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Knowledge Digest for IT Community


ISSN 0970-647X

Volume No. 41 | Issue No. 8 | November 2017 50/-

Mac ine
www.csi-india.org

Le rning

COvER STORY RE SEARCH FRONT


Machine Learning: Fuzzy Based Machine Learning: A Promising Approach 21
Messiah of 21st Century 6 A RTiClE
Using statistical approach to Machine
TECHNiCAl TRENDS Translation for Indian languages 25
From Machine Learning to Deep SECURiTY CORNER
Learning: Trends and Challenges 10 Empirical Survey on Advances of Network Forensics
in the Emerging Networks 31
Meetings with Goa Chief Minister & Goa Chamber of
commerce and Managing Committee meeting of CSI
Goa chapter
CSI President & Hon. Treasurer along with
MC Members of CSI Goa Chapter met Hon’ble
Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Manohar Parikkar
and apprised him of CSI and its activities.
President & Hon Treasurer of CSI along with
MC Members of CSI Goa Chapter also met
officials of Goa chamber of Commerce

National Seminar on “Role of ICT for Reaching to


Unreached”
A one day seminar was organised at C. M. Science College of L. N.
Mithila University, Darbhanga, Bihar with the technical support of CSI
Patna Chapter on the theme “Role of ICT for Reaching to Unreached”
on 13 October 2017. The Seminar was inaugurated by Prof. (Dr.) S.
K. Singh, the Hon’ble Vice Chancellor of L. N. Mithila University,
Darbhanga, Bihar and Prof. (Dr.) A. K. Nayak, National Secretary of
Computer Society of India & Director Indian Institute of Business
Management, Patna delivered the key note Address. Prof Shams Raza,
Past Chairman CSI, Patna Chapter; Dr. Arvind Kumar, Principal; Prof.
(Dr.) S. N. Singh, Head, Dept. of Physics and Dr. Ajay Thakur of Physics
department also spoke.
CSI CommunICatIonS Volume No. 41 • Issue No. 8 • NoVemBeR 2017

Contents
Chief Editor
S S AgRAwAl
KIIT Group, Gurgaon
Editor Cover Story
PRAShANT R. NAIR
Amrita University, Coimbatore Machine Learning: Messiah of 21st Century 6
Tawseef Ayoub Shaikh and Rashid Ali
Published by
A. K. NAYAK Technical Trends
Hony. Secretary
From Machine Learning to Deep Learning: Trends and Challenges 10
For Computer Society of India Apoorva Mishra and Anupam Shukla

Editorial Board:
Machine Learning and its application in Technology and Media industries 13
Arun B Samaddar, NIT, Sikkim Krishna Murthy
Bhabani Shankar Prasad Mishra,
KIIT University, Bhubanewar
Debajyoti Mukhopadhyay, MIT, Pune
Research Front
J. Yogapriya, Kongunadu Engg. College, Trichy Challenges of Theoretical Computer Science and Computing Systems 16
M Sasikumar, CDAC, Mumbai,
R. Ponnusamy
R Subburaj, SRM University, Chennai Fuzzy Based Machine Learning: A Promising Approach 21
Sujamol S., Sreeja Ashok and U Krishna Kumar
R K Samanta, SiliguriInst. of Tech., West Bengal
R N Behera, NIC, Bhubaneswar
Sudhakar A M, University of Mysore
Articles
Sunil Pandey, ITS, Ghaziabad Using statistical approach to Machine Translation for Indian languages 25
M. Sasikumar and Prakash B. Pimpale
Shailesh K Srivastava, NIC, Patna
Machine learning at the Edge of Internet of Things 28
Vishal Mehrotra, TCS
Mohammad Khalid Pandit, Roohie Naaz Mir and Mohammad Ahsan Chisthi

Security Corner
Design, Print and Dispatch by
Empirical Survey on Advances of Network Forensics in the Emerging Networks 31
gP OFFSET PvT. lTD. A. R. Jayakrishnan and V. Vasanthi

P l US
Meetings with Goa Chief Minister and Goa Chamber of commerce 2nd Cover
Please note: CSI Members win International recognition in SEARCC 12
CSI Communications is published by Computer
Society of India, a non-profit organization. Obituary - Dr. A. Shamugasundaram 12
Views and opinions expressed in the CSI
Communications are those of individual CSI Executive Committee (ExecCom) meeting at Nashik on 7 October 2017 20
authors, contributors and advertisers and they
may differ from policies and official statements Past President visit to Shambhunath Inst. of Engineering & Technology 24
of CSI. These should not be construed as legal
or professional advice. The CSI, the publisher,
“GeekExpo” - Project Exhibition 27
the editors and the contributors are not Report of ‘3rd IT Excellence Awards 2017’ by CSI Ghaziabad Chapter 37
responsible for any decisions taken by readers
on the basis of these views and opinions. CSI Young IT Professional (YITP) Awards 2017 – A Report 38
Although every care is being taken to ensure
genuineness of the writings in this publication,
Pilgrims in the Digital World – Book Review 41
CSI Communications does not attest to the CSI Reports 42
originality of the respective authors’ content.
© 2012 CSI. All rights reserved. Student Branches News 44
Instructors are permitted to photocopy isolated
articles for non-commercial classroom use
52nd Annual Convention of Computer Society of India 3rd Cover
without fee. For any other copying, reprint or Call for Papers-International Conference on Social Transformation - Digital Way Back Page
republication, permission must be obtained
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CS I C o mm u n I Ca t I o n S | n o VE m B ER 2 0 1 7
Editorial
Dear Fellow CSI Members,
The theme for the Computer Society of India (CSI) Communications (The Knowledge Digest
for IT Community) November 2017 issue is Machine Learning
“The human condition is plagued with a labyrinth of shortcomings, frailties and limitations that
hinder man from reaching his fullest potential. Therefore, it only makes sense that we find
ourselves at the next phase in human evolution where restricted man merges with the infinite
possibilities of hyper-evolving technologies. This techno-human transmutation will prove to be
‘the’ quantum leap in human progression. The harmonization of technologically extending oneself,
Prof. (Dr.) S. S. Agrawal consciousness, artificial intelligence and machine learning will reverse the failures of genetic Prof. Prashant R. Nair
Chief Editor Editor
predisposition and limitation.”
James Scott, Senior Fellow, Institute for Critical Infrastructure Technology

After a series of thematic issues focusing on ICT in applications such as education, governance, agriculture and health, CSI
Communications is focusing on machine learning in this issue. Machine learning is a field of computer science that gives
computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning is employed in a range of computing tasks
where designing and programming explicit algorithms with good performance is difficult or infeasible; example applications
include email filtering, detection of network intruders and computer vision.
The Cover story in this issue is Machine Learning: Messiah of 21st Century by Tawseef Ayoub Shaikh and Rashid Ali. In this article,
the authors have traced the evolution of machine learning and also classified the same.
The technical trends showcased are “Machine Learning and its application in technology and media industries” by Krishna Murthy
and “From Machine Learning to Deep Learning: Trends and Challenges” by Apoorva Mishra & Anupam Shukla
In Research front, we have two contributions, One is “Fuzzy Based Machine Learning: A Promising Approach Towards Better
Decision Making” by Sujamol.S, Sreeja Ashok & U Krishna Kumar. The other one is “Challenges of Theoretical Computer Science
and Computing Systems” by R.Ponnusamy.
Other articles in this issue on machine learning provide us information on applications, of machine learning in healthcare, I ndian
languages, IoT and bioinformatics.
The articles are as follows:
¬ “Using statistical approach to Machine Translation for Indian languages” by M. Sasikumar & Prakash B. Pimpale
¬ “Machine learning at the Edge of Internet of Things” by Mohammad Khalid Pandit, Roohie Naaz Mir & Mohammad Ahsan
Chisthi
In Security front, A R Jayakrishnan & V.Vasanthi have performed an “Empirical Survey on Advances of Network Forensics in the
Emerging Networks”
This issue also contains reports of CSI Young IT Professional (YITP) Awards 2017 National Round Reports, Book Review and CSI
2017 convention notifications, CSI activity reports from chapters & student branches and calendar of events
We are thankful to entire ExecCom for their continuous support in bringing this issue successfully.
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the CSI publications committee, editorial board, authors and reviewers for their
contributions and support to this issue.
We look forward to receive constructive feedback and suggestions from our esteemed members and readers at
csic@csi-india.org.

With kind regards,

With kind regards,

Prof. (Dr.) S. S. Agrawal Prof. Prashant R. Nair


Chief Editor Editor

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Computer Society of India
TM

http://www.csi-india.org
Mr. Sanjay Mohapatra Shri.gautam Mahapatra Prof. A. K. Nayak Mr. Manas Ranjan Pattnaik Dr Anirban Basu
President Vice President Hon. Secretary Hon. Treasurer Immd. Past President

President’s Message
From : President, Computer Society of India
Date : 01 November, 2017
Email : president@csi-india.org / Cell : (91) 9861010656

Season’s Greetings! next issue of CSIC.

