kilometer is made
up of gravel, while 16.2 kilometer is still dirt road. Only the remaining 65.081
kilometer is made up of concrete. This is quite problematic especially during rainy
season where most gravel and dirt are washed out making the roads unsafe for
traveling. Also, concrete municipal roads do not have safety road signs, drainage and
culverts, and sidewalks.

Inventory of Bridges

The municipality has a total of 16 bridges in which 9 are made up of concrete


and is therefore considered as permanent bridge. All the bridges are along the national
highway of Coron-Busuanga Road Section (Table 51).

63
Table 51. Inventory of Bridges along National Highway
Bridge Length (meters)
Balolo Bridge 19.36
Batacalan Bridge 39.4
Binalabag Bridge I 18.80
Binalabag Bridge II 16.33
Bintuan Bridge 36.8
Dialod Bridge 19.6
Dimangyan Bridge 13.60
Dipulao Bridge 26.1
Dipuyai Bridge 38.35
Labangan Bridge I 50.65
Labangan Bridge II 22.8
Malbato Bridge II 23.80
Malbato Bridge I 15.99
Nagbaril Bridge I 16.60
Nagbaril bridge II 16.60
Sinabitan Bridge 30.6
TOTAL 405.38
Source: MPDO, 2014

64
Table 52. Specific Inventory of Roads in Coron, Palawan.
Administrative Length Length of Road Surface (Kilometers)
Road Route Width (Meters)
Classification (Kilometers) Concrete Gravel Earthfill
1.Coron –Busuanga Nat’l. Road 33.689 6.7 27.646 6.043 -
National Road
Sub-total 33.689 14.43% 27.646 6.043 -
1.Coron Provincial Road 0.86 6.1 0.86 -
2.Guadalupe – San Nicolas Road 6.67 6.1 0.165 6.505 -
3.San Nicolas – Borac Road 13.32 6.1 0.97 12.35 -
4.San Nicolas –Decabobo Section Road 9.47 6.1 0.4 9.07 -
5.YKR Busuanga Airport Road 12.75 6.1 12.5 0.25 -
6.Borac – Turda Road 8.41 6.1 - 8.41 -
7.Borac – Marcilla Road 11.76 6.1 - 11.76 -
8.Decabobo – Buenavista Road 10.56 6.1 - 10.56
Provincial Road 9.Tagumpay –Borac Section Road 3.78 6.1 - 3.78 -
10.Tagumpay- Balisungan Marcilla Road 12.15 6.1 - 12.15 -
11.Hospital –Mabentangen Road 3.48 6.1 - 3.48 -
12.Jct. Mabentangan- Balisungan Road 1.05 6.1 0.4 0.65 -
13.YKR Airport-Decalachao Road. 7.6 6.1 3.23 4.37 -
14.Balisungan – Pale Road 5.06 6.1 1.25 3.81 -
15.Buena Vista – Malawig 5.64 6.1 - - 5.64
16. Decalachao - San Jose 10.04 6.1 4.97 5.07 -
Sub-total 122.6 52.53% 24.745 81.655 16.2
1. Malvar Street Extension 0.76 4 0.76 - -
2. Felicidad Road 0.53 4 0.53 - -
3. Nueva/Tapyas Road 0.86 4 0.86 - -
Municipal Road 4. Roxas Street 0.4 4 0.4 - -
5. Burgos Street 0.25 4 0.25 - -
6. Don Pedro Street 0.72 4 0.72 - -
7. Real Street 0.3 4 0.3 - -

65
Administrative Length Length of Road Surface (Kilometers)
Road Route Width (Meters)
Classification (Kilometers) Concrete Gravel Earthfill
8. Coastal Road 0.49 4 0.49 - -
9. Rosario Street 0.17 4 0.17 - -
10. San Agustin Street 0.64 4 0.64 - -
11. Comesaria 0.48 4 0.48 - -
12. Barangay I, III &IV 2.08 4 2.08 - -
Sub-total 7.68 3.29% 7.68 - -
1.Tagumpay 1.406 4 - 1.406 -
2.Barangay V 1.1 4 1.1 - -
3.Barangay VI 4.81 4 - 4.81 -
4.Guadalupe 3.3 4 0.4 2.9 -
5.San Nicolas 5.16 4 - 5.16 -
6.Decabobo 3.1 4 0.8 2.3 -
7.Borac 5.34 4 0.45 4.89 -
8.Malawig 0.4 4 - 0.4 -
9.Buena Vista 0.91 4 0.14 0.77 -
Barangay Road 10.Marcilla 1.17 4 - 1.17 -
11.Decalachao 15.61 4 0.5 15.11 -
12.San Jose 1.69 4 0.5 1.19 -
13.Turda 3.21 4 - 3.21 -
14.Bintuan 20.1 4 - 20.1 -
15.Tara 1.02 4 - 1.02 -
16.Barangay IV 0.11 4 0.11 - -
17.Bulalacao .0.490 4 - .0.490 -
18.Barangay I 1.01 4 1.01 - -
Sub-total 69.446 29.75% 5.01 64.436 -
TOTAL ROAD NETWORK 233.415 100% 65.081 152.134 16.2
Source: Consolidated data from MEO, DPWH-PAL1DEO, Actual survey, 2013

66
F. Drinking Water Source

Water is an essential part of daily living and survival. It sustains life as well as
economic and industrial activities. In 2008, access water from all levels of water
supply systems was at 85.90%. The remaining 14% of households obtain water from
sources which are not verified safe or potable.
Across the municipality, there are three levels of water source used. Level I
water supply system is comprised of the following: deep wells, pumped shallow
wells, open dug wells and virgin springs. Among the total population, 35.27% obtain
water for domestic consumption from these sources. On the other hand, Level II water
supply systems come from 15 communal water systems. These sources are from
developed springs and wells. Approximately 44% of the total households in the
municipality get water from this.
Lastly, Level 3 water supply system is the Mabentagen Dam located in
Barangay 6. The annual precipitation of 130-135mm from June to September and
500mm during heavy rains which assures sufficient water supply for the households
and commercial establishments it serves. Two water supply distributors Mactan Rock
Inc. which serves Poblacion 1-6 (with a filtration system) and the CRWSA (Coron
Rural Waterworks& Sanitation Association), highly depend on this dam. These water
supply providers take care of the distribution of safe water to 1,685 households
connected through a pipe system. This secures 20.73% of the total households’ water
supply within the municipality.
Within Coron, Mactan Rock Inc. and CRWSA supply privately owned business
franchises of purified and distilled water such as Aqua Safe, Palawan Pure, Aqua
Pure, and Aquabest.

G. Energy Supply System

Calamian Islands Power Corporation (CIPC) was the company to undertake and
hold responsibility in the construction and operation of an 8 MW bunker- and 750 kW
diesel-fired power plants in the municipalities of Coron and Busuanga. In August
2011, CIPC entered into a 15-year Power Sale Agreement with Busuanga Island
Electric Cooperative (BISELCO) covering the total capacity of the project.
BISELCO Distribution System voltage is 13.2 kV multi-grounded radial system
which exits from the power plant at the high voltage side of the step-up transformer. It
provides electricity to the fishing, farming, and tourism activitiesr. It gives light to
residential consumers and small commercial stores, hotels, restaurants, and lodging
houses. As development progresses, new barangays and sitios were energized causing
the increase in demand for residential connections.
Energy consumption rates increase during summer and December while energy
consumption decreases during the rainy season. It is unfortunate that beginning 2007,
BISELCO’s demand is considered suppressed due to the power plant capacity. This is
made worse by frequent power plant downtime.
The figure shows the Busuanga Island Grid and the location of existing plants.
There are two power plants in Coron, one is at Barangay Guadalupe and the other is at

67
Poblacion 6, which caters the mainland barangays. The local government,
international non-government agencies and foundations provide island barangays with
solar panels.

Figure 10. Busuanga Island Grid Map.

H. Solid Waste Disposal

Four (4) 2.5 cubic meter load capacity of mini dump trucks are currently used
by the Municipal Government of Coron in collection, transportation, and disposal of
municipal garbage from barangay collection points to the municipal open dump site.
The areas being served by the said vehicles are Barangay Poblacion 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and
Barangay Tagumpay classified by the National Statistics Office (NSO) as urban area.
Several covered plastic garbage bins are provided and distributed by the Municipal
Government on strategic locations around the urban barangays prior to their collection
to serve as temporary waste storage. Most often, these garbage bins are stolen and or
destroyed by indifferent residents of the municipality during early morning hours
causing wastes to scatter and spread on the streets and off-shore especially those
located along the coastal areas.
Aside from the four (4) drivers, sixteen (16) garbage collectors are assigned to
the dump trucks. These garbage collectors are untrained as far as healthy and sanitary
handling of wastes is concerned and is not provided with body any protective
equipment. To complement the above manpower, a total of fifty-nine (59) laborers
broken-down as follows: thirty-seven (37) street sweepers, seventeen (17) coastal
cleaners and five (5) Mount Tapyas cleaners are employed by the Municipal
Government to maintain cleanliness of the municipality. These laborers are
supervised by one (1) Labor Foreman and one (1) Municipal Engineer.

68
Meanwhile, mixed ecological solid wastes are collected from urban barangays
by four (4) dump trucks daily from Monday to Sunday. These wastes are temporarily
kept in self-enclosing plastic bins provided by the Municipal Government located at
strategic places prior to collection. Collected wastes are then transported to the
Municipal Open Dump Site at So. Bocal-Bocal, Barangay Guadalupe, five (5)
kilometers away from the town proper, where they are dumped for final disposal.
At rural and island barangays, solid wastes are not collected by the Municipal
Government of Coron. Likewise, the barangay governments do nothing about the
collection of solid wastes in their barangays as evidenced by the absence of Barangay
Material Recovery Facility (BMRF). Their wastes are usually disposed by some
households in open-pit at their own backyards to naturally decomposed and other
households throw and left their wastes unattended in public open spaces and in coastal
areas.

2.6. LOCAL INSTITUTIONAL CAPABILITY

A. Local Government Structure

The municipality of Coron is spearheaded by the Mayor, Honorable Clara E.


Reyes and the Municipal Vice-Mayor, Honorable Jim Gerald L. Pe. Together with
their municipal councilors and other officials and employees, the functions and
operations of the local government unit were administered, managed, and
materialized. This arrangement follows the basis for the local administration’s
structure, functions and civil powers provided by the Republic Act No. 7160 known
as the Local Government Code of the Republic of the Philippines. The Code also
serves as the basis upon which personnel administration and inter-government
relations stipulated. The table below presents the local government structure of the
Coron, Palawan.

Table 53. Directory of Municipal Officials in Coron, Palawan

Directory of Municipal Officials (2013-2016)


Mayor
Hon. Clara E. Reyes
Vice Mayor
Hon. Jim Gerald L. Pe
Department Heads/ Unit Heads/ Office
Local government unit/department/
Managers/ Officers
Office of the Municipal Administrator, Office
of the Municipal Planning and Development Dr. Samuel V. Madamba
Coordinator, Disaster Risk Reduction Office
Human Resource and Management Amanda N. Pinoon
Business Permit and Licensing Services Wilma Leagogo
Tourism Services Chippy Alarcon
Community Affairs and Development Ma. Theresa J. Casaremo
Social Welfare and Development Flora Nagamos
Bantay Coron Services Cedric Caabay
Office of the Municipal Budget Joseliza D. Galpo

69
Office of the Municipal Civil Registrar Angelina E. Pe
Office of the General Service Officer Yolanda Caabay
Office of the Municipal Accountant Narissa Privado
Office of the Municipal Treasurer Ignacio D. Merdenilla
Office of the Municipal Information Office Lyle Coruna
Office of the Municipal Assessor Retnario Labrador
Office of the Municipal Health Officer Dr. Alan D. Guintapan
Office of the Municipal Agriculture Geronemo Gevela
Office of the Municipal Engineer Engr. Ike D. Parangue
Sangguniang Bayan Secretary Lourina A. Cruz

70
Figure 11. Organizational Structure of the Local Government Unit of Coron, Palawan.

71
Table 54. National Government Agencies in the Municipality of Coron.
Department of Interior and Local Government Alfredo G. Balane, Jr.
BFMDD Insp. Fernan Gil C. Cagampan
Department of Education Nida Tejada
Department of Justice Judge Lovelle Moana R. Hitosis
Department of Finance Danilo Cortez
Department of Agrarian Reform Gernemo Gevela
Commission on Elections Clemen Dinoon
Source: MPDO, 2016

At the Barangay level, local government is headed by the Barangay Captains,


they administered and managed the barangays together with the Barangay Councilors.
Moreover, the Barangay officials are tasked to execute governmental functions and
provide governmental services to the individuals in the barangays. The Barangay
Chairman in each barangay is as follows:

Table 55. List of Barangay Chairman in Coron, Palawan.


Name of Barangay Name of Punong Barangay
Barangay Banuang Daan Hon. Bienvenido A. Abella
Barangay Bintuan Hon. Larry B. Pe
Barangay Borac Hon. Rodolfo R. Correa
Barangay Buenavista Hon. Fernando P. Aguido
Barangay Bulalacao Hon. Sabino B. Flores
Barangay Cabugao Hon. Renato A. Dacullos
Barangay Decabobo Hon. Manuel H. dela Torre, Jr.
Barangay Decalachao Hon. Merla D. Obispado
Barangay Guadalupe Hon. Richard G. Badang
Barangay Lajala Hon. Allan N. Mundia
Barangay Malawig Hon. Nonacio C. Pulilan
Barangay Marcilla Hon. Laudermer P. Pe
Barangay Poblacion 1 Hon. Antonio C. Privado
Barangay Poblacion 2 Hon. Oscar A. Amit, Jr.
Barangay Poblacion 3 Hon. Marlon A. Hachero
Barangay Poblacion 4 Hon. George S. Rios
Barangay Poblacion 5 Hon. Lani SJ. Lungay
Barangay Poblacion 6 Hon. Maria V. Cinco
Barangay San Jose Hon. Edgar V. Villareal
Barangay San Nicolas Hon. Joel T. Moreno
Barangay Tara Hon. Abelardo B. Alvarez
Barangay Tagumpay Hon. Ricardo G. Astor
Barangay Turda Hon. Roderick M. Echague
Source: MPDO, 2016

72
B. ECAN Board

Listed in Table 56 are the members of the ECAN Board who lead the
implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the ECAN Zones in the municipality.
The ECAN Board refers to the multi-sectoral, coordinative and advisory body to the
local government unit, purposely to assist in the development of plans and programs
to implement ECAN at the municipal level. The Chairperson of the ECAN Board acts
as the ECAN Zoning Plan Administrator. He/she may appoint a Deputy Plan
Administrator who is qualified for the job and whose nature of work is related to
ECAN Zoning.

The PCSDS representative to the ECAN Board, the Municipal Environment


and Natural Resources Officer (MENRO), the Municipal Planning and Development
Coordinator, and the other members of the ECAN Board constitutes the ECAN
Zoning Plan Advisory Body. They assist the Plan Administrator and Deputy Plan
Administrator in the implementation of the ECAN Zoning Plan. Moreover,
representatives from other government and non-government organizations who have
been related to environmental conservation and development are being considered.

Table 56. ECAN Board members in Coron, Palawan.


Municipal Government Departments/ Operating Departments
Mayor
Vice Mayor
Chairperson, SB Comm. On Env’t.
President, ABC
MENRO-Designate/ Municipal Assessor
PCSDS Calamianes District Manager
MPDC
DENR-CENRO
Municipal Engineer
Municipal Police Station OIC
Station Commander, Coron Coastguard
Chief Station 2nd MSOU Coron, Philippine Maritime Group
Bantay Coron Executive Director
DepEd Coron District Supervisor
Director, Coron PSU
Coast Guard, Head
Chairman, Kawil Amianan
CATE Chairman
Municipal Information Officer
PCSDS DMO-Calamianes Staffs
Municipal Information Office Staff
Source: PCSD, 2015

73
C. Development Legislation
Sangguniang Bayan (SB) members are tasked to formulate and approve
arrangements and schemes for the municipality’s peace and order and development
concerns in the form of ordinances and resolutions. Laws are needed to be enacted,
passed and approved to legitimize municipal government plans, actions, and projects
intended for the growth or development and for the welfare of its constituency.
As indicated in Table 57, for CY 2012 and 2013, 158 ordinances were enacted.
The sectors that received the largest share of legislations were on education, culture
and arts (25%); Health (20%); and Administrative (15%). On the other hand, there has
been no ordinance that was enacted for the Environment sector on the same period.
Ordinances in 2013 are distinguished to be involved the cumulative allotment of
P7,425,858 funding for disaster response efforts in addressing the consequence of
Typhoon Yolanda that hit the municipality in November 2013.
Furthermore, 70% of the 52 ordinances that were approved in the year of 2013
were associated to the provision of wages, honoraria and allowances to government
employees while in 2012, major ordinances were permitted for the improvement of
the town. Specifically, new zoning regulation was approved the Municipal Tourism
Master Plan was implemented, and the endorsement of the Power Generation Project
to the Provincial Government. However, 30 % of the total ordinances passed in 2012
were related to financial or medical support to citizens and local government
personnel as well. However, there is only about 25% of the total in the year 2012 that
involved the allocation of salaries, and any other related concerns.

Table 57. Number & Percentage Share of Ordinances.


Legislation by Sector No. of Ordinances Total
2012 % 2013 % %
Administrative 16 15% 8 15% 15%
Economic Development 9 8% 1 2% 6%
Environmental Management 0 0% 0 0% 0%
Social Development 8 8% 5 10% 8%
Educational, Culture and 19 18% 21 40% 25%
Arts
Health 28 26% 3 6% 20%
Protective Services 9 8% 9 17% 11%
Infrastructure Development 9 8% 2 4% 7%
Finance Management 8 6% 3 2% 7%
TOTAL 106 52
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

D. Local Fiscal Management

Local Finance Committee (LFC) is assigned to direct the local fiscal


management in Coron. The committee consists of the Municipal Budget Officer,
Municipal Treasurer, Municipal Accountant, and the Municipal Planning and
Development Coordinator. The LFC was created to define, at the start of the budget

74
project cycle, the projected collectible for the coming year. However, the committee
suggests tax arrangements, revenue measures or borrowings to be able to support the
budget in times of inadequate projected collectibles in relation to the estimated
expenditures.
The Office of the Local Chief Executive, with the assistance of the Municipal
Budget Office, is the department expected to prepare the budget for each fiscal year.
With that, it is essential for each of the municipal government department head to pass
budgetary requirements of the respective departments that are based on the following:
local development plans, policy and program guidelines, budgetary ceilings
recommended by the LFC and the general requirements according to the Local
Government Code. In addition, they are also tasked to submit budgetary requirements
of the respective departments that are based on the following: policy and program
guidelines, local development plans, budgetary ceilings prescribed by the Local
Finance Committee, and the general requirements prescribed by the Local
Government Code. Moreover, it is after the issuance of the Statement of Income and
Expenditures, the budget proposals, the estimates of income and the prescribed
budgetary ceilings, that the budget preparation activities are then be managed.

E. Status of Financial Health


Annual budget of the municipality of Coron has increased in every year since
2003. The total budget of the municipality from the year of 2003 to 2013 reached Php
928,518,535.19. However, as the income increases, the municipal expenditure also
increases. The annual budget is being spent without any excess or deficit (Table 58).

Table 58. Comparative Income & Expenditure by Year (2004-2013).


Fiscal Year Income Expenses
2013 123,880,104.00 123,880,104.00
2012 113,017,079.00 113,017,079.00
2011 123,059,200.56 123,059,200.56
2010 99,298,541.00 99,298,541.00
2009 108,856,784.74 108,856,784.74
2008 98,045,835.55 98,045,835.55
2007 68,417,053.00 68,417,053.00
2006 74,554,952.61 74,554,952.61
2005 62,100,113.95 62,100,113.95
2004 57,289,248.78 57,289,248.78
TOTAL 928,518,535.19 928,518,535.19
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

Revenues by Source

The total municipal income of Coron for the year 2013 was identified to be
Php 123,880,104.00; it was also the indicated total amount of expenditure in the same
year. Information regarding the specific amount gathered per source of revenue in
2013 was not made available. Local expenditure is composed of the personal services,
generally salaries and wages, maintenance and operating expenses, capital outlay, and
equipment necessary for the effectiveness of the municipal government. As indicated

75
from Table 73, there is an increase of Php 23- Million in terms of the municipality’s
income and expenditure, on the other hand, in 2012, it was lessened by Php 10-
Million and increased again in 2013 (Table 59).

Table 59. Revenue by Source by Year (2010-2013).


Income Sources 2012 2011 2010
Tax Revenue
Real Property Tax 1,800,000.00 1,300,000.00 972,299.94
Business Taxes and
3,500,000.00 2,900,000.00 3,807,493.38
Licenses
Other Taxes 2,000,000.00 600,000.00 2,593,632.49
Non-Tax Revenue
Regulatory Fees 3,000,000.00 2,000,000.00 1,005,097.24
Services/User Charges 3,000,000.00 1,500,000.00 7,099,836.28
Receipts from Economic
4,000,000.00 4,000,000.00 3,259,067.28
Enterprises
Other Receipts 3,000,000.00 2,700,000.00 2,500,000.00
Internal Revenue
92,717,079.00 97,596,926.00 97,596,926.00
Allotment
TOTAL 113,017,079.00 112,596,926.00 116,334,352.61
Source: Ecological Profile, 2014

76
CHAPTER 3: THE ECAN ZONING STRATEGY

The main strategy of the SEP Law is the ECAN zoning. It serves as a graded
system of protection and development control over the Province of Palawan. It is
quite parallel to the Biosphere Reserve Zonation of UNESCO which seeks to protect
environmentally critical habitats, zoning scheme being typified by concentric circles
(See Figure 25).

Figure 12. Configuration of biosphere reserve zones. (Source: PCSD, 2016)

In general, the core area is strictly protected for conservation purposes. The
buffer zone, which is only for non-extractive uses, surrounds the core area. On the
other hand, sustainable development activities are being organized with the local
communities in the transition area (Batisse 1992). A network of such reserves is
usually formulated inside a conservation unit called a corridor, an ecoregion, or a
protected landscape and seascape.
In 1994, the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (PCSD) adopted
the Guidelines in Implementing the ECAN (PCSD Resolution no 94-44). Based on
the guidelines, utilizing whatever available secondary data and existing maps
(topography/elevation, vegetative cover), a preliminary ECAN map was produced and
approved by the PCSD. An ECAN zoning map is produced from biophysical and
socio-economic criteria that include elevation of the land, its slope, forest cover,
watershed properties, habitat of threatened species, land classification, and the
existing land uses. Through the PCSD Staff, a series of orientation workshops were
conducted at the municipal level to prepare the LGUS, specifically the planning

77
offices, on their role relative to the ECAN. Also, during the workshops,
Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Monitoring methodologies
were also discussed.
Multi-sectoral ECAN Boards were organized in each municipality after every
orientation workshop. The Board serves as a recommendatory regulating body
relative to all environment related issues. This is necessary to ensure proper resource
utilization within ECAN protected zones. Each ECAN Board is provided with the
preliminary ECAN map, as a basis for their evaluation of any project or activity.
Community dialogues and consultations were undertaken to gain acceptance
on ECAN activities as well as to gather secondary information to further develop the
zoning guidelines for a specific area. These were translated into working maps,
though preliminary, to be utilized in enforcing the provision of the ECAN guidelines.
Finally, the zoning maps shall be subjected to an actual survey/delineation which is
marked on the ground.

3.1. THE ECAN ZONES AS A MANAGEMENT UNIT

The use of ECAN zones map, as a basis for locating fitting areas for plans,
programs, and projects that will be introduced in Palawan, implies the designation of
the ECAN zones as a management unit. It is likely that a locality will be better guided
in development planning and decision making in adopting the ECAN map and
implement their development objectives based on it.
Ecanization is defined as “the process of delineating and marking the
boundaries of the different zones in both land and sea, the identification of prescribed
activities and resource use for each zone, together with the enforcement of regulatory
measures to prevent practices that are destructive of the environment” (PCSD
Resolution 94-44). With this, the Palawan Province has come up with the following
ECAN Map (Figure 26).

78
Figure 13. Terrestrial ECAN zones map of Palawan Province (Kalayaan
Municipality, also in Palawan, is not shown). (Source: PCSD, 2016)

3.2. COMPONENTS OF THE ECAN ZONES

The ECAN zoning strategy has three (3) components: The Terrestrial
component, the Coastal/Marine component, and the Tribal ancestral zones (SEP Law,
Sections 8-11).
The terrestrial component: This component covers the mountains, low hills,
and lowland areas of the whole province. It has a core zone, a buffer zone (subdivided
into restricted use area, controlled use area, and traditional use area) and a multiple or
manipulative use zone. The zoning of this component is guided by the criteria in the
SEP Law and in PCSD Resolution 05-250 (The Revised Guidelines in Implementing
the ECAN).2

2
The texts of these laws can be accessed online. SEP Law: http://pcsd.gov.ph/sep_law/ra7611.htm

79
Coastal/Marine component: This component covers the whole coastline up
to the open sea. A simplified zoning scheme is used in the management of this
component due to its geographical characteristics, critical nature, and patterns of
resource use. It is divided into two zones: coastal/marine core zone and multiple use
zones. The latter is further subdivided into transition/buffer zone and
sustainable/general use zone. The zoning of this component is guided by the criteria in
the SEP Law and PCSD Resolution 05-250.
Tribal ancestral zone: The last component is a special zone in the land and
sea that is allotted for indigenous cultural communities. This special zone will fulfil
the material and cultural needs of the indigenous peoples (IPs). It shall be delineated
according to the criteria for terrestrial and coastal/marine components. Hence, the
tribal ancestral zone may transcend all ECAN zones and will give greater cultural
considerations.
The identification and delineation of this component is guided by Joint NCIP-
PCSD Memorandum Circular No. 2005-01 (“Harmonization of the Implementation of
the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) and the Strategic Environmental Plan for
Palawan Act”), as amended.3

3.3. CRITERIA AND PARAMETERS IN THE DELINEATON OF THE


ECAN ZONES

The following two tables (Tables 60 and 61) are a summary of criteria and
parameters used in delineation of terrestrial and coastal/marine ECAN zones. A
parameter is a distinct geographic, biological, or physical feature of the area.
Examples are elevation, slope, and land cover. A criterion is a specific range of
quantitative values or qualitative descriptions of the area. Thus, for the parameter of
elevation, the criteria can be “above 1,000 meters”, “below 300 meters”, etc.

PCSD Resolution 05-250 (The Revised Guidelines in Implementing the ECAN):


http://pcsd.gov.ph/resolutions/resolutions/sep/res05-250.htm
3
Joint NCIP-PCSD Memorandum Circular No. 2005-01 is available from: http://pcsd.gov.ph/resolutions/resolutions/ancestral/
joint%20ncip-pcsd%20memo%20circular%20no.%202005-01.htm
PCSD Resolution No. 08-375 (“A Resolution Amending Section V, 4.2 (B) of the Joint NCIP-PCSD Memorandum Circular No.
2005-01”) is available from: http://pcsd.gov.ph/resolutions/resolutions/ancestral/res08-375.htm

80
Table 60. Parameters and criteria in the delineation of terrestrial ECAN zones (from SEP Law and PCSD Resolution 05-250).
ECAN Zone Description Elevation Land Cover Slope Habitat Others
Core Zone Area of > 1,000 m Virgin forest or > 50% Critically Other areas
maximum primary growth threatened/endangered which may be
protection forest (>26.57 degrees) habitats and habitats of identified and
rare endangered species designated by the
or habitat of local Council
endemic species of flora
and fauna
Buffer zone - Generally 500 to 1,000 m Poor, stunted and 36-50 % Areas designated as In areas where
Restricted use surrounds the sparse stands of (19.80-26.57 biodiversity hotspots the criteria of
Core zone and semi-deciduous degrees) and highly threatened elevation, slope,
provides a forest which has by human activities or critical
protective barrier; a low based on scientific watershed do not
regeneration studies apply, a 200-
Critical capacity meter belt in the
watersheds which mainland and
were identified, 100-meter belt in
classified or the islands
declared as such surrounding the
by the Core zone
government
Buffer zone - Encircles and 300 to 500 m 19-35% (10.20- Areas within the
Controlled use provides the outer 19.80 degrees) criteria of the
barrier to the Restricted use
Core zone and zone where there
Restricted use is a community
zone
Buffer zone- Edges of intact Open, brushland > 18% slope All other areas
Traditional use forests where or grassland (> 10.20 degrees) with elevation
traditional land areas that are still AND below 300 below 300 meters
use is already classified as meters’ elevation

81
stabilized is being timberland or
stabilized public land with
elevation below
300 meters
Multiple Use Areas where the Built-up or < 18% slope Areas classified
Zone landscape has settlement areas (< 10.20 degrees) as Alienable and
been modified for located in AND below 300 Disposable lands
different forms of lowlands (less meters’ elevation
land use such as than 18% slope)
intensive timber
extraction,
grazing and
pastures,
agriculture and
infrastructures
development
Source: PCSD, 2016

Table 61. Parameters and criteria in delineating coastal/marine ECAN zones.


ECAN zone General description Criteria
Coastal/Marine This area shall be designated free 1. Coral reefs with good to excellent coral cover condition or 50%-100% coral cover
core zone from any human activity. This 2. Coralline sites containing at least 50% of coral genera found in the management
includes sanctuaries for rare and unit of live coral cover ranging from 25-50%
endangered species, selected coral 3. Seagrass beds serving as link habitat of the coral core zones and/or providing
reefs, seagrass and mangrove habitat to rare, threatened and endangered species
ecosystem reserves. 4. Seagrass beds with at least 50% cover of more than one species of seagrass
5. Seagrass beds with sightings or feeding tracks of Dugong dugon
6. Coastal/marine habitat of endangered species declared by IUCN or CITES, DA or
DENR or the PCSD
7. Primary growth mangrove areas and all areas with standing mangrove forest cover

82
except areas allocated for MSA, CBMFMA, ISF and FLA
8. Fish sanctuaries, spawning areas, nursery areas, breeding/feeding grounds, etc.,
identified/declared by PCSD, Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR)
or under local government zoning ordinance
Coastal/Marine The multiple use zones are other coastal/marine areas outside of the core areas where compatible resource uses may
multiple use be carried out. The multiple use zone shall further be subdivided into two major sub-zones (described below): the buffer zone
zone and the sustainable (general) use zone.
Coastal/Marine multiple use 1. Uninhabited islands or undeveloped portions thereof not subject to private rights shall be
zone - Transition/Buffer zone classified as transition zone except when identified/declared as ancestral coastal/marine
waters
2. Uninhabited islands or islets with an area of less than 500 hectares
3. Degraded small islands with an area of less than 500 hectares
4. Released areas for fishpond development which were utilized and abandoned including
those not utilized for 5 years from the date of the release
5. Degraded habitats of endangered marine species
6. Denuded mangrove forest
7. Areas identified as contributing to important ecological processes such as spawning,
nursery areas, breeding/feeding grounds that otherwise could have been classified as
coastal-marine core zone but during the approval of these guidelines, these areas are
occupied or have been released by virtue of existing laws or due to inappropriate
management of local coastal marine areas. These areas shall be maintained for their
existing use or a phase-out strategy shall be implemented in these areas reverting them to
their natural state or for their appropriate uses. No further development, growth or
expansion shall be allowed in these areas to encourage habitat enhancement or
maintenance of the resource to increase production level or ecosystem maintenance

83
Coastal/Marine multiple use It is the development area of the coastal/marine zone where different compatible and
zone - Sustainable/ sustainable development activities may be carried out. The zone shall cover all
General use zone coastal/marine areas not classified/delineated as core zone, buffer zone and ancestral
coastal/marine waters. The LGU, if it so desires, may further classify/divide this zone into
the following sub-zones: Communal Fishing Ground, Tourism Development Area, Visitor
Use Area, Sustainable Development Area and etc.