Meeting with goa Chief Minister Meeting with


President & Hon Treasurer of CSI along with MC Members CSI Publications
of CSI Goa Chapter met Hon’ble Chief Minister of Goa, Shri Company
Manohar Parikkar and apprised him of CSI and its activities. A discussion was
Hon’ble CM advised CSI to work on e-waste management held on 14th October
system and assured to provide all support at Goa for promotion 2017 with Director s
of IT / ITES. of CSI Public ations
ExecCom & CSI YITP at Nashik on 8th October 2017 Company. CSI
President request ed
CSI ExeCom meeting took place at Nashik on 8th October
the directors of
2017. CSI ExeCom members along with Chair, Publications
Publications Comp any & Past Presidents of CSI, Sri S
Committee, Chief Editor of CSIC, CSI NSC, NC Chair &
Members participated in ExecCom and many issues for the Mahalingam & Prof. S V Raghavan that all issues of the
improvement of CSI were discussed and deliberated. journal, CSI Transactions on ICT in pdf format will uploaded
in CSI portal for the benefit of its members. CSI will also
CSI Young IT Professional (YITP) Final round also took place at place an order to CSI Publications Company for 500 copies
Nashik on 8th Nov 2017 and almost 14 top teams from regional of CSI Transactions on ICT for dispatching to all Institutional
rounds from different regions participated. Detailed report of members of CSI. This will help the brand building of CSI. It was
YITP is published in this issue of CSI Communications. also decided to explore ways for a sustainable model of CSI
Meeting with goa Chamber of commerce Transactions on ICT. Balance sheet of Publications Company
President & Hon Treasurer of CSI along with MC Members of was discussed and it was proposed to conduct one Editors
CSI Goa Chapter met officials of Goa chamber of Commerce. Consortium. CSI will invite all Editors of different publications
It was decided that CSI Goa Chapter and Goa Chamber of of CSI for this event.
Commerce will organize events jointly for promotion of IT at visit to CSI Educational Directorate
Goa and will also have inter-exchange membership activities. President & Hon Treasurer visited CSI Educational Directorate
visit to CSI goa Chapter (ED) on 14th October 2017 and it was found that, CSI ED building
President & Hon. Treasurer visited CSI Goa chapter on 5th condition is deteriorating and needs urgent repairs. Boundary
October 2017. It was found that, CSI Goa Chapter premises condition of building has collapsed and roof condition is also
is having some legal (title) issues with property. CSI office not good. During last cyclone, parapet boundary had fallen
space is in the 3rd Floor of the building, which is in very bad and as advised by ExeCom, it was decided do necessary
shape. Urgent renovation is needed failing which building repairs. A budget of Rs.20 to Rs.25 lakhs has been earmarked
may collapse at any time. This issue was discussed with MC for repair, maintenance and painting of the CSI ED building.
of Goa Chapter and it is resolved to move ahead upon earlier Hon Treasurer will be overseeing this. President, CSI also
ExeCom’s decision during 2011/2012 to sell the property and persuaded with CSI Senior Members at Chennai for renewal
buy a new one. Current MC of Goa Chapter requested CSI of Land at Taramani.
President for a loan of Rs.30 lakhs for the purchase of new Meeting with CSI Chennai Chapter Chairman & hon
premises to augment the proceeds of the sale of the existing secretary on 14th October 2017
building. President updated MC of Goa Chapter to take this Meeting with Chairman & Hon Treasurer of CSI Chennai
issue to CSI ExecCom for final approval. Chapter was held at CSI ED and discussions were carried on
International Participation for expanding the Chennai Chapter activities.
CSI is a member of At Large structure (ALS) of ICANN, With kind regards
since 2012. ICANN is the community of individual Internet
users (known as the At-Large Community) of the Internet
Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). At
Abu Dhabi, ICANN General Assembly of APRALO is scheduled Sanjay Mohapatra
for 28 Oct - 3 Nov 2017. Detailed report will be published in President, CSI

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COvER STORY CSI HIStory SerIeS

Machine Learning: Messiah of 21st Century


Tawseef Ayoub Shaikh and Rashid Ali
Department of Computer Engineering, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, India
tawseef37@gmail.com, rashidaliamu@rediffmail.com

1. Introduction the other hand have got the inherent in T, as measured by P, improves with
“People worry that computers ability to remember the information for experience E”. Learning is used when a
will get too smart and take over
the world, but the real problem Machine Learning
is that they’re too stupid and
they’ve already taken over the
world.” -Pedro Domingos
Since the time humans landed their
feet on the earth, they have been always
trying to improve their life in one or the Suppervised Unsuppervised Reinforcement
other way around. Counting from the Machine Learning Machine Learning Learning
Active Learning Active Learning
earlier discoveries of the fire, clothing,
food, houses etc., the human civilization Fig 1: Machine learning (Ml) types
was always in effort to through light on
new innovative ideas which will make pattern exists in the given data which we
billions and billions of years and could
their lives comfortable and sustainable. can’t pin down manually. It is because
also perform any hard computational
In this phase of continues development of the Machine Learning that the
task in milliseconds. This made them
humanity has seen a revolution in present century has been witness to the
a perfect candidate to make them
industrial sector in the 18th century landmark discoveries like Autonomous
learn so that they can automatically
when they discovered the mechanical Helicopter, Handwriting Recognition,
perform the tasks which human brain
engine which later on took many shapes Natural Language Processing (NLP),
was lacking, thus outputting the most
and eased humanity in capturing the Computer Vision, Speech Recognition,
debatable topic of machine Learning
light year distances in few units of Recommendation Systems, Decision
(ML), nowadays.
time. This phase was the dramatic shift Support Systems (DSS), email filtering,
in which the muscular energy of the 2. Machine learning
Machine Learning (ML), a term detection of network intruders or
living beings were transformed into the malicious insiders working towards
machines which are doing many times coined by Arthur Samuel coined in 1959
at IBMisabranchof Artificial Intelligence a data breach, optical character
the amount of work the humans could recognition etc. Machine Learning is
do in very less amount of time. Be it the in which machine is trained so as to
impart it the ability to automatically at the root of the tree and has lots of
automobile engines, aero planes, ships branches and sub branches. Broadly
and other types of machines commonly learn and improve from the experience
without being explicitly programmed. speaking, this fantastic branch of
used in day to day life. From the time innovation is divided into following
man has landed in to the ocean of Its focus lies in the development of the
intelligent programs that can access a categories:
Information Technology sector, a new 1. Supervised Machine Learning
revolution has stepped in the human particular amount of the data (training
data) and is then used to automatically 2. Unsupervised Machine Learning
history and a rigorous effort is been 3. Reinforcement Learning
applied to impart the Intelligence inside work on the new data (test data)
which it has never met with. Machine 4. Active Learning
the hearts of the same machines. This 5. Online Learning
continues evolving effort has given rise Learning is a broad multi-disciplinary
to what is commonly known as Artificial filed which has its roots in Statistics, 1) Supervised Machine Learning:
Intelligence (AI). Machine Learning Algebra, Data Mining, Data Analytics This is the learning [2] under
(ML) being at the core of Artificial etc., which makes it difficult to come up a supervision that is why it is
Intelligence (AI) is the thrust and sexiest with a unique definition of it. According also known as learning from a
research area in the 21st century. Since to Tom M. Mitchell’s [1] definition of Teacher. Here the input data with
the human brain can’t remember the Machine Learning (ML) which defines its corresponding desired output is
information for large periods of time it as:, “ A computer program is said to provided to the computer program
and is computationally hard for them learn from experience E with respect to for the purpose of making it learn.
to perform any work on a large amount some class of tasks T and performance Dataset {(x1, y1), (x2, y2)….(xn, yn)} is
of data. Computers (Machines) on measure P if its performance at tasks inputted to the program and the
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COvER STORY

goal is to build a model in order Binary Classification Multi Class Classification


to find a target function y=f(x) so
as to map input values to their
corresponding output values.
Supervised Machine Learning is
further divided into two categories:
Supervised Machine learning X2 X2

Classification Regression

Fig 2: Supervised Machine learning (Ml)


types
X1 X1
1(a) Classification : In Classification Fig 3: Binary Classification vs. Multi level Classification
the output predicted value ‘y’ is
categorical/discrete in nature and variable, the goal is to find a cost
the right answers are neatly given. function f(x->y), which will minimize Logistic Regression
E.g. given the input breast cancer the difference between the actual
data of the patients containing value and the predicted value. Decision Trees
various features like tumor size,
tissue lesion color, the machine m= Number of training examples
Support Vector
can learn and predict on the new X’s= “input” variable / features Machine (SVM)
datasets whether the patient is
Y’s= “output” variables / features
suffering from Breast cancer or
Random Forests
not. It is used in: ii) Unsupervised Machine Learning
Email: Spam /Not Spam? (Clustering): This is the learning
[3] where no external supervision is Artificial Neural Network
Online Transactions: Fraudulent
(Yes / No)? required. The computer program is
Supervised learning
Tumor: Malignant / Benign? built in a way that it automatically Analytical Learning
Classification in general terms is finds the useful patterns in the
like YES, NO (0, 1 or PREENCE, data based upon a similarity matrix Bayesian Statistics
ABSENSENEEor TRUE, FALSE) type and groups them together into
of learning. Logistic Regression, Clusters. This is the most practical Boosting
Support Vector Machines (SVM), form of the machine learning since
Decision Trees, Random Forests in the real life most of the data Kernel Function
are the techniques which lie under comes in unlabeled form. It is
the realm of Classification. The used in Google News, Genomics, Ensemble Classifiers
output predicted value can also Social Network Analysis, Market
be in multiple classes giving rise Segmentation, Astronomical Data Conditional Random Field
to what is known as Multiclass Analysis, and Cock Tail Party
classification. e.g. Problem. It is further divided into Minimum Complexity
Email foldering/tagging: Work, its child branches as: Machines
Friends, Family, Hobby ii(a) Clustering: Finds a relation among
Medical diagrams: Not ill, Cold, Flu the similar data and groups them etc.
Weather: Sunny, Cloudy, Rain, together in a cluster. The similarity
Snow measure normally used is Euclidian
1(b) Regression:Inittheoutputpredicted distance. Other similarity measures
Fig 4: Supervised Ml Approaches
value ‘y’ is continuous/real valued like Mahalanobis distance, Cosine Rank based, Correlation based,
in nature. e.g. in predicting the Similarity, Hamming Distance, Manhatten, Jaccard can also be
price of the house given its input
parameters like location, number Unsupervised Ml
of rooms, furnished, area etc.,
the corresponding house price is
predicted. Given ‘m’ as number
of training examples, ‘x’ as input Clustering hierarchical Clustering gaussian Mixture Models
variable and ‘y’ as output/target Fig 5: Unsupervised Machine learning (Ml) types