84
3.4. ALLOWABLE ACTIVITIES IN THE ECAN ZONES

The allowable uses of ECAN zones (summarized in Table 62) are identified
according to the level of impact of activities and the appropriateness and suitability of
the activity to the zone. The core zone and restricted use area, or the “protection
zones”, are limited to non-consumptive and soft-impact activities, with the indigenous
peoples given special consideration. The principle behind limiting a specific activity
in a zone follows the SEP philosophy of sustainable development that maintains life-
support systems, restores exploited areas, and supports developmental growth.

Table 62. Activities allowed in the ECAN zones (from PCSD Resolution 05-2504 and
PCSD Resolution 06-270).
Component ECAN zone Allowable activities within the management zone
Terrestrial Core Zone None, expect for:
(i) traditional uses of tribal communities for minimal
and soft impact gathering of forest species for
ceremonial and religious purposes, and (ii) soft impact
activities defined in PCSD resolutions 06-270 and 04-
233.
Buffer Zone- Limited and non-consumptive activities which
Restricted Use include:
-gathering of wild honey;
-almaciga tapping;
-soft-impact recreational activities (hiking, sight-
seeing, bird watching);
-research;
-sustainable activities of indigenous peoples;
-ecosystem restoration or rehabilitation; and
-ecotourism activities as per PCSD Resolution 06-270.
Buffer Zone- Strictly controlled mining;
Controlled Use strictly controlled logging which is not for profit (i.e.,
communal forest, CBFM, etc.);
almaciga tapping;
tourism development;
research;
grazing;
gathering of honey, rattan, and other minor forest
products.
Buffer Zone- Upland stabilization program;
Traditional Use Catchment management;
Hillside farming;
Industrial tree plantation;
Reforestation;
Integrated social forestry;
Community-based forest management.

4
Title I--Chapter II and Title II--Chapter II, of PCSD Resolution 05-250.

85
Component ECAN zone Allowable activities within the management zone
Multiple Use Timber extraction with community-based forest
Zone management;
Grazing and pastures;
Agriculture;
Infrastructure and industrial development;
Recreation;
Education;
Research;
And other sustainable activities.
Coastal/Marine Coastal/Marine None, except for:
core zone -navigation purposes of the local fishing communities
where there are no alternative routes;
-emergency situations such as navigational routes to
save life and property;
-researches previously authorized by PCSD; and
-ecotourism activities as per PCSD Resolution 06-270.

Coastal/Marine Habitat restoration, rehabilitation and enhancement


multiple use activities;
zone – -soft-impact activities (swimming/snorkeling; non-
Transition/Buffer motored boating (row boats, kayaks, canoes, wind
zone surfing, etc.);
-guided scuba diving;
-fishing using highly-selected gears (i.e., hook & line
and gill net) with specification to be determined by
studies;
-pre-approved visit or educational activities;
-installation of environmental information boards);
and
-resource enhancement activities.
Coastal/Marine All sustainable human activities, with certain
multiple use development endeavors subject to the EIA system and
zone – to other policies regulating development projects.
Sustainable/
General use zone

Tribal Tribal ancestral Activities based on the material and cultural needs of
ancestral lands zone the indigenous peoples.

Source: PCSD, 2016

The PCSD Resolution 06-270 further expands the allowable activities in the
core zone and restricted use buffer zone by including ecotourism projects. The
rationale behind this are enumerated in the resolution, to wit: (i) ecotourism can be a
tool for environmentally managing ecologically sensitive areas; (ii) ecotourism is
believed to be compatible with environmental protection considering that its activities

86
are generally non-consumptive and therefore do not pose environmental hazard; (iii)
ecotourism is a growing industry in Palawan which can generate alternative sources of
livelihood; and (iv) in order to promote and develop ecotourism industry in the
province, ecotourism activities may be permitted in ecologically sensitive areas
subject to strict monitoring and regulation.
It should be noted that certain “sustainable development” activities to be
allowed in the buffer zone and multiple use zone may be subjected to the EIA System
and to other laws and rules which regulate development projects. As part of the EIA
System and the SEP Clearance System, necessary environmental precautions (such as
periodic multipartite monitoring) are imposed on these activities.

3.5. DELINEATION OF THE ECAN ZONES USING GIS

The mapping of ECAN zones in Palawan has been the responsibility of the
GIS Unit of the ECAN Monitoring and Evaluation Division (EMED) of PCSDS.
Aside from the GIS staff, technical project consultants have been hired to make
mapping studies, to develop methods for ECAN zoning implementation, and to train
the PCSD Staff (Ofren 1999; Cabrido 2003; Vinluan 2004). The latest mapping
guidelines on ECAN zoning were instituted in 2005 through PCSD Resolution 05-
250. Several versions of the ECAN map were produced through the years, each
version using updated and ground-validated ECAN parameters.
GIS and remote sensing technologies were now routinely used in the mapping
of ECAN zones. Various spatial and non-spatial datasets are needed to perform the
task (Table 63). Spatial datasets include thematic layers derived from thematic
mapping and used as input layers in producing ECAN maps. Thematic mapping is the
process of preparing the required map layers for ECAN overlay analysis and
presenting them using a standard mapping system. The most dynamic of these layers
is the land cover - land use (LC-LU). Mapping land and coastal habitat types had
direct contribution to the configuration of ECAN zones. They formed the major
resource base of PCSDS geographic information.

Table 63. Spatial and non-spatial data sources related to ECAN mapping.
Data Source Type Description Data acquired,
produced, or
written
ECAN zones Spatial In various editions 1993, 1998-2001,
(preliminary, revised, updated, 2004, 2005-06
refined)
Satellite images Spatial Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+, c. 1998, 2002-2006
Spot 5, and IKONOS color
images
Land and coastal Spatial Based on commercial satellite c. 1998, 2003-2006
cover images; produced by JAFTA,
PTFPP and SEMP-NP
Relevant thematic Spatial Elevation, slope, habitat of 1950 onwards
layers and thematic endangered species, land

87
Data Source Type Description Data acquired,
produced, or
written
maps classification, land use
Literature Non-spatial Reports, books and articles by 1983-2006
staff and consultants of
PIADP, SPIADP, PCSDS,
PTFPP, and SEMP-NP
The spatial data are geo-referenced information in the map projection UTM
Zone 50, Luzon Datum, Clarke Spheroid 1866. They are available in hardcopy and in
digital format in the PCSDS database.

88
CHAPTER 4: MAJOR STEPS IN THE ECAN ZONING PLAN
PREPARATION

4.1. THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROCESS

The formulation of the ECAN Plan necessitates an expert appraisal of all the
available information. It includes participatory planning (consultations with all
concerned stakeholders), GIS analyses (thematic mapping), and the selection of
relevant sustainable development indicators (ecological footprints, land cover/land
use, land use suitability assessments etc.).
The details on the planning process are given in the document “General
Strategy for Horizontal Integration of SEP ECAN Zoning Plan with CLUP” prepared
by the PCSD Staff. The document contains a suite of methods for executing each step
in the ECAN Zoning Plan (EZP) preparation, including its integration to local land
use plans. The adaptive approach (i.e. adjusting methods and procedures based on
lessons learned and what worked well) is followed in the planning process.
The ECAN Zoning Plan is designed to be flexible and practical in its proposed
guidelines and programs on identified ECAN zones use and strategies. It is envisioned
to be a repertoire of comprehensive strategies that will be responsive to the current
situation of the municipality.
Planning for ECAN zoning is divided into three major parts: (i) primary and
secondary data collection, preparation and processing; (ii) municipal integrated threats
analysis and participatory strategic planning, and (iii) ECAN Zoning Plan writing.
These successive steps (details are provided in the next section) are the central
activities in the ECAN planning process framework.
Primary data include field data acquired through a variety of sources, such as
key informant interviews (KII), ecosystem baseline and monitoring surveys, field
studies, and GIS overlay analyses. Secondary data include previously published or
unpublished researches about the area, thematic maps, and public reports.
During the stage of ECAN Zoning Plan Development, the following thematic
data, maps, and plans, at the minimum, can be consulted in formulating the ECAN
zones management strategies and land use options.

Table 64. Data requirements for ECAN zones management planning.


Thematic maps Description Source of data
ECAN zones graded system of protection PCSDS and LGU-Coron
and development control
Soils land use suitability and DA-Bureau of Soils and
capability; land management Water Management
unit
Geohazards vulnerability and exposure of DENR-MGB, NAMRIA,
land to physical processes PCSDS
Ecological footprint Ecosystem goods production; PCSDS
carrying capacity
SAFDZ (optional) Sustainable Agriculture and DA, MAO
Fisheries Development Zones

89
Thematic maps Description Source of data
Socioeconomic information Socioeconomic data from MPDO, NSO
Community-Based
Monitoring System (CBMS)
Latest CLUP Comprehensive Land and MPDO
Water Use Plan
Latest FLUP Forest Land Use Plan LGU-Coron, DENR
Source: PCSD, 2016

4.2. GUIDE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF A DETAILED ECAN ZONING


PLAN
The following are the recommended steps in developing a detailed municipal
EZP. It is partly based on “Appendix 4: Development of a Detailed Management
Plan” of the Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan towards Sustainable
Development (1987). The performance of the steps may require a combination of ad
hoc, Delphi process (round table discussions), GIS analysis, and the use of decision-
support systems. A major step of EZP is the conduct of an integrated threats analysis
which will be the basis for the drafting of beneficial, timely, responsive, and adaptable
courses of action to be implemented in the municipality.
1. Build a sustainable development planning database (ECAN Data Infrastructure
Development).
The objective of this undertaking is to produce a database of sustainable
development indicators of the area. With the ECAN map as a provincial/municipal
road map, the said database will be used to come up with local sustainable
development plans through the synthesis of all the available information (ecological,
physical and socio-economic infrastructures and other attributes). This activity will
ensure continuous flow of up-to-date quality information in ECAN management
planning.
The following is a checklist of primary and secondary data needs to be collected in
hardcopy or softcopy if available.
1. Geographic Location and Area
 Municipal and barangay areas
2. Physical Environment
 Topography
 Geology
 Soils
 Climate
 Geological hazards
 Land resources
 Land and sea cover

3. Biological Environment
 Forest resources (Flora report)
 Wildlife resources and biodiversity (Fauna report)

90
 Coastal and Marine resources (coral reefs, reef fish, marine mammals and sea
turtles, seagrass, invertebrates, mangroves)
4. Socioeconomic Profile
 Population – population and demographic characteristics
 Social condition – dependency ratios, health and nutrition, educational status
(literacy rate), housing and basic utilities
 Economic condition – poverty incidence and employment
 Protective services
5. Local Economy
 Labor force and Employment
 Economic Profile and Livelihood Sources
 Income and Expenditures
 Tourism (existing, emerging and potential tourism sites)
6. Infrastructure, Public Facilities and Utilities
 Road network
 Road transportation
 Air transportation
 Sea transportation
 Irrigation
 Water Supply
 Electric Power Supply
 Communication Facilities
 Facilities
 Drainage and Flood Control System
 Sewage Disposal
 Solid Waste Disposal System
7. Local Institutional Capability
 Local Government Structure

2. Determine the exact boundaries of ECAN zones and administrative boundaries.


With the assistance of the GIS unit, the planning team and the PCSDS District
Management Office (DMO) will determine the extent of ECAN zones of three
components (terrestrial, coastal/marine, and TAZ).

3. Identify “Special Management Areas” (SMAs).


Prior to actual planning, the site managers/planners should identify first the
“special management areas” in the area of operation. These areas are still subject to
ECAN zonation but their management may entail “special treatment” owing to
specific management plans and management authorities intended for the areas.
These special areas may include the following:
1. Habitats of rare and endangered species

91
Selected areas in Palawan were already designated as habitats of endangered
species by virtue of local resolutions. Other areas may already be identified by
research studies.
2. Legitimate areas for tribal ancestral zones
Selected areas in Palawan were declared as ancestral zones for indigenous
peoples by virtue of any of the following instruments.
- Tribal Ancestral Zone (TAZ) through PCSD Administrative Orders (see figure
below)
- Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) and Certificate of Ancestral Domain
Claim (CADC)
- Certificate of Ancestral Land Title (CALT) and Certificate of Ancestral Land Claim
(CALC)

Source: PCSD, 2016


Figure 14. Palawan Tribal Ancestral Zones (TAZ) proclaimed by PCSD.

3. Areas of cultural, historical, geological and anthropological interest


Areas of historical and anthropological significance include the Tabon Cave
Reservation in Lipuun Point, Quezon; the Tau’t Bato Reservation in Singnapan
Valley, Barangay Ransang, Rizal; the Ile Caves in El Nido; the walled fortresses in
Balabac, Cuyo, Linapacan, Taytay, Agutaya, etc.; and other similar sites.
4. Tourism development areas
5. NIPAS areas
These refer to protected areas declared under the National Integrated Protected
Area System. The following table is a list of large-scale protected areas in Palawan.

92
Table 65. NIPAS areas of Palawan Province.
Protected Area Municipality Location
Calauit Game Preserve and Busuanga Calauit Island
Wildlife Sanctuary
(CGPWS)/
Coron Island Protected Coron Coron Island
Landscape
El Nido-Taytay Managed El Nido-Taytay Portions of El Nido and
Resource Protected Area Taytay Municipalities
Malampaya Sound Protected Taytay Taytay
Landscape and Seascape
Tubbataha Reefs Natural Cagayancillo Sulu Sea
Park
Puerto Princesa Subterranean Puerto Princesa City Northwestern Puerto Princesa
River National Park City
(PPSRNP)
Palawan Flora, Fauna and Puerto Princesa City Barangay Irawan
Watershed Reserve
(PFFWR)/ Irawan Watershed
Reserve
Rasa Island Wildlife Reserve Narra Rasa Island
Mount Mantalingahan Quezon, Rizal, Española, Mantalingahan Mountain
Protected Landscape Brooke’s Point, Bataraza Range
(MMPL)
Ursula Island Bird Sanctuary Bataraza Ursula Island, Sulu Sea
Source: PCSD, 2016

6. Other management units


Terrestrial Zone
a. Watershed reserves of forest reserves
b. Municipal parks (terrestrial)
c. Community Based Forestry Management Area (CBFMA)
d. Communal Forest areas
e. ISF and other forest-related tenurial instruments
Coastal/ Marine zone
a. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), marine parks, fish sanctuaries, or marine
ecosystem reserves – may cover different benthic habitats, such as coral reefs,
seagrass and mangroves
b. Communal fishing grounds
c. Municipal waters – covering the 15 kilometer limit from the shoreline
d. Community Based Mangrove Forest Management Area (CBMFMA)
e. Sanctuaries of rare and endangered species – e.g. turtle nesting sites

Planning for these Special Management Areas cannot be monopolized by one


agency or one group of stakeholders. A consultative and participative planning
process is advised for SMAs in order for the plan to gain total acceptance by the
affected communities and management authorities.

93
4. Develop thematic and integrated planning modules and indicators.
Method: GIS mapping overlays, spatial and non-spatial modelling
Input: GIS layers and files, baseline data on environment and socio-
economics
Output: thematic maps and indicators
An integrated development planning analysis necessitates a consolidation of
essential planning elements. Hence, there is a need to look at the actual condition of
the area prior to laying out the land use plans and designating activities. To do this,
the planners need to produce several thematic and cross-cutting determinants of
physical geography, ecology and socio-economics.
The logical next step after defining the planning area is a systematic collation
of scientific information about a site, area or community needs to be undertaken. A
framework for a possible combinatory analysis of all collected information – the
multi-criteria evaluation – is described in Step 6 below.
This step then is mainly the multi-processing/analyses part of ECAN Plan
development to come up with “integrated thematic planning modules”. It primary
includes studies on land use suitability, capability, and sustainability mapping using
GIS overlay analyses. It will also develop land use profiles and
biophysical/baseline/thematic maps in order to ascertain the economic development
potentials of the land.
The intensity of data collection and data processing will depend on the
situation of a municipality or site. Some areas already have “advanced” materials and
data and will only require the validation of the integrity of the information.
Table 66 below shows the broad classification of thematic planning modules
and indicators and the respective examples for each. Each thematic planning module
has its own data processing design and data needs focus, but collectively their
interconnection is expected to reveal broad patterns of resource use and consumption.

Table 66. Thematic planning modules for use in ECAN planning


Sustainable
Source or
Development Planning Sample Description
Reference
Determinant/Indicator
1. Biophysical Precipitation Map Map showing the PCSDS, PAGASA
determinants amount of rainfall in
mm I selected areas
in Palawan
Geological Map showing that DENR-MGB
Prospectivity of the total area that is
Palawan Island considered
prospective for
metallic mineral
resources
ECAN Resource Map showing the Survey; community
Map distribution of mapping
natural resources in
Palawan
Land Management Broad classification BSWM

94
Unit (LMU) of soils, slope and
landforms, and land
capability
2. Socio-cultural Population Density Map showing the NSO
determinants Map and Population population density
Growth Rate Map and growth rate per
municipality of
Palawan
ECAN Threats Map showing various
Map; Climate natural and
Change Hotspots anthropogenic
threats to the
integrity of
ecosystems
3. Economic ECAN Livelihoods Map showing the Survey; community
determinants Map population’s mapping; secondary
existing and literature
potential sources of
income
Infrastructure Map Map showing the Survey; community
of Palawan location of roads, mapping; secondary
ports, airports, literature
schools, markets,
hospitals, and the
like
4. Governance and CBFM Areas Map showing the survey
institutional determinants areas allotted for
community forest
management
Ancestral domains Maps showing the IPRA law
habitation and
domain of
indigenous peoples
ECAN zones map A graded system of SEP Law
sustainable
development over
Palawan
Ecological footprint The area (global Wackemagel and
hectares) of Rees 1996
productive
ecosystems outside
a city that is
required to support
life in the city
(Odum and Barrett
2005)
Source: PCSD, 2016

The biophysical determinants are the site’s biological and physical resource maps.
Socio-cultural determinants pertain to socio-economic and demographic
information of the municipality or site.
Economic determinants pertain to existing and potential sustainable economic
industries.

95
The governance and institutional determinants refers to the political and
institutional situation of the municipality or site.
The integrated determinants are the interfacing or overlap of any of the above
determinants. They are usually produced from a combinatory processing or overlays
of the above. Land management units and ecological footprint are two examples of
integrated land use determinants.

The next table is a list of thematic planning modules in terms of major development
sectors. The GIS, data sources, and spatial objectives are also indicated.

Table 67. A sector-based list of spatial data needs for sustainable development
planning (adapted from Loterte-Avillanosa, unpublished).
A B C D E F G

Development
Sector Minimum
General
Needs and Thematic Data Issue
Spatial Data Spatial
Security Layers Sources Addressed
Objectives
Demands

Agriculture
and Fisheries Essential NGA, LMU, Suitability to
Crops Agricultur
food, arable soil fertility agricultural Food security
suitability al area
land map production

Water Clean water


River Hydrology,
(surface, Access to water Sustainable
Hydrology Network, LMU,
groundwater supply water supply
Coastlines topography
, rain)

Sanitation
Drainage, Least risk
Elevation, Topography,
wastes Topography terrain and Health issues
Slope LMU
disposal variations

Energy Satellite
Fuel, power Suitability/Prox
Image (land Energy
supply, Vegetation Vegetation imity to wood
cover), sufficiency
power grid for fuel
PALECO

Shelter/
Built-up
housing, Land
Infrastructure Area, Road
roads, Settlement, cover/land Proximity to
Network, Provision of
schools, development use, Markets or
Developm basic services
health projects infrastructure rural center
ent
centers, survey
Projects
technology

Environment
and Natural
Clean air, Climate, Rainfall, PCSDS, Suitability/ Ecological

96
A B C D E F G

Development
Sector Minimum
General
Needs and Thematic Data Issue
Spatial Data Spatial
Security Layers Sources Addressed
Objectives
Demands
Resources healthy Geology, Soils, DENR- Proximity to viability/
ecosystems, Geohazard, Geohazard MGB, LMU natural environmenta
stable Forest cover , Protected benefits; flow l integrity
uplands Areas, of ecological
Land goods and
use/cover services

Health
Clothing, Proximity to
Service Health Infrastructure Mortality and
remedies, markets or
distribution stations survey morbidity
relief goods rural center

School
Education
supplies,
and Social
books, Availability of
Welfare Service School Infrastructure Social
skills, incentive raw
Distribution facilities survey articulation
trainings, materials
values
formation

Income and
Crop Land cover, Define domain
livelihoods Vegetation
cultivation, LMU, boundaries and
Vegetation , Road Employment
handicrafts, vegetation, secure land
Network
subsistence interview titles

Cultural
heritage and Folklores, Ancestral Proximity to Culture,
tourism customs, Domains, CADC/T, the fiscal and aesthetics and
Heritage sites
patrimony, cultural ECAN government income
folk arts zoning centers source

Financial
assistance,
Fiscal Proximity to Eco-
credits, Basic
Basic socio-political governance;
revenue Administrative geographical
layers and legal responsive-
shares layers
services ness

Recognition
of tenurial Proximity to
Legal
rights, Political Basic socio-political
Basic
security of boundaries geographical and Justice
layers
tenure, /taxation layers government
territorial services
provisions

97
A B C D E F G

Development
Sector Minimum
General
Needs and Thematic Data Issue
Spatial Data Spatial
Security Layers Sources Addressed
Objectives
Demands

Participatio
n:
consensus
Community building,
NSO, Social
organization mobility,
Population Palawan mobilization;
cohesion, Demography
Census CBMS, empower-
resource
CBFM ment
stewardship,
women
empowerme
nt
Source: PCSD, 2016

5. Take stock of local environmental governance initiatives.


This step takes into account the considerations in the preparation of the ECAN
Zoning Plan, as enumerated in Section 25 of PCSD Resolution 05-250. The data can
be collected from local planners through a questionnaire.

6. Develop an ECAN-based land use spatial optimization algorithm using Multi-


Criteria Analysis. (Optional)
Algorithm: ECAN Planning for Land Use Sustainability (ECAN-PLUS)
Method: Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis
Input: Thematic and integrated planning modules
Output: Best land use options for each ECAN zone

This is an optional step as this may be too complicated and technical


depending on availability of resources. The main objective of the ECAN-based MCA
method is to develop a spatial multi-objective decision support system15 for land
and water use management in Palawan. Given that decision makers currently face
conflicting interests arising from existing and potential activities in each ECAN zone,
the MCA will allow for an objective assessment of various land use options or
activities and the determination of the most suitable option or activity for each zone.

7. Perform integrated threats analysis


An integrated threats analysis is a comprehensive investigation and analysis of
various existing and projected problems confronting a locality. It is thus one way of
analyzing the complex problems and issues within the area. It is also one priority-
5
J. Looijen, N. Pelesikoti, and M. Staljanssens. 1995. ICOMIS: a spatial multi-objective decision
support system for coastal resource management. ITC Journal 1995-3.

98
setting mechanism that can aid planners and decision makers in: (1) identifying the
type of project intervention to be introduced and (2) allocating resources to invest in a
priority area.
Chapter 5 provides the theoretical framework, methods, and the results of municipal
threats analysis.

8. Formulate ECAN zones and resources plan.


Method: Multi-stakeholder participatory planning workshop
Inputs: Results of municipal integrated threats analysis; latest CLUP and
FLUP
Outputs: ECAN Management Plan with zonal and suprazonal (cross-cutting)
actions
This final stage of planning is concerned with determining the sustainable
development actions in the ECAN zones and resources therein. The planning
framework will be guided by the tripartite features of SEP (ecological viability, social
acceptability, and integrated approach) and the ECAN guidelines, as well as the
strategies/actions in the CLUP and the findings of the integrated threats analysis. The
workshop facilitator has to reiterate that the core philosophy or principle of the
planning activity is “sustainable development” and the primary strategy is ECAN
Zoning. Note that some steps are optional due to the additional level of analysis that
may be required to satisfy them.
8.1 Agree on a set of sustainable development core themes (or systems of interest)
and prepare log frame for each.
The core themes can be the ECAN Zonation, ecosystems, resources, or sectors
present in the municipality. It can also be the ongoing threat (problems and issues)
identified in the integrated threats analysis. As an alternative, the planners may decide
to focus on the ECAN zones as the systems of interest and disaggregate the resources
found in each zone. The following is a sample log frame for the forestry sector, from
the Philippine Council for Sustainable Development (Phil-CSD)6.

Table 68. Sample log frame for the forestry sector (Phil-CSD 2013).
Goal or Desired State Rehabilitated forestlands and watersheds under sustainable
management
Poverty alleviation
Purpose Forestlands under secure tenure;
Improved policy environment and enforcement-implementation
capacity;
PPPP Output or Results Watershed management approach implemented on the ground;
Attainment of forestry-watershed plan objectives;
Expansion of community-based tenure;
Establishment of payments for environmental services;
Marketing of community-based agro-forestry products
Implemented Policies, Plans, Capacity building and organization of community based management;
Projects or Programs (PPPP) A joint LGU-DENR MOA on community management;

6
Assessment of the Philippine Agenda 21, the Prospects for a Green Economy, and the Institutional
Framework for Sustainable Development (Phil-CSD 2013).

99
Provision of a community-based management (tenure) agreement to
identified communities;
Implementation of a forestry-watershed plan.
Establishment of MIS; Identify sources of funding; Valuation of forest
Preliminary Activities use and non-use benefits; Delineation of forest boundary and
production and protection forests and watershed management area;
Formulation of a forestry-watershed plan
Source: PCSD, 2016
The themes can be further classified into three clusters (Table 69):
Environment, Socioeconomic, and Governance. The following is a sample set of core
themes for Palawan at the provincial level.

Table 69. Sample core themes for sustainable development planning.


Cluster Core theme/ecosystem/resource/sector
Fisheries (including CRM, pearl farms, LRFF)
Forest Environment (including Catchment Management and
Development)
Mining and Mineral Resources Development
Environment Water Resources
Agriculture, Land, and Soil (Lowland Resources Development)
Wildlife and Biodiversity
Cave and Cave Resources
Boundary Delineation of Core Zones on the Ground
Ecosystem Rehabilitation
Ecotourism Development and Visitor Management
Power and Sustainable Energy (including offshore/oil and gas, renewable
energy)
Urbanization (Sustainable City and Urban Centers)
Sustainable Industries (including ICT, green jobs creation)
Socioeconomic Ancestral Domains
Basic Services Delivery (Food, Health, Education, Housing,
Work/Employment)
Infrastructure (Water, Transport, Communication)
Solid Waste Management
Population and Migration
Sustainable Livelihood Development
Climate Change Adaptation
Disaster Risk Reduction and Management
Institutional Arrangements for SD and GE
Partnerships/Linkages/Participation (how to maximize)
Governance Law Enforcement
Sustainable Financing
Institutionalization of ECAN Zoning and Management Guidelines
Policy Reforms
Mechanisms: (cross-cutting across all four clusters)

Environmental Education / IEC / Institutional Capacity Building

Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation

R&D

100
Source: PCSD, 2016

8.2 Identify applicable (i) SEP criterion (optional) and corresponding (ii) objectives
and (iii) strategies for each core theme.
This step makes sure that the actions for each core theme are compliant to the
SEP as the overarching planning framework. The minimum sustainability criteria for
projects in Palawan, as defined in the SEP Law, are ecological viability, social
acceptability, and integrated approach.
Additional criteria can be introduced to enhance the SEP criteria and make it
compliant to a desirable goal (e.g., fulfilment of the requirements for a smooth
transition toward a green economy). The following is a list of criteria and
corresponding indicators that can be used in the ECAN planning process. The first
three are required while the next three are recommended for inclusion.

Table 70. Possible sustainability criteria for projects in Palawan.


Criteria (how to make sure the core theme actions are compliant to principles of SEP and Green
Economy)
1. Ecological viability (intact physical and biological cycles, enhanced/restored natural capital
and environmental stock and quality; sustainable resource stock)
2. Social acceptability (participatory; commitment, equity in access/distribution/benefits)
3. Integrated approach (holism; coordination and sharing; political will)
4. Rights-based development (poverty alleviation; protection’ fulfilment, and respect for
socioeconomic and cultural rights)
5. Geo-environmental risk-adaptive (reduced carbon emissions; enhanced carbon stock;
decreased vulnerability to climate change impacts and natural disaster risks; efficiency in
production and resource use)
6. Good governance (increased knowledge and capacity for environmental stewardship;
transparency and accountability)
7. Resource use efficiency (sustainable level of production of consumption; waste recycling)
Source: PCSD, 2016

8.3 Identify (i) courses of action, (ii) coverage (municipality, barangay, sitio or any
applicable management unit), and (iii) indicators for each
criterion/objective/strategy.
The courses of action per criteria are policy covers, plans, programs and
projects (PPPP). They may be existing actions, partially implemented, or proposed.
Indicators, on the other hand, are objectively verifiable and measurable.
Below is a sample of the arsenal of PPP for the establishment of a green
economy in the sector of forest and biodiversity. The selected principles are given as
the heading of columns 2 to 4.

Table 71. Possible courses of action in the forest and biodiversity sector (Phil-CSD
2013).
Resource/Sector or Stock Restoration, Equity and Poverty Production Efficiency
Ecosystem Sustainability Alleviation
Forest Environment, Delineation of forest Full recognition and Valuation of forest land
Biodiversity protection (no-go) provision of ancestral use based on alternative
areas (headwater, rich domain rights (PI economic products and

101
Resource/Sector or Stock Restoration, Equity and Poverty Production Efficiency
Ecosystem Sustainability Alleviation
biodiversity, others) ecosystem/watershed
(PI); Institution of services; (PI)
community-based or
Institution of common property Institution of forest
sustainable yield management system; resource and damage
harvesting (Annual (Ex, PI) charges; (PI)
Allowable Cut); (Ex)
Establishment of Collection of fees for
Implement National community-managed environmental services;
Biodiversity Strategic ecosystem; (PI) (PI)
Action Plan (Ex); the
National Action Plan Setting of environment Promotion of
for the Sustainable and resource use and ecotourism; (Ex, PI)
Use and Protection of damage charges to
Peat lands (PI) revert back to the Payments for carbon
sector, the local forest sequestration
Implement the area, and community (application of REDD+);
National Wetlands (not to the General (PI)
Action Plan (Pr) Fund) for
Wildlife collection environmental Institute sustainable
quota (Ex) maintenance and wildlife resource
livelihood; (PI) schemes for the wild life
Imposition of damage industry (Ex)
charge; Percentage of Forest and biodiversity
excess profit (rent) for protection and
forest maintenance and conservation
rehabilitation; (PI) supported by the
international
Setting of moratorium community and
on resource use to multilateral agencies.
rehabilitate and restore (PI)
degraded ecosystem,
and recover threatened
species; (PI)
Source: PCSD, 2016
8.4 Identify applicable ECAN zone for each course of action.
This is applicable for zonal actions only, which are actions that fall on one or
several specific ECAN zones in the terrestrial, coastal/marine, or tribal ancestral
component. The assignment of ECAN zones will be based on allowable and
prohibited uses per ECAN zone as specified in the ECAN policies and guidelines.

8.5 Identify the (i) implementation schedule, (ii) budgetary requirement, and (iii)
agencies responsible / funding source for each course of action.

The results of the municipal integrated threats analysis can be interfaced or


integrated with this step. The peculiarities of intervention per coverage/site may be
discussed further in the plan.
The following is a matrix summarizing the steps taken to come up with a
detailed local ECAN zones management plan. Budgetary requirement, schedule of
implementation, funding source, and agencies responsible per course of action may be
added as columns of this matrix.

102
Table 72. Possible courses of action in the municipality
Sector (Socio- Action Result ECAN Geographic Time- Lead and Budget Funding
Institutional, Zone Coverage table Support (Php)* Source
Economic, Organization
Environment)

Core theme/Problems and issues/ Ecosystem/ Resource

Action 1

Action 2

Action 3

Core theme/ Problems and issues/ Ecosystem/ Resource

Action 1

Action 2

Action 3

*These fields are optional and require further time to conduct participatory workshop

ECAN Zone Driver/Pressure Intervention Geographic Lead/ Time- Budget Funding


(Core, Covergae Support frame Source
Buffer, Organization
Multiple
Zone)

Driver/ Action 1
Pressure 1

Action 2

Driver/ Action 1
Pressure 2

Action 2

103
CHAPTER 5: INTEGRATED THREAT ANALYSIS

An integrated threats analysis is a comprehensive investigation and analysis of


various existing and projected problems confronting a locality. It is one way of
analyzing the complexity of problems and issues within the area. It is also a priority-
setting mechanism that can aid planners and decision makers in: (1) identifying the
type of project intervention to be introduced and (2) allocating resources to invest in a
priority area. This is because threats analysis may reveal subtle patterns and
causations of issues and problems. The results of the analysis can also influence the
course of project actions and can directly offer optimal solutions to the identified
problems.

OBJECTIVES OF THREATS ANALYSIS

The general objective for the threats analysis is to recommend new potential
high impact and cost effective actions for the local area of interest. The proposed
actions are expected to contribute to sustainable development of the target localities,
both the barangay and the municipal levels. We recommend these programs for the
concerned stakeholders to pursue in the municipality in the next five years.

The specific objectives of the analysis are to:

 Identify the threats/problems in the target locality


 Analyze threats relationships (problems/opportunities)
 Prepare a generic list of projects to address the threats/problems
 Serve as basis of ECAN guidelines, programs, projects in this plan

FRAMEWORK OF INTEGRATED THREATS ANALYSIS

Analysis of identified threats will be aided by the DPSIR Framework.


According to this framework, there is a chain of causal links starting with ‘driving
forces’ (economic sectors, human activities) through ‘pressures’ (emissions, waste) to
‘states’ (physical, chemical and biological) and ‘impacts’ on ecosystems, human
health and functions, eventually leading to political ‘responses’ (prioritization, target
setting, indicators). Figure 15 presents the assessment framework used in the analysis
(Kristensen, 2004) .

104
Figure 15. DPSIR Framework for Threat Analysis (researchgate.edu)

The Components of the DPSIR Framework is briefly defined in the following:

Driving Forces- They are the needs or issues that triggers the creation of problem.

Pressures - They are the threats and problems that pose adverse impact in
environment and its entities.

State- This ‘state of the environment’ is the combination of the physical, chemical
and biological conditions being affected by pressures.

Impacts- These are the changes in the physical, chemical or biological state of the
environment that determine the quality of ecosystems and the welfare of human
beings.

Responses- These are the identified initiatives and present actions taken to resolve
issues and challenges.

The KII and FGD were operated through the use of field questionnaires
provided by the PCSD. This set of questionnaires includes queries on causal linkages
of threats, opportunities in the municipality, and the LGU initiatives towards given set
of problems which were all input for the DPSIR matrix. Both questionnaires were
found in Annex C. All identified components of the framework were processed and
analysed by the planning team. These were all subjected into validation among key
stakeholders and deliberative bodies of ECAN zoning strategies. Furthermore,
proposed actions for the ascertained major threats were created using the action
planning matrix. (See Annex B-2, Matrix 1 & 2)
To ensure the active participation of stakeholders in the entire planning
process, the planning team had identified target informants from various sectors. For
the identification of threats and proposal of actions, the team aimed to interview
various stakeholders which are summarized in the Table 73.

105
Table 73. Identified Stakeholders Consulted in the Key Informant Interview and
Focused Group Discussion for Integrated Threats Analysis
1. Municipal Mayor
2. Municipal Planning and Development Council
3. Municipal Administrator (DRRM Officer)
4. Municipal Information Officer (ECAN Board Secretary)
5. Municipal Social Welfare and Development Officer
6. Municipal Solid Waste Management Officer
7. Municipal Health Office
8. Sangguniang Bayan (Tourism, Agriculture, and Environment Committee)
9. IP Leader
10. PCSD-Coron Staff
11. DILG Officer
12. DAR Officer
13. NCIP Representative
14. PSU Director
15. DENR Officer (Forester)
16. DENR Officer (Land Management)
17. Youth Representative
18. Agriculture Sector Representative
19. Bureau of Fire Protection Officer
20. Philippine National Police Officer
21. NGO Representative (Malampaya Foundation)
22. PO Representative (Kawil Amianan)
23. Business and Industry Representative (CATE)
24. Church (Jesus’ Young Followers’ Senior Pastor)

5.1. IDENTIFIED THREATS IN ECAN ZONES

A. Core Zone

Coron terrestrial core zones are threatened by various anthropogenic activities.


According to CBMS 2011-2013, 5.12% of Coron’s total households are informal
settlers whose majorities are organized pisante. Some of these informal settlers are
presently living in core zones since these places are potential sources of raw materials
which aide them in terms of livelihood. Also, these informal settlers cause
unsustainable consumption of forest and forestlands leading to habitat loss of forest
wildlife. Aside from this, their stay generates bulk of domestic wastes which pose
damage the environment. Consequently, to survive, the informal settlers utilize
whatever is available in their environment and perform different consumptive
activities for sustenance including charcoal making and agricultural practices. As a
result, forest degradation prevails. On the other hand, timber and fauna species are
poached. These forest items are paid with high value in the black market. The
continuity of this activity contributes to loss of forest wildlife leading to disruption in
the balance of the ecosystem. In response to the prevailing issues mentioned above,
the Local Government Unit sees to it that it takes action in solving the following

106
undertakings by first, formulating resettlement plans in areas where social services are
available and livelihood activities are present. Second, IEC’s on ECAN Zoning
strategies are done for the public. Tree planting activities are also done to rehabilitate
degraded forest ecosystem. Alternative livelihood is also given to those who tend to
poach forest species. Forestry laws and regulations are implemented by government
agencies (DENR). Bantay Gubat and Bantay Coron personnel are monitoring forest
operations. Lastly, establishment of checkpoints and filing of cases against caught
violators are done to prevent further damage to the core zones.

Commonly observed by key informnats, coastal core zones are also not spared
from degradation caused by anthropogenic activities. These are as poor waste
management and unsustainable fishing practices such as the use of dynamites,
cyanides and multiple fishing nets are still done. In 2006, the average catches per
fisherman per day already declined by 50% (PCSD, 2016). These activities may also
be the reason why only 0.1% of the total coral cover of Coron is in excellent condition
and only 3% is in good condition. In addition, among the 6 coral reef sites surveyed
by PCSDS in 2004, most are in need of intense rehabilitation. Informal settlers in the
coastal areas generate domestic wastes causing water pollution. Also, mangrove
deforestation is observed due to charcoal making and raw materials for their housing
facilities. Assessment in FLUP 2014 observation of 2139 ha of mangrove area and coral
reefs recorded a 551.98 ha decrease in mangrove cover in the municipality compared
to Coron Framework 2006 record of 2690.98 hato To prevent further degredation, the
LGU in partnership with PNP, Coastguard, PNP-Maritime, DENR and PCSD jointly
enforced laws and regulations for coastal area, conducted IEC’s for the fishermen and
boatmen. In addition, Bantay Dagat from local community monitors activities that
may further damage coastal core zones. Further, resettlement plans have been
formulated and is ready for implementation subject to availability of funds. Table 74
summarizes the result of KII and FGD for core areas of the municipality.

Table 74. Threat Analysis in Core Zone using DPSIR Matrix


TERRESTRIAL CORE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Economic Influx/increasing 5.12 % of -Unsustainable -Formulation of
Motives number of Coron’s total consumption of resettlement plans
informal settlers households forest and -Registration and
are informal forestland monitoring of
settlers whose -Habitat loss of migrants per barangay
majority are small and large -IEC on ECAN
organized forest animal zoning strategy
pisante species
-Soil erosion
-Generation of
large volume of
domestic wastes
-The support
provided by trees
in maintaining
sufficient water

107
level on watersheds
is diminishing.

Economic -Increasing Forest fires -Fast decline of -Tree planting activity


Motives demand for raw are existing in forest vegetation -Aids from
materials as a barangays which could Cooperative (source
source of surrounded by possibly results to of livelihood instead
income forests such as decrease in water of using forest
-Kaingin Bintuan (Sitio supply resources “GRANT
shifting Malbato), - Improper FOR WORK” &
cultivation YKR area, utilization of forest CASH)
San Jose, San products. -Laws and Regulation
Nicolas, regarding forests are
Borac, . implemented (DENR)
Guadalupe, -Barangay Level
Banuang Monitoring
Daan, San -Enforcement of
Nicolas and Bantay Gubat
Decalachao - Filing of criminal
cases towards abusive
charcoal makers
Economic Timber Fast decline of -Forest -Reporting at
motives Poaching forest cover Degradation barangay level for
endorsement to higher
authority
-Implementation of
Laws and Regulation
by DENR
Economic Poaching of Threatening -Loss or extinction -Establishment of
Motives Fauna Species of forest of wildlife checkpoints and
wildlife -Disruption in the Monitoring of Bantay
balance of Gubat
ecosystem -Filing of criminal
cases against illegal
traders
COASTALCORE ZONE
Economic Illegal Fishing - The average - Depletion of fish -Implementation of
Motives Activities: catches per stock Administrative orders
-Cyanide fisherman per -Decline of coral from PCSD regarding
-Dynamite day declined reef and sea grass fishery related
-Small Fishing by 50%. cover activities
Nets - Only 0.1% -Assault on coastal -Confiscation of
has excellent and marine illegal fishing-
coral cover ecosystems paraphernalia
and 3% with -Loss of home for -Establishment of
good coral aquatic organisms MPA
cover like fishes -File cases against
-Among the 6 violators;
coral reef sites -Employment of

108
surveyed by BFARMC per
PCSDS, most barangay
are in need of -Documentation by
intense the LGU
rehabilitation

-Typhoon Increasing -551.98 ha - Absence of -Distribution of


- demand for raw decreased in natural barrier for mangrove propagules
Economic materials area covered storm surges for Mangrove
Motives resulting to by mangroves -Absence of rehabilitation
abusive cutting -Six out of 22 breeding grounds -Enforcement of laws
of Mangroves endemic for some aquatic and regulation
species of animals regarding mangroves
mangroves are -Report the found
already cases of destroyed
endangered mangroves among the
authority
In- Increasing Solid and -Negative aesthetic Formulation of
Migration demand for liquid waste appeal resettlement plans
housing and pollution of -Degrades coastal accompanied with
sanitation coastal waters habitats (coral livelihood assistance
facilities reefs, seagrass, etc)
-Depletion of fish
stock
Economic Poaching of Continuous -Disruption on the Filing of criminal
Motives threatened threatening balance of marine cases on the identified
marine species and ecosystem poacher.
(shells, corals, endangerment -Lessening of
etc) of marine aesthetic appeal
species
Tourism Influx of tourists Solid and -Degrades coastal Coastal clean-ups
liquid waste habitats (coral
pollution of reefs, seagrass, etc)
coastal waters -Disruption on the
balance of marine
ecosystem
-Negative aesthetic
appeal

B. Buffer Zone

1. Restricted Use and Transition Zone


Restricted use zone comprises 14% or 10,403.43 hectares of Coron. It is part
of the buffer zone, generally surrounding the terrestrial core zone and allows limited
and non-consumptive activities. Based on Coron Flora report in 2006, Coron has a
forest area of about 46,115 hectares which has decreased to 24,565.50 hectares
according toEP, 2014. Timber poaching, shifting cultivation and the presence of
migrants from neighbouring provinces contributed to the fast decline of forest cover.
Since people in Coron have unstable source of income being heavily dependent on
fishing and lacks space in low-lying areas for agriculture, many resorted to Kaingin
shifting cultivation. Aside from forest cover loss, it also affects the soil quality as it

109
leads to erosion and sedimentation leaving soil in poor condition. Efforts are being
done by the LGU in preventing kaingin practices. There are also Bantay Gupat from
the DENR who monitors kaingin activities. Yet, these efforts are not effective enough
to reverse the situation bacsue of limited personnel involve in monitoring and
implemention of ordinances and policies.
Likewise, timber poaching is prevalent due to high demand for raw materials
thereby increasing the number of wood based industries and furniture makers. Current
initiatives of the LGU and other agancies are tree planting, establishment of check
points, barangay level monitoring, monitoring of Bantay Gubat. Though these
initiatives are being done, the same inefficiencies stated above in the part of
government are experienced. Moreover, the increasing population of informal settlers
from neighbouring provinces affects the forests and water level of watersheds.
According to the CBMS in 2011-2013, 5.12 % of Coron’s total households are
informal settlers whose majority are organized pisante. The increase in population
increases their capacity to acquire more lands for settlement which further results to
large production of domestic wastes and practice of unsustainable consumption of
forest and forest lands. Therefore, the initiatives being done by the LGU are
monitoring of Bantay Gubat and recording the influx of migrants. However,
intentions are not met due to miscommunication between officials and residents and
reports of inconsistent monitoring of the Bantay Gubat.
Coastal transition zone are established surrounding the core zones where
important species and processes necessary for sustaining adjacent core zones are to be
maintained. It serves as the transition between the strictly protected core zone and the
general use zone. In the transition zone, the fishing activities of the community are
limited due to the emergence of private resorts. The livelihood of the community is
affected which results to low economic productivity of fisher folks. It was reported
that the average catch per fisherman per day declined by as much as 50% (Coron
Framework, 2006). To address this, the LGU push for the implementation of the
zoning strategy. However, the problem is not resolved due to lack of IEC regarding
the ECAN zones and no meetings were arranged between private resort owners and
the community.

Table 75. Threat Analysis in Restricted Use and Transition Zone using DPSIR Matrix
RESTRICTED USE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Economic Kaingin -Increased rate of - Forest degradation - Monitoring of Bantay
Motives shifting land use - Increasing capacity Gubat
cultivation conversion to acquire more lands - Relocation plan
- Poor Soil quality for agricultural
-Threatened water purposes
supply - Soil erosion and high
- Cleared upland rate of sedimentation
and forestland in the watersheds
areas

110
RESTRICTED USE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Economic Timber Coron’s forest -Forest degradation -Tree planting activity
motives Poaching area of about - Increase in number headed by DENR
46,115 hectares of wood based -Check points set by
dwindled to industries and DENR
24,565.50 furniture makers -Barangay level
hectares monitoring
-Monitoring of Bantay
Gubat
-Implementation
DENR laws and
regulations
-Need for Presence of 5.12 % of Coron’s -Continuous increase - Monitoring of Bantay
Space migrants total households of population in the Gubat
-Economic from are informal restricted-use zone - Record influx of
Motives neighbouring settlers whose -Increasing capacity to migrants
provinces majority are acquire more lands for
organized pisante development
-Unsustainable
consumption of forest
and forestland
-Generation of large
volume of domestic
wastes
-The support provided
by trees in maintaining
sufficient water level
on watersheds is
diminishing
TRANSITION-ZONE
Ownership Less fishing Fish production Low economic Implementation of
by private activities of statistics of Coron productivity of fisher zoning strategy
resorts the shows that folks.
community the average catch
per fisherman per
day declined by
as much as 50%

2. Controlled Use Zone

Controlled use zone is an area where logging, mining and gathering of forest
products are permitted with regulation. Comparing the data provided by the Coron
Floral Report (2006) and Ecological Profile (2014), a decrease of 21, 549.50 hectares
among the forestlands in Coron in just a span of eight years occurred. Timber
poaching is also present in this zone contributing to deforestation in the municiplaity.
Also, increasing number of wood based industries and furniture makers is observed in
areas where illegal logging operations are reported. These are in the barangays of San
Jose, Decalachao, Borac and San Nicolas. As a source of livelihood, locals have been
poaching fauna species resulting to depletion of endemic and endangered forest

111
wildlife. Like in other other zones, the same forestry programs are implemented by
the LGU and DENR to abate threats to forests and its reources. However, those
responses remain ineffective since there is no strict monitoring and evaluation
thereafter. In addition, there is no assigned body to accept complaints on violations.
The influx or increase of tourists also increase solid wastes generation in
tourist areas within forest areas (e.g. Mt. Tapyas). While the LGU has assigned
garbage collectors, the problem is still prevalent as the waste disposal and
management system remains insufficient. With this, forest landscapes, such as the Mt.
Tapyas is becoming untidy, thus resulting to an undesirable aesthetic appeal. Lastly,
due to another induced human activity intended to earn income, the irresponsible use
of fire during honey collection initiated grass fires. Since 2006, grass fire is
experienced in foretalnds of barangays Bintuan (Sitio Malbato), YKR area, San Jose,
San Nicolas, Borac, Guadalupe, Banuang Daan, San Nicolas and Decalachao.
Expansion of kaingin farming also contributes to occurrence of grass fire in the
municilapity. Soil erosion and surface run-off are obsereved as grass fire clears the
land and burn the vegetation. During the soil erosion, the top soil that is being
removed carries with it the nutrients making the soil less fertile. However, current
responses by the LGU in addressing these issues are not enough as the number of the
present personnel is not enough to implement those.

Table 76. Threat Analysis in Controlled Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix
DRIVERS PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
-Economic Timber -Extensive -Watersheds and - Barangay level
Motives Poaching deforestation forest degradation monitoring
-Need for -Logging - Less ecosystem -Formation of the
raw operations in San services provided Bantay Gubat
materials Jose, Decalachao, by trees -Implementation of
-Forestry Borac and San -Increase in number DENR Laws and
and related Nicolas of wood based Regulations in banning
activities -21, 549.50 industries and illegal logging of trees
hectares of forest furniture makers using the DENR
cover loss from the guidelines
year of 2006 to -Reforestation
2014 programs

Economic Poaching of Continuous Disruption of forest -Monitoring of Bantay


Motives endemic and threatening of ecosystem and its Gubat
endangered endemic and functioning -Implementation of the
fauna species endangered forest ordinances and
wildlife regulations regarding
wildlife
Influx of Insufficient Solid waste among -Negative aesthetic -Assigning garbage
Tourists proper waste forest landscapes appeal collector to areas
disposal and particularly in Mt. -Degradation of where tourists arrive
management Tapyas forest landscapes -Implementation of
system DENR Laws and
Regulations

112
DRIVERS PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Emerging Lack of Forest fires are -Surface run-off -Reforestation activity
Industries regulations existing in and soil erosion -Barangay Level
(like honey and standard barangays - Soil quality Monitoring
bee operation and surrounded by degradation -Formation of Bantay
collection) procedure for forests such as -Spreading of fire Gubat
the emerging Bintuan (Sitio among its nearby -Imprisonment of
economy of Malbato), YKR barangay violators
honey bee area, San Jose, San -Fast decline of -Implementation of
collection Nicolas, Borac, forest vegetation Legislated DENR
Guadalupe, which could Laws and Regulations
Banuang Daan, San possibly results to
Nicolas and decrease in water
Decalachao supply
- Improper
utilization of forest
products.

3. Traditional Use Zone


According to the Ecological Profile of Coron in 2014, areas utilized for
agricultural purposes accounted for almost 1,145.32 hectares or 1.69% of
Municipality’s total land area. In addition to this limited land allocation for
agricultural purposes, this sector is further threatened by the limited water source. The
irrigation systems provided by NIA deliver insufficient water supply. This increases
the dependency of farmers to rainwater. Thus, planting crops is usually commenced
during the onset of rainy season. However, crops planted during this period are
vulnerable to damage casued by flooding which further results to low agricultural
production or yield (FLUP, 2014). Therefore, the availability of food locally grown
will be a challenge. Tourism and its related services will still be the main driver of
local economy. Given this chain of issues on agriculture, the LGU aimed to address
one of the baseline problems by improving of water distribution systems. Clearly, the
challenge still persists on tapping the potential water sources which will deliver
sufficient water for all agricultural lands. Unsustainable honey collection and kaingin
farming is also present on this zone affecting forest ecosystems services. In response,
LGU mandates the enforcement of Bantay Gubat (one of the core group that made up
Bantay Coron.

Table 77. Threat Analysis in Traditional Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix
TRADITIONAL USE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Limited Insufficient Low rice yield -Food insecurity -Even
Water water supply among -Dominance of third distribution of
Source from NIA barangays with sector as a main industry operating
irrigation large rice fields irrigation
system system
-Improving
water system

113
TRADITIONAL USE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
(creating
pipelines)
Economic Unsustainable Forest fires are - Cleared forest cover - Enforcement
Motives honey existing in due to fires of Bantay
collection (use barangays - Trees which survived Gubat
of chemicals surrounded by from the forest fires
that trigger fire forests such as weakened due to
when Bintuan (Sitio exposure to heat
subjected to Malbato), YKR - Trees became highly
intense heat) area, San Jose, susceptible to pest and
San Nicolas, disease infestation
Borac, -Surface run-off and soil
Guadalupe, erosion
Banuang Daan, -Spreading of fire
San Nicolas and among its nearby
Decalachao barangay

C. Multiple Use Zone

The pressing issues in the terrestrial and coastal multiple use zones of Coron,
as identified by the informants, can be subdivided into five (5) categories of drivers
namely, delivery of basic social services, infrastructure, economic motives, discipline
and crimes.
In terms of the delivery of basic social services, there are several issues identified in
health, education, sanitation, and water and power distribution in the municipality.
According to Coron’s Ecological Profile in 2014, 12% of its total children population
is below normal nutritional status and 9% have very low nutritional status. Eight of
the known top 10 causes of mortality and morbidity are all communicable diseases.
Malnutrition and prevalence of communicable diseases in the municipality are two of
the identified pressing issues in terms of health in the multiple use zones of Coron.
These conditions prompts for a greater need for health and medical services in the
municipality. At present, theres is a public hospital in the municipality. However, it
has insufficient health facilities and personnel. As indicated in the staffing pattern of
the Coron District Hospital (CDH), their actual personnel include two contractual
medical specialists, one chief of hospital, one permanent physician, nine permanent
and five contractual nurses. These identified health problems are being addressed by
the municipality through monthly feeding programs, livelihood programs, and
renovation of the municipal hospital. However, the said interventions lack appropriate
budget allocation. Apart from larger allocation, there is a need for more information
education communication about health and nutrition.
Meanwhile, There is a relatively low population of secondary education
students compared to elementary enrollees on SY 2005-2009 due to the absence of
secondary schools and insufficient classrooms exist among the barangays in Coron
(CBMS, 2011-2013). In connection to this, some barangays have already identified
secondary school sites, however, there is still a need for budget for the construction
of these schools .

114
On the other hand, The population pyramid of Coron showsa relatively young
population which can result to the continuous increase of its population. Such
incidences contribute to the increase in the generation of wastes which further
intensify the improper waste disposal in the municipality. The local government unit
continuously performs information education communication programs about waste
management and scheduled garbage collection among its constituents still it lacks in
addressing the roots of the said issue.
Because of continuous kaingin practices and timber poaching in the municipal
watersheds, insufficient water supply is being experienced. To address these
problems, the local government unit utilizes other source of water such as deep wells,
groundwater, spring, and falls.
The rich fishing ground contributes to economy of the municipality. However,
prevalence of unsustainable fishing practices and wildlife poaching threatens the
productive capacity of marine ecosystems. The local government unit monitors illegal
activties through the existing regular patrols of Philippine Maritime, BFAR and
Bantay Dagat.
Lastly, as indicated in the Gender and Development Plan of Coron in 2016,
there are cases of physical, emotional and sexual abuse, use of illegal drugs and public
scandals by drunk teens due to the insufficient parental skills and relationship
problems between husband and wife. The municipality implements a curfew for
minors and conducts street patrolling at the barangay level in order to minimize such
incidences. To be able to cater the victims of abuse, the gender and development plan
allocate funds for case counseling, seminars, forum and the operationalization of
women and crisis center.

Table 78. Threat Analysis in Multiple Use Zone using DPSIR Matrix
TERRESTRIAL MULTIPLE-USE ZONE
DRIVER PRESSURE STATE IMPACT RESPONSE
Inability to Malnutrition Delayed behavioral Low school -Monthly feeding program
avail and cognitive performance sponsored by Cord Aid
nutritious development -Livelihood programs for
food among children families with malnourished
children (e.g. Tamayo
Foundation, CARITAS,
PAU, Samdana, Red Cross)
-Provides budget from
Gender and Development
Plan (16.8%)
Non- Ineffectivene -Absence of proper -High morbidity -Encouragement of BHW’s
Prioritization ss in the medical wastes and mortality and nurses’ active
of Basic delivery and treatment rate functioning and operations.
Social extension of - Inadequacy of -Need to travel -Health centers present in
Services health, medical facilities to neighbouring Brgy. Halls
nutrition and and equipment in municipality for -Establishment of private
sanitation the barangay(s). hospitalization clinics for Women (lying
services - Inadequate inn, ob- gyne)
medical personnel, -Provision of health card

115
health specialists, such as Busuanga Coron
workers for easy Linapacan District Health
and speedy Insurance Program (BCCL-
delivery of basic DHIP)
health, nutrition -Giving farmers free health
and sanitation services (family planning
services. seminars, medical missions,
etc.)
Increasing Prevalent Eight among -High demand -Free TB DOTS Treatment
population cases of known top 10 for health -Free anti-rabies vaccine
communicab causes of mortality services -Free generic medicines
le diseases and morbidity are -Low economic -Conduct of medical
(e.g. communicable productivity missions
tuberculosis, diseases.
rabies, etc.)
Non- -Absence of -Relatively low -Decrease in -Proposed secondary school
Prioritization Secondary population of high school site in various barangays
of Basic School secondary graduates -Encourage more sponsors
Social -Insufficient education students -Decrease in of scholarship
Services classrooms compared to efficiency of -Scholarship programs from
-Limited elementary learning private entities (e.g.
number of enrolees on SY -Students are HIKARI, CARITAS, etc.)
senior high 2005-2009 susceptible to
school -Unmet teacher to diseases and
compliant student ratio fatigue by
- Insufficient -Travel hours of traveling to
source of students to school school
funds for
education
Increasing Noise -Overlapping Disturbance -Implementation of land use
number of pollution functions of among residents plans
settlements settlements -Alignment of
-Problematic Infrastructures with National
arrangement of Building Code
settlements
Settlements Improper - Solid and liquid -Degrades -Application for barangay
above wastes waste pollution of coastal habitats level cases.
coastal area disposal coastal waters (coral reefs, -Documentation of cases by
(households, -40% of the total seagrass, etc) the LGU
piggery and households have no -Depletion of
poultry) toilet facilities fish stock
Lack of Improper Disposal of Disease and Rehabilitation/renovation of
sanitary disposal of medical wastes in sickness may the Coron District Hospital
facilities medical garbage bins as become more ill (CDH) by the Provincial
wastes of other wastes due to problems Government
Coron brought about
District by the
Hospital unsanitary
(CDH) ambience of the
hospital
Non- Narrow Traffic congestion -Road accidents -Road widening
prioritization roads -Noise pollution -Construction of roads
of Projects (Urban within pier
barangays)

116
Insufficient Water -Extractive -Water-borne -Tapping alternative water
water supply shortage and consumption of diseases sources such as deep well,
poor water water (Hotels use -Increased jetmatic, and truck water
quality water pumps to morbidity and delivery
generate water) mortality rate -Utilization of watersheds
-Unrecognized and water pumps.
utilization of
alternative sources
of water
Insufficient Power -Dissatisfaction -Use of generator and solar
power shortage Rotational among panels
supply distribution of households and
power supply tourists
among the -Low
community productivity
-Expensive
supplies during
power
interruption
Natural Natural fire Decrease in forest -Biodiversity -Responses by Bureau of
phenomenon incidences cover and loss Fire Protection (BFP)
(e.g. El grasslands -Soil erosion -Information dissemination
Niño) -Flooding regarding responses on these
-Landslide cases
Economic Timber -Decreased forest -Biodiversity -Monitoring of forest areas
motives and poaching cover loss by Bantay Gubat
need for raw -Increased in idle -Soil erosion -Reforestation activity
materials lands -Flooding
-Landslide
-Watershed
deforestation
Behavior and Use of -Increased -Increased -Imprisonment of accused
Discipline illegal drugs population of out- juvenile -Monitoring of streets by
and vices of- school youth delinquency barangay patrols
-Extensive -Increased in -Implementation of curfew
population of drug crime (10pm) for minors
users in the incidences (e.g.
community abuse, etc.)