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COvER STORY

used. space. used to update our best predictor for


future data at each step, as opposed
ii(b) Hierarchical Clustering: Here the
data is being grouped in small to batch learning techniques
State Value Function
clusters based upon a similarity which generate the best predictor
by learning on the entire training
measure and the corresponding Brute Force data set.
sub clusters are then again
clustered based upon some similar Value Function
parameter until some convergence Batch learning

Supervised learning
condition is satisfied.
Monte Carlo Methods Online learning: recursive
ii(c) Gaussian Mixture Model: Each least squares
mixture component represents a Direct Policy Search
unique cluster specified by:{πk, μk,
Stochastic gradient descent

Online Ml
σk}, where ‘πk’ is the data inputted,
Temporal difference
‘μk’ is its mean and ‘σk’ is the
Methods
corresponding variance. Incremental stochastic
gradient descent
Singular Value
K-Means
Decomposition (SVD) Progressive learning
Hierarchical Clustering
etc. Online convex optimisation
Gaussian Mixture Models Fig. 7: Reinforcement Ml Approaches
(GMM) Follow the leader (FTL)

iv) Active Learning: Active learning etc.


Expectation Maximization
[5] is a special case of semi-
(EM) supervised machine learning in
which a learning algorithm uses Fig. 9 : Online Ml Approaches
Neural Network the mechanism of query the user
Supervised learning

(or some other information source)


Anomaly Detection to interact and obtain the desired 3. Machine learning Tools
outputs at new data points. In Lot of tools with new novel machine
Hebbian Learning statistics literature it is sometimes learning algorithms implemented in
also called optimal experimental different languages in time to time
design. phase. These tools are being used as
Principal Component
a backbone for performing any data
Analysis (PCA)
Uncertainty sampling analytics task by using the algorithms
implemented in it and they also provide
Independent Component a healthy platform to develop new data
Analysis (ICA) Expected error reduction
analytics algorithms for tackling the
new challenges of this data rich age.
Supervised learning

Singular Value Balance exploration and Below is a list of the machine learning
Decomposition (SVD) exploitation tools:
3.1) Some open Source tools/
etc. Query by committee
Software’s
Weka, CNTK, KNIME, RapidMiner,
Expected mode change Deeplearning4j, R, Mahout, H2O, GNU
Fig. 6 : Unsupervised Ml Approaches
Octave, MOA (Massive Online Analysis),
Exponentiated Gradient Tanagra, Orange, Python, Shogun,
iii) Reinforcement Learning: In it a Exploration for Active TensorFlow, Torch etc.
computer program [4] is given Learning
3.2) Some Proprietary software
access to a dynamic environment
MATLAB, Neural Designer,
in for performing a certain goal Fig. 8 : Active Ml Approaches
Mathematica, Google Prediction API,
(such as playing a game against
Oracle Data Mining, NeuroSolutions,
an opponent or driving a vehicle). v) Online Learning: Online machine Amazon Machine Learning,
Feedback in terms of rewards and learning [6] is a method of machine Microsoft Azure Machine Learning,
punishments is provided to the learning in which sequential order STATISTICA Data Miner, Splunk, SAS
program as it navigates its problem of data availability is followed and is Enterprise Miner etc.
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4. Machine learning Applications In short Machine Learning is going 2004.


Machine Learning has now laid its to dramatically change the map of [7] S. Hoi, J. Wang and P. Zhao, “LIBOL: A
footprints on every sector of human life. the human life particularly in the field Library for Online Learning Algorithms”,
Journal of Machine Learning Research,
Hardly anything is there which has not of healthcare where a lot of effort
Vol- 15, pp: 495-499, 2014.
come under the domain of ML. Since and research is going on to develop
data lies at the heart of ML. And with the intelligent CAD (Computer Assisted Some online free Tutorials for
rapid increase in the number of smart diagnosis) which are supposed to Machine Learning:
phones across the globe, the interaction diagnosis a particular disease well [1] Machine Learning by Andrew Ng,
between humans and computer and advance in time that can lead to its early Stanford University (www.coursera.org/
learn/machine-learning)
machines and machine interaction cure and hence will save lot of live by [2] Intro to Machine Learning by Sebastian
is also producing data at a very fast providing high healthcare quality. In Thrun and Katie Malone (https://
exponential growing pace. Following short, Machine Learning is the Messiah in . u d a c it y . c o m / c o u r s e / i n t r o - to -
are some of the directions where ML is of this present data Analytics age. machine-learning--ud120)
showing its positive promise: Refrences [3] Learning from Data (Introductory
Medical diagnosis, Bioinformatics, Machine Learning) by Yaser S. Abu-
[2] T. Mitchell, “Machine Learning”,
Cheminformatics, Sequence mining, Mos t afa ( w w w . e d x . o r g / c o u r se/
McGraw Hill. p. 2, 1997, ISBN 0-07-
learning-data-introductory-machine-
Recommender systems, Computer 042807-7.
caltechx-cs1156x-0#!)
vision, Search engines, Natural [3] S. B. Kotsiantis, “Supervised Machine
language processing, Natural Learning: A Review of Classification Some best books for Machine
language understanding, Robot Techniques”, Informatica Vol-31, pp: Learning:
locomotion, Brain–machine interfaces, 249-268, University of Peloponnese, [1] Learning From Data by Yaser S. Abu-
Greece, 2007. Mostafa, Malik Magdon-Ismail and
Classifying DNA sequences, General
[4] Z. Ghahramani, “Unsupervised Hsuan-Tien Lin (AMLbook.com)
game playing, Information retrieval etc. [2] Machine Learning: A Probabilistic
Learning”, Advanced Lectures on
5. Conclusions Machine Learning LNAI 3176, Springer, Perspective by Kevin R Murphy
Machine Learning has already pp:1-32, Gatsby Computational [3] The Elements of Statistical Learning by
stepped in the competition of the human Neuroscience Unit University College Jerome H. Friedman, Robert Tibshirani
London, UK, 2004. and Trevor Hastie (https://web.stanford.
beings. The intelligent machine like
[5] LP. Kaelbling and AW. Moore, edu/~hastie/Papers/ESLII.pdf)
the IBM Watson, modern sophisticated [4] Patterns Classification by Richard O.
Robots are all set to ease the human “Reinforcement Learning A Survey”,
Journal of Artificial Intelligence Duda and Peter E. Hart
life by performing lot of complex tasks. Research, Vol-4, pp: 237-285, 1996. [5] Information Theory, Inference and
In a sense we have reached in an age [6] Y. Baram, Ran E. Yaniv and K. Luz, Learning Algorithms by David J.C.
where it brings a picture that a silent “Online Choice of Active Learning MacKay (http://www.cambridge.
competition is going on between human Algorithms”, Journal of Machine org/0521642981)
n
intelligence and artificial intelligence. Learning Research, Vol-5, pp: 255–291,

About the Authors


Tawseef Ayoub Shaikh, research scholar in department of computer engineering, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering &
Technology (ZHCET), Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh India. His interests are AI, Machine Learning, Data Analytics and is
presently working in Biomedical data analytics field.

Dr. Rashid Ali, Associate Professor at department of computer engineering, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering &
Technology (ZHCET), Aligarh Muslim University Aligarh India. Dr. Rashid Ali is a senior IEEE member in addition of having life
time membership of Computer Society of India. His interests are AI, Web Mining, and Soft Computing etc.