-Weak watch Public -Occurrence of -Increase in -Implementation of Curfew


of peace and scandals by crime crime for minors (10pm)
order drunk teens -Numerous drug incidences (e.g. -Monitoring of streets by
-Parental users street fighting, barangay patrols
guidance -Involvement of robbery, etc)
-Social- youth on night -Increases
media troubles juvenile
influenced delinquency
crimes
-Drugs Physical, -Increasing number -Increased -Conduct medico legal
-Vices emotional of broken family number of examination to victims of
-Behaviour and sexual -Increasing abused women Violence Against Women
and abuse incidences of and children and Children (VAWC) and
Discipline Physical Injury other related cases
from 2004-2008 -Gender and development

117
programs (e.g. provide
livelihood assistance to
VAWC victims, Women’s
forum/convention,
operationalization of women
and crisis center)
-Case conference/counseling
(at least 3 sessions)
-Imprisonment of abusers
COASTAL MULTIPLE-USE ZONE
-Economic - - Damaged water -Siltation - Implementation of
Motives Unsustainabl bodies and coral -Fish kill ordinances, resolutions and
-Non- e fishing reefs -Coral reef national laws (e.g. R.A.
permanent practices - Decreased quality decline 10654- Fisheries Code,
status of - Wildlife resources, -Assault on PCSD Res. No. 92- 3-
LGU Poaching inhabitants, coastal and Incentives for people
enforcers mangroves, marine instrumental in the
-Bias in species, sea grass, ecosystems apprehension of fishery and
enforcement fish stock (mangroves) environmental laws)
of actions -Low fish - Arrest people with
productivity violations and give them
penalties
- Minimize illegal fishing
through the regular patrols of
Government Agencies like
BFAR, Bantay
Dagat/Coastal Patrols
(composed of brgy. tanod
and kagawad)

Housing Improper Poor water quality - Decrease in - Coastal Clean- ups


waste marine - Enforcement of Bantay
disposal biodiversity Dagat
- Identification of proposed
relocation site
- Shoreline demarcation (e.g.
settlements should be 40
meters away from coastal
shores)
- Implementation of
ordinances regarding waste
management (e.g. Plastic
Ban Ordinance)
- Relocation plan of other
informal settlers to Brgy.
Guadalupe

D. Tribal Ancestral Zone

The tribal ancestral zones (TAZ) are areas traditionally occupied by


indigenous communities. This areas encompass both land and water areas and shall
follow the same graded system of zonation with high consideration to cultural and

118
material needs of IPs (Sec. RA 7611). A MOA was forged between NCIP and PCSD
giving mandate to the PCSD to designate and declare TAZ. This memorandum/
resolution, though agreed by both parties, is not being implemented. In effect,
issuances of CADT/CADC is not necessarily followed by TAZ declaration.
According to the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), Coron
has four indigenous people’s (IP’s) communities namely the Agutaynen, Cuyunen,
Cagayanen and Tagbanua which accounts for 22,202 of the municipality’s total
population (NSO,2010). Because of this, conflict over land ownership between LGU
and IPs exists. The LGU of Coron tries to manage this issue diplomatically and
peacefully. Land related issues also exist among and bewtween IPs because of selling
of rights over the ancestral domain claims and non-transparency on accounting of
generated money (from tourist). The LGU has limited power over IPs especially when
it comes to their political jurisdiction, thus tribal elders decide the kind of punishment
to be imposed such as pangaw (kagat sa langgam) and burdon (palo), and paying of
fines or five-year imprisonment. Also, the LGU serves as advisory body in terms of
revenue management and transparency of records for their community. In addition,
due to growth of tourism activities, a 50 increase in entrance fees was implemented by
IP’s which resulted to dissatisfaction of some tourists. The LGU continued to exert
efforts to have a one fee collecting system.

Table 79. Threat Analysis in Tribal/Ancestral Zone using DPSIR Matrix


TRIBAL/ANCESTRAL ZONE
DRIVERS PRESSURE STATE IMPACTS RESPONSE
Governance Understanding Existence of -Misunderstanding -Peace talks between
of IPRA Law dispute on land between LGU and IPs and LGU
ownership between IPs -Proposed
LGU and IP -Limited actions of demarcation of lands
LGU can be
performed towards
IP
Lack of Lack of waste Prevalence of -Air pollution -Conduct waste
engineering disposal improper waste -Coastal segregation seminars
design for management disposal practices pollution/Ground with social
sanitary system such as burning and water preparation
landfill dumping in contamination -Implement
different barangays municipal
ordinances such as
Plastic ban and Anti-
littering
Eight out of the -Mortality and -Employed health
Poor Presence of Top 10 causes of morbidity among personnel per
Environment communicabl Morbidity is IPs barangay (BHW)
al State e diseases & communicable -Low economic -Presence of
respiratory diseases & productivity Barangay Health
infections respiratory Centers
infections
Tourism Significant 200% increase in -Dissatisfaction of -Communication
Activities increase in entrance fees tourists with IPs to engage in

119
entrance fees among tourist a one fee collecting
destinations owned system
by IP’s -Talk among IPs
-Request for valid
reason for increasing
fees
Economic Selling of Presence of -Transformation of -Undergo sanctions
Motives rights over migrants utilizing forests into (pangaw-kagat sa
the ancestral area with ancestral intensive langgam and
domain claims agriculture lands burdon-palo)
claims developed by -Paying of fines
migrant lowlanders. -Imprisonment of 5
years
Power and Non- Internal relations Corruption -Adviser in
Authority transparency conflict regarding managing revenues
among on income distribution -Request of
Indigenous accounting transparency of
People of generated social services and
money facilities delivered
and served to
community

5.2 CURRENT INTIATIVES IN ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE

The table presented below gives a summary of some of the efforts by Coron
LGU with its ECAN Board and institutional partners, in environmental management
and governance.

Table 80. Current initiatives in environmental governance of the local government


unit of Coron, Palawan.
Commercial Fishing NIPAS Monitoring and Stakeholders’
Vessels AREAS Evaluation Participation
 Arresting  Maintenance of  Check compliance  Present of
violators NIPAS (no of LGU ordinance people’s
 Regular patrols intrusion of  Inspection by ECAN organizations
of Government foreign activities) Board; monitoring  Cooperative
Agencies like  Establishments of ECAN zones activities like
BFAR, Bantay Marine Protected  Relocation program mangrove
Coron, Phil Areas- for easier for informal settlers reforestation,
Maritime, and monitoring  Multi-sectoral tree planting,
Phil Coast  Incorporating building plans coastal clean-
Guard; NIPAS in the  Site Reconnaissance ups, etc.
plans during  Conduct of
implementation of several meetings
programs about family
 Enforcement of planning with
Bantay Coron: pamphlets given
Gubat and Dagat to participants
 Presence of  Social
technical working preparations
group in any plans
 Permit issuance on

120
any development
projects

Interagency Coastal Livelihood Projects Access Rights to


Participation Protection  Rolling Store Natural Resources
 PCSD and DENR  Shoreline  Provision of Fishing  Barangay Level
agreement demarcation (e.g. Paraphernalia Monitoring
 Representatives to settlements  Provision of  Bantay Coron
provincial level should be 40 seedlings  DENR Laws and
trainings meters away  Support to family Regulations
 Coordination and from coastal enterprise (sari-sari  Fee system
communication shores) store and hog
with other  BFARMC per raising)
foundations, barangay  Livelihood Trainings
higher authorities  Coastal clean- (bag-making)
and/or agencies ups  Support in seaweed
 Provision of funds  Plastic farming
(PhilHealth Ordinance  Empowerment of
Application Fund,  Information PO’s
Gender and dissemination
Development Plan  Coastal patrols
Fund, etc.)  Bantay Dagat
 Coordination
among
departments,
agencies, NGO’s
and LGU for
different
operations
Migration and Funds for ECAN Regulatory Measures Resource Rents
settlement Zones  Monitoring/  Business permits
 Relocation of  Mainstream with Maintenance of (central office
coastal CLUP development projects directives)
communities  Consideration of  ECAN board  Imposition of
 Alignment of PCSD in regulations/ environmental
Infrastructures with clearances Environment al fees
National Building  Budget for some Compliance
Code activities certificate
 Registration and  Boats and Fisher folk
Monitoring of Registration
Migrants
Management of Development Allowable Activities Waste Disposal
Fees Activities in Small (CLUP and ECAN)  Implement and
 Budgeting of Islands  Alignment with standardize
collected fees for  Provide structure National Building construction of
municipal projects or technology for Code facilities such as
 Relaying of money water supply  Enforcement of SEP public toilets,
to the natural  Proposed water Law/ Ordinance design relative
government system: CR based for locals and
(bureau of treasury;  Support to  Shoreline set-back; IP’s
IRA) seaweed CLUP based  Proposal of
 Thrust fund for the farming; crab residential, sanitary landfill
implementation of fattening; Rice commercial and  Coastal clean up
ordinances and Veggies industrial zones  IEC on proper

121
.  Livelihood  Harmonization of waste
projects for zoning strategies. management
island barangays

5.3 OPPORTUNITIES

The presence of various national and local policies such as the implementation
of the Anti-Littering Ordinance, National Building Code, IPRA law, and NIPAS law
strengthen and contribute in the over-all development of Coron. These policies must
be mainstreamed through continuous information dissemination strategies. In
addition, Coron is supported by various private and socio-civic organizations that
provide financial support for scholarship programs, livelihood trainings and seminars,
and sustainable development anchored projects. Some of these organizations include
the Malampaya Foundation, HIKARI, CARITAS, CATE, ILO, FAO, USAID, Cord
Aid, PAU, Samdana, etc.
Coastal resources are considered the most important asset of the municipality.
Fishing industry in Coron is known as the largest supplier of groupers and varieties of
sea food. It can support the demand and livelihood of the locals but assistance on its
financial and technological operations needs improvement. The municipality can also
accommodate o small-scale mining activities since Coron’s mountainous land
formations are rich in Manganese deposit. Due to the area’s breath-taking sceneries
and extraordinary nature experiences that the municipality has to offer, eco-tourism
becomes the prevailing and dominant industry in Coron. Seas, mountains, lakes, hot
springs, mangrove areas, and endangered floras and faunas are considered as Coron’s
treasures.
Locals of Coron are given with different trainings, seminars, livelihood, and
other tourism-related activities which are sponsored by organizations like Malampaya
Foundation, USAID, EcoFish Project, BFAR, NHA, etc. There are continuous
capacity building activities being hold to enrich the capability of the associations
existing in the municipality. These events are sponsored by different government and
non-government organizations or agencies like the Calamianaes Association of
Traders and Enterprises (CATE) and Coron for Sustainable Development Initiatives.
Also, tour guides and boat men in Coron are required to secure licenses in order to
acknowledge them as tax payers and for the creation of a database of their lists.
Above all, the community is very much committed and participative in protecting and
conserving the natural resources existing in Coron.
Coron has five banks where residents can manage financial operations. These
banks are the following: Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI), Landbank, Philippine
National Bank (PNB), Agribank, and Metrobank. There also institutions offering
loans and money transfer located and concentrated in the Poblacion area such as
Cebuana Lhuiller, Western Union, M Lhuiller, Palawan Express, etc. When it comes
to accessibility to local markets, tricycles are readily available. It makes the public
market accessible among all the residents. Cooperatives and financial institutions are

122
also present in Coron. These financial institutions are prioritizing loan offering
packages to marginalized people such as farmers, IPs, fisher folks and local traders.
The use of solar panels both off grid and on grid was introduced in some part
of the municipality. These equipment and technologies are merely provided by
different foundations helping host barangays. For agricultural and domestic support,
irrigation system and water system (of different level) are completely operating.
Since water supply becomes problematic, water scheduling was raised to be done.
Tapping of potential water sources are also an effective approach for harnessing water
supply.
Conservation and technology opportunities are used all over Coron to produce
better products and efficient services for its residents. These opportunities include
organic farming and food production used as an environmental friendly strategy in
taking care of Marine Protected Areas. There are machines for composting and trucks
to aide in waste management. Storage warehouses are also present for agricultural
products that were made by the local farmers. For the proper management of funds,
Landbank lends capital for small farmers and trainings and seminars are provided for
the farmers to know how to manage their funds properly. Partnerships are also made
between NFA for farmers trainings. For the agricultural and fisheries sector, Crab
culture, Tilapia Hatchery, Rice planting and seaweed farming technologies are
utilized. Department of Agriculture provides farmers with training, equipment
including bangka and fishing gears. However, the limited financial support seems to
be present and technology transfer becomes problematic at times.
Social services in Coron include free health services for beneficiary farmers
like family planning seminars, medical missions and the like. Transportation system
includes road systems, tricycles, jeepneys and various sized boats. School buildings
are present for educational facilities and in times of disasters, as evacuation centers
for the victims. The government also generates jobs especially in the tourism sector
and tapping of resident potentials by giving residents opportunities like skills from
TESDA and livelihood seminars. Some factors that hinder the full potential of Coron
in providing social services are lack of medical facilities and inadequate
infrastructures.
Since the municipality is a well-known tourist destination, wastes are
demandingly increasing and produced. The municipality of Coron, specifically urban
barangays have regular collection of garbage serviced by 16 garbage collectors which
are distributed to four garbage trucks and segregate their solid waste. To date, the
garbage is being discarded in their open dump site located at Barangay Guadalupe and
the proposed sanitary landfill will be established at Barangay San Nicolas. The funds
are already available; however, the engineering plan is still on process. Island
barangays built compost pit and segregate their garbage to collect waste by-products
and is used for fertilizer.
Included among those assets are the different infrastructural facilities for
varying purposes. Primary schools are present and distributed in the twenty-three
barangays. However, classrooms were not sufficient to cater all the school-going
population. Secondary and tertiary schools are also present but remain inadequate for

123
the increasing population of students. There are also health facilities present in the
municipality: health centers in all barangays, rural health unit found in the municipal
hall compound, private clinics for women, dental clinics and the Coron District
Hospital. Despite all these medical-related services, publicly-owned infrastructure still
needs major improvement in terms of equipment and services. Also, the presence of
sea and air ports became a big opportunity for Coron’s fast development. It provides a
big platform for bulk of tourists and trading systems. In addition, the existence of
business establishments such as hotels, resorts, restaurants, and many more are also
big contributor in their progressing local economy. Other supporting structures
present in Coron are: their water supply, electric supplier and distributor, agricultural
facilities, and even road which need big improvement.

124
CHAPTER 6: THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT PLAN

6.1. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT


PLAN

Palawan Province’s economic potential hinges on several high-profit resource-


based industries such as tourism and fisheries. The increasing number of
environmentally critical projects puts pressure on the natural resources and this
implies that regulation and planning for sustainability must be institutionalized.

Through the SEP Law, the ECAN zoning is made the principal strategy on
local area land and water use planning. The strategy can be applied strategically over
and above other existing planning frameworks due to the adaptive and strategic nature
of the ECAN strategy itself.

The formulation of the ECAN Zones Management Plan is important in


optimizing the uses of Palawan lands and waters, as well as the maximization of
benefits derived from resources therein and the minimization of negative impacts
from introduced activities. At the municipal level, the Plan can serve as a sustainable
development master plan or road map. It can delineate the options and strategies on
land and water use and can determine the most suitable industries in certain resource
areas. To this end, the Plan contains strategies for the proper allocation of assets,
investments, and capital (social, natural, and economic capital).

6.2. THE ECAN ZONES OF CORON MUNICIPALITY

CURRENT STATUS OF ECAN ZONING

The municipality of Coron has recently updated its zonation through an ECAN
Mapping Workshop. Its participants consist of representatives from the barangays of
the municipality. The result of the mapping activity is shown in the map below
(Figure 31).

125
Figure 16. Proposed municipal ECAN zone map of Coron,
Palawan. (Source: PCSD)

MUNICIPAL BREAKDOWN OF THE ECAN ZONES

The ECAN of the municipality contains opportunities for both conservation


and development. About 37% of the land area of Municipality is categorized as a
protected area (Core and Restricted use zone) and the rest of the 63% can be allotted
for development activities. The following table shows the land area and fraction of
each ECAN zone of Coron.

126
Table 81. Proposed ECAN Zones of Coron.

ECAN zone Area (ha.) Percentage (%)


Core zone 3992 6
Restricted use area 9807 15
Controlled use area 14926 23
Traditional use area 1123 2
Tribal/Ancestral zone 6171 10
Multiple use zone 28716 44
TOTAL 64735 100.00

6.3. RIDGE-TO-REEF ECAN MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK AND


LAND/WATER USE STRATEGIES7

The ECAN zones management approach will be holistic and will follow the
ridge-to-reef approach (Table 68). The ridge-to-reef framework is a strategic approach
to the ECAN management and allows for cross-cutting strategies to be applied across
the ECAN zones on the ground. This means that the management options and
strategies are configured in such a way that the sphere of influence of the upland
includes the lowland down to the sea.

7
This section partly based on ECAN Zones Management Plan for El Nido Municipality (PCSDS 2006)

127
Table 82. Ridge-to-reef management framework of ECAN zones.
COMPONENT ECAN UPLAND BUFFER ZONE (UPLAND AND LOWLAND LOWLAND AND COASTAL AREAS
ZONE AREAS MANAGEMENT URBAN
Terrestrial Core zone Biodiversity
conservation
Restricted use Biodiversity Watershed
area conservation Management
Controlled use Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland
area conservation Management management stabilization
Traditional Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland
use area conservation Management management stabilization
Multiple use Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland Lowland and urban
zone conservation Management management stabilization area management
Coastal/ Coastal core Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland Lowland and urban Integrated coastal
Marine zone conservation Management management stabilization area management zone management
Coastal Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland Lowland and urban Integrated coastal
transition conservation Management management stabilization area management zone management
zone
Coastal Biodiversity Watershed Upland forest Upland Lowland and urban Integrated coastal
sustainable conservation Management management stabilization area management zone management
use zone
Tribal ancestral lands Tribal
ancestral zone Cultural Mapping
Source: PCSD, 2016

128
The Core Zone will mainly use the strategy of biodiversity conservation due
to its limited activities. The strategy, however, is still flexible and not limiting because
biodiversity conservation still allows strategic activities and options that could be
introduced in the Core Zones (e.g., regulated ecotourism).

The buffer zone management strategies will range from biodiversity


conservation in areas that are pristine (as with Core zones), watershed management
(in Restricted use areas), upland forest management (in Controlled use areas), and
upland stabilization (in Traditional use areas). In addition to all these strategies, the
Multiple use zone will focus on lowland and urban area management.

The coastal zone will be managed through integrated coastal zone


management (ICZM) in appropriate areas. Since the strategies in the upland will
impact the lowland and coastal areas, the whole gamut of strategies in the upland
areas will be a factor in managing the areas below it.

Note that some commercial activities (or projects) will require the SEP
Clearance.

The following specific strategies are recommended to address general threats


to sustainable development in ECAN zones. These strategies can be implemented
across selected or all the ECAN zones.

129
Table 83. Recommended strategies to address general threats to sustainable development of ECAN zones.
THREAT TO SUSTAINABLE SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION TARGET ECAN REMARKS
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ZONES
Inability to provide for basic needs Livelihood support All ECAN zones
Threat to food security Conservation and All ECAN zones
sustainable use
Biodiversity loss Protection and Protection and preservation of resources in Core zones (land
preservation areas highly restricted to human activities and water), but
other ECAN zones
can also allocate
areas for protection
and preservation
Restoration Restoration in areas to be “upgraded” or Buffer zones (land Restoration depends on the ecological
reverted back to Core zones and water) but may features of the area being restored.
be expanded to
include the Core In Core zones, limited restoration
zone and Multiple activity only.
use zones
Rehabilitation Rehabilitation in areas or ecosystems Buffer zone and
which are degraded, denuded, or polluted Multiple use zone
and require intervention such as (land and water)
reforestation, replanting, or adoption of
pollution control measures
Natural processes Climate change All ECAN zones,
adaptation especially
geohazard areas
Disaster risk reduction
and management
Land-based stresses/pressures Conservation and All ECAN zones,
sustainable use but will depend on
existing guidelines
Law enforcement
Unsound waste management Solid waste management All ECAN zones
practices
Strong market demand for Law enforcement; Quota system to regulate volume of All ECAN zones
resources Permitting system resource harvesting.
Lack of livelihood opportunities Livelihood support Reclamation or conversion to other uses in All ECAN zones
Multiple use zone (land and water), or in

130
THREAT TO SUSTAINABLE SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION TARGET ECAN REMARKS
DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES ZONES
Reclamation or areas with less productive ecosystems and Multiple use zone
conversion to other uses where existing land uses are irreversible (land and water)
such that restoration will be costly, and are
therefore best suited for conversion into
other uses.
Lack of industry support Industry support All ECAN zones

Market creation
Uncertainty in coastal/land tenure Conflict resolution Areas for conflict resolution are those All ECAN zones Land use situations that may require
(property rights) which current or proposed uses under conflict resolution are as follows:
approved CLUPs are in conflict with  Built-up areas within core zones or
ECAN zoning. Resolution may involve restricted use zones
any or a combination of the following: a)  A&D lands within core zones
consultation and negotiation, b)  Settlements within strict protections
adjudication in court, and c) establishment zones of NIPAS protected areas or
of management guidelines for allowable within ECAN Core zones
and prohibited uses.  Communal forest within core zone
 Agriculture and urban development
in unclassified public forest land
 Infrastructures (roads, power plants)
within core zones
 Fishpond in mangrove areas
 Urban development within Network
of Protected Areas for Agriculture
and Agro-industrial Development
(NPAAD)
Low level of sustainable IEC All ECAN zones
development awareness
Political issues Capacity building All ECAN zones
Source: PCSD, 2016

131
Strategies can be cross-cutting and/or suprazonal. This means they can be applied
across more than one ECAN zone. Examples of these strategies include climate change
adaptation and disaster risk reduction, livelihood support, law enforcement, industry
support, conflict resolution, IEC and capacity building.

6.4.ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES

OBJECTIVES OF THE ECAN ZONES MANAGEMENT GUIDELINES

Each of the ECAN zones can be thought of as responding to basic needs and
sustainable development objectives of the ECAN zoning strategy explicitly defined by the
SEP Law (see last column of Table 70 below). With these objectives and in view of the
nature and criteria for delineation of each ECAN Zone, the applicable zonal goals and
management framework of the ECAN zones may be defined as in Table 84.

Table 84. ECAN zones management goals and framework applicable to Coron
Municipality.
ECAN Zone Zonal goal Zonal management Objectives of ECAN
framework zones management
(SEP Law, Section 7)
Core zone Ecological Integrity  Biodiversity 1. forest conservation
conservation and protection,

For coastal/marine 2. protection of


component: watersheds,
 ICZM
Buffer zone: Water sufficiency Watershed 3. preservation of
management biological diversity,
Restricted use area
Buffer zone: Food security  Upland forest 4. protection of
management indigenous peoples
 Controlled use areas  Upland and preservation of
 Traditional use areas stabilization their culture,
Multiple use zone  Food Security  Lowland and
5. maintenance of
 Sustainable urban area
(land and water) maximum sustainable
Industries and management
yield,
Services
For coastal/marine
6. protection of rare and
component:
endangered species
 ICZM
and their habitat, and

7. provision of areas for


environmental
research, education,
and training, and

8. provision of areas for


tourism and
recreation.
Source: PCSD, 2016

132
The ECAN as a whole aim to satisfy the above zonal goals for a particular area. It
is evident from this how the ECAN is conceptualized as a holistic strategy to achieve
human welfare. Since ECAN is a ridge-to-reef strategy.

The figure below illustrates the positive reinforcing outcomes of SEP-ECAN to


achieving societal well-being and holism. The balance of ecological stability and
economic development is the main driver of water sufficiency and food security, which in
turn are driven by increased knowledge capacity and good governance. Thus, the
expected lasting benefit of SEP, through the management of ECAN Zones, is the
continuous build-up of necessary ecological, economic, and social infrastructures to
realize a self-sustaining green economy.

Figure 17. The positive reinforcing outcomes of SEP-ECAN. (Source: PCSD, 2016)

ECAN ZONES STRATEGIES AND USE PRESCRIPTIONS

The zones use prescription defines the allowable uses and prohibited activities in
the respective ECAN zones. It is guided by the management and use prescriptions defined
in the SEP Law and the Revised ECAN guidelines. Strategies and allowable activities and
sample strategies within the ECAN zones are summarized in the table below. Details of
these activities are provided in the succeeding sections.

133
Table 85. Activities allowed in the ECAN zones (based on PCSD Resolution 05-2508 and
PCSD Resolution o6-270) vis-à-vis general and specific strategies in each zone.
ECAN zone General strategies Specific strategies Allowable activities within the
management zone
Terrestrial component
Core zone Biodiversity  Protection and None, except for:
conservation preservation
 Declaration of forest  Traditional uses of tribal
reserve communities for minimal and
 Conservation and soft impact gathering of forest
sustainable use species for ceremonial and
 Livelihood support religious purposes, and
 Ecotourism and activities as per
PCSD Resolution 06-270.
Buffer zone –  Biodiversity  Protection and Limited and non-consumptive
Restricted use conservation preservation activities which include:
 Watershed  Declaration as
management watershed reserve  Gathering of wild honey;
 Restoration  Almaciga tapping;
 Rehabilitation  Soft-impact recreational
 Conservation and activities (hiking, sight-seeing,
sustainable use bird watching);
 Livelihood support  Research;
 Enforcement  Sustainable activities of
 Monitoring indigenous peoples;
 Research  Ecosystem restoration or
 Capability building rehabilitation; and
 Ecotourism activities as per
PCSD Resolution 06-270.
Buffer zone –  Biodiversity  Protection and  Strictly controlled mining;
Controlled use conservation preservation  Strictly controlled logging which
 Watershed  Restoration/ is not for profit (i.e., communal
management Reforestation forest, CBFM, etc.);
 Upland forest  Rehabilitation  Almaciga tapping;
management  Conservation and  Tourism development;
sustainable use  Research;
 Livelihood support  Grazing;
 Enforcement  Gathering of honey, rattan, and
 Monitoring other minor forest products.
Buffer zone –  Biodiversity  Protection and  Upland stabilization program;
Traditional use conservation preservation  Catchment management;
 Watershed  Restoration  Hillside farming;
management  Rehabilitation  Industrial tree plantation;
 Upland forest  Conservation and  Reforestation;
management sustainable use  Integrated social forestry;
 Upland  Livelihood support  Community-based forest
stabilization  Upland development management.
 Agroforestry
 Reclassification and
land titling

Multiple use zone  Biodiversity  Protection and  Timber extraction with


conservation preservation community-based forest
 Watershed  Restoration management;
management  Rehabilitation  Grazing and pastures;

8
Title I, Chapter II, and Title II, Chapter II, of PCSD Resolution 05-250.

134
ECAN zone General strategies Specific strategies Allowable activities within the
management zone
 Upland forest  Reclamation or  Agriculture;
management conversion to other  Infrastructure and industrial
 Upland uses development;
stabilization  Conservation  Recreation;
 Lowland and  Sustainable  Education;
urban area development activities  Research; and
management  Agricultural  Other sustainable activities.
production
Coastal/Marine component
Coastal/Marine ICZM  Protection and None, except for:
core zone preservation
 Conservation and  Navigation purposes of local
sustainable use fishing communities where there
 Livelihood support are no alternative routes;
 Capability building  Emergency situations such as
navigational routes to save life
and property;
 Researches previously authorized
by PCSD; and
 Ecotourism activities as per
PCSD Resolution 06-270.
Coastal/Marine ICZM  Protection and  Habitat restoration, rehabilitation
multiple use zone preservation and enhancement of activities;
–Transition/Buffer  Declaration of  Soft impact activities
zone mangrove reserve (swimming/snorkeling; non-
 Ecosystem restoration motored boating (row boats,
and rehabilitation kayaks, canoes, wind surfing,
 Conservation etc.);
 Livelihood support  Guided scuba diving;
 Regulation  Fishing using highly-selected
 Management planning gears (i.e., hook & line and gill
 Sustainable use net) with specification to be
determined by studies;
 Pre-approved visit or educational
activities;
 Installation of environmental
information boards); and
 Resource enhancement activities.
Coastal/Marine ICZM  Protection and All sustainable human activities,
multiple use zone preservation with certain development
– Sustainable/  Restoration endeavors subject to the EIA
General use zone  Rehabilitation system and to other policies
 Reclamation or regulating development projects.
conversion to other
uses
 Conservation
 Livelihood support
 Sustainable use
Tribal ancestral lands
Management Management strategies Activities based on the material
strategies that may that may be identified and cultural needs of the
be identified through consultative indigenous peoples.
through consultative processes and cultural
processes and mapping
cultural mapping
Tribal ancestral waters

135
ECAN zone General strategies Specific strategies Allowable activities within the
management zone
Management Management strategies  Cultural activities performed by
strategies that may that may be identified indigenous peoples (IPs)
be identified through consultative according to their religious rites
through consultative processes and cultural and heritage
processes and mapping  IP activities related to their
cultural mapping subsistence and tradition
Source: PCSD, 2016

STRATEGIES AND LAND USE OPTIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL CORE ZONE

Since the Core zone showcases ecologically outstanding areas of Coron, its
management will focus on Biodiversity Conservation, which includes conservation of
both natural diversity and cultural diversity of the area. There are no intensive activities to
be undertaken in Core Zones. Only minimal and soft impact uses like activities of tribal
communities and highly regulated nature tourism may be allowed.

All allowable developmental activities in the Core Zone are subject to the EIA
System, the SEP Clearance System, and other laws and rules regulating development
projects. Any other proposed activity not allowed in the Core zone must require conflict
resolution with the PCSD and other concerned stakeholders.

The land use options and activities in terrestrial Core zones are as follows:

1. Ceremonial, religious, and livelihood support activities of tribal communities


The livelihood support activities for IPs include soft impact gathering of forest
species and non-timber forest products (NTFPs) like almaciga resin, honey, and
rattan. This may require the application of SEP Clearance.
Indigenous knowledge systems and practices and indigenous rituals also allowed
for IPs.
2. Ecotourism
As per PCSD Resolution 06-270, the allowed ecotourism activities in both land
and sea are:

 Regulated botanical tours


 Bird watching
 Picture taking
 Trekking
 Mountaineering
 Caving
 Dolphin and whale watching
 Swimming
 Scuba diving
 Canoeing
 Kayaking
 Board walking

136
 Tree climbing

All these activities are subject to strict restriction embodied in a code of


conduct to be formulated by the PCSD with the assistance of the Department of
Tourism (DOT). The SEP Clearance will also be required prior to the conduct of
some of the abovementioned activities.