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TEChNICAl TRENDS

From Machine Learning to Deep Learning:


Trends and Challenges
Apoorva Mishra* and Anupam Shukla
Soft Computing and Expert System Laboratory, ABV -Indian Institute of Information Technology & Management, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India – 474015
apoorvamish1989@gmail.com; dranupamiiitm@gmail.com

Overview of Machine learning


In the present world, machine
learning is omnipresent. You might
have used it several times even without
knowing that you are using it. Machine
learning (ML) is a branch of artificial
intelligence (AI) which endeavors
to impart computers (or any other
electronic machine) the ability to learn
without being explicitly programmed
[2]. It deals with the study and design
of algorithms that can learn from and
make predictions on data. It is a data
analysis approach that automates
analytical model building. With the
improvement in hardware technology,
the use of machine learning algorithms
is increasing day-by-day. Many sectors
like healthcare, finance, pattern
recognition, traffic management and
route planning, robotics and Unmanned
Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), decision support Fig. 2 : Classification of Machine learning Techniques
systems for business intelligence,
etc. have been revolutionized by Classification of Machine learning  Neural Networks
the application of Machine learning Techniques  Naive Bayes Classifier
algorithms. Deep learning [5-6] is one Machine learning algorithms can  Decision Trees
of the recent and fastest growing areas be broadly classified into the following  Linear Regression
of Machine learning and is a buzz word four categories as depicted by figure-2. • Unsupervised learning
in industries as well as in academia. 1. Supervised learning In unsupervised learning, no
The emergence of deep learning has 2. Semi-supervised Learning element of supervision is involved. The
also led to the renaissance of neural 3. Unsupervised Learning computer is trained with unlabeled
networks. The relationship among deep 4. Reinforcement Learning data [4]. Unsupervised learning plays
learning, machine learning and artificial • Supervised learning a vital role in those cases where the
intelligence is represented by the Venn Supervisedlearningisverycommon human expert doesn’t know what to
diagram as shown in Fig. 1. in classification problems, where the look for in the data. The common types
aim is to classify the given input data or of supervised learning approaches are:
AI
image into predefined output classes. Association Rules, K-means clustering
Machine Learning For example: Handwritten Digit and etc-.
character recognition, classification • Semi-supervised Learning
Deep learning
of animals or objects depending Semi-supervised Learning lies
upon the input image, medical image between the two approaches mentioned
classification for diagnosis of various above. In this approach a combination of
diseases, etc-. In supervised learning, labeled and unlabelled data is used for
there is some supervision while the training.
algorithm is being trained. Here, labeled
data is used for training. Different types • Reinforcement Learning
Fig. 1 : Representation of Deep learning,
of supervised learning approaches are Reinforcement Learning involves
Machine learning and Artificial
Intelligence as follows: the mechanism of reward and

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punishment for the process of learning. LSTM. It is very useful for time-series learning techniques are CNN, RNN,
In this type of learning, the objective is data. LSTM, etc-. Although deep learning
to maximize the reward and minimize Applications of Deep learning techniques give far better results than
the punishment. Some of the broad application the shallow traditional machine learning
Emergence of Deep learning areas of the deep learning techniques algorithms, there are some issues
Deep learning has emerged as the are mentioned below. associated with them like: the need for
hottest area of Machine learning [8-11], huge amount of data for training, need
 Medical image classification.
which is based on a group of algorithms for expensive hardware resources and
 Pattern Recognition the requirement for very high running
in which high level abstractions of
the data are modeled by using deep  Robot trajectory generation time. Despite these limitations, deep
graph having various processing learning algorithms are very useful and
 Automatic Game Playing. are being widely used for solving various
layers and multiple non-linear and
linear transformations. Deep learning  Patient monitoring in ICUs and problems related to different fields.
promises to replace hand-engineered their mortality prediction. References
features with feature extraction  Automatic photograph description [1] Karpathy and L. Fei-Fei, Deep visual-
techniques that are hierarchical, semantic alignments for generating
unsupervised or semi-supervised [1].  Feature extraction image descriptions,” in Proceedings
of the IEEE Conference on Computer
In a deep neural network, there  Intrusion detection
Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp.
are multiple hidden units between input
 Prediction in Finance 3128-3137, 2015.
and output layers. With the advent of [2] Samuel, Arthur L. “Some studies in
big-data and powerful computational  Autonomous driving of vehicles machine learning using the game of
resources, the use of deep learning  Geological data analysis checkers. II—recent progress.” IBM
has become more widespread as Journal of research and development
the performance of deep learning  Logistics 11.6 (1967): 601-617.
algorithms increases with the amount [3] Krizhevsky, I. Sutskever, and G. E.
 Speech processing
Hinton, “Imagenet classification with
of data that is available for training,
 Image Caption Generation. deep convolutional neural networks,”
and they also require tremendous in Advances in neural information
computational power [7].  Handwritten digits and character processing systems, pp. 1097-1105,
The popular deep learning based recognition. 2012.
algorithms are as follows:  Natural language processing. [4] H. Lee, P. Pham, Y. Largman, and A. Y.
Ng, “Unsupervised feature learning for
• Convolutional Neural Network
audio classification using convolutional
(CNN) Challenges in Deep learning
deep belief networks,” in Advances in
CNN is a variant of the feed-forward  Requires tremendous amount of
neural information processing systems,
network that involves various layers data for proper training. pp. 1096-1104, 2009.
and deeply connected architecture [3].  Lack of generic intelligence, most [5] Y. Zheng, Q. Liu, E. Chen, Y. Ge, and J. L.
CNNs are trained with a modified form of the deep learning models work Zhao, “Time series classification using
of the back-propagation algorithm. They multi-channels deep convolutional
for the specific purpose only.
are capable of recognizing patterns with neural networks,” in International
a lot of variability and hence are widely  Requires too many computational Conference on Web-Age Information
resources (like GPUs) Management, pp. 298-310, Springer,
used for this purpose. 2014.
• Recurrent Neural Network (RNN)  Running time is very high varying [6] Yu, Dong, and Li Deng. “Deep learning
RNN is a special type of Artificial from hours to days. and its applications to signal and
Neural Network (ANN). It has directed information processing [exploratory
 Lack of flexibility.
dsp].” IEEE Signal Processing Magazine
cycles between connections. The
28.1 (2011): 145-154.
dynamic temporal behavior is exhibited Conclusion
[7] Sharma A, Shukla A, Tiwari R, Mishra
by the internal state of the network. Machine learning algorithms have A. Mortality Prediction of ICU patients
Unlike ANN, arbitrary sequences can been playing a pivotal role for decades using Machine Leaning: A survey.
be processed by using the internal in almost every field like Finance, InProceedings of the International
state of RNN. There is a time-varying Weather forecasting, Medical science, Conference on Compute and Data
real-valued activation in every unit Engineering optimization problems, Analysis 2017 May 19 (pp. 49-53). ACM.
and modifiable real-valued weight in Software cost prediction, Pattern 10.1145/3093241.3093267
each connection. The Long short term matching etc-. With the improvement [8] Poria, Soujanya, Erik Cambria,
and Alexander Gelbukh. “Aspect
memory (LSTM) is an RNN based in hardware technology and availability
extraction for opinion mining with a
deep learning system that overcomes of huge amount of training data, deep deep convolutional neural network.”
the vanishing gradient problem of learning techniques have emerged as Knowledge-Based Systems, 108 (2016):
traditional RNN. The recurrent gates the most important machine learning 42-49.
called forget gates are augmented in algorithms. Some of the popular deep [9] Polson, Nicholas G., and Vadim O.

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TEChNICAl TRENDS

Sokolov. “Deep learning for short-term [10] Affonso, Carlos, et al. “Deep learning [11] Evermann, Joerg, Jana-Rebecca Rehse,
traffic flow prediction.” Transportation for biological image classification.” and Peter Fettke. “Predicting process
Research Part C: Emerging Expert Systems with Applications 85 behaviour using deep learning.”
Technologies 79 (2017): 1-17. (2017): 114-122. Decision Support Systems (2017).

About the Authors


Apoorva Mishra (Life Membership No. I1504911) is a Ph.D. scholar at ABV-Indian Institute of Information
Technology and Management (ABV-IIITM), Gwalior, India. He has filed one Indian patent and has published 20
research papers in various peer-reviewed international/national journals and conferences, including those of
the world-renowned publishers like IEEE, Springer, Elsevier, ACM etc-. He has received B.E (honors) degree in
Computer Science & Engineering from Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University (CSVTU), Bhilai
in 2011, and has worked as ‘Assistant System Engineer’ at Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) till May 2012. He
has received the National level Scholarship from the MHRD, Government of India, for pursuing M.Tech. He has
also received Gold Medal from CSVTU, Bhilai, for scoring highest marks in M.Tech. He is a member of various
renowned profesisonal societies like ACM, IAENG, and ISTE (life member).

Prof. Anupam Shukla (Life Membership No. 01099955) is a Professor in the Department of Information and
Communication Technology (ICT) at ABV-Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (ABV-
IIITM), Gwalior. He has 29 years of administrative, research, and teaching experience. He has been awarded
“Distinguished Professor” by Computer Society of India, Mumbai, 2017,“Dewang Mehta National Education
Award” for best Professor, 2016, ‘Prof. Rais Ahmed Memorial Award, Acoustical Society of India’ in 2015 and
has received many other awards and honors. He is the author of three patents, three books, published by
international publishers such as CRC Press, USA & Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 176 peer-reviewed publications,
editor of three books published by IGI Global Press, USA, and mentor of 18 doctorates and 116 postgraduate
theses. He is also an editorial board member and a reviewer of various international journals of repute.