3. Research
While the ECAN guidelines do not explicitly include research-related activities in
Core zones, such may be allowed provided the research is non-destructive and the
research proponent will secure the SEP Clearance from the PCSD.
4. Other possible activities
The building of telecommunication facilities (cell sites and towers) is subject to
application for the SEP Clearance.

STRATEGIES AND LAND USE OPTIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL BUFFER


ZONES

Certain developmental activities in the three terrestrial Buffer zones may be


subjected to the EIA System, the SEP Clearance System, and other rules and regulations
governing development projects.

RESTRICTED USE AREA

Since the Restricted Use Area delineates the critical watersheds of Coron, the
management scheme for this ECAN zone will be a watershed or catchment management.
As with the Core Zone, the biodiversity conservation activities may be undertaken in this
particular buffer zone and only soft impact activities to be undertaken in the Restricted
Use Areas.

The major activities here are watershed support and ecological restoration. The
enrichment of ecosystems through forest planting and regeneration in this zone and in
other downstream zones can serve as future sources of ecological goods and services.
This is a form of “restorative development” based on expanding resources and improving
existing assets. Restoration is a process of development that adds value to natural
ecosystems or built assets, returning them to their previous condition, and transforming
them into a healthier and more functional condition (Cunninghum, 2002)

The possible activities in Restricted use buffer zone area are the following:

1. Harvesting of NTFPs
NTFPs include wild honey and almaciga tapping.
2. Soft-impact recreational activities
This includes hiking, sight-seeing, bird watching, and the like.
As with Core zones, the enumerated ecotourism activities cited in PCSD
Resolution 06-270 also apply to Restricted use areas.

137
3. Research
The research in this zone is subject to the guidelines of the PCSD.
4. Sustainable activities of IPs
The activities include almaciga resin tapping. In addition, traditional
indigenous activities like rituals and the practice of indigenous knowledge
systems are allowed in Restricted use area, just like in the Core zone.
5. Ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation
Restoration will be the major watershed support activity in this ECAN zone.
Following the framework of the PaITREES (Palawan Trees for Restoration of
Ecology, Economy, and Society) Programs of PCSD, restoration is defined as
the “return of an ecosystem to a closed approximation of its condition prior to
disturbance” (U.S. National Research Council, 1992).
The specific kind of restoration called for is ‘ecological restoration’, defined
as “the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been
degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is intended to repair ecosystems with
respect to their health, integrity, and self-sustainability.” In a broader context,
its goal is “to recover resilient ecosystems that are not only self-sustaining
with respect to structure, species composition and functionality but also
integrated into larger landscapes and congenial to ‘low impact’ human
activities” (Society for Ecological Restoration (SER) International Science and
Policy Working Group 2004, in TEEB 2009).
6. Other watershed support activities
These proposed activities may require conflict resolution with the PCSD and
other concerned stakeholders. It may also require an ECC and SEP Clearance.
7. Other possible activities
Similar to the Core zone, the construction of telecommunication facilities (cell
sites and towers) is subject to application for the SEP Clearance, evaluation by
PCSD Staff, and deliberation by the PCSD.

CONTROLLED USE AREA

The Controlled Use Area is a critical buffer zone enveloping the “protected”
ECAN core and restricted use zones. Ideally, it still contains a sizeable volume of forest
along a relatively steep gradient. Upland forest management will be the prescribed
strategy in this zone.

The activities here necessitate a rational and sustainable use of land. The forest
cover will be maintained; any harvested or utilized forest resources will be replaced.

The activities in this particular buffer zone, subject to existing permit regulations
are:
1. Strictly controlled mining

138
Following existing national, provincial, and local guidelines and issuances on
mining, strictly controlled mining may be allowed. This may include metallic and
non-metallic mining activities.
2. Strictly controlled logging which is not for profit
Subject to existing forest management guidelines, this logging activity may fall
under forest management schemes like communal forest and CBFM.
3. Almaciga tapping
4. Tourism development
5. Research
6. Grazing
7. Gathering of NTFPs (honey, rattan, and other minor forest products)

TRADITIONAL USE AREA

The Traditional Use Area management strategy will be Upland Stabilization in


addition to the strategies for the upstream ECAN zones. As the outer buffer or barrier, it
will be devoted to land and livelihoods stabilization. The activities here center on forest
livelihood projects and agricultural food production. The following activities or tenurial
instruments may be allowed.

1. Upland Stabilization Program (USP)


2. Catchment management
3. Hillside farming
4. Industrial Tree Plantation (ITP)
5. Reforestation
6. Integrated Social Forestry (ISF)
7. CBFM

STRATEGIES AND LAND USE OPTIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL MULTIPLE


USE ZONE
The Multiple Use Zone management strategy will focus on Lowland and Urban
Area Management. Where applicable, this outermost ECAN zone will also employ the
strategies of the other ECAN zones. Certain developmental activities in the terrestrial
Multiple use zone may be subjected to the EIA System. Management and control shall be
strictly integrated with the support programs of the SEP and shall be in accord with the
LGU and community-indorsed CLWUP.

The activities in this zone will focus on urban and lowland development.

1. Timber extraction with CBFM


2. Grazing and pastures
3. Agriculture
4. Infrastructure and industrial development
5. Recreation

139
6. Education
7. Research
8. Other sustainable activities

STRATEGIES AND WATER USE OPTIONS IN THE COASTAL/MARINE ECAN


ZONES

Due to the critical nature of coastal zones, the SEP Law recognized the distinct
management framework in these areas. The law prescribes “a simplified scheme of
management zonation [. . .] due to its geographical characteristics, critical nature, and
patterns of resource use” (Sec. 10, SEP Law). Hence, the two management philosophies
in this component shall be:

i. Equity in access to resources, and


ii. Management responsibility by the local community.

The PCSD guidelines recognize the jurisdiction of the LGU over their coastal
areas. As such, PCSD Resolution 05-250 Sec. 14) specifies that the LGU “shall exercise
general supervision and control over the management of their coastal/marine areas subject
to prior clearance from PCSD in accordance with their existing laws, rules, regulations
and agreements”.

The guidelines also provide that, in cases of areas whose management is awarded
to entities by virtue of agreements/contract, they shall be properly marked with buoys
provided by the grantees/awardees with the assistance of PCSDS. In addition, billboards
or signage regarding the management of the area shall be posted by the grantees/awardees
for public information.

Activities in Coastal/Marine Areas

The activities that may be allowed in the coastal zone are the ones enumerated in
Table 68 above. These activities may be subjected to the EIA System and the SEP
Clearance System.

The development activities may be further supplemented by other programs,


project, and activities identified in any local Coastal Resource Management Plan,
Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan, or Marine Protected Areas Management Plan,
subject to review of the PCSD pursuant to the ECAN Zoning guidelines.

Other activities that may be allowed In Coastal multiple use zone shall be
governed or determined by the following:

i. Resource distribution patterns, and


ii. Appropriate uses and management strategies and/or restrictions for each sub-
zone subject to the review of the PCSD pursuant to the ECAN guidelines.

140
Other strategies and land/water use options in the coastal/marine zone may be
determined through participative and consultative processes such as Community Based
ECAN Zones Management Planning the PCSD Staff have piloted in selected CRM
Learning Centers throughout Palawan.

STRATEGIES AND LAND/WATER USE OPTIONS IN THE TRIBAL ANCESTRAL


ZONES

Selected areas in Palawan were declared as ancestral zones/domains for


indigenous peoples by virtue of any of the following instruments. Although the TAZ is a
component of the ECAN, its declaration and management will have to follow the
integrated/harmonized guidelines of the NCIP and PCSD.

The activities in these areas are primarily those based on the material and cultural
needs of the indigenous peoples. The management strategies in TAZ may be identified
through consultative processes and cultural mapping. The Ancestral Domains Sustainable
Development and Protection Plan (ADSDPP) to be formulated must be able to take into
account these activities and management strategies.

6.5.SPECIAL MANAGEMENT AREAS

Special Management Areas (SMAs) are areas that have a special use by virtue of
tenurial instruments through legal frameworks. They may have a separate planning and
regulatory guidelines, management, and administration arrangements that must be
harmonized with the ECAN. SMAs are still subject to ECAN zoning but their
management may entail “special treatment” owing to specific management plans and
management authorities intended for them.

SMAs may include any of the following:

1. Habitats of rare and endangered species (Habitat SMAs)


Habitat SMAs are selected areas in Palawan that are designated as habitats
of endangered species by virtue of local resolutions. Management and activities in
Habitat SMAs will follow the guidelines on critical habitat specifies in PCSD
Resolution 13-4819. p.95
2. Areas of cultural, historical, geological, and anthropological interest
(including significant caves)
These sites may be identified and declared as SMA by the LGU. Special
management scheme for the sustainable development of these areas may be
drafted. Fuerza de Santa Isabel can be considered as one of the site for cultural
and historical interest.

9
“Confirming the Action of the Executive Committee Adopting the Guidelines on the Establishment and Management
of Critical Habitat as May Be Made Applicable in the Province of Palawan, as an Amendment to Section 50 of PCSD
Administrative Order No. 12, Series of 2011.”

141
If the SMA is a cave, the management of such area will have to follow the
guidelines specified in PCSD Administrative Order No. 08 “Implementing PCSD
Resolution No. 03-217, Adopting and Revising the DENR Rules and Regulations
of the National Caves and Cave Resources Management and Protection Act as
Applicable in the Province of Palawan”.
3. Tourism development areas (TDAs)
Areas declared or identified as TDAs by the local government will follow
the PCSD guidelines on ecotourism. TDAs will be guided by the strategies
prescribed in National Tourism Master Plan. The major and existing tourist
destinations in the municipality as identified in the Tourism Structure Plan of
Busuanga and Coron, Northern Palawan: Comprehensive Development through
Tourism (2015) are the following: Coron Island Area (Kayangan Lake, several
lagoons, limestone cliffs, Siete Pecados, Maquinit Hot Springs, CYC Beach and
Uson Island ) and Bintuan– Concepcion Area (Sangat Island, Sea Dive, Dive
Link, Coral Bay, World War 2 sunken Japanese warships).
4. NIPAS areas
These areas will have to be managed under the NIPAS Law and in
consonance with the SEP Law.
5. Other management units in the terrestrial zone
Other SMAs that exist or may be identified in Coron are as follows:
i. Watershed reserves or forest reserves
ii. Municipal parks (terrestrial)
iii. Community Based Forestry Management Area (CBFMA)
iv. Communal Forest Areas
v. Other forest-related tenurial instruments

6. Other management units in the coastal/marine zone


I. Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), marine parks, fish sanctuaries, or marine
ecosystem reserves – may cover different benthic habitats, such as coral
reefs, seagrass and mangroves.
II. Communal fishing grounds
III. Municipal waters
IV. Community Based Mangrove Forest Management Area (CBMFMA)
V. Sanctuaries of rare and endangered species

Planning for these SMAs cannot be monopolized by one agency or one


group of stakeholder. A consultative and participative planning process is advised
for SMAs in order for the SMA Plans to gain acceptance by the affected
communities and management authorities. Harmonization and integration of SMA
Plans with the ECAN Plan shall be pursued as much as possible.

142
6.6. ECAN MANAGEMENT PROGRAM (2017-2022)

The proposed ECAN Management Program (ECAN-MP) for the next five years
(2017-2022) shall be implemented by the Municipality of Coron in cooperation with and
with the support of PCSD Staff and stakeholders including other concerned government
and non- agencies, local community organizations, and private sector organizations
operating in the area. The support of national and international funding organizations
(grant and lending institutions) shall also be sought to fund selected activities of the
program components. The program is designed to directly respond to the major needs
and problems identified in the municipal threats analysis. The threats identified were
given priority in the Action Planning Activity and these identified threats were compiled
in a matrix. The projects, its involved organizations, and the length of completion of each
were also shown in Table 90 (Annex G). During the ECAN Resource Management
Planning Workshop in Coron, the identified threats during KII, FGD, and literature
reviews were validated. All the presented problem using DPSIR matrices were corrected
and transformed into more realistic pressing issues. This was further processed in zonal
strategies (see Table 89 in Annex G).
Stakeholders agreed that three identified threats were needed to be prioritized for
effective management in the core zones. These issues include: Illegal cutting of naturally
grown trees, poaching of fauna species and forest fires induced by climate and kaingeros.
As responses to these problems, the participants during the workshop came up with the
following action plans: (1) delineation of production forests, (2) implemention of
community based monitoring system for forest operations, and filing of complaints
against violators on forest-related laws and regulation. There is also a need to strengthen
DENR interventions for a pro-active system of response. The increase in intelligence
networks against violators which means deputizing wildlife enforcement officers and
boosting of initiative from the community and collective action should also be imposed to
each community. In addition, continuous Information Education Communication
campaigns on ordinances should still be done to keep residents aware of how to take care
of their environment. Collaboration is also vital in achieving the success of these
proposed actions. DENR, PCSD, PNP, and LGU, together with lead organizations should
be the lead implementers of these proposals. All these plans hopefully, will be worked on
starting the second quarter of 2016.
Poaching of threatened species like shells and aquarium fishes, illegal cutting of
mangroves, and intrusion of commercial fishing vessels are the prevailing problems of
Coron when it comes to coastal core zones. Particpants proposed to continue and increase
the regular patrolling of Government Agencies like BFAR, Bantay Coron, PNP-Maritime
and Philippine Coast Guard for tight monitoring of its coastal resources. Also, the
establishment of entry/exit point of fishing vessels, employment of more BFAR
personnel, provision of incentives for deputized fish wardens and other agencies to help
solve and eradicate these issues were deemed necessary by the representatives from
different sectors. Mangrove reforestation, Community Based Monitoring System,
Creation of alliance with other organizations within the barangay are other strategies
suggested by the authorities to further improve the state of these core zones. All of these

143
should be implemented as soon as possible this 2016. Solving these issues would not be
easy but with initiative and community based actions, all of these can be eradicated.
Among the stated problems, kaingin and timber poaching are the identified pressing
problems need to address within the restricted and transition zones. Kaingin is rampantly
identified in all barangays except urban barangays. The proposed measures to prevent the
effects of such are creation of additional livelihood for ascertained kaingeros such as
piggery projects, strict implementation of PD 705 (Forestry Code) and rehabilitation
program for the forests. These actions can be mobilized through the function and support
of DA, LGU, DENR and BLGU. Meanwhile, timber poaching is persistent in the areas of
Bintuan, Decalachao, San Nicolas, Decabobo, Buenavista, Borac and Turda. To mitigate
the persistence of these incidents, the following measures hereby recommended are the
implementation of PD 705 (Forestry Code) and provision of alternative livelihood (those
who do illegal timber poaching) in coordination with DENR, BLGU, LGU and DA.
The grass fire caused by the irresponsible use of fire in honey collection was included
among those highlighted threat existing in the controlled-use zone, particularly in all
barangays except Poblacion 1, 2, and 3. To address the said problem, the key stakeholders
raised their agreed proposed actions anchored in the strong enforcement of monitoring
and implementation bodies concerning the issue and information, education, and
communication campaigns on fire prevention including ways in responding grass fire and
the adverse effects of such practice. Another threat which was given priority for the
proposal of interventions is timber poaching observed in barangays Bintuan, Guadalupe,
Borac, Turda, Buenavista, Marcilla, Decalachao, and San Jose. Like the prior problem, it
was recommended that it will be addressed by strengthening the enforcement DENR laws
and regulations regarding the concern, performing effective human resource management
(pertaining to forest rangers’ duties and providing them just incentives and
compensation), providing alternative livelihood for those who do timber poaching, and
encouraging forest rehabilitation. In addition, poaching of endemic and endangered fauna
species in barangays Decalachao, San Jose, Bintuan, Guadalupe, Borac, Turda, Marcilla,
and Buenavista also needs urgent action. Strict enforcement of laws and regulation
grounded on this matter as well as effective IEC campaigns are the foreseen keys towards
mitigating this problem
For the traditional use zone, the problem of insufficient water supply in
agricultural lands is the primary concern, therefore, stakeholders suggested that along
with the current intervention of the municipality, tree planting in the identified watershed
areas of and protecting, managing and developing existing watershed in the barangays
Bintuan, Turda and San Nicolas are better instead of harnessing other potential source of
water. In this regard, collaboration among the community, LGU, BLGU, DENR, PCSD is
highly needed to somehow make water supply not a problem anymore in the town of
Coron. On the other hand, the improperly disposed and used chemical containers in
collecting honey, when subjected to intense heat, results to grass/forest fires. Indeed, it is
another alarming issue for this certain kind of zone specifically in Barangay Bintuan and
San Nicolas. With that, proposed actions such as reinforcement of the implementation and
monitoring of forests by the forest rangers, additional forest rangers and making their
daily duties broader, conduct of Information, Education, and Communication (IEC)

144
campaigns on proper disposal of used chemical containers in times of honey bee
collection are highly recommended to address the problem of grass fire. However, to have
a body to respond quickly in times of grass fire, creation of Barangay Volunteer Fire
Brigade will certainly be the solution. In addition to that, in order to prevent grass fire,
establishment of fire breakers can be done, or at least 4-meter length of grass can be cut
off so that fire will not spread anymore, also, honey collection must be regulated through
wildlife collector’s permit, and lastly to penalized violators, persecution is possible
through filing the case of Arson. To make the suggested actions effective, coordination
and participation among DENR, PCSD, LGU, BLGU, BFP, RBO, CSO is necessary.
The identified major threats in the multiple use zones were the improper wastes
disposal, use of illegal drugs and vices, change in land use of mangrove areas, insufficient
hospital facilities, personnel and medicine, and the existing narrow roads in the locale.
These issues were target to be addressed starting on the second quarter of 2016 up to
2022. In connection to this, it will be addressed through the strict implementation of laws
and policies regarding health, nutrition, waste management, traffic and drugs. Among the
contributors of improper wastes disposal are the incompliant households, piggery, poultry
and hospital in the community. The participants proposed for the termination and
avoidance of extensions of contract of those incompliant piggery and poultry. Other
responses to solve the increasing problem in wastes are the community clean-up drive,
relocation of informal settlers, and additional truck and personnel for garbage collection.
Also, the municipality already identified a suitable Sanitary Landfill Site and has
organized its funds in order to cater the increasing wastes generated. On the other hand,
the Philippine National Police (PNP) in Coron is very active and dedicated in doing their
duty to minimize the drug incidences in the municipality. However, there is still a need to
strengthen the implementation of Barangay Anti-Drugs Campaign and Barangay Peace
Keeping Actions.
Meanwhile, some individuals in the municipality converted the mangrove areas
along the coastal shoreline for settlement purposes which led to the change of its land use.
In order to further address the issue, the municipality will strictly monitor such
conversion at the barangay level. There would also be a monitoring of the influx of
migrants and encroachment settlements in the mangrove areas. Other participants said
that the mangrove areas are also being entitled which led to the response of reviewing
such titles. The fourth prioritized issue was the insufficient hospitals, personnel and
medicines which will be addressed through the proper budget allocation that would help
in the upgrade of health facilities and increase in personnel. Lastly, the narrow roads in
the municipality which affects the flow of traffic was the fifth prioritized problem. Since,
there is still a need for additional funds; the immediate response of the local government
unit to address such problem is to impose fines on traffic and to conduct information
education communication about the traffic rules and regulations in Coron.
The prioritized Tribal Ancestral Zone problems can be summed up to health and land
ownership. The pressing factors are improper waste disposal and presence of
communicable diseases and such, making tribal communities vulnerable. The local
government of Coron is continuously providing waste segregation seminars,
implementing municipal ordinances and employing health personnel to address these

145
issues. In this regard, conducting IEC on waste segregation, providing trash bins and
septic tanks, adding additional health personnel, and providing adequate medicine and
health facilities are of necessary actions, but cultural differences should be taken into
account, thus respecting their traditions regarding health care is of great importance. This
will all be possible with the help of the National Commission on Indigenous People
(NCIP).
On the other hand, land ownership is highly sensitive and controversial topic, peace
talks have been made and demarcations of lands have already been proposed. In addition
to solve this problem, some of the proposed actions are harmonizing the LGU Code and
IPRA Law, in-depth studying of the contents of IPRA Law and presenting proper
documents of land ownership. In connection with this, increasing of island destination
entrance fee is addressed by the LGU through the one fee system. As of the time, this is
still an on-going discussion between the two parties thus dialogue with the presence of the
council of elders, tribal associations and the LGU to come up with a mutually beneficial
agreement in order for Coron to grow and reach its maximum potential together with the
help of the National Commission on Indigenous People (NCIP).
For easy visualization of the strategies to respond the major threats given, seven
strategies were created to achieve three outcomes and one goal. These are shown in figure
18 and tables 86-87.

146
Coron: Inclusive growth
in a resilient island
municipality

Capacities of indigenous
Forest and aquatic Access to basic services
and local communities
ecosystem protected improved and made
for sustainable island
and restored equitable
development enhanced

Information, Education,
Environmental law Socio-Economic Services
and Communication
enforcement and Technology
Campaign

Ecosystem Peace and order


Institutional Capacity
Rehabilitation and maintained and
Building
Protection improved

Human Resource
Development and
Management

Figure 18. Coron ECAN Management Plan Logical Framweork

Outcome 1: Forest and aquatic ecosystem protected and restored

1. Environmental law enforcement

Objective: To strengthen implementation of environmental laws.

1.1.Establishment and operationalization of exit and entry points in strategic areas in


both land and water (mobilizing local communities as quick response team).

147
1.2.Increase enforcement activities of multi-agency task force in environmentally
critical areas (BFAR, Bantay Coron, Bantay Gubat, PNP-Maritime and Philippine
Coast Guard) to include upgrading of equipment)
1.3.Filing of legal complaints for identified timber poachers (mangrove) and
unsustainable collection of honey.
1.4.Regulate collection and trade economically important species such as threatened
aquarium species and wildlife derivative like of honey [proponent to secure
Wildlife Collectors Permit (WFP)].
1.5.Strengthen patrol system to ensure compliance to environmental laws and
ordinances such as RA 7611 (Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan Act), PD
705 (Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines), RA 9147 (Wildlife Resources
Conservation and Protection Act), Resolution No. 674 Series of 2000 Piggery and
Poultry Application Requirements, RA 9003-Ecological Solid Waste Management
Act, Ordinance No. 28- C Series of 2015 Anti- Littering Ordinance), and Strict
implementation of the Anti-Littering Ordinance.

2. Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Protection

Objective: To improve the ecological status of environment and natural resources


through rehabilitative and restorative means

2.1.Delineation of areas for protection, production (areas for traditional agriculture)


and rehabilitation.
2.2.Formulation of rehabilitation program (upland forest and mangrove forest)
2.3.Formulate watershed management plan for existing and proposed watershed areas.
2.4.Conduct of forums to encourage private individuals to engage in tree plantation
outside timberlands

Outcome 2: Access to basic services improved and made equitable

3. Socio-Economic Services and Technology


Objective: To provide basic services and improve environmental health.

3.1.Proper management of domestic, commercial and industrial wastes (Inclusion and


imposition of proper design of septic tanks in building permits, construction of
public toilets in tourism areas, and construction of sewerage system, construction
of Sanitary Landfill and Material Recovery Facility, construction of medical
wastes facility in the hospital)
3.2.Upgrading of medical facilities and addition of health personnel.
3.3.Review and assess the viability of livelihood projects. Applicability must consider
violators of environmental laws as target beneficiaries and current institutional
arrangements. Piloting of identified livelihood programs. Livelihood projects with
high potential for success are as follows:
- seaweed farming,
- crab culture (fattening): alimango and alimasag
- ecotourism service
- handicraft making (using buho, yantok and rattan),

148
- vinegar making,
- cashew nut processing,
- rattan and bamboo furniture making,
- indigenous honey preparations into homegrown delicacies
- multiple cropping,
- cut flower production,
- dried fish processing,
- fish culture: kikiro/samaral; bangus; tilapia, lapulapu, danggit
- goat raising
- vegetable farming: eggplants (talong); squash (kalabasa); pechay; bitter gourd
(ampalaya); cabbage (repolyo); tomato (kamatis); potato (patatas)
- fruit farming: papaya; citrus; mango; banana; jackfruit
- shellfish culture: oysters, mussels, sea urchins
3.4.Resettlement of coastal communities (resettlement plans must consider
accessibility and availability of social services on relocation sites)

4. Peace and order maintained and improved


Objective: to provide peaceful and safe environment.

4.1.Strict implementation of RA 9165 (The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act)


and RA 7624 (Integrating drug prevention and control in intermediate and
secondary curricula)
4.2.Provision of rehabilitation program (construction and operationalization of
rehabilitation camps)
4.3.Strict implementation of Ordinances about Traffic Rules and Regulations in the
municipality of Coron

Outcome 3: Capacities of indigenous and local communities for sustainable island


development enhanced

5. Information, Education, and Communication Campaign


Objective: to increase knowledge and awareness of communities in environmental laws

5.1.Conduct of IEC and social mobilization activities to gain stakeholders’ support to


ECAN zoning and environmental laws (RA 9147, RA 9072, RA 9175, PD 705,
RA 10654, RA 8371, RA 9003)
- Formulation of Communication Plan involving other partner agencies with
emphasis on climate change, effects of kaingin, forest and biodiversity
management, marine protected areas management, IPRA Law, and sustainable
honey collection
- Conduct of information campaign at the barangay level (use of multimedia
materials on understanding of the ECAN zoning and how to implement it; the
duties of the implementers and the approach in implementation)

149
6. Institutional Capacity Building
Objective: To streamline institutional goals and objectives and encourage partnerships.

6.2.Integration and harmonization of ECAN Zones and ECAN Zones Management


Plan in the updating of CLWUP and passage of zoning ordinance incorporating
ECAN Zones and zoning strategies and guidelines.
6.3.Mainstreaming of Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection
Plan and Customary Laws in the ECAN Plans and its Guidelines, and in the
CLUP and Zoning Ordinance.
6.4.Encourage Public-Private Partnership in implementing projects identified in the
workshop such as health facilities and waste collection and construction of
Sanitary Landfill.

7. Human Resource Development and Management


Objective: To increase capacities of enforcers and trainers and encourage community
participation.
7.1. Capacitation of Municipal ECAN Board and functional committees including
deputation of members of Enforcement Task Force (Conduct of training on the
following subjects which are needed to impart knowledge and develop the skills)
 Trainor’s training on environmentally friendly alternative livelihood training
to be conducted by experts for selected representatives from local community
organizations and NGOs identified to spearhead sustainable livelihood
projects; trainers from NGOs and academe will be invited; the budget will be
sourced from the LGU and other donor institutions
 Paralegal and WEO Trainings to be administered jointly by the PCSDS,
ELAC, and MAO for ECAN Board members, BFARMC, and selected
Barangay officials; funds will be sourced from LGU and other donor
institutions
7.2. Hiring of additional enforcement officers such as fish wardens and forest rangers
and provision of just compensation
7.3. Create Community Quick Response Team per barangay to respond during
climate-induced disasters (grass fires, landslides, storm surges)
7.4. Develop an incentive scheme for enforcers

-IPs should show proper documents of their claim

150
Table 86. Action Plan in each of the ECAN Zone and implementing organizations
Implementing Terrestrial Coastal
Organizations

Sustainable Use

General Use
Traditional
Controlled
Core Zone
(LO= Lead

Restricted

Use Zone
Multiple
Buffer-

Buffer-

Buffer-
Component/Strategy

Buffer

Buffer
Core
Organization
SO= Support
Organization)
Outcome 1: Forest and aquatic ecosystem protected and restored
1. Environmental law enforcement
1.1.Establishment and operationalization of exit and entry points in strategic areas in LO: DENR
both land and water. SO: PNP, PCSD,
√ √ √
BFAR, LGU,
Community
1.2.Increase enforcement activities of multi-agency task force in environmentally LO: LGU
critical areas. SO: DENR, PNP, √ √ √ √ √ √
PCSD, BFAR,
1.3.Filing of legal complaints for identified timber poachers (mangrove) and LO: DENR, PCSD
unsustainable collection of honey. SO: PNP, PCSD,
BFAR, LGU
1.4. Regulation of collection and trade economically important species such as LO: PCSD
threatened aquarium species and wildlife derivative like of honey [proponent to SO: PNP, PCSD,
secure Wildlife Collectors Permit (WFP)] BFAR, LGU
1.5. Strengthen patrol system to increase compliance to environmental laws and LO: BFAR, DENR, LGU
ordinances SO: PNP, PCSD,
BFAR, LGU,
Community
2. Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Protection
2.1.Delineation of areas for protection, production (areas for traditional agriculture) LO: BFAR, DENR, LGU,
and rehabilitation PCSD, DA
√ √ √ √ √ √ √ √
SO: Community,
Barangay, NGO
2.2.Formulation of forest rehabilitation program LO: Community, √ √ √ √ √

151
Implementing Terrestrial Coastal
Organizations

Sustainable Use

General Use
Traditional
Controlled
Core Zone
(LO= Lead

Restricted

Use Zone
Multiple
Buffer-

Buffer-

Buffer-
Component/Strategy

Buffer

Buffer
Core
Organization
SO= Support
Organization)
DENR, LGU
SO: PCSD, BFAR,
2.3.Formulate watershed management plan for existing and proposed watershed areas. LO: LGU, PCSD
SO: DENR,

Community, Barangay,
NGO
2.4.Conduct of forums to encourage private individuals to engage in tree plantation LO: LGU, PCSD
outside timberland SO: DENR,
√ √
Community,
Barangay, Private
Outcome 2: Access to basic services improved and made equitable
3. Socio-Economic Services and Technology
3.1. Proper management of domestic, commercial and industrial wastes LO: LGU
SO: Private Companies, √ √ √ √
Community
3.2. Upgrading of medical facilities and addition of health personnel LO: LGU

SO: DOH
3.3. Review and assess the viability of livelihood projects LO: LGU
SO: DTI, Private
Communities
3.4. Resettlement of coastal communities LO: LGU

SO: HUDC
4. Peace and order maintained and improved

4.1.Strict implementation of RA 9165 (The Comprehensive Dangerous Drugs Act) and LO: LGU
RA 7624 (Integrating drug prevention and control in intermediate and secondary SO: PNP-PDEA √
curricula)

152
Implementing Terrestrial Coastal
Organizations

Sustainable Use

General Use
Traditional
Controlled
Core Zone
(LO= Lead

Restricted

Use Zone
Multiple
Buffer-

Buffer-

Buffer-
Component/Strategy

Buffer

Buffer
Core
Organization
SO= Support
Organization)
LO: LGU
4.2.Provision of rehabilitation program √
SO: DSWD, TESDA
LO: LGU
4.3.Strict implementation of Ordinances about Traffic Rules and Regulations √
SO: Community
Outcome 3: Capacities of indigenous and local communities for sustainable island
development enhanced
5. Information, Education, and Communication Campaign
LO: LGU, ECAN Board,
5.1. Conduct of IEC and social mobilization activities √ √ √ √ √ √ √
PCSDS, DENR, BFAR
6. Institutional Capacity Building
6.1.Integration and harmonization of ECAN Zones and ECAN Zones Management LO: LGU
Plan in the updating of CLWUP and passage of zoning ordinance incorporating SO: PCSDS & ECAN
ECAN Zones and zoning strategies and guidelines. Board
6.2.Mainstreaming of Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development and Protection Plan LO: LGU
and Customary Laws in the ECAN Plans and its Guidelines, and in the CLUP and SO: PCSDS & ECAN
Zoning Ordinance. Board
6.3.Encourage Public-Private Partnership in implementing projects identified in the LO: LGU and ECAN
workshop such as health facilities and waste collection and construction of Board √
Sanitary Landfill. SO: PCSDS
7. Human Resource Development and Management
7.1. Capacitation of Municipal ECAN Board and functional committees LO: ECAN Board,
LGU, NGO, Private
Individuals/ Companies
SO: PCSDS

153
Implementing Terrestrial Coastal
Organizations

Sustainable Use

General Use
Traditional
Controlled
Core Zone
(LO= Lead

Restricted

Use Zone
Multiple
Buffer-

Buffer-

Buffer-
Component/Strategy

Buffer

Buffer
Core
Organization
SO= Support
Organization)
7.2.Hiring of additional enforcement officers such as fish wardens and forest rangers LO: LGU, BFAR, DENR
and provision of just compensation
LO: DENR. PCSDS
7.3. Create Community Quick Response Team per barangay
SO: LGU, Community
LO: LGU
7.4.Develop an incentive scheme for enforcers
SO: DENR, BFAR
Non-Zonal
Supra-Zonal

Table 87. Indicative budget for Plan implementation


Component/Strategy Time Frame
Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


Outcome 1: Forest and aquatic ecosystem protected and
3,060 3,060 2,510 1,310 1,310 1,310 12,560
restored
1. Environmental law enforcement 1,810 1,810 1,310 1,310 1,310 1,310 8,860
1.1. Establishment and operationalization of exit and entry points
in strategic areas in both land and water. 1,080 1,080 1,080 1,080 1,080 1,080 6,480

1.2. Increase enforcement activities of multi-agency task force in


environmentally critical areas. 120 120 120 120 120 120 720

1.3. Filing of legal complaints for identified timber poachers


(mangrove) and unsustainable collection of honey 2 2 2 2 2 2 12

154
Component/Strategy Time Frame
Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


1.4. Regulation of collection and trade economically important
species such as threatened aquarium species and wildlife
108 108 108 108 108 108 648
derivative like of honey [proponent to secure Wildlife
Collectors Permit (WFP)]
1.5. Strengthen patrol system to increase compliance to
environmental laws and ordinances 500 500 1,000

2. Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Protection 1,250 1,250 1,200 - - - 3,700


2.1.Delineation of areas for protection, production (areas for
traditional agriculture) and rehabilitation 600 600 600 1,800

2.2.Formulation of forest rehabilitation program -


2.3.Formulate watershed management plan for existing and
600 600 600 1,800
proposed watershed areas.
2.4.Conduct of forums to encourage private individuals to
engage in tree plantation outside timberland 50 50 100

Outcome 2: Access to basic services improved and made


4,946 301,796 301,446 1,096 1,096 96 610,476
equitable
2. Socio-Economic Services and Technology 1,150 301,300 301,350 1,000 1,000 - 605,800
3.1. Proper management of domestic, commercial and industrial
300,000 300,000 600,000
wastes
3.2. Upgrading of medical facilities and addition of health
-
personnel
3.3. Review and assess the viability of livelihood projects 150 300 350 800
3.4. Resettlement of coastal communities 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 5,000
4. Peace and order maintained and improved 3,796 496 96 96 96 96 4,676

155
Component/Strategy Time Frame
Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


4.1. Strict implementation of RA 9165 (The Comprehensive
Dangerous Drugs Act) and RA 7624 (Integrating drug
100 400 500
prevention and control in intermediate and secondary
curricula-meetings and production of IEC materials)
4.2. Provision of rehabilitation program 3,600 3,600
4.3. Strict implementation of Ordinances about Traffic Rules and
Regulations in the municipality of Coron 96 96 96 96 96 96 576

Outcome 3: Capacities of indigenous and local communities


for sustainable island development enhanced 8,506 8,176 8,076 7,976 7,976 7,776 48,486

5. Information, Education, and Communication Campaign 200 200 200 200 200 - 1,000
5.1. Conduct of IEC and social mobilization activities 200 200 200 200 200 1,000
6. Institutional Capacity Building 280 - - - - - 280
6.1. Integration and harmonization of ECAN Zones and ECAN
Zones Management Plan in the updating of CLWUP and
30 30
passage of zoning ordinance incorporating ECAN Zones and
zoning strategies and guidelines.
6.2. Mainstreaming of Ancestral Domain Sustainable
Development and Protection Plan and Customary Laws in the
50 50
ECAN Plans and its Guidelines, and in the CLUP and Zoning
Ordinance.
6.3. Encourage Public-Private Partnership in implementing
projects identified in the workshop such as health facilities 200 200
and waste collection and construction of Sanitary Landfill.

7. Human Resource Development and Management 8,026 7,976 7,876 7,776 7,776 7,776 47,206
7.1. Capacitation of Municipal ECAN Board and functional
200 200 100 500
committees

156
Component/Strategy Time Frame
Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Total

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


7.2. Hiring of additional enforcement officers such as fish
wardens and forest rangers and provision of just compensation 4,320 4,320 4,320 4,320 4,320 4,320 25,920

7.3. Create Community Quick Response Team per barangay 3,456 3,456 3,456 3,456 3,456 3,456 20,736
7.4. Develop an incentive scheme for enforcers 50 50
GRAND TOTAL 16,512 313,032 312,032 10,382 10,382 9,182 671,522

157
CHAPTER 7: ADMINISTRATION OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN

7.1. ADMINISTRATOR AND IMPLEMENTER OF THE ECAN ZONING


PLAN

This ECAN Zoning Plan is a stand-alone document prepared by the


ECAN Board pursuant to the SEP Law and its guidelines. Its implementation is
the joint responsibility of the LGU and PCSDS through the ECAN Board of the
Municipality (PCSD Resolution 2005-250, Section 31). The ECAN Board is also the
lead organization in charge of administering the ECAN Zoning Plan.
The Chairperson of the ECAN Board shall act as the ECAN Zoning Plan
Administrator. He/She may appoint a Deputy Plan Administrator who is qualified
for the job and whose nature of work is related to ECAN Zoning.
The PCSDS representative to the ECAN Board, the Municipal Environment
and Natural Resources Officer (MENRO), the Municipal Planning and Development
Coordinator, and the other members of the ECAN Board shall constitute the ECAN
Zoning Plan Advisory Body. They shall assist the Plan Administrator and Deputy
Plan Administrator in the implementation of the EZP.
The latest revised ECAN guidelines (PCSD Resolution 05-250) have
addressed most of the institutional aspects of the issue. An important function
devolved to LGUs in the Local Government Code (LGC) is the enactment of
municipal or city zoning ordinance based in the formulated CLUP. The zoning
ordinance and the CLUP are the primary bases for the future use of land resources
(LGC, Section 20 (c)).
The implementation of the ECAN Zoning Plan may include the following
functions, some of which are detailed in the ECAN Management Programs in Chapter
5:
1. Policy formulation
2. Legislation
3. Setting up of permitting system
4. Monitoring
5. Other related activities

The implementation and institutionalization of the ECAN is led by the ECAN


Board with support from the PCSD, PCSDS, and other public and private agencies.
The following figure (Figure 33) shows the process of ECAN Zoning
institutionalization that is centered on an ECAN-based CLWUP. In institutionalizing
the ECAN in the Municipality of Coron, the important factors to consider are the
experience and expertise of land use planners, the political support of LGU, the
continuity of the development programs, and a common grasp of the roles of both
ECAN and CLUP in advancing the common good, maintaining the ecological
balance, and promoting sustainable development.

158
Source: PCSD, 2016
Figure 19. Institutionalization of the ECAN (Note: The boxed portion in red is the
critical part of EZP Administration.)

7.2. IMMEDIATE ACTIVITIES

After formulation and approval of the Plan by the ECAN Board, the following
activities are to be undertaken by the ECAN Board, with the assistance of the PCSDS.

ADOPTION OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN

This activity requires the following sequential steps:


 ECAN Board’s endorsement of the Plan to the Sangguniang Bayan
 Public hearing in the Municipality of Coron
 Adoption of the Plan by the Sangguniang Bayan and endorsement to the
Sangguniang Panlalawigan
 Approval of the Plan by the PCSD

INTEGRATION OF THE ECAN ZONING PLAN WITH THE MUNICIPAL


CLWUP

The ECAN Zoning Plan, as prepared by the ECAN Board in behalf of the
LGU, shall serve as the general physical plan of the municipality. Thus, it shall be the
basis of other planning activities, such as land use planning, tourism master planning
and resource management planning as a whole (PCSD Resolution 05-250, Section
30).
The recommended process in the integration/harmonization of the Plan with
the Municipal CLWUP is called INTEGRATE (incorporating the SEP and ECAN

159
into Local Land Use Plans). The INTEGRATE process has six complementary steps
(indicated in the figure below), not necessarily sequential in application, with four
integration stages: physical integration, strategic integration, plan integration, and
institutional integration. These steps are outlined in Annex F.

ADOPTION OF THE ECAN MAP FOR COASTAL/MARINE COMPONENT

This activity may involve the following the steps:


 Compilation of results of Coastal Resource Assessments (CRA) and
Participatory CRA (PCRA) studies by the PCSDS and other institutions
including ECO-FISH
 Compilation of existing functional and proposed MPA maps as candidates for
coastal/marine ECAN Core Zones and Multiple use zones
 Consultation of major stakeholders (LGU, OMA, MFARMC, BFARMCs)
 As needed, further conduct of Coastal Resource Assessments (CRA) and
PCRA in proposed/priority sites
 Public consultation on areas affected by Coastal/Marine ECAN Maps (priority
on barangays with coastal Core zones)
 Presentation of the Coastal/Marine ECAN Map to the ECAN Board who will
deliberate and endorse the map to the Sangguniang Bayan
 Adoption of the Coastal/Marine ECAN Map by the Sangguniang Bayan (with
public hearing) and endorsement to the Sangguniang Panlalawigan
 Approval of the Map by the PCSD

7.3. POSSIBLE SOURCES OF FUNDS

Implementation of the components and activities of ECAN zoning will not be


possible without the active participation of other concerned agencies such as PCSDS,
DENR, DA, NCIP, PNP, and others. Civil society and the private sector are also
expected to contribute to the implementation of ECAN Zoning in as much as the
deterioration of the environment will directly affect their socioeconomic welfare and
business profits, respectively. Tourism, fisheries, agriculture, and forestry are directly
threatened by ecosystem and habitat degradation thereby affecting households and
businesses dependent on natural resources as their source of employment and income.
The funds will not solely come from the LGU. Other cooperating
organizations such as government agencies (DA, DENR, PCSDS, NCIP etc.), NGOs,
and the private sector (resort owners, business establishments, etc.) will also be
tapped to contribute their share in the implementation of ECAN zoning.
Other potential sources of funds may include the following:
 Share of the Province in the Malampaya funds
 Special lending windows for environment of the Land Bank of the Philippines
(LBP), Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP), and other private banks

160
 Shell Philippines Exploration (SPEX) grant for sustainable development
projects
 Malampaya Foundation grant for sustainable development projects
 On-going and pipeline foreign-assisted projects of DENR, DA, and other
government agencies
 Bilateral and multi-lateral donor institutions such as JICA, the World Bank,
ADB, AusAID, USAID, UNDP, GEF (Table 65 lists the multilateral and
bilateral funding agencies which can be tapped for environment and
sustainable development programs and projects.)
 Foreign embassies and international foundations and NGOs
 Local foundations and NGOs
 Philanthropic organizations (local and international)

Table 88. List of potential foreign funding organizations


Bilateral Multilateral
Australian Agency for International Asian Development Bank (ADB)
Development (AusAID)
Canadian International Development European Union (EU)
Agency (CIDA)
Danish International Development Global Environment Facility (GEF)
Agency (DANIDA)
Development Fund for International International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (DFID) Development (IBRD-World Bank)
German Society for International International Financing Corporation
Cooperation, Ltd. (GIZ) (IFC)
Japan International Cooperation Agency International Fund for Agricultural
(JICA) Development (IFAD)
New Zealand Agency for International United Nations Development Programme
Development (NZAID) (UNDP)
Swedish International Development United Nations Food and Agriculture
Agency (SIDA) Organization (UNFAO)
United States Agency for International United Nations Environment Programme
Development (USAID) (UNEP)
Netherlands Embassy
British Embassy

Activities involving large sums of expenditures such as ecosystem


rehabilitation, sustainable livelihood projects, ground marking of ECAN zones, and
law enforcement may be submitted for foreign funding through NEDA administered
Official Development Assistance (ODA) portfolio or through the Global Environment
Facility (GEF) fund. To avail foreign funding support through Official Development
Assistance (ODA), the proponent LGU should identify the Country Program Priorities
of the donor agencies and match them with the needs of the locality. The next step is
to prepare project proposal for funding assistance in consultation and with the

161
collaboration of partner agencies such as DENR, DA, and others. The proposal is then
submitted to NEDA for consideration under its ODA program.
Being one of its kind of undertaking that will employ the management of
ECAN zones on the ground using a combination of various actions will possibly draw
the interest and support of international funding agencies because of the potential
local and global replication of such techniques. The successful implementation of
ECAN strategies that will be developed can be applied in other areas in the country
and abroad in sustainably managing communities and protected areas.
One of the possible international donor institutions that can be approached for
this undertaking is the UNDP which administers, together with the World Bank, the
GEF fund in the form of grant. Likewise, the European Union which had supported a
lot of projects on Protected Areas in Palawan may possibly consider funding selected
activities of the Rehabilitation Component for Coron,
Management of the coastal/marine component of ECAN zones may be
supported by resort owners considering the impacts of their activities in these areas.

7.4. MONITORING AND EVALUATION

Monitoring and evaluation of plans, programs, and projects prescribed in this


Plan shall be undertaken annually after its adoption by the Sangguniang Bayan.
The ECAN Board, assisted by the PCSDS, shall perform a self-assessment to
gauge the efficiency and transparency of the administration and management of the
ECAN resources and implementation of the ECAN Zoning Plan.
The constituted Monitoring Team shall recommend the proper management
effectiveness assessment tool to the ECAN Board. It may develop and customize
performance evaluation criteria and indicators for the purpose.
The Monitoring Team may use existing evaluation tools developed in other
management areas, particularly those used in similar settings in Palawan. Since the
province of Palawan belongs to the network of biosphere reserves inscribed by
UNESCO, the assessment tools developed for island biosphere reserves can be used
in assessing the management effectiveness of the ECAN Zoning Plan of Coron.
The monitoring protocol shall include test of sustainability of programs and
projects under the ECAN Zoning Plan which shall cover determination of whether
targets have been completed and assessment of the following aspects of implemented
projects:
 Economic Viability
 Ecological Viability
 Technological Viability
 Technological Viability
 Socio-cultural Viability
 Political Viability
 Institutional Viability
Ideally, the tool should also determine the impact of the SEP and ECAN to the
stakeholders of Coron.
162
REFERENCES

Brooks,T., Diesmos, A., Posa, M. Hope for Threatened Tropical Biodiversity:


Lessons from the Philippines. 2008., BioScience, Oxford Journals
Retrieved from http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/58/3/231 on
March. 8, 2016.

Cabrido, C. A., Jr. (n.d.). Ecological Zoning as a Policy Tool for Sustainable
Development at the Local Level. Retrieved from
<http://www.pemsea.org/eascongress/international-
conference/presentation_t1- 6_cabrido.pdf> last February 2, 2016.

Calica, A. (2013). Noy moves to protect Palawan pasture land. Retrieved from
http://www.philstar.com/nation/2013/10/23/1248206/noy-moves-protect-
palawan-pasture-land.

Cimbracruz, F.K, Corpuz, J.D, Ferrer, G.A.K, Palis, C.S., Vega, M. (2015). ECAN
RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLANNING OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF
TAYTAY, PALAWAN (Practicum Output). UPLB.

Dacumos, F. S., III, Milan, M. I., Buno, G. C., Diones, K. D., Peteza, M. C., &
Velasco, M. A. (2015). ECAN Resource Management Plan of the
Municipality of Roxas, Palawan, 3-26.

Department of Environmental and Natural Resources. (2014). Forest Land Use Plan.
Coron, Palawan.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources. 2001. National Ecotourism


Strategy Preliminary Draft. Retrieved from
<http://www.visitmyphilippines.com/images/ads/17d34ce853cd3b2c4fa9740
70c1b061.doc> last March 02, 2016.

Food and Agriculture Organization. (n.d). Agro-Ecological Zoning Guidelines.


Retrieved from <http://www.fao.org/docrep/w2962e/w2962e-03.htm>
last February 2, 2016.

Heinsberg, Richard. (2016). How Is Climate Change Affecting the Philippines?


Retrieved from http://ecowatch.com/2016/01/22/climate-change-affecting-the-
philippines/ on March 1 2016.

Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board. 1996. Model zoning ordinance: Fourth
revised edition. Quezon City, Philippines.

163
Kristensen, P. (2004). The DPSIR Framework. National Environmental Research
Institute Denmark Department of Policy Analysis: European Topic
Centre on Water European Environment Agency. Nairobi, Kenya.

Kho, J., Caleda, M., & La Viña, A. (2010). Legal Framework for Protected
Areas: Philippines (1st ed., pp. 6-10). Retrieved from
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/philippines.pdf on March 8, 2016

Lee, A. (n.d.). What is a Biodiversity Hotspot?. PeruNature.com [Web log post].


Retrieved from http://www.perunature.com/biodiversity-hotspot.html

Municipal Administration Staff (2015). Disaster and Risk Reduction Management


Plan. Coron, Palawan

Municipal Planning and Development Council (2014). Coastal Water Use Plan Draft.
Coron, Palawan.

Municipal Planning and Development Council (2011). Community Based


Management 2011- 2013. Coron, Palawan.

Municipal Planning and Development Council (2010). Comprehensive Land Use Plan
of Coron, Palawan 2010-2020. Coron, Palawan.

Municipal Planning and Development Council (2014). Ecological Profile. Coron,


Palawan.

Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office. (2016). Gender and Development
Plan. Coron, Palawan

Municipal Solid Waste Management Office (2015). Solid Waste Management Plan.
Coron, Palawan.

Municipal Treasury Staff (2016). Master List of Registered Business Establishments.


Coron, Palawan

Municipality of Coron, Palawan (2014). Retrieved from <http://coron.gov.ph/> last


February 28, 2016.

National Economic Development Authority. 2011. Philippine Development Plan


2011- 2016. Retrieved from <http://www.neda.gov.ph/wp-
content/uploads/2013/09/CHAPTER-10.pdf on March 1, 2016.

164
Office of the President of the Philippines. (2013). President Aquino moves to preserve
Busuanga Pasture Reserve. Retrieved from
http://president.gov.ph/news/president- aquino-moves-to-preserve
busuanga-pasture-reserve/.

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines, Executive Order No. 578
GOVPH. Retrieved from http://www.gov.ph/2006/11/08/executive-order-no-
578/ on March 8, 2016.

Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff (2006). Coron Framework.


Coron, Palawan

Palawan Council for Sustainable Development Staff (2006). Coron Flora and Fauna
Report. Coron, Palawan

Palawan Council for Sustainable Development (2015). State of Environment Report:


Palawan Philippines 2015 Updates. Retrieved from
http://www.pkp.pcsd.gov.ph/SOE/red%202014%20State%20of%20Environm
ent%20Report%20Updates,%20Palawan%20(Draft).pdf on March 8, 2016.

Palawan Council for Sustainable Development. (n.d). Retrieved from


<ttp://pcsd.gov.ph> on February 2, 2016.

PCFS. (2014). National Fact Finding and Solidarity Mission conducted to expose land
grabbing case of the Yulo King Ranch. Retrieved from
http://www.foodsov.org/content/national- fact-finding-and-solidarity-
mission conducted-expose-land-grabbing-case-yulo-king

PCSDS. (n.d.) Retrieved from <http://www.dbm.gov.ph/wp-


content/OPCCB/OPIF2012/DENR/pcsds.pdf> last March 02,2016.

PCSD Resolution No. 99-145. Retrieved from


http://pcsd.gov.ph/resolutions/resolutions/miscellaneous/res99-145.htm

Philippines-Country Environmental Analysis (CEA). (2009) (1st ed.). Retrieved from


http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB
/2009/11/18/000333037_20091118233248/Rendered/PDF/516830ESW0WHI
T1EA0 final0LS029Oct09.pdf last March 05, 2016.

Philippine Statistics Authority, National Statistics Office (2010).2010 Census of


Population and Housing.Retrieved April 3, 2015, from
http://web0.psa.gov.ph/sites/defaultfiles/attachments/hsd/pressrelease/MIMAR
OPA.pdf

165
Proclamation No. 663, s. 1960. Retrieved from
http://www.gov.ph/1960/04/08/proclamation-no-663-s-1960/

Republic Act No.7611. (n.d.). Retrieved from


<http://www.doe.gov.ph/doe_files/pdf/OCSP/ra_7586.pdf> last March 8,
2016.

Republic Act No.8371. (n.d). Retrieved from


<http://www.congress.gov.ph/download/ra_10> /RA08371.pdf> last March
08, 2016.

The Coron Initiative: Sustainable Tourism Development and Stewardship for Coron
& Calamianes Island. (n.d.). Retrieved from
https://thecoroninitiative.wordpress.com on March 8, 2016.

UNESCO (1968). FAQ-Biosphere Reserves?. Retrieved from


http://www.unesco.org/mab/doc/faq/brs.pdf on March 8, 2016

Water Environment Partnership in Asia (n.d.). State of water: Philippines. Wepa-


db.net. Retrieved, from http://www.wepa-
db.net/policies/state/philippines/overview.htm on March 8, 2016.

Water Pollution a rising threat in Coron. (2014, May). Rappler newsletter. Retrieved
from http://www.rappler.com/science-nature/environment/58257-water-
pollution-coron on March 8, 2016.

166
ANNEXES

Annex A: Summary Documentation of ECAN Planning Workshop

Annex B: Workshop Design for ECANizing Coron

Annex C: Questionnaires for Key Informant Interview

Annex D: Attendance Sheets

Annex E: Incorporating SEP ECAN into CLWUP

167
Annex A: Summary Documentation of the ECAN Planning Workshop in Coron

The one day ECAN Planning workshop was facilitated by the PCSD staff and
the Coron Practicum Team (BS Human Ecology Students of University of the
Philippines Los Banos) last April 26, 2016 at the Conference Room of Municipal
Hall, Poblacion 2, Coron, Palawan. Members of the ECAN Board, purposively
selected community leaders of some barangays, and non-government organizations
within the municipality have actively participated in the event. The ECAN Planning
Workshop was done in preparation of the ECAN Resource Management Plan of
Coron. The day became the venue for the UPLB interns in presenting and verifying
their formulated Municipal Ecological Profile. Also, it serves as the validation setting
of the identified threats, opportunities, and initiatives after Key Informant Interviews
(KII), Focused Group Discussion (FGD), and site observation.

In order to make the participants clear in their understanding of SEP


Framework and ECAN strategy, Ms Merlinda Hilario provides its brief overview. She
emphasized the concept of sustainable development and roles of ECAN Board in
materializing the SEP philosophies. Afterwards, a short lecture on ECAN 101 was
presented by Mr. Mark dela Cruz. Right after his presentation, interns from UPLB
presented the municipal profile which they drafted after gathering updated plans,
documents, and other data bases from various offices within the municipality and
other relevant institutions. The municipal profile was divided into five parts; the
geophysical characteristics (which was presented by Ms. Rochelle Anne Tabion), the
social profile (which was presented by Ms. Arlyn Napeñas and Ms. Hanna Larissa
Liuag), the local economy (which was presented by Mr. Mark Anthony Abrenica), the
infrastructure sector (which was presented by Ms. Geronima Abigail Ilagan), and the
local institutional capability (which was presented by Ms. Roselaine Camille Tamina).
Before the presentation began, the participants were reminded that all information
presented came from the documents made available by the offices and they were open
for comments so that it will be all included in the final draft of the ERMP.

Threats analysis was presented after the Municipal Ecological Profile. The
presentation of threat analysis utilized DPSIR Framework as its main tool. The
designation of the members of the team in reporting the threats were arranged
according to zones such as: Napeñas for Core zone, Abrenica, Liuag, and Tamina for
Buffer zone, Ilagan for Tribal zone, and Tabion for the Multiple-Use zone. The
participants were reminded that these threats were identified through key informant
interviews and focused group discussion and will be open for validation during the
break-out session. The activity which followed the interns’ presentations of their
study findings was the break-out session. Ms. Cristina Rodriguez reminded the
participants that they would be divided into three clusters (core and tribal zones,
buffer zones, and multiple-use zones). Each cluster was guided by a facilitator from
PCSD and two intern students from UPLB who documented the entire break-out
session for their respective groups. The breakout sessions were held to validate and

168
prioritize threats as presented by the UPLB interns. After the priority threats were
determined, the participants identified the possible solutions for the threat, the
covered ECAN Zone and geographic coverage in the municipality, the target year for
accomplishing the action, and the lead and support organization that would support
the municipality in solving the threat. The findings were arranged in a matrix and
each cluster picked one who would report the highlights of findings within their
group. The UPLB interns in each cluster quickly created power point presentations for
the reporting.

After the break-out session, the participants went back in their seats (non-
clustered arrangements). One representative from each cluster was asked to report the
priority threats in front of the other participants. Then, Mr. Mark Ace dela Cruz
discussed the formulation of E-CWLUP and E-ZO. The workshop ended with the
closing remarks, insights, and challenges made by the Municipal Engineer, Mr. Ike
Parangue and Municipal Assessor, Mr. Reynario Labrador.

169
Annex B: Workshop Design for ECANizing Coron
Participatory ECAN Zones Management Planning
I. Rationale

The ECAN Resource Management Plan (ERMP) is a stand-alone document


prepared by the municipal ECAN Board with the assistance of Palawan Council for
Sustainable Development (PCSD) Staff pursuant to the Republic Act No. 7611 (SEP
Law) and its guidelines. Its primary objective is to guide the long-term sustainable
management of the municipal-adopted ECAN Zones. It uses the ridge-to-reef general
strategy of ECAN and applies it strategically over and above other existing planning
frameworks. It shall serve as the general physical plan of every municipality or city.
Thus, it shall be the basis of other planning activities, such as land use planning,
tourism master planning, and resource management planning as a whole. The
implementation of the ERMP is to be the joint responsibility of the local government
unit (LGU) and PCSD Staff through the ECAN Board which is created to act in its
city or municipal jurisdiction in the same way the PCSD governs SEP concerns at the
provincial level.
The formulation, implementation, and institutionalization of the ERMP, as
well as its integration into the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP), requires the
strong support of the LGU and all concerned stakeholders. Its integration into the
CLUP must be a participatory process. The CLUP needs to be compliant not only to
the policies prescribed by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) and
the rules and regulations under the Local Government Code of 1991 (LGC or
Republic Act No. 7160) but to the SEP and its policies as well.
The LGC mandates the LGU to co-manage with the state the environment and
natural resources within the LGU’s administrative boundary. One important function
devolved by the state to LGUs is the enactment of municipal or city zoning ordinance
based on the formulated CLUP. The zoning ordinance and the CLUP are the primary
bases for the future use of land resources. The formulation of the ERMP is a major
step toward harmonizing and aligning the provisions of the SEP into the CLUP.
As highlighted, the implementation of ERMP is a joint responsibility of local
government unit (LGU) and PCSD Staff through the ECAN Board. The composition
of the ECAN Board is practically the LGU with some representatives from other
sectors. Its operationalization in the whole province had been signaled since 1994
with the issuance of PCSD Res. 94-144, the Guidelines of the ECAN implementation
and later on, in 2005 amended via PCSD Res. No. 05-250. Since then, operations had
been relatively distinct in each of the municipalities/city. While mandate and
functions had been cited in the guideline and more explicitly in the 2005 issuance of
AO 10, various municipalities operate differently in terms of compositions, functions,
and intensity.
With the demands brought about by recent developments, the current PCSD
leadership intends to strengthen and empower the ECAN Boards. This is well
emphasized in the amendment of the SEP Clearance System (PCSD AO 6) where
functions of the ECAN Board is highlighted such that it is given more authority in
endorsing/approving projects and more independent in its decision-making processes.
Consequently, the PCSD AO 10 that instituted the ECAN Board is likewise amended
accordingly.