CSI Members win


International recognition in SEARCC
At the recently concluded SEARCC Annual Conference, the following CSI
Members received recognition for their work in three categories for whom
they were nominated by CSI.
The prize distribution was held on September 13, 2017 at Colombo and all
three travelled to Colombo (with financial support of SEARCC) to be part of
the prize distribution ceremony.
• SEARCC Educator of the year: Dr Siddharth Bhattacharya (Winner)
• SEARCC Professional of the Year: K Sabarish (Finalist)
• SEARCC Researcher of the Year: Dr Anupam Shukla (Finalist)

PSG College of Technology, MSc Engg. from College of


Dr. A. Shamugasundaram Engineering Guindy and stood first in both the programmes.
Obituary Founder Chairman, CSI
Coimbatore chapter
He was the first UK Commonwealth scholarship awardee
from India and did his Ph.D at Royal College of Science and
Dr. A. Shamugasundaram was the founder Technology, University of Glasgow UK.
Chairman of CSI Coimbatore chapter and He was awarded the MCKENZIE memorial prize and STOKES
played very active role in the chapter. He was memorial prize by the University of Madras. In 1958, he joined
instrumental in making BIG 86 a huge success. as a Lecturer in the Electrical Engineering department of
He encouraged students to participate in PSG College of Technology and elevated as Principal during
student activities. June 1986.
Dr. A. Shanmugasundaram was born on 15th Feb. 1933 at He has guided several Ph.D Scholars engaged in industrial
Thanjavur. Did his Bachelors in Electrical Engineering at R&D resulting in development of many products.
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Machine Learning and its application in


Technology and Media industries
Krishna Murthy
Deloitte Consulting

Machine Learning - essentially is in its infancy. analyse the data.


a form of artificial intelligence (AI) As self-driving cars take to the Finance
whereby computers learn without road, it will prove essential that they are The financial industry is renowned
being explicitly programmed with new able to respond to the situations around for the vast amounts of data it holds
information – is clear. At exceptional them in real time. This means that all – from transaction data to customer
speed, for example, complex algorithms the information gained through the data, and everything in between. This
can identify subtle but important data sensors must be processed in the car, volume is unlikely to decrease in
patterns that humans could never rather than being submitted to a server the future, and the finance sector is
have spotted. In ‘learning’ from that or the cloud for analysis, which could increasingly looking to make the most
information, the ‘machine’ can predict cost crucial time. of the data that it holds. To date this has
patterns ahead, and then act to process As a result, machine learning been largely analysed using statistical
that knowledge to maximise future will be central to the car’s digital analysis tools, however, the challenge is
business. infrastructure, enabling it to learn sorting through such a wealth of data in
Machine learning is a modern from the conditions it observes. One a timely fashion.
and highly sophisticated technological particularly interesting use of this data In 2016, there was a lot of talk in
application of a long – established will be in mapping – while self-driving the industry about the potential for
notion – study the past to predict the cars can have maps programmed on deploying machine learning and several
future. to them, they will need to be able to pilot schemes, and we predict that
Machine learning and Technology update these maps automatically in 2017 will be the first year we see this
Industry: response to the real-world conditions, beginning to take off as mainstream in
Machine learning has become a and the vehicle will have to learn a new finance.
huge trend in the technology industry in navigational network on its own. Financial institutions will
the last few years, as a more accessible Manufacturing increasingly lean on machine learning
side of artificial intelligence, with Like self-driving cars, the to devise new business opportunities,
computers learning to complete tasks manufacturing sector collects a huge deliver customer services and even
without being directly programmed to amount of data from sensors attached detect banking fraud as it is taking
do so. to every aspect of the production line place.
In 2016 there were many machine during the growth of the IoT. Portfolio management companies
learning pilots and trials in the industry, However, that information simply today use traditional methods like
with acquisitions of machine learning isn’t being fully utilised. As multiple analysing margin profiles, free cash
start-ups by tech giants. Deep learning, parameters data is collected from flow, return ratios, growth profile,
a branch of machine learning that complex systems, analytics can be a pricing power that are available through
produces efficient algorithms to model daunting task. The biggest application reports.
high level data, is also becoming of machine learning in manufacturing Machine learning in the meantime
mainstream. will be in anomaly detection. can help to scout social media,
2017 will be the first year we’ll While earlier some analytics was websites and other sources, analysing
start seeing real-world impacts from done in this space, 2017 will see more unstructured data to get some additional
machine learning technologies, with of supervised learning and building inputs and make better decisions.
companies moving out of the acquisition models to predict the failures. Retail
stage, and into the implementation Machine learning will also be used The science of online
phase. to drive collaborative robots proof of recommendations has become
Self-driving cars concepts in factories that can learn increasingly complex, however, in 2017,
Perhaps the most popular by observing the production line and this will become even more nuanced
application of machine learning in the data streams, and be able to smartly as more data streams such as social
consumer field of vision is in driverless optimise the production process to media are incorporated to provide
cars technology. Many of these cars are lower production costs and speed better recommendations.
currently in the testing phase, but the production cycles without the time and If you were to browse for cat food
idea of self-driving cars on public roads financial costs of a human having to online, at the moment, you may be

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able to see recommendations for cat- processing and automation, as bots process.
related products. In the coming year, increasingly take on tasks for IT and In contrast, deep learning allows
e-commerce sites will be able to use business processes. us to feed data into an artificial neural
more buying trends and customer data Machine learning and Media: network—a computer system modeled
to provide nuanced recommendations Machine learning is being applied after the human brain—and use
that will accurately reflect products you in the media in a number of ways. One algorithms to help the computer learn
might like to buy. area that has seen huge growth is autonomously.
While online retail is already around the personalisation of content – For example, in 2012, a team at
experiencing the early stages of the analysis of data to make conclusions Google fed images from 10 million
machine learning deployment, one and predictions. YouTube videos into an artificial neural
of the most exciting things is the Imagine news articles that network. The system identified distinct
application of this technology in the write themselves. Envision bots that objects within the images, such as cats
physical store environment. identify fake news before it’s widely (apparently there are tons of cat videos
Retailers will be able to analyse disseminated. on YouTube).
customers as they walk in, and we These things will be possible Why was this such a big deal?
will start to see this analysis used because of deep learning, in which Because no one told the computer what
to help the customer find the right computers learn human-behavior a cat actually looks like. It learned on its
products and appropriate offers. With without being explicitly programmed. own.
the incorporation of video analytics, Prior to deep learning, computers The opportunities to leverage this
retailers will be able to analyse which had to be programmed to exhibit human technology within the media industry
products people are looking at, and even behavior. will be enormous. As publishers are
where they are looking on the product – For example, if you wanted a squeezed for ad dollars and face the
whether that’s the price, the features or computer to learn how to write a news duopoly that is Facebook and Google,
the picture on the box. article, you’d have to figure out the AI/Machine Learning will help them
By considering this data against behaviors of a journalist, and manually stay competitive in an era of dominant
customer purchases, retailers will be input those behaviors into the computer. social platforms.
able to make the best recommendations This was a painfully time-consuming To that end, here are a few
for other products that the customer
may want to consider.
Developments in technology
In order to support industries in
transformations, the big developmental
shift we will see in machine learning is
one of hardware upgrades rather than
software.
In order to support the speed of
insights that machine learning can
offer, machine learning processing is
increasingly moving from the cloud to
edge computing where time-sensitive
information can be processed as close
as possible to its origin.
Alongside this, we are seeing
increasing investment in multi-core
technologies and parallel computing
that can boost this speed further. 2017
is the year that hardware begins to
catch up with software in the wider
deployment of machine learning
technology e.g. enhancements in
GPU technologies coupled with hybrid
systems like CPU+FPGA.
Machine learning is beginning to
affect us both at work and at home,
and the possibilities for industries are
truly transformative. Enterprises will
soon find machine learning at the heart
of decision making in core business
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applications of AI/Machine Learning serve up content to fit your mood. distribution strategy.
that media companies should consider. Sad? Here’s a ‘feel good’ movie. This reality, coupled with the fact
Automation in the newsroom Energized? Check out this action flick. that many publishers rely on these
This is all about making work more Silly? Maybe you’ll enjoy this comedy. platforms for over 40% of their traffic,
efficient.A computer system will be able Recommendations across content creates a problem in legitimate need of
to identify the contents of an image and types a solution.
write the caption. The opportunity to enhance Content management systems like
In fact, a recent study by AI recommendations extends beyond WordPress VIP and Drupal are fantastic,
researchers shows that humans prefer emotionally intelligent software. If but what if they could publish content
computer-generated captions 25% of you’ve been around the industry, you’ve across multiple platforms, and predict
the time they’re displayed. heard time spent being referred to as the when and where (i.e. what platform) to
The technology isn’t perfect, but new “currency” of advertising. publish in order to maximize referral
as its accuracy continues to improve, Ad buyers want to know how much traffic?
survey results will increasingly favor time people spend on your content, What if they could predict virality?
computer-generated outputs. what percentage of video ads they AI will make these things possible.
Similarly, AI can’t write nuanced, complete—that sort of thing. Cultivating a smarter workforce
eloquent news articles yet, but it’s getting One way to maximize time spent AI can also be leveraged to build a
close. For example, the Associated Press would be to suggest content across more knowledgeable workforce.
(AP) is already leveraging deep learning multiple formats. For example, Fortune Communications teams are
to automate news articles that have Magazine could recommend its Most commonly bogged down by the manual
structured data, such as corporate Powerful Women podcast series to users process of discovering and sharing
earnings reports and baseball game who read articles about women CEOs news with their employees. The ability
recaps. on Fortune.com. to share the right information at
Ultimately, automation will enable AI could discover similarities the right time, thus enabling better
media companies to shift resources to between text, video, and audio assets, business decisions, can be a difficult
higher value initiatives, and that will be and guide users through content that undertaking.
good for both consumers and editorial meets their interests across different It doesn’t have to be this way,
teams. formats. though. AI will be able to automate
Computer-Generated Earnings It’s something to consider as the this process and predict what type of
Report, Associated Press industry shifts to “video first,” and news and information will be most
Publishers that detect emotion experiences continued buzz in audio valuable to your employees at any given
We’ve known for some time that and podcasting. time—whether you’re a team of 50 or
technology can be cognitively intelligent. Smarter content management 50,000.
However, Affectiva—an AI company AI will improve our ability to We believe that information is only
born out of MIT’s Media Lab—is helping recommend content, but what about as valuable as the ability to access,
it become emotionally intelligent, too. our ability to distribute it? understand, and share it at scale, and
Powered by emotion recognition With numerous platforms to find we’re excited about using AI to make
software, a streaming service like audience at scale—including Facebook, that easier for media companies, and
Netflix could analyze the look on your YouTube, Twitter, and Snapchat—it can ultimately, the world at-large.
face to understand your feelings and be difficult to determine the optimal

About the Author


Mr. Krishna Murthy Pradhan is a high caliber IT Management Stalwart with 19+ years of experience including 4
years of international exposure in USA, UK, Argentina and Mexico. Demonstrated success in the areas of Solution
Delivery, Program Management and Project Management, giving importance to client relationship, deliverable,
timelines, budgetary & quality parameters for smooth execution of complex enterprise level assignments
and client engagements. Currently working as Solution Sustainment Manager at Deloitte Consulting India,
Hyderabad Office and managing Custom Development/Delivery/Sustainment of Big Data & Analytics based
assignments from Offshore.

Like CSI on facebook at :


https://www.facebook.com/CSIHQ

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R E S E A R C h FRONT

Challenges of Theoretical Computer Science


and Computing Systems
R. Ponnusamy
Professor, Dept. of CS & Engg., CVR College of Engineering, Hyderabad - 501510, India. E-mail: r_ponnusamy@hotmail.com

The existing challenges of theoretical computer science and computing systems were documented in
the order of importance. The issues were critically discussed and gaps in the research were portrayed.
The need for further research is emphasized. These problems are classified under polynomial, cognitive
science, bio-informatics, bio-medicine, application development and other new technologies.

Keywords: Theoretical computer science, computing systems, polynomial, cognitive science, bio-informatics, bio-medicine.

1. Introduction: 2. Challenges and Issues: computing services.


Modern sciences play vital roles There are several major closed- 3. Computational complexity
in changing the social life style. The form challenges in Computer Science, theory and Applications
concepts of computers have taken active the theoretical computer science issues In computational complexity
momentum after the Second World War. are such as Computational complexity theory is a critical one which identifies
It has seen many revolutionary changes, theory, Polynomial (P) versus Non- whether the given algorithm is capable
products and systems that impacted the deterministic Polynomial (NP), of solving the problem with the existing
business and life for several decades Cryptography, Integer factorization,
resources and also determines it
and even today continuing. But, several Clustered Planar, Multiplication
is capable of accepting the given
future visions of computing systems are Algorithm, Fourier Transform, Tree
input or not. These resources are
not yet completely fulfilled. Even today Rotation and Integer Multiplication and
time, memory, communication and
there are several issues persist [1-23] Matrix Multiplication Algorithm.
processing etc. Firmly related fields in
in the computing world. On finding the The computing system issues are
computer engineering are investigation
appropriate solutions to these problems Big-data Applications and Analysis,
of algorithms. All the more correctly,
the society will enjoy automated, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics,
computational complexity theory tries
trusted, enhanced, quick services Systems Biology Computational
to order issues that can or can’t be
through computing world. Biophysics, Computational
comprehended with properly limited
Computer science is the study Cognitive Science, Computational
assets. There are different issues are
of the theory, experimentation, and Neurobiology, Computer Assisted
there in the field of theoretical computer
engineering that form the basis for Automated Education, Automated
science. These issues are detailed in
the design and use of computers. Information Processing Centers,
the following section one by one.
Alternatively, it is a science that Natural Language Processing,
Secondly there are limitations in
investigates automatic algorithmic Human-Computer Interaction,
developing novel solutions in various
procedure to do the required Multimedia, Computer Artificial
application development. In the
computation or task. A computer Limbs and Components, Automated
absence of these solutions the current
researcher working in the field isolates Brain Intension Identification, Brain
system restricts the user to access
the problems into theoretical and Damage Recovery System, Semantic
practical frameworks. All over the Web, Advanced Technologies for the services. In fact, much innovative
world several researchers documented Hardware, High-end Communication research on hardware would be able
their challenges and issues. Even Devices, Advanced Networking to take us to the new era of computing
though the discipline grown has well, System, Space Communication and world. Also, the solutions will envisage
these issues are still unsolved. In order Networking, Automated Programming the low cost computing in the world.
to increase the understanding of the Environments, Internet Security The developing countries are not able to
prevailing issues and challenges this System, Online Electronic Voting, afford the solutions and reachability will
review is undertaken. This may help the Automated Software Verification and be much more compared to the present
researchers to formulate the suitable Theorem Proving. era of computing.
research projects for the current issues. If the computing world finds the 3.1 P versus NP problem
This article enlists some of the core suitable solutions for these problems In general the computing problems
challenges that exist in the field today. then the society will enjoy trusted better can be classified in to two categories,
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R E S EA R Ch FRONT

that is either it may be solved by best polynomial time algorithm is a big setups. But it is still unknown which
algorithms in a Polynomial (P) time challenge till date. does in optimal time.
or Non-deterministic Polynomial (NP) 3.5 Fourier transform 3.9 Big-data applications and
time [13, 7]. It is only a question of A Fast Fourier Transform Analysis
whether it is solvable in a deterministic calculation registers the Discrete The system should able to
or non-deterministic polynomial time Fourier change of a grouping, or its quickly analyze and process the semi
and resources. As of now the non- reverse. Fourier Transform changes structured and unstructured data using
deterministic polynomial (NP) problems over a signal domain from its area to machine learning[7] and patterning is
are classified as either complete or hard a frequency domain in the recurrence yet another challenge in the present era
problems. In case of complete problem space [17]. A FFT quickly registers such of computing.
the solutions are possible and in the changes by factorizing the DFT network
case of hard problems the solutions are 3.10 Artificial intelligence and robotics
into a result of inadequate elements. It is to make a computer to become
possible only by converting the problem Subsequently, it figures out how to
in to a complete problem by means intelligent one to perform efficient
diminish the many-sided quality of tasks, to make effective decisions like
of approximation or constrains. The registering the DFT, which in the event
computing world should find suitable humans. Self-driving cars and swarms
that one essentially applies the meaning of search-and-rescue robots are a
solutions for this. of DFT. Fast Fourier transforms are used good illustration [7]. The system needs
3.2 Cryptography for many applications in engineering some intelligence (common sense) to
A public key encryption method and science. Finding less complex and do the works and things automatically.
is used as a method of assuring efficient method is a big challenge till Designing such system is a challenging
the confidentiality, authenticity and today. one at present.
non-reproducibility of electronic 3.6 Tree rotation
communications [7]. It needs a private 3.11 Systems Biology
In discrete science, tree turn
key to decrypt the messages. Anybody In understanding modeling
is an operation on a parallel tree.
knows the private key can decrypt interactions of multiple systems in a
Progressions are made in the structure
messages sent over the public network living organism [7], including immune
without meddling with the request of
and this is a big challenge in the security systems and cancer development, to
the components [18]. A tree turn moves
world and it needs alternate solutions develop the suitable treatment therapy
one hub up in the tree and one hub down
to overcome this problem. is another challenge.
and it is utilized to change the state of
3.3 Integer factorization the tree, and specifically to reduce its 3.12 Computational Biophysics
In number theory, whole number tallness by moving smaller sub-trees The modeling and understanding
factorization is the disintegration of down and bigger sub-trees up, bringing mechanical, electrical, and molecular-
a composite number into a result of about enhanced execution of many tree level interactions inside an organism
littler whole numbers. In the event that operations. There exists an irregularity [7] is another big challenge for the
these whole numbers are additionally in various depictions with regards to the computer scientists.
limited to numbers, the procedure is meaning of the heading of turns; some 3.13 Computational Cognitive Science
called prime factorization [15]. When say that the course of revolution mirrors There is a very large gap between
the numbers are large, no efficient, the bearing that a hub is moving upon what is known about the understanding
non-quantum integer factorization pivot while others say that the bearing of brain structure and the functional
algorithm is known. So far it has not of revolution reflects which sub-tree capabilities of a living brain; closing
been demonstrated that no proficient is turning. It is another big issue for this gap is one of the big challenges in
algorithms exists; finding an efficient theoretical computer scientist. modern science and engineering [21].
algorithm for this problem is a big 3.7 Multiplication algorithm DNA analysis and genetics have also
challenge, till this time. A multiplication algorithm is an become computer-based in the last
3.4 Clustered Planner algorithm to multiply two numbers [16]. twenty years. Development of artificial
The clustering can be depicted Depending on the size of the numbers, brain neural system in understanding
combinatorially by a gathering of different algorithms are in use; efficient the nature is the big challenge for
subsets of the vertices with the end goal multiplication algorithms have existed computer scientist.
that for every two subsets, either both since the advent of the decimal system. 3.14 Computational neurobiology
are disjoint or one is contained in the But, still much better algorithms are It is another area of research to
other. It is not required that the grouping needed to reduce the number of basic understand how organisms process
is maximal [14] nor that each vertex has operations. incoming information and react to it,
a place with a bunch and it is obscure 3.8 Matrix multiplication algorithm control their bodies, store information,
whether it is conceivable to develop Many different algorithms do exist and think [7]. The existing connectionist
grouped planar drawings in polynomial for matrix multiplication [20]. They are neural models are not fully complying
time. There are many cases which have performed in different hardware setups with the requirements. It is another
polynomial time algorithms. Finding a like parallel, distributed and standalone modern research challenge for