170
II. Objectives and Expected Output

In the 1-day workshop for ECAN Resource Management Plan, stakeholders,


particularly those from local government units, civil society organizations, indigenous
peoples’ organizations, business, and the academe, will:
1. Validate the adopted Municipal ECAN Map in light of new information at the
municipality;
2. Formulate the ECAN Resource Management Plan (ERMP) in light of new
development at the municipality; and
3. Discuss steps in formulating Ecanized Comprehensive Land and Water Use
Plan (E-CLWUP) and Ecanized Zoning Ordinance (E-ZO).
4.
III. Program/ Flow of activities (Program, Objectives and Methods)

Specific Objectives of the workshop:


1. Validate the existing drivers and pressures in each ECAN zone
2. Validate/recommend/propose actions to address specific driver/pressure
3. Set priorities to be proposed for inclusion in the municipal agenda through its
Annual Investment Plan (AIP) and Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP)
4. Validate conformity of ECAN zones with current use

171
Time Session Title Objectives and Topics Method Resource Person / Facilitator
Morning Registration of
ECAN Board Secretariat/ Interns
8:00 – 8:30 Participants
To formally open the 1-day workshop with a prayer Prayer and
8:30 – 8:40 Opening Rites and the Philippine national anthem Philippine National PCSD Staff
Anthem
To welcome the participants and give the speakers’
Hon. Clara C. Espiritu-Reyes
8:40 – 9:00 Opening Message thoughts on the significance of the ECAN Resource Talk
Management Plan to the Municipality Municipal Mayor
 To explain workshop objectives, process and
program
Introduction to the
 To introduce the Consultation organizers Talk with slides Christina D. Rodriguez
9:00 – 9:10 Workshop and
(PCSD) presentation Overall Facilitator
Participants
 To introduce the participants and sectors
represented
To understand and appreciate the SEP framework
and the ECAN strategy and their importance to
SEP: Why It Matters
spatial land use planning, including:
to Us (with emphasis Nelson P. Devanadera
 Overview situation of sustainable development
on ECAN strategy, Talk with slides Executive Director
9:10 – 9:20 and biodiversity and ecosystem values in the
ECAN Board, and presentation Palawan Council for Sustainable
municipality;
ECAN Management Development Staff
 Importance of ECAN Board and ERMP in
Planning)
relation to critical ecological, economic, socio-
cultural and institutional challenges in Palawan
ECAN 101: The To understand and appreciate the SEP ECAN as a
Palawan Strategy standard of local sustainable development. Topics
include:
 ECAN zones components Cc
Talk with slides Cherry Lyn Jalover
From ECAN Map to  ECAN zones criteria
9:20 – 9:50 presentation and Planning Staff
ECAN Resource  ECAN zones allowable and prohibited uses
handouts PCSD
Management Plan:  ECAN zones strategies
A Physical  ECAN Resource Management Plan (ERMP) and
Framework for its integration into municipal CLWUP
Municipal  Ecanization for SD

172
Time Session Title Objectives and Topics Method Resource Person / Facilitator
Sustainable
Development
Open Forum
Participants will:
 Understand and appreciate the situational
analysis of Municipality based on KII, studies,
and plans, specifically on:
Presentation of
Municipal - Highlights of Ecological Profile
9:50 – 11:30 UPLB Interns
Stocktaking Results of - Priority Drivers/Pressures and why these
each ECAN Zone were identified as priorities
(What and Why)
- Recommended, Actions, Responsible
Entities and Time Frame
(How, Who, When)
The participants will validate inputs and
recommendations for municipal level priorities
and actions; including current or proposed
Sector 1 (Core):
policies, programs and projects that can be
Facilitator 1
integrated in these actions.
Documentor 1
The adopted ECAN map will also be validated.
Sector 2 (Buffer):
Action Planning Priority areas for updating will be indentified. Meta Cards, Manila
11:30 – 12:00 Facilitator 2
Workshop paper, Markers
Documentor 2
Three groups will be formed:
Core zone (terrestrial, coastal, & tribal)
Sector 3 (Multiple):
Buffer zone (terrestrial, coastal, & tribal)
Facilitator 3
Multiple use zone (terrestrial and coastal)
Documentor 3
A rapporteur will be assigned to present the findings
of each group. (see Annex A)
12:00 – 1:00 Lunch break

173
Time Session Title Objectives and Topics Method Resource Person / Facilitator
The participants will validate inputs and
recommendations for municipal level priorities
and actions; including current or proposed
policies, programs and projects that can be Sector 1 (Core):
integrated in these actions. Facilitator 1
11:30 – 2:30
Documentor 1
(1st Group)
The adopted ECAN map will also be validated.
Continuation of Priority areas for updating will be indentified. Sector 2 (Buffer):
2:30 – 3:00 Meta Cards, Manila
Action Planning Facilitator 2
(2nd Group) paper, Markers
Workshop Three groups will be formed: Documentor 2
Core zone (terrestrial, coastal, & tribal)
3:00 – 3:30
Buffer zone (terrestrial, coastal, & tribal) Sector 3 (Multiple):
(3nd Group)
Multiple use zone (terrestrial and coastal) Facilitator 3
Documentor 3
A rapporteur will be assigned to present the findings
of each group. (see Annex A for detailed
mechanics)
Presentation of The participants will be able to present highlights of
3:00 – 4:30 Results and Open results in each zone. (30 mins each group) Assigned Rapporteur per Zone
Forum
The participants will discuss next steps in
Ryan T. Fuentes
formulating the Ecanized Comprehensive Land and
4:30 – 5:00 E-CLUP and E-ZO Planning Staff, PCSD
Water Use Plan (E-CLWUP) and Ecanized Zoning
Ordinance (E-ZO)
5:00 – 5:15 Closing Messages Members of ECAN Board

174
Annex B-2:
Palawan Council for Sustainable Development
ECAN Zones Sustainable Action Planning Workshop
Breakout Group Discussion Guide

OBJECTIVES
For each Breakout Group (BG), the group participants will:
1. Validate the existing drivers and pressures of each zone
2. Validate/recommend/propose actions to address specific driver/pressure
3. Identify which actions are short-term, medium-term, and long-term. Set priorities to be
proposed for inclusion in the Municipality agenda through its Annual Investment Plan (AIP)
and Comprehensive Development Plan (CDP)

PARTICIPANTS and BREAKOUT GROUPS


Members of ECAN Board, representatives from indigenous peoples and non-governmental
organizations, local government official, academe, business sector, mass media, and others.
Breakout Groups:
A Core Zone
B Buffer Zone
C Multiple Use Zone
Each breakout group will have:
 Facilitator
 Documenter
 Resource Person(s)

Round Table Discussion mechanics (Three rounds)


1. First round: First Group for each zone will have 2 hours to discuss and fill-out the matrices
Core Zone (Group 1)
Buffer Zone group (Group 2)
Multiple Use Zone group (Group 3)
2. Second Round (30 mins.)
Core Zone (Group 1) Multiple Use Zone (Group 1)
Buffer Zone group (Group 2) Core Zone (Group 2)
Multiple Use Zone group (Group 3) Buffer Zone (Group 3)
3. Third round (30 mins.)
Core Zone (Group 2) Multiple Use Zone (Group 2)
Buffer Zone group (Group 3) Core Zone (Group 3)
Multiple Use Zone group (Group 1)  Buffer Zone (Group 1)
Time Activity / Key Questions Additional notes on process

(1.5 hrs) 1. Base on the list, what are the Digital editable matrices and Open
priority drivers and pressures Discussions/ Metacards (Technology of
in the ECAN Zone? Are there Participation for back-up)
other critical drivers and Facilitator requests for a volunteer

175
pressures in the zone? rapporteur for plenary reporting, from
among participants.
The documenter should be able
to put the priorities into excel Participants are asked to validate the identified
format (see Matrix 1 below). pressures/threats based on KII and recent
2. Do you agree with the suggested studies.
Sustainable Development Discussion:
Actions to address these  Note to documenters: Identify and Note the
drivers/pressures? If not, what Source of Information – report, agency,
key actions should be done to person, organization –for the questions.
address the priority issue/threat? These should help the team to verify or
Try to limit to 3 strategic and follow-up the information later.
doable actions for each priority
threat.  Identify priority threats and validate given
priority actions
NOTE: Actions should be
sustainable
Criteria of SD Actions  Facilitator and Documenter use prepared
list of actions and metacards if added
A. High impact and cost- actions are necessary. Facilitator goes
effective through each Priority drivers/pressures for
B. SMART the zone and asks the Participants to give
their answers to the Questions 2 to 6 in
C. Ecologically viable
sequence.
D. Socially acceptable
E. Holistic in approach  One participant will start and others will
build on this or add a new key action and
3. What is the geographic target.
coverage of the action? Or
where is the action to be
implemented?
Note: The coverage is
barangay; sitio; any special
management areas or
management unit (identify
specific protected areas,
mountain range, island, wetland,
cave, river, watershed, etc.)
4. Who are the responsible and
lead entities for these Actions?
Note: An entity can be an
organization, agency, institution,
or a stakeholder group.
5. When is the appropriate time
for the action to be
implemented, within 2017-
2021? Identify Timeframe from
start to finish.
Note: The prioritized Actions
(and corresponding results) are
desired to be completed within
2017-2021 (the initial 6 years).

30 mins. ECAN Maps Validation  Each Cluster will be provided with ECAN
(use Matrix 2) map. Whenever practical, 5-10 small
adjoining barangays will share a map and
Examine the ECAN Zones Map of
correspondingly evaluate the same map.
their barangays and verify their
correctness in terms of:  Copies of Land Cover Map with
1. Areas mapped as core zones topographic overlay will be posted for

176
which are titled or privately reference of all participants.
owned  Representative from PCSDS-GIS, Planning
2. Cores zones which are heavily Division and DMO will be available to
settled (more than 20 houses assist the Barangay representatives in
per cluster) evaluating the ECAN Zones Maps.
3. Core zones whose boundary  The participants will mark using contrast
overlaps with the boundary of colored pens, their proposed correction on
poblacion (barangay center) the map given to them. In making their
based on approving zones corrections, they will also fill out a form
4. Areas mapped as multiple use which tabulates the code or number of the
zones, CADCs or CADTs correction marking and the description of
5. Coastal areas mapped as the correction or suggestions.
multiple use zone whose
 The PCSD-GIS and Planning Division will
boundary overlaps with
collect the maps and tables and evaluate the
declared marine sanctuary
validity of the map comments based on
6. Primary forests which were
approved guidelines.
not mapped as core zones; and
7. Other mapping discrepancies.
 Note for facilitator: To remind the
Please note that the conflicts participants that the annotated ECAN maps
between the ECAN zones and their and documentation matrix will be
proposed land use is subject to references for the DCEPC and PCSDS once
Multi-Agency they made their ground validation of the
(PCSDS,DCEPC,DENR, NGO) ECAN zones. Note that prior to ECAN map
evaluation and will not be reflected updating, any concerned group will have to
in the updating/ finalization of the write a request letter to the PCSD.
ECAN Zones map until properly
verified, confirmed and approved.
Summary of Breakout Facilitator summarizes the main agreements of
Group Discussions the Breakout Discussion (which will be a guide
for the group report in plenary). Facilitator
announces the resumption of Plenary session for
reporting procedure.

177
MATRIX 1

Core Zone

RESPON LEAD AND


CURRENT
DRIV PRESSU SE/ LOCATI SUPPPORT TIMEFRA
INTERVEN
ER RE ACTION ON ORGANIZAT ME
TION
(1a) (1b) S (3) IONS (5)
(2a)
(2b) (4)
C1
C2

Buffer Zone

RESPON LEAD AND


CURRENT
DRIV PRESSU SE/ LOCATI SUPPPORT TIMEFRA
INTERVEN
ER RE ACTION ON ORGANIZAT ME
TION
(a) (b) S (e) IONS (g)
(c)
(d) (f)
BR1
BR2
BC1
BC2
Multiple Zone

RESPON LEAD AND


CURRENT
DRIV PRESSU SE/ LOCATI SUPPPORT TIMEFRA
INTERVEN
ER RE ACTION ON ORGANIZAT ME
TION
(a) (a) S (e) IONS (g)
(b)
(d) (f)
M1
M2

178
MATRIX 2

Issue Areas

Action
Current Suggested Taken
Dahilan kung bakit hindi
Bilang Barangay ECAN ECAN (Accept/
sang-ayon
Zone Zone Reject/For
validation)

179
Annex B-3: Participants by Zone and Clustered Barangay
(DPSIR and ECAN Map Validation)

Office (Suggested Grouping) Name


ECAN Zone
Core Zone
10 Municipal Planning
PAMB
IP Representative
Community ENRO
Municipal SWDO
NCIP Representative
Representatives from Barangays (yung
may malaking core zone)
Municipal FARMC / fishers
representative
Buffer
10 Municipal Agriculture
Municipal ENRO
NGO Representative
PO Representative
Representatives from Barangays (yung
may malaking buffer zone)
Youth representative
Farmers representative
Academe
Multiple
10 Business Sector
Tourism/Municipal Office
Municipal Engineering Office
PNP
Women's group representative
Representatives from Barangays(yung
may malaking multiple zone)
Municipal DepEd

180
Annex C: Questionnaires Used for Key Informant Interviews
ECAN Resource Management Planning
Key Informant Interview Questionnaire (ECAN Needs + Projects) DPSIR Model
Questionnaire No.: _______

The needs and priorities of the municipality often depend on the kinds of problems
and issues that occur in it. Before we are able to introduce new projects, we must be able to
identify first the threats and opportunities in our area. Since the problems and issues that
confront us are often complex, we must also be able to analyze what are the causes and the
impacts of our major problems. The analysis will help us prioritize our needs and also the
resources we must apply to solve our problems. For the identified
needs/problems/issues/opportunities, we will specify the solutions and actions that will
address them.
Analysis will be aided by DPSIR framework 10. In this framework, there is a chain of
causal links starting with ‘driving forces’ (economic sectors, human activities) through
‘pressures’ (emissions, waste) to ‘states’ (physical, chemical and biological) and ‘impacts’ on
ecosystems, human health and functions, eventually leading to political ‘responses’
(prioritization, target setting, indicators). The components of the DPSIR framework are
defined in the following:

Driving force = Needs/Issues


Pressure = threats and problems
State = Current state of environment and natural resources
Impact = impact
Response = present actions taken to resolve issues and challenges
Gaps = in the actions taken
Proposed actions = measures that need to be undertaken to address gaps

Target Respondents for Municipal KII – Mayor, Municipal Councilor (committee chair on
agriculture, fisheries, environment and livelihood), MAO and staff, MPDC and staff,
MENRO and staff, Tourism officer, NGO, PO representative, Business and Industry (2),
Church, school (principal or head teacher), IP leader, Women, Children and Youth, Workers
and Trade Unions (MFARMC), Scientific and Technological Communities, Farmers and
Small Forest Landowners

Note: Bring ECAN Map during the interview (ECAN Map must show boundaries, roads,
built-up areas, and other landmarks for reference)

Municipality: ________________ Barangay: _______________


Date & Time of KII:______________________Interviewer: ________________________

I. Personal details of respondent

1. Name (Pangalan): _____________________________


2. Address (Sitio, Barangay): ___________________________
3. Occupation (Trabaho): ________________________________
4. Position and Agency (Posisyon at Ahensya): _______________________________
5. Number of years in position (Bilang ng taon sa kasalukuyang posisyon):
_____________

10
Based on EEA 1998: Guidelines for Data Collection and Processing - EU State of the Environment

Report. Annex 3.

181
II. Sustainable Development Analysis of the Community/ Municipality using
DPSIR in each of the ECAN Zone

Identify three (3) major

6. ECAN Core Zone (Terrestrial and Coastal Core Zones)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions
a.

b.

c.

7. ECAN Buffer- Restricted Use Zone (Transition in ECAN Coastal)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions
a.

b.

c.

8. ECAN Buffer- Controlled Use Zone (Transition in ECAN Coastal)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions

a.

b.

c.

9. ECAN Buffer- Traditional Use Zone (Transition in ECAN Coastal)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions
a.

b.

182
c.

10. ECAN Multiple Use Zone (General Use in ECAN Coastal)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions
a.

b.

c.

11. Tribal Ancestral Zone (Terrestrial and Coastal)


Drivers Pressure State Impact Response Gap Proposed
Actions
a.
b.
c.

183
IV. Opportunities

12. What do you think are the opportunities (or factors that have a positive effect on
the community) that can assist in the sustainable development and livelihood of your
municipality once these are developed or utilized? Categories of opportunities are as
follows.

(Ano sa palagay nyo ang mga oportunidad (o mga bagay na may positibong epekto sa
komunidad) na pwedeng makatulong sa pangmatagalang kaunlaran at kabuhayan ng
inyong munisipyo sakaling ito ay ma-develop o magamit?)

13. Provide specific correspondence in each category.

12. Opportunities 13. Particulars Remarks


a. Presence of natural resources that
can be harnessed and developed for
livelihood in a sustainable manner
b. Human resources or local
organizations that can manage and
catalyze resource conservation and
sustainable development
c. National and local policies
supportive of social, economic and
environmental development in the
barangay cluster
d. Private and Civic Society
Organization (CSO) support to the
undertakings of local development
projects
e. Accessibility to local markets and
financing institutions to support
development projects
f. Availability of conservation
technology for adoption by local
farmers and fishermen
g. Potential supply of water and
energy

h. Access to social services

i. Adequacy of support infrastructure


and facilities
j. Availability of sanitation and solid
waste disposal facilities

k. Others

184
QUESTIONNAIRE FOR STOCKTAKING OF
MUNICIPAL ENVIRONMENTAL INITIATIVES
(for ECAN Zones Management Planning)

Field instrument 2: Stocktaking

For Head/Staff of MENRO, MAO, MCDO. MEEDO, MTO, MSWD and MPDO
Offices:
PCSD Resolution No. 05-250, Section 25. Preparation of the ECAN Zoning Plan.
After the approval of the ECAN Map, the LGU through its ECAN Board and with the
assistance of the PCSDS, shall prepare an ECAN Zoning Plan taking into
consideration the following:

Municipality: ________________ Barangay: _______________


Date & Time of KII:______________________Interviewer:
________________________

I. Personal details of respondent

6. Name (Pangalan): _____________________________


7. Address (Sitio, Barangay): ___________________________
8. Occupation (Trabaho): ________________________________
9. Position and Agency (Posisyon at Ahensya): ________________________
10. Number of years in position (Bilang ng taon sa kasalukuyang posisyon):
_______

What are the efforts of the municipality in addressing the following development
issues?

1. Stakeholders' participation in the protection conservation, development,


exploitation and restoration of natural resources in the area;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
2. Encroachment of commercial fishing vessels on municipal waters;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
3. Treatment of protected areas under the NIPAS; [include barangay/municipal
declared PAs]
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
______

185
4. Inter-agency participation;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
5. Protection of coastal/marine areas and enforcement of fishery laws;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
6. Monitoring and evaluation schemes [to include coastal pollution monitoring and
control to understand water pollution of the area and to institute measures
complementary to the PCSDS environmental quality regulation];
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
7. Regulatory measures or permitting system;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
______
8. Application of resource rents or user charges;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
9. Management of funds from proceeds of license fees;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
10. Allowable activities for each zone; [CLUP land use zones and/or ECAN zones]
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________11. Development activities in small islands;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
12. Waste disposal and sewage; [solid and liquid waste]
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
13. Provision of alternative livelihood projects;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________

186
14. Protection of the access rights of the community to the natural resources;
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
15. Migration and settlement within the coastal areas; and
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
16. Appropriation of funds for the implementation of the plan and the management of
the ECAN zones.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________
17. Others identified to be necessary and relevant
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_________

187
Annex D: Attendance Sheets

188
189
190
191
192
Annex E: Computation for Ecological Footprint

A preliminary study of the ecological footprint of Palawan Province in terms


of basic needs resource requirements is undertaken to determine the sufficiency or
deficiency of resources at present and in the future. The objective of the study is to
determine whether there will be enough food, water, and wood for the population of
Palawan. Specifically, the study aims to:

1. Determine the current and future population consumptions for food, water, and
wood supply based on land use types (cropland, fishing ground, grazing, and forest
lands) in terms of global hectares.
2. Compare the population consumptions and the biocapacity based on land use types
(cropland, fishing ground, grazing, and forest lands) in terms of global hectare to
determine food and water sufficiency and wood supply.
In land use planning, the results of ecological footprint study are important in
allocating for certain areas of the land for specific land uses. It can also assist in
making decisions about selecting and prioritizing land development options. The
conceptual or consciousness-raising value of the EF analysis also has implications to
policies that will be crafted to mitigate factors that can contribute to non-sustainable
trends of economic activities and environmental deterioration.
The calculation of EF has the following general procedures (Wackernagel and Rees
1996):
1. Estimate of the average person’s annual consumption of particular items from
aggregate regional or national data by dividing total consumption by population size.
For various categories, the national statistics provide both production and trade
figures from which trade-corrected consumption can be computed, using the
following formula.
trade-corrected consumption = production + imports - exports
2. Estimate the land area appropriated per capita (aa) for the production of each
major consumption item i. This is done by dividing the annual consumption of that
item as calculated in #1 [c, in kg/capita] by its average annual productivity or yield [p,
in kg/ha].
aaI = annual demand / annual yield = ci / pi
3. Compute the total ecological footprint of the average person, the per capita
footrpint (ef), by summing all the ecosystem areas appropriated (aai) by all the goods
and services (n) consumed by the person.
𝑛

𝑒𝑓 = ∑ 𝑎𝑎𝑖
𝑖=1
4. Obtain the ecological footprint (EFP) of the study population by multiplying the
average per capita footprint by population size (N).
EFP = N(ef)
In cases where the total area used is available from statistics, the per capita footprint
can be computed by dividing by population.

193
Annex F: Incorporating the SEP and ECAN into Local Land Use Plans
(INTEGRATE)
The following guidelines are applicable for municipalities that have CLWUPs
in various development stages. It can be followed even if the CLWUP is still in the
initial phase of development, already in an advanced form or have substantive
development strategies and general land use zones, or already finalized and approved.
The SEP ECAN-CLWUP integration process is called INTEGRATE
(Incorporating the SEP and ECAN Into Local Land Use Plans). The INTEGRATE
process will ensure not only that the CLWUP document has incorporated the SEP
ECAN strategy, but also that it is compliant to the minimum standards set by
HLURB. It has five interdependent steps, indicated in the figure below. It will have
six complementary stages, not necessarily sequential in application, with four
integration stages: physical integration, strategic integration, plan integration, and
institutional integration.

Figure 1. The SEP ECAN integration process into the CLUP. Source:
PCSD

Step 1 (ECAN Zones Mapping or Amendment) is a requirement for all


succeeding steps. Steps 2, 3, and 5 can be performed simultaneously. Planners can
proceed to Steps 5 and 6 ahead of Step 4 (Formulation of ECAN Zoning Plan). The
highest level of integration is the “institutional integration”, i.e., the approval of
CLWUP that is compliant to ECAN and SEP.
1. ECAN Zones Mapping or Amendment
The mapping of ECAN zones is described in Chapter 3 while a process of
amendment of ECAN criteria or ECAN zones is outlined in PCSD Resolution No. 05-
250. Section 16 specifically provides for the amendment of ECAN criteria, to wit:
Section 16. Modification of Criteria. Modification or amendment regarding an
approved criteria or guidelines can be initiated by any concerned group: government,
non-government or private in nature. Such move for modification or amendment shall

194
be submitted to the Council Staff for review and to the Council for approval. It should
be supported by official documents, to include
a. resolution by the concerned Sangguniang Bayan/Panglunsod
b. map of 1:50,000 scale with technical descriptions, and
c. rationale and objectives for the proposed modification.

2. Physical Integration
Physical integration will be the screening part of the CLWUP. It involves a
direct edge-by-edge comparison of the proposed CLWUP land use zones and the
approved ECAN Zones Map. The objective of Physical Integration is for the ECAN-
CLWUP planning group to seek a common agreement between the two zoning maps.
Note that this step can be done simultaneously with Steps 3 to 5.
Method: Overlay of ECAN zones with HLURB land use zones using GIS
Inputs: ECAN zones map, HLURB general land use zones map and urban
land use zones map
Outputs: Zonal Conflicts Map for validation; Reconciled ECAN-CLWUP
zones
The following table can be used as a guide in the overlay of ECAN zones into
CLWUP’s general land use zones. The fields marked by “X” are those that are
considered acceptable to minimum ECAN standards.
Table 1. Comparison table for SEP ECAN zones and HLURB general land use zones.
Multiple Use
Buffer Zone
Zone
Detailed Zoning Classification (HLURB)

1. General Residential Zone (GRZ)


An area within a city or municipality for x x x √ √ x x x
dwelling/ housing purposes
2. Socialized Housing Zone (SHZ)
Shall be used principally for socialized
housing/ dwelling purposes for the x x x √ √ x x x
underprivileged and homeless as defined in
RA 7279
3. Low Density Residential Zone (R-1)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY principally for dwelling/ x x x √ √ x x x
housing purposes with a density of 20
dwelling units and below per hectare
4. Medium Density Residential Zone (R-2)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY principally for dwelling/ x x x √ √ x x x
housing purposes with a density of 21 to 65
dwelling units per hectare
5. High Density Residential Zone (R-3)
A subdivision of an area principally for
x x x √ √ x x x
dwelling/ housing purposes with a density of
66 or more dwelling units per hectare

195
Multiple Use
Buffer Zone
Zone
Detailed Zoning Classification (HLURB)

6. General Commercial Zone (GCZ)


An area within a city or municipality for x x x x √ x x x
trading/ services/ business purposes
7. Low Density Commercial Zone (C-1)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY principally for trade, x x x x √ x x x
services and business activities ordinarily
referred to as the Central Business District
8. Medium Density Commercial Zone (C-
2)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY with quasitrade business x x x x √ x x x
activities and service industries performing
complementary/ supplementary functions to
principally commercial zone (CBD)
9. High Density Commercial Zone (C-3)
An area within a city or municipality
intended for regional shopping centers such
as large malls and other commercial
activities which are regional in scope or
where market activities generate traffic and
x x x x √ x x x
require utilities and services that extend
beyond local boundaries and requires
metropolitan level development planning and
implementation. E.g. high rise hotels, sports
stadium or sports complexes are also
allowable in this zone
10. Light Industrial Zone (I-1)
A subdivision of an area principally for the
following
x x x x √ x x x
types of industries:
a. non-pollutive/ non-hazardous
b. non-pollutive/ hazardous
11. Medium Industrial Zone I-2)
A subdivision of an area principally for the
following
x x x √ x x x
types of industries:
a. pollutive/ non-hazardous x
b. pollutive/ hazardous
12. Heavy Industrial Zone (I-3)
A subdivision of an area principally for the
following
types of industries:
x x x √ x x x
a. Highly pollutive/ non-hazardous
b. Highly pollutive/ hazardous
c. Highly pollutive/ extremely hazardous x
d. Pollutive/ extremely hazardous

196
Multiple Use
Buffer Zone
Zone
Detailed Zoning Classification (HLURB)

e. Non-pollutive/extremely hazardous

13. General Institutional Zone (GIZ) –


An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY principally for general
x x x x √ x x x
types of institutional establishments e.g.
government offices, schools, hospital/ clinics,
academic/research, convention centers
14. Special Institutional Zone (SIZ)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY principally for particular
types of institutional establishments
x x x x √ x x x
e.g. welfare homes, orphanages, home for the
aged, rehabilitation and training centers,
military camps/ reservation/ bases/ training
grounds, etc.
15. Agricultural Zone (AGZ)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY INTENDED for
cultivation/ fishing and pastoral activities x x x √ √ x √ √
(e.g.
fish, farming, cultivation of crops, goats/
cattle raising etc.)
16. Agro-Industrial Zone (AIZ)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
MUNICIPALITY INTENDED primarily for
x x x √ √ x x x
integrated farm operations and related
product processing activities such as
plantation for bananas, pineapple, sugar, etc.
17. Forest Zone (FZ)
An area WITHIN A CITY OR
√ √ √ √ √ √ x x
MUNICIPALITY INTENDED primarily for
forest purposes
18. Parks and other Recreation Zone
(PRZ)
An area designed for diversion/ amusements x x x √ √ x √ x
and for the maintenance of ecological balance
of the community

197
Multiple Use
Buffer Zone
Zone
Detailed Zoning Classification (HLURB)

19. Water Zone (WZ)


Are bodies of water WITHIN CITIES AND
MUNICIPALITIES which include rivers, x x x √ √ x √ √
streams, lakes and seas except those included
in other zone classification
20. Tourist Zone (TZ)
Are sites within cities and municipalities
endowed with natural or manmade physical
* * √ √ √ * √ √
attributes and resources that are conducive to
recreation, leisure and other wholesome
activities

The CLWUP general land use zones boundaries that overlapped with other
ECAN zones will form part of the “Zonal Conflict Map”. The planning group may
then assess/evaluate the conflict map in two ways:
i. Ground truthing – validation of the conflict area through ocular
inspection
ii. Social ground truthing – validation of the conflict area through
consultation with key informants (those who are part of the mapping of
CLWUP land use zones and/or those who are affected on the ground
by the mapping of the same zones)
One issue to consider here is that the description of each HLURB general land
use zones may be applicable to several ECAN zones. Hence, there may be a need to
separate or differentiate the general land use zones further according to the specific
activities in the zones.
3. Strategic Integration

Method: Comparison and review of ECAN strategies and CLWUP


strategies
Inputs: Results from thematic mapping, ECAN zones management
guidelines, EZP (if available), CLWUP strategies
Outputs: Strategic Conflict Map/Matrix for validation and action; Integrated
ECAN-CLWUP strategies

This part of the INTEGRATE process is a review of strategic elements in the


ECAN and CLWUP. It will consider both the zonal elements (allowable uses and
identified activities in each zone) and suprazonal elements (strategies and activities
that are cross-cutting or that transcend geographic zones).
This review process can be both quantitative and qualitative in nature and will
be guided by the SEP Law and its policies and guidelines, the LGC, and the HLURB
policies and guidelines. Any conflict that may be identified may be mapped or put in
matrix form and will form an integral part of the Strategic Conflict Map. This
map/matrix will then be brought to the local planners and administrators for their
comments and a consensus will be sought in order to reconcile the strategies in the
plans. The satisfactory application of Strategic Integration will lead to integrated

198
ECAN-CLWUP strategies. A sample Zonal Conflict Matrix is shown in the table
below.

Table 2. Issues generated and recommended actions from topology overlays of


the ECAN Map and Existing Forest Land Uses in Roxas (FLUP Roxas 2012,
modified).
Possible Location Status of Proposed How to Responsible
Conflicting Claim Recommendation Resolve the Agency
Forest Land To Resolve the Problem
Uses Problem
IPs/ICCs Tinitan With CALT Apply/comply Follow NCIP,
Almaciga application requirements for existing PCSD, LGU,
resin PCSD TA guidelines POs, IPs,
tapping in application and ICCs
Core zone NCIP
CADT/CALC
Jolo With CALT Apply/comply Follow NCIP,
application requirements for existing PCSD, LGU,
PCSD TA guidelines POs, IPs,
application and ICCs
NCIP
CADT/CALC
San Miguel With CALT Apply/comply Follow NCIP,
application requirements for existing PCSD, LGU,
PCSD TA guidelines POs, IPs,
application and ICCs
NCIP
CADT/CALC
N. Zabala With CALT Apply/comply Follow NCIP,
application requirements for existing PCSD, LGU,
PCSD TA guidelines POs, IPs,
application and ICCs
NCIP
CADT/CALC
Abaroan Proclaimed Apply/comply Follow NCIP,
TAZ through requirements for existing PCSD, LGU,
PCSD NCIP guidelines POs, IPs,
Proclamation CADT/CALC ICCs
No.13
Operational Bagongbayan Declare as Endorsement NCIP,
watershed (133 ha.) special resolution, PCSD, LGU,
with Taradungan management establishment, POs, IPs,
Core zone (114 has.) area for the declaration ICCs
Magara (745 protection of
has.); Core zone by the
Caramay LGU and DENR
(745 has.);
Salvacion
(745 has.);
Mendoza
(687 has.);
Sandoval
(300 has.);

199
Tinitian (528
has.);
Tumarbong
(30 has.);
Brgy. IV (61
has.);
Minara (600
has.)
Watershed in Co-management MOA Local Water
ancestral of overlapping (obligation of Association,
domain area by LGU, every party), LGU,
(anticipated) DENR, and IPs identify or DENR,
delineate NCIP,
overlapping PCSD a
area POs,
NGOs, IPs,
Barangays,
and others
to be
identified
during
planning

4. Formulation and Approval of ECAN Zoning Plan


ECAN planning for sustainable development requires an integrated approach
involving social, economic, cultural, ecological, and governance variables. This
means that developing an EZP requires an investigation into a variety of data,
information, and plans.
In Section 25 of PCSD Resolution 05-250, the considerations in the
preparation of the ECAN Zoning Plan are the following:

Section 25. Preparation of the ECAN Zoning Plan. After the approval of the
ECAN Map, the LGU through its ECAN Board and with the assistance of the
PCSDS, shall prepare an ECAN Zoning Plan taking into consideration the
following:
 Stakeholder’s participation in the protection, conservation,
development, exploitation, and restoration of natural resources in the
area
 Encroachment of commercial fishing vessels in municipal waters
 Treatment of protected areas under the NIPAS
 Inter-agency participation
 Protection of coastal/marine areas and enforcement of fishery laws
 Monitoring and evaluation schemes to include coastal pollution
monitoring and control to understand water pollution of the area and to
institute measures complementary to the PCSDS environmental quality
regulation
 Regulatory measures or permitting system
 Application of resource rents or user charges
 Management of funds from proceeds of license fees
 Allowable activities for each zone
 Development activities in small islands

200
 Waste disposal and sewage
 Provision of alterative livelihood projects
 Protection of the access rights of the community to the natural
resources
 Migration and settlement within the coastal areas
 Appropriation of funds for the implementation of the plan and the
management of ECAN zones
 Others identified to be necessary and relevant

The ECAN Zoning Plan shall contain, among others, the following actions:
i. Description of the Area
ii. Goals/Objectives
iii. Zoning Strategy (priorities, methodologies for marking zone boundaries)
iv. Zone Management (activities, regulatory measures policy directions)
v. Administration
vi. Monitoring and Evaluation
vii. Annexes (maps and references)
The recommended steps in coming up with a detailed EZP are the following:
1. Building of a sustainable development planning database (ECAN Data
Infrastructure Development)
2. Determination of the exact boundaries of ECAN zones and administrative
boundaries
3. Identification of “Special Management Areas” (SMAs)
4. Development of thematic and integrated planning modules and indicators.
5. Stocktaking of local environmental governance initiatives
6. Development of an ECAN-based land use spatial optimization algorithm using
Multi-Criteria Analysis (OPTIONAL)
7. Integrated threats analysis
8. Formulation of ECAN zones and resources plan
See Chapter 4 for the details of each of the above steps.
5. Plan Integration: Development of ECAN-Based CLWUP
Method: Planning workshops/sessions, consensus building, conflict resolution
during meetings and roundtable discussions
Inputs: Integral zonal and strategic elements of ECAN-CLWUP (outputs of
Physical Integration and Strategic Integration); technical assistance to ECAN
Board and to Municipal Planning and Development Office (MPDO)
Outputs: Draft modules/sections of Municipal ECAN-based CLWUP
After the Physical and Strategic Integration steps, planning for municipal
ECAN-based Comprehensive Land and Water Use Plans can now proceed.