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computer scientists. Any multimedia-data analysis without damage. Such an electronic charge
3.15 Computer-assisted automated considering semantics will be a futile signaling route should help restore
education exercise. It is another challenge in the ordinary reminiscence capabilities to an
It essential to design a system future generation multimedia. impaired brain.
to teach a lesson spontaneously [11]. 3.20 Computerized Artificial Limbs and 3.23 Semantic Web
Cheat-proof automated support for Components The semantic net [8] is an extension
exams and testing, essay grading, Of late even extra ambitious of the contemporary net in which facts
generation of multiple-choice envisioning programs are underway are given properly-described, which
questions. Support for learning specific for systems to control Artificial Limbs. means, enabling computer systems and
skills, such as programming by giving Engineers envision automatic implants those to work in cooperation. Gap exists
immediate feedback and correction of capable of receiving the signals from between automated processing and
mistakes and giving suitable example hundreds of the brain’s nerve cells accessing of information in the present
narration are the challenging one in the and then wirelessly transmitting that web setup. The present challenges are
present era of computing. statistics to an interface tool that might (i) the availability of content, (ii) ontology
3.16 Automated Information decode the mind’s intentions [1]. The availability, development and evolution,
Processing Centers interface could then ship indicators to (iii) scalability, (iv) Multi-lingualism,
Automated collection, storing, an Artificial Limb, or maybe at once to (v) visualization to reduce information
indexing and retrieval are major issues nerves and muscular tissues, giving overload, and (vi) Stability of Semantic
[7] in the present days. Development of guidelines for imposing the preferred Web languages. If these things are
such systems will enable the designers actions. This could help the physically solved then the users will see a different
to handle huge set of unstructured data handicapped people to have better and kind of Internet tomorrow.
generated by the humans in different easy movements.
3.24 Advanced Technologies for
forms. 3.21 Automated Brain intension Hardware
3.17 Natural-Language Processing Identification Development of optical and
The system should understand Some brain studies have explored, quantum computing or optical
the human-generated documents and with some achievement, implants that computing [2, 3] hardware technology
should be able to communicate with could literally study the thoughts of will enable us to develop the three-
the humans in a normal manner [4]. immobilized sufferers and signal an dimensional circuits and chips. Even
This needs syntax, semantic, pragmatic external computer [1], giving human though the physicists are involved in
level of conversation and dialogs. This beings who are not able to talk a way that, the computer scientist has also
will also solve many other computer to communicate with the outside world. little things to do with this development.
interaction issues. Design of solutions This can have a substantial opportunity It will have a high-impact in increasing
for such problems is a greater. to have exclusive applications. the processing power.
3.18 Human-computer interaction 3.22 Brain Damage Recovery System 3.25 High-end Communication Devices
The current generation systems are Brain is the probably most Modeling and the usage of new
not able to understand tacit knowledge complicated system which has even styles of digital switches (Memristors,
available with the user. Moreover the greater impact on human health. devices using carbon nano-tubes,
user interaction is restricted with the The use of new AI insights can be etc), quantum communication [22,
keyboard and few selective devices. used for repairing broken brains [1]. 7] and improvement of high-stop
But, the future generation system Damage from injury or disease to the sensing devices to understand diverse
should understand the human mind hippocampus, a brain shape essential communications occurring around the
states such as emotion, intent[5], social for gaining knowledge of and memory device is the predominant challenge for
interactions and spontaneously give the can disrupt the proper electric signaling electronic scientist.
suitable answer on behalf of the user among nerve cells; this is needed for
as well as do the tasks. Design of such 3.26 Advanced Networking
forming and recalling recollections with
system is a challenging one. Ubiquitous networking by giving the
understanding of the right signaling
low cost service [7] to access multiple
3.19 Multimedia styles in wholesome brains, engineers
services is another important issue in
In the design of video or audio have begun to layout computer chips
the communication world.
or multi-media data the system is that mimic the brain’s very own verbal
not able to understand any semantic exchange abilities. Such chips may be 3.27 Space Communication and
structure associated (scene analysis, useful in cases where healthy brain Networking
comprehendingmovement, synthesizing tissues is starved for information due Days are not for behind for human
realistic multimedia) with it [7]. Most of to the barrier imposed via damaged to travel to the other planets. It is also
the time the designer is bothered about tissue in principle; indicators from essential to develop a new network
the quality of display data, rather than the healthy tissue can be recorded system for space communication [7].
semantic structure. At present people by an implantable chip, which might Development of such a network is
are doing it with the explicit annotation. then generate new signals to pass the another challenge.
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3.28 Automated programming the benefits and side consequences of solutions. The appropriate researchers
Environments capability treatments or treatments. should take-up the research on these
Complete Automated program “reverse-engineering” the mind, to issues for future computing system.
generation [12] is only a partial success decide how it plays its magic, should References:
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94777-9,2001. geometry, Journal of the American SIAM News. 38 (9), 2005.


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distance, triangulations, and hyperbolic Algorithm for Matrix Multiplication,

About the Author


Dr. R. Ponnusamy received the M.Tech. in Computer Science & Engineering from Pondicherry University, Pondicherry, India
in 2000. He has a Ph.D. in Computer Science & Engineering from the Dept. of Computer Science & Engineering, College
of Engineering, Anna University, Chennai in 2008. He has also received a D.C.Sc. (Engg) (Post-Doctoral Degree), from the
Universita Popolare Degli Studi De Milano, Italy in 2015. He is Professor of Computer Science and Engineering and has more
than 20 Years of collegiate service in Tamilnadu, India. He is currently Professor in the Department of Computer Science and
engineering at CVRCE, Hyderabad. His areas of interest are Artificial Intelligence, Human-Computer Interaction, Information
System and Higher Education. He has presented/published more than 85 papers in various international conference and
journals. He has been awarded Young Scientist Fellowship Award by the Tamilnadu State Council for Science & Technology and
visited Super Computer Education Research Centre of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India during the year 2005-2006.

CSI Executive
Committee (ExecCom)
meeting at Nashik on
7th October, 2017

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Fuzzy Based Machine Learning:


A Promising Approach
Sujamol S., Sreeja Ashok and U Krishna Kumar
Department of Computer Science & I.T, School of Arts & Sciences, Amrita University, Kochi - 682 024

why Fuzzy Based learning is Table 1: Comparison between Traditional logic and Fuzzy logic
Important
Traditional Logic Fuzzy Logic
The real life application gives less
importance to boolean variables. They (x) = 1 if x  A μA:x→[0,1]
mainly concentrate on linguistic variable 0 if x  A
that have values as words or sentences.
Allows only two binary values : 0 Permitts a range of value between 0 and 1
For example, the area medical field,
and 1 where 0 represent no membership and 1
come across many levels of uncertainty
Where 0 stands for True and 1 for represent complete membership.
as there are different manifestation of a
False
single disease depending upon a patient
and occurrence of a single symptoms Based on models from differential Uses Knowledge generated through rules
in multiple disorders. All the entities equations
related with a disease are described Requires complete set of data Concentrates on incomplete and fuzzy data
using linguistic words and will have
Linear Non Linear
values in the range 0-1. The traditional
mathematics lies on precisely defined Table 2: Brief history of Fuzzy logic - Important Milestones
points, functions, sets and probability
measures. Here an element x either Year Invention
belongs to a particular set X or it 1965 Fuzzy Sets(Lofti Zadeh,Seminar)
doesn’t. They are purely dependent on 1966 Fuzzy Logic(P.Marinos,Bell Labs)
binary logic. A precise statement loses
its meaning and a meaningful statement 1972 Fuzzy Measure(M.Sugeno,TIT)
loses its precision when complexity is 1974 Fuzzy Logic Control(E.H.Mamdani)
increased. Even though human brain
1980 Control of Cementkiln(F.L.Smidt,Denmatk)
resembles a binary computer based
on exact information containing zeros 1987 Sendai Subway Train Experiment(Hitachi)
and ones, human heart is compared
1988 Stock Trading Expert System(Yamaichi)
with a chemical computer that uses
fuzzy logic for analyzing information 1989 LIFE(Lab for International Fuzzy Engineering)
that can’t be easily defines by zeros 2003 First class on fuzzy logic is held at Clarkson University
and ones. The task of decision making 2005 Studies in gene expression using Fuzzy Logic
has met with many difficulties when 2006- Successful implementation of fuzzy models in control theory, disease
dealing with real world problems. The 2016 prediction,Faurd detection etc
traditional crisp logic is based on binary
reasoning where everything is classified stands for false values and 1’s for true logic.
as Yes (True) or No (False). Fuzzy is values. Fuzzy set is a form of knowledge Basic Elements of a Fuzzy System
described as mathematics of words representation suitable for notions that Fuzzy system (Fig: 1) consist of
and was developed by Lofti.A.Zadeh in cannot be defined precisely, but which following 5 elements
1965. The fuzzy logic provides a work depend upon their contexts. They are an
space for computation with words and extension of crisp sets .A crisp set is a Rule Base
offers a hand in managing uncertainty traditional way where each element is
during the designing of expert systems. allowed with full membership or partial Fuzzification Defuzzification
It has now become an unavoidable part membership. It is denoted as (x) =1
of machine learning as it can handle when x belongs to set A and (x) =0, if
Knowledge Base
imprecise and uncertain situation. x doesn’t belong to A where (x) is the
Fuzzy logic can take value between membership function of x in A. Table
0 and 1 and these values represent 1 represents the difference between Crisp Input Crisp output
degrees of uncertainty and models traditional and fuzzy logic system and
human cognitive decision making. 0’s Table 2 details the brief history of fuzzy Fig. 1: Fuzzy System

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 Linguistic Variables Table 3: Membership Functions


 Membership functions for
Fuzzification Triangular Membership Function 0 if x <= a
 Fuzzy Rules A(x) = (x-a)/(m-a) if x € [a ,m]
 Fuzzy set operations (b-x)/(b-m) if x € [m ,b]
 Defuzzification 0 if x >= b
linguistic variables: Variables
whose values are words or sentences. Singleton Membership Function 0 if x ≠ m
When a system is to be modeled, the S(x) =
1 if x = m
system parameters are decided and
they are set as linguistic variables. Trapezoidal Membership Function T(x) = 0 if (x <= a) or (x >= d)
Now these variables are assigned with (x-a)/(b-a) if x € (a,b)
corresponding membership values. 1 if x € (b,c)
These variables handle partial truth (d-x)/(d-c) if x € (b,d)
between completely true and completely Gaussian Membership Function G(x) = exp[-(x-m)2 /2σ2]
false.
Fuzzification: The process that Fuzzy Based Machine learning element to belong to a particular cluster
converts a crisp input data into fuzzy Machine learning algorithms varies in the interval 0 to 1.
value by attaching a membership primarily aims at extracting knowledge Hard Clustering Soft Clustering
grade to each element. This is done from data and they employ traditional
with the help of suitable membership methods of clustering, classification
function. The output of a membership and associations for this purpose.
function is a value between 0 and Fuzzy set are applied in conjunction
1.The following table(Table 3) shows with these methods to produce more
different membership functions and flexible results. Fuzzy based knowledge
corresponding equations where a ,b and representation and reasoning is widely
m are the lower limit, upper limit and used in designing machine learning
modal value respectively. algorithms and models. They gave Cluster 1 Cluster 2
Fuzzy Rule Base: It is a simple a new life to the scientific fact of
IF-THEN rule with a condition and machine learning which have been in
a conclusion that is constructed to a dormant stage for a long time. Fuzzy
control the output variable. Fuzzy rules sets are applied in the stage of data
are evaluated and the results of the processing itself as they have the ability
individual rules are combined using to model incomplete and imprecise
fuzzy set operations. data representation. Fuzzy extension
Defuzzification: The final result, principle was used in mapping of data
which is a fuzzy value, is converted to models. Fuzzy rule based systems
to crisp value using defuzzification wrapped with fuzzifiers and defuzzifiers Cluster 1 Cluster 2
method. Fig: 2 below shows working were used for classification and
of an air conditioner which is based on regression. Fig 3: hard clustering and soft clustering
fuzzy logic and artificial intelligence. Fuzzy Clustering Algorithms
Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) adjusts the As for an example, in a medical
The clustering algorithms are
temperature of the room according field different diseases have similar
mainly divided as hard clustering and
to the current temperature of the symptom or one single gene may
soft clustering. In hard clustering each
room and the target value.The room be causing multiple disorders. In all
object belongs to only one cluster. But
temperature is compared with the these cases it is really intelligent to go
in soft clustering also known as fuzzy
target temperature by the fuzzy engine with fuzzy clustering. Different Fuzzy
clustering, each object belongs to
and a suitable command to heat or cool Clustering Algorithms are summarized
more than one cluster(Fig :3). In fuzzy
the room is produced. in Table 4
clustering, a membership value of each
Fuzzy Association Rule
Association Rule Mining is
FlS
Air
Room considered as a powerful functionality
Conditioner in data mining as it finds association
between different co-occurring events
in a data set. But the traditional
association rules found to be unfit when
solving realistic problems since they
Fig 2: Fuzzy based Air Conditioner use only binary values of 0’s and 1’s.
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Table 4: Fuzzy based Clustering Algorithms- Summary

Algorithms Descriptions References


Fuzzy C Means Proposed by Dunn in 1973 and modified by Bezdek J. C. Dunn Proposed FCM in “A Fuzzy Relative of
Clustering (FCM) in 1981. Most popular fuzzy clustering techniques the ISODATA Process and Its Use in Detecting
Fuzzy c-means clustering involves two major steps Compact Well-Separated Clusters” published
1. The calculation of cluster centers in Journal of Cybernetics in 1973 and extended
2. Assignment of points to these centers using a by. Bezdek in 1981 in his paper” Pattern
form of Euclidian distance. Recognition with Fuzzy Objective Function
The algorithm assigns a membership value to the Algorithms” published in Society for Industrial
data items for the clusters within a range of 0 to 1 and Applied Mathematics
A fuzzification parameter determines the degree of
fuzziness in the clusters
Possibilistic C Proposed by Krishnapuram and Keller Krishnapuram and Keller proposed PCM in
Means Clustering Helps to identify outliers (noise points). “The Possibilistic C-means algorithm: insights
(PCM) Results in low typicality values for outliers and and recommendations” Published in: IEEE
automatically eliminates these noise points. Transactions on Fuzzy Systems ( 1996 )
Sensitive to initializations and may generate
coincident clusters.
Fuzzy Possibilistic Proposed by Pal and Bezdek Pal,Bezdek,et.al proposed FPCM in “A Fuzzy
C-Means Integrated the features of both Fuzzy C-Means and Possibilistic c-means clustering algorithm”
Algorithm (FPCM) Possibilistic C-Means published in IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy
Fuzzy values of the FCM and typicality values of Systems(1997)
the PCM are combined in order to achieve a better
clustering model
Possibilistic PFCM solves the noise sensitivity deficiency problem Nikhil R. Pal, Kuhu Pal,et.al proposed PFCM
Fuzzy C Means of FCM algorithm. in “Possibilistic Fuzzy C Means Algorithm”
Algorithm (PFCM) PFCM helps to overcome the coincident clusters published in IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy
problem of PCM. Systems (2005)
PFCM provides an improvement to FPCM by
eliminating the row sum constraints of FPCM.
They often result in loss of information it an attractive tool in classification.
Knowledge Base
and create problem of uncertainty Fuzzy logic when combined with Neural Input
.So numeric attributes were replaced neural networks can produce more Neural Output
with fuzzy attributes. They can handle reliable output as this fuzzy enhances Neural Network Fuzzy Interface
uncertainty problems associated with the generalization capability of neural
real world and maintain information networks (Fig: 5). Large number
integrity. Numeric attributes are of neuro-fuzzy models have been Learning Algorithms
converted into fuzzy attributes using developed and they were applied in many
fuzzy apriori and various other fuzzy fields such as disease prediction, risk Fig. 5 : Classification using neuro-fuzzy
association rules (Fig 4). Strong analysis etc. Combination of fuzzy and model
association rules generated using neural networks can result in human-
fuzzy logic is used in complex decision like reasoning by producing dynamic estimate input output functions.
making situations. and parallel processing systems that
Fig 4: Learning Membership function
and mining association rules Learning
Predifined MF Deterministic MF’s Fuzzy Mining
Process
Fuzzy Classification
Classification is a supervised learning Evolution
method used to make intelligent Transaction DB Module Fuzzy Association
MF
decisions. In classification a class is Rule
defined with a specific property and all
elements within that class obeys that Transaction DB
property. The mesmerizing performance
of neural networks in dealing with Fig. 4 : learning Membership function and mining association rules
large number of parameters made

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Conclusion by fuzzy methods help in producing combination and fusion of information


The main contribution of fuzzy information granules for knowledge that are necessary for machine learning
towards machine learning is its representation in machine learning. algorithms. Ultimately, when fuzzy logic
graduality, which is the ability to Fuzzy sets offers interpretability by combined with machine learning can
represent gradual concepts and providing an interface between a be applied in many real world situation
properties. Fuzzy concepts are used numeric values and symbolic values including medical decision making,
as modeling elements in a particular composed of linguistic terms. Also education, multimedia application,
problem domain. In machine learning, these fuzzy models are more robust economics, risk analysis, air craft
once a problem domain is found, it can than non-fuzzy models as they are maintenance, gene network analysis
be broken as gradual concepts. These deprived of defining strong classes of etc. Due to these advantages, fuzzy
concepts and the relation between boundary. Representation of uncertainty logic based machine learning becomes
them can be learned to perform proper together with the incorporation of a promising approach towards