6. Institutional Integration: Approval of ECAN-Based CLWUP


This stage of integration is concerned with social acceptability of the ECAN-
CLWUP integrated plan. The District Management Office (DMO) and the ECAN
Planning Team will work closely with LGU in the institutionalization of the ECAN-
compliant CLWUP. This may require attendance as resource persons to Municipal
ECAN Board meetings, municipal council legislative sessions, and public hearings.
The final output is the approved ECAN-Based CLWUP with institutional support
from executive and legislative institutions. The approval of the plan is four-fold:
1. Approval of the ECAN-based CLWUP by the ECAN Board and endorsement
to the municipal council;

201
2. Approval of the CLWUP by the municipal council and endorsement to the
provincial council;
3. Approval of the CLWUP by the provincial council (through the Provincial
Land Use Committee) and endorsement to the HLURB; and
4. Approval of the CLWUP by the PCSD.
The yardsticks of the success of this step are the incorporation of the essential
elements of the ECAN Zoning Plan document into the CLWUP document and the
institutional support for the municipal ECAN-based CLWUP.

202
Annex G: Result of Participatory Planning Workshop

Table 89. Strategy-Based Actions per ECAN Zones.


Information, Education, and Communication Campaign
Core (Coastal) -Conduct information dissemination regarding the time for mangrove to
grow, its role against natural calamities and other purposes
Core - Information dissemination on RA 9147
(Terrestrial) - Conduct Information Education Communication Campaign on Kaingin
Tribal -Clear and in-depth study and IEC of the contents of IPRA Law
-Conduct IEC on waste segregation
-Dialogue between council of elders, NCIP, tribal associations with the
LGU and try to come up with a win-win situation.
Controlled - IEC on the adverse effects of irresponsible use of fire in collection of
honey
- IEC campaigns on the importance of identified endangered species in
ecosystem and the consequences/penalties when caught poaching
Traditional - IEC campaigns on proper disposal of containers of chemicals used in
honey bee collection
Multiple -Strengthen Information Education Communication (IEC) on waste
management
- Encourage concerned agencies to file cases against violators
- IEC on health and nutrition
- IEC on traffic rules and regulations for drivers
Enforcement
Core (Coastal) - Establish entry/exit point of fishing vessels for inspection purposes
- Start Regular patrols of government agencies like BFAR, Bantay Coron,
PNP-Maritime and Philippine Coast Guard
- Document operators and secure BFARMC clearance (For threatened
aquarium species
- File complaints against caught mangrove cutters
- Provision of GPS to vessels to know if they are entering core zones
Core -File complaints against caught timber poachers
(Terrestrial) - Monitor closely suspected collectors and find a way to catch them
Tribal -IPs should show proper documents of their claim
Controlled - Persecute of violators who caused fire due to irresponsible honey
collection
- Regulation of honey collection through wildlife collectors permit
- Strengthen implementation and monitoring of the existing ordinances and
regulations of DENR regarding forest
-Implementation of the PD 705 (Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines)
- Create entry and exit checkpoints for strict monitoring for traded animals
-Strict implementation of RA 9147 (Wildlife Resources Conservation and
Protection Act)
Traditional - Persecute of violators who caused fire due to unsustainable honey
collection
-Regulation of honey collection through wildlife collectors permit
- Strengthen the implementation and monitoring of forests by the Bantay
Gubat
Restricted -Strict implementation of PD 705 (Forestry Code) provisions
Multiple - Strict implementation of laws (e.g. Resolution No. 674 Series of 2000
Piggery and Poultry Application Requirements, RA 900-Ecological Solid
Waste Management Act, Ordinance No. 28- C Series of 2015 Anti-
Littering Ordinance)
- Termination and avoiding extensions of contract of violators (piggery

203
and poultry)
- Strict implementation of the Anti-Littering Ordinance
-Strict implementation of waste segregation
- Strict implementation of RA 9165 (The Comprehensive Dangerous
Drugs Act) and RA 7624 (Integrating drug prevention and control in
intermediate and secondary curricula)
- Strict implementation of Barangay Anti- Drugs Campaign and Barangay
Peace Keeping actions
- Rehabilitation of accused and imprisonment thereafter
- Strict monitoring at the barangay level
- Monitoring of the influx of migrants and encroachment of settlements in
mangrove areas
- Review scrupulous title of mangrove areas
- Strengthen laws regarding mangrove protection
- Strict implementation of Ordinances about Traffic Rules and Regulations
in the municipality of Coron
- Impose fines on violators of policies
Institutional Capacity Building
Core (Coastal) -Increase intelligence network
-Create alliance with other organizations within the barangay
Core - Strengthen the implementation of forestry laws
(Terrestrial) - Strengthen DENR intervention
Tribal -Harmonize the IPRA and the LGU Code
-Mainstream plans of IPRA LAW
-Respect tradition of IPs
Multiple - Privatization of solid waste collection system
- Budget allocation for the construction of Sanitary Landfill
- Allocate funds for the improvement of health equipment
Provision of Social Services and Technology
Tribal -Provision of trash bins
-Properly designed septic tanks
-Provide adequate medicine and health facilities
Controlled -Provision of livelihood for timber poachers in other zone
- Provision of alternative livelihood for animal poachers in other zone
Restricted -Creation of additional livelihood (piggery projects in other zones)
Multiple - Implement and standardize construction of facilities such as public toilets
- Construction of sewerage system
- Implementation and construction of Sanitary Landfill and Material
Recovery Facility (MRF)
- Construction of medical wastes facility in the hospital
- Relocation of settlements living near the coastal area
-Ensure accessibility and availability of social services on relocation sites
- Training on alternative livelihood e.g. soap making
- Upgrade health facilities
- Increase health personnel
Ecosystem Rehabilitation and Protection
Core (Coastal) -Mangrove Rehabilitation
Core - Identify and delineate production forests
(Terrestrial) - Identify agricultural areas allowed for Kaingin
Controlled -Establishment of fire breakers to prevent grass fire (at least 4 meters)
- Outsourcing of raw materials from other areas outside Coron.
- Establishment of communal forest
- Encourage private tree plantation (in A & D areas)
Traditional -Establishment of fire breakers as a response to fire caused by

204
unsustainable collection of honey (at least 4 meters)
- Tree planting and proper management of watershed.
Restricted -Forest rehabilitation program
Multiple - Community clean up drive
Human Resource Management
Core (Coastal) -Employ additional BFAR personnel to focus on core zones
-Give incentives for deputized fish wardens and other agencies who caught
poachers
-Adapt Community Based Monitoring and Reporting System
Core -Organize anti-illegal logging task force under EO 23.
(Terrestrial) -Increase intelligence network against violators
-Give seminars and strengthen deputized forest rangers
-Deputize wildlife enforcement officers to facilitate immediate capture of
identified illegal traders
-Increase intelligence network against violators and turnover to PCSD for
immediate file of complaints
-Hire kaingeros to become forest rangers
-Organize fire brigade per barangay
Tribal -Additional health personnel
Controlled -Designate bodies in each community for quick responses on forest fire.
- Creation of Brgy. Volunteer Fire Brigade
-Employment of additional personnel and regular patrols of the Bantay
Gubat
- Provide just incentives and compensation among the employees doing
the entire enforcement on hunting of timber poacher
- Regular patrols of the Bantay Gubat for proper monitoring of poachers
- Strengthening of wildlife enforcement officers (including just
compensation and incentives)
Traditional - Designate bodies in each community for quick responses on forest fire
- Creation of Brgy. Volunteer Fire Brigade as a response to fire caused by
unsustainable collection of honey
Multiple -Additional truck and personnel for garbage collection

205
Table 90. Action Plan Matrix for threats identified in ECAN Zones in Coron
CORE ZONE-TERRESTRIAL
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)

-Reporting at barangay/ File


complaints against law breakers for
endorsement to higher authority

-implementation of laws and


Illegal cutting of regulations by DENR YKR, Kinse Dias,
DENR, Bantay Coron
Need of raw materials naturally grown Bintuan, Santa 2017-2022
-Strengthen DENR intervention and volunteer group
species Monica
and organize anti-illegal logging
task force under EO 23
-identify and delineate production
forests
-deputize and train forest rangers
-Establishment of checkpoints

-Monitor closely suspected


collectors and find a way to catch
them San Jose,
Poaching of Fauna Decabobo, Bintuan, DENR, Bantay Coron,
Economic Motives -Filing of criminal cases against 2017-2022
Species Santa Monica, PCSD, volunteer group
illegal traders Decalachao, YKR
-Deputation of Wildlife
Enforcement Officers (WEO) to
facilitate immediate capture of
identified illegal traders

206
-Increase intelligence network
against violators and turn over to
PCSD for immediate file of
complaints

-Strengthen the implementation of


forestry laws

-Monitoring: Hire Kaingeros to


become forest rangers
-For IPS: identify agriculture areas
San Nicolas, Turda,
within core zones
Bintuan, Bulalacao,
Agricultural Activities Kaingin Farming -IEC on the effects of Kaingin to Tara, Decabobo, DENR, PNP 2017-2022
the zone itself Buenavista, Borac,
San Jose, Marcilla
-Aids from Cooperative (source of
livelihood instead of using forest
resources “GRANT FOR WORK
& CASH)
-Enforcement of Bantay Gubat
-Tree planting activities
-Creation of fire brigade per
barangay
Mt. Tapyas, Lajala,
-create a fire barricade to prevent San Jose, San
Climate Change Forest Fire/ Grass Fire LGU, BFP, PNP 2017-2022
fires from spreading from one Nicolas, Borac,
barangay to the other YKR
-Tree planting to replace burnt
trees

207
- Invest in partnerships for funding
and action (agencies that may help
in construction of housing
facilities: multiple use zones)

-Formulation of resettlement plans


Influx/increasing - Implementation of Community
Economic Motives number of informal Based Monitoring System Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
settlers -Registration and monitoring of
migrants per barangay
- Strong implementation and
information dissemination of zones
design for settlements
-IEC on ECAN zoning strategy

CORE ZONE-COASTAL
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)
-Regular patrols of government
agencies like BFAR, Bantay Bulalacao,
Coron, PNP-Maritime and Calumbuyan, PNP-MPS, PNP-
Poaching of threatened Philippine Coast Guard
Economic Motives Delian, Marcilla, Maritime Coron, Coast 2017-2022
aquatic species
-Establish entry/exit point of Turda, Decabobo, Guard, BFAR
fishing vessels Buenavista, Tara
-Documentation of operators

208
-Secure BFARMC clearance for all
species taken out from Coron
especially threatened aquarium
species
-Incentives for deputized fish
wardens and other agencies who
caught and turned in violators
Filing of criminal cases on the
identified poacher.
-Hiring of additional BFAR
personnel
-Need for raw materials -Mangrove Reforestation

-Enforcement of laws and


-Typhoon
regulation regarding mangroves
-Economic Motives -File complaints against violators
-Community Based Monitoring
Increasing demand for System
Pob VI, Bintuan,
raw materials resulting
-Report the found cases of Decalachao and DENR 2017-2022
to the abusive cutting
destroyed mangroves among the Santa Monica
of Mangroves
authority

-Strong information dissemination


regarding the time for mangrove to
grow, its role against natural
calamities and other purposes

209
-Strengthen and apprehend laws
regarding fishing in the core zones
Intrusion of Turda, Bulalacao,
BFAR, PNP-MPS, PNP-
Economic Motives Commercial fishing -Provide high-tech gadgets Decabobo, Tara, 2017-2022
Maritime, Bantay Coron
vessels -Increase intelligence network Delian
-Create alliance with other
organizations within the barangay

-Establish community based


reporting system
Increasing demand for
In-Migration housing and sanitation -Formulation of resettlement plans Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
facilities accompanied with livelihood
assistance
- IEC on allowed activities for
zones
- Improve disposal of wastes
-Coastal Clean-ups
Tourism Influx of Tourists Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
- Implementation of mandatory
trash bins on tourism boats
BUFFER: RESTRICTED ZONE
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)
Banuang Daan,
- Creation of additional livelihood Bintuan, Borac,
Kaingin shifting (piggery projects in other zones) Buenavista, DA, LGU, DENR and
Economic Motives Bulalacao, 2017-2022
cultivation BLGU
Cabugao,
-Monitoring of Bantay Gubat
Decabobo,

210
Decalachao,
-Relocation plans
Guadalupe,

- Strict implementation of PD 705 Lajala, Malawig,


(Forestry Code) provisions Marcilla,

San Jose, San


- Rehabilitation Program Nicolas, Tara and
Turda
- PD 705 and DENR Laws Bintuan,
- Economic motives
implementation Decalachao,
- Need for raw San Nicolas,
- Provision of livelihood
materials Decabobo,
DA, LGU, DENR and
Timber Poaching -Tree planting activity headed by Buenavista, Borac 2017-2022
BLGU
DENR and Turda
-Checkpoint set by DENR
-Monitoring by Bantay Gubat,
DENR and at Barangay level

- Strict monitoring per barangay


- Need for Space
and Bantay Gubat

- Strengthening of IEC regarding


- Economic Motives
Presence of migrants zoning strategies
from neighboring -Record influx of migrants Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
provinces - Strict implementation of policies
and regulations regarding zones
and its allowable activities
- Resettlement plans and
implementation

211
BUFFER: TRANSITION ZONE
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)
-All governing and concerned body
including PCSD shall review the
Ownership by private Less fishing activities permit and clearances and other
documents of the resort and other Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
resorts of the community
establishments
-Implementation of zoning
BUFFER: CONTROLLED USE ZONE
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)
-Proper implementation and
monitoring of the existing
ordinances and DENR Laws and
regulations
-Barangay level monitoring
Lack of regulations -Reforestation programs
and standard operation DENR LGU, BFP,
Emerging Industries -Conduct of IEC about the adverse All barangays
and procedure for the BLGU, RBO, CSO, 2017-2022
(Honey bee collection) effects of such practice except Pob. 1,2,3
emerging economy of PCSD
honey bee collection -Designation of bodies in each
community for quick responses on
forest fire.

-Increase and distribute evenly


forest rangers among the barangays

212
-Creation of Brgy. Volunteer Fire
Brigade
- Establishment of fire breakers (at
least 4 meters long)
-Imprisonment of violators
- IEC campaign of fire prevention
(including ways in responding
grass fire)
-Persecute of violators (Arson)
-Regulation of honey collection
through issuance of wildlife
collectors permit

-Strengthen implementation and


monitoring of the existing
-Economic Motives ordinances and regulations of
DENR in banning illegal logging
of trees
Brgy. Bintuan,
-Monitoring within the Barangay Brgy. Guadalupe,
-Need for raw materials
Level and by Bantay Gubat Brgy. Borac, Brgy.
-Additional personnel and regular Turda, Brgy. DENR, PCSD, LGU,
-Forestry and related Timber Poaching 2017-2022
patrols of the Bantay Gubat (forest Buenavista, Brgy. Private sectors
activities Marcilla, Brgy.
rangers)
Decalachao, Brgy.
-Provide just incentives and San Jose
compensation among the
employees doing the entire
enforcement (Bantay Gubat).
-Outsourcing of raw materials from
other areas outside Coron.

213
-Implementation of the PD 705
(Revised Forestry Code of the
Philippines)
- Provision of livelihood to
violators in other zone
- Establishment of communal
forest in other zone
-Encourage tree planting activities
and private tree plantation (in A &
D areas)
-Designate watchers and
monitoring bodies for the
generated wastes by tourists.
-Assigning garbage collector to
Insufficient proper areas where tourists arrive
Influx of tourists waste disposal and -Implementation of DENR Laws Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
management system and Regulations
-Putting up specific location where
all wastes can be directed.
-IEC campaigns on proper waste
disposal.
BUFFER: TRADITIONAL USE ZONE
LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)
Insufficient water Brgy. Bintuan,
Community, LGU,
Limited Water Source supply from NIA -Tree planting in watershed areas Brgy. Turda & 2017-2022
BLGU, DENR, PCSD
irrigation system Brgy. San Nicolas

214
-Operating irrigation system
-Improvement of water system (by
creating pipelines)
-Proper management of watershed
(protecting, managing and
developing the identified
watersheds)

-Strengthen the implementation


and monitoring of forests by the
Bantay Gubat

-Increase number forest rangers


and their daily duties

Unsustainable -Information, Education, and


collection of honey Communication (IEC) campaigns
(use of chemical that on proper disposal of containers of Brgy. Bintuan and DENR, PCSD, LGU,
Economic Motives chemicals used in honey bee 2017-2022
triggers fire when Brgy. San Nicolas BLGU, BFP, RBO, CSO
subjected to intense collection.
heat) -Creation of Barangay Volunteer
Fire Brigade
-Establishment of fire breakers (at
least 4 meters)
-Information, Education and
Communication (IEC) campaign of
fire prevention including ways in
responding grass fire
-Persecute of violators (Arson)

215
-Regulation of honey collection
through issuance of wildlife
collectors permit

-Strengthen the implementation


-Need for raw material and monitoring on forest of Bantay
Gubat

-Implementation of DENR laws


regarding forests and PCSD
-Economic Motives
regulations (permitting system for
Abusive cutting down chainsaws)
of trees (affected and -Increase number of forest rangers Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
non-affected by and their daily duties
typhoons)
-Inventory and recording of
damaged trees before doing
actions.

-Establishment of a monitoring
body whose members are not from
the community to avoid bias.

MULTIPLE USE ZONE


LEAD AND
TIMEFRAME
DRIVER (a) PRESSURE (a) RESPONSE/ ACTIONS (d) LOCATION (e) SUPPPORT
(g)
ORGANIZATIONS (f)

216
-Strict implementation of laws (e.g.
Resolution No. R- 674 Series of
2000- Piggery and Poultry
Application Requirements, RA
-Economic Motives
9003- Ecological Solid Waste
Management Act, Ordinance No.
28- C Series of 2015- Anti-
Littering Ordinance)

-Termination and avoiding


-Incompliance with
extensions of contract of violators
regulations
(piggery and poultry)
Improper waste
disposal (domestic, -Shoreline demarcation (e.g.
-Increasing Population industrial, tourism and settlements should be 40 meters Municipal wide MSWM, BLGU 2016- 2017
special wastes)- both away from coastal shores)
coastal and terrestrial -Accrue fine to households without
septic tanks (Decabobo)
-Strengthen Information Education
Communication (IEC) on waste
management
-Community clean up drive
especially in coastal areas
-Organize garbage collection
system (trucks, personnel,
schedule)
-Privatization of solid waste
collection system

217
-Identify a proposed Sanitary
Landfill site
-Construction of compost pit
-Construction and Inventory of
sewerage system
-Implementation of relocation of
settlements living near the coastal
area to Guadalupe
-Ensure accessibility and
availability of social services on
relocation sites
-Implement and standardize
construction of facilities such as
public toilets
-On-going renovation of Coron
District Hospital (CDH)
-Construction of medical wastes
facility in the hospital
-Training on alternative livelihood
e.g. soap making
-Conduct IEC regarding drugs

Behaviour and Use of illegal drugs -Strict implementation of RA 9165


(The Comprehensive Dangerous Urban Barangays PNP, BLGU 2016- 2017
Discipline and vices
Drugs Act) and RA 7624
(Integrating drug prevention and
control in intermediate and
secondary curricula)

218
-Strict implementation of Barangay
Anti- Drugs Campaign and
Barangay Peace Keeping actions

-Imprisonment of violators
-Monitoring of streets by barangay
patrols
-Implementation of curfew (10pm)
for minors
-Rehabilitation of accused and
imprisonment thereafter
-Implementation of laws, policies
and ordinances regarding
-Increasing population
mangrove protection (e.g. National
Building Code)
-Strict monitoring at the barangay
-Number of settlements
level
-Monitoring of the influx of
Change in land use of Pob 1, 5, 6,
migrants and encroachment of PCSD, DENR, BLGU 2016
mangrove areas Tagumpay, Bintuan
settlements in mangrove areas
-Review scrupulous title of
mangrove areas
-Strengthen laws regarding
mangrove protection
-Encourage concerned agencies to
file cases against violators
Non-Prioritization of -Ineffectiveness in the -Proper budget allocation Municipal wide MHO, BLGU End of 2016

219
Basic Social Services delivery and extension -IEC on health and nutrition
of health, nutrition and -Upgrade health centers and
sanitation services facilities
-Increase health personnel (BHW
and nurses)
-Maintain private clinics for
women (lying inn, ob-gyne)

-Allocate funds for the


improvement of health equipment

-Provide health cards such as


Busuanga Coron Linapacan
District Health Insurance Program
(BCCL- DHIP)

-Free health services for


beneficiary farmers (family
planning seminars, medical
missions, etc.)

-Strict implementation of
Ordinances about Traffic Rules
and Regulations in the
municipality of Coron
Non-prioritization of
Narrow roads -IEC on traffic rules and Urban barangays DPWH, DILG, MLGU After election
Projects
regulations for drivers
- Impose fines on violators of
policies
-Road widening

220
-Construction of roads within pier
only (Bulalacao)

- Strengthen implementation of
laws regarding health (RA 1891-
An Act on Strengthening Health
and Dental Services in Rural Areas
and Providing funds, thereof)

- Proper budget allocation


-Monthly feeding program
sponsored by Cord Aid
-Livelihood programs for families
with malnourished children (e.g.
Tamayo Foundation, CARITAS,
PAU, Samdana, Red Cross)
-Monthly feeding program
sponsored by Cord Aid
-Livelihood programs for families
-Inability to avail with malnourished children (e.g.
Malnutrition Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
nutritious food Tamayo Foundation, CARITAS,
PAU, Samdana, Red Cross)
-Provides budget from Gender and
Development Plan (16.8%)

221
- Strengthen implementation of
laws regarding health (RA 1891-
An Act on Strengthening Health
and Dental Services in Rural Areas
and Providing funds, thereof)
- Proper budget allocation

- Free TB- DOTS Treatment


- Prevalent cases of
communicable
-Increasing population diseases (e.g. - Free anti- rabies vaccine Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
tuberculosis, rabies, - Free generic medicines
etc.) - Conduct medical missions

- IEC on health and nutrition

- Absence of
- Proposed Secondary school site
Secondary School

-Non-prioritization of - Insufficient
classrooms - Budget Allocation for additional Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
Basic Social Services
classrooms and for the construction
- Limited number of of Secondary School
senior high school
compliant
- Increasing number of - Strict implementation of land use
- Noise pollution Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
settlements plans

222
- No proper delineation
- Alignment of Infrastructures with
among land use
National Building Code
(Poblacion barangays)

-Tapping alternative water sources


such as deep well, jetmatic, and
truck water delivery
-Utilization of watersheds and
Insufficient water Water shortage and water pumps. Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
supply poor water quality
- Improve water system (e.g.
existing water pipelines)
- Utilization of existing
watersheds, spring water, ground
water
- Maximize and utilize natural hot
spring for geothermal, wind power,
Insufficient Power hydro power, solar energy
Power shortage Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
Supply
- Use of generator, solar panels
- Rotational power supply 6- 10pm
- Upgrading of communication
using radio station for quick
response on fire
- Responses by Bureau of Fire
Natural phenomenon Protection (BFP)
Natural fire incidences Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
(e.g. El Niño)
- Information dissemination
regarding responses on these cases
- Provide trainings and seminars
for fire mitigation and protection

223
- Encourage volunteers as fire
personnel
- Strict implementation of
ordinances (e.g. Executive Order
23- Moratorium of cutting and
harvesting of timber and creation
of the Anti- Illegal Logging Task
Force) and penalties (e.g.
Economic motives and
- Timber poaching Presidential Decree No. 54) Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
need for raw materials
- Registration and monitoring of
migrants
- Monitoring of forest areas by
Bantay Gubat
- Reforestation activity

- Additional financial support

- Provision of full coverage


scholarships

Non-prioritization of Insufficient source of -Proposing of secondary school in


every barrio. Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
basic social services funds for education
-Encourage scholarship
sponsorship
Scholarship programs from private
entities (e.g. HIKARI, CARITAS,
etc.)

-Weak watch of peace Public scandals by - Strict implementation of curfew


and order drunk teens, increasing Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
juvenile delinquency
-Parental guidance - Additional barangay patrols

224
-Social-media -Monitoring of streets by barangay
influenced crimes patrols
- Strict implementation of laws
(RA 9262- Anti- violence against
Women and Children Act of 2004;
RA 7877- Anti- sexual harassment
Act)
- Gender and development
programs (e.g. provide livelihood
assistance to VAWC victims,
Women’s forum/convention,
operationalization of women and
crisis center)
Drugs, Vices, and
Physical, emotional - Information Education
Behaviour and Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
and sexual abuse Communication (IEC) on violence
Discipline
against women and children
(VAWC)

- Conduct medico legal


examination to victims of Violence
Against Women and Children
(VAWC) and other related cases

- Case conference/counselling (at


least 3 sessions)
- Imprisonment of abusers
Fishery/Economic
- Shoreline demarcation (e.g.
motives/Non- - Unsustainable
settlements should be 40 meters Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
permanent status of fishing practices
away from coastal shores)
LGU enforcers/ Bias in

225
enforcement of actions
- Creation of a Coastal Task force
- Wildlife Poaching in partnership with the Philippine
Maritime and Coast Guards

- Coastal Clean- ups


- Partnership between barangays
and municipality on law
enforcements
- Proposed relocation site
identified
- Alternative livelihood projects

- Strengthen and provide additional


personnel for Bantay Dagat

- Strict implementation of
ordinances and penalties (e.g. R.A.
10654- Fisheries Code)
- Conducted a relocation of other
informal settlers to Brgy.
Guadalupe
TRIBAL ANCESTRAL ZONE
-Harmonize the IPRA and the
LGU Code
-Clear and in-depth study and IEC
Understanding of
Governance of the contents of IPRA Law Barangays with IP’s NCIP 2017-2022
IPRA Law
-IPs should show proper
documents of their claim
-Mainstream plans of IPRA LAW

226
-Peace talks of IPs and LGU
-Proposed demarcation of lands

-Conduct IEC on waste segregation

Lack of engineering -Provision of trash bins All barangays


Lack of waste disposal
design for sanitary except urban NCIP 2017-2022
management system -Properly designed septic tanks
landfill barangays
-Implement municipal ordinances
such as Plastic ban and Anti-
littering

Presence of -Additional health personnel


Barangay Bulalacao
Poor Environmental communicable -Provide adequate medicine and and Barangay LGU/ NCIP 2017-2022
State diseases & respiratory health facilities Lajala
infections
-Respect tradition of IPs
-Dialogue between council of
elders, NCIP, tribal associations
with the LGU and try to come up Barangays with
Significant increase in
Tourism Activities with a win-win situation. Tourist Destinations LGU/ NCIP 2017-2022
entrance fees
managed by IP’s
-Communication with IPs to have
one fee system
-Conduct social preparation
activities for introduction of
medical facilities and services
Non-prioritized Basic Substandard health
-Improve health stations in every Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
Social Service facilities
barangay
-Provide adequate medical
facilities

227
-Provided funds for PhilHealth
Application Fund, Gender and
Development Plan Fund

-Undergo sanctions (pangaw-kagat


Selling of rights over sa langgam and burdon-palo)
Economic Motives the ancestral domain Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
claims -Paying of fines
-Imprisonment of 5 years
-Create a formal agreement
between IPs and LGU regarding
monetary system
Non-transparency on -Have an adviser in managing
Power and Authority
accounting of revenues Not Identified Not Identified Not Identified
among IP’s
generated money
-Request of transparency of social
services and facilities delivered
and served to community

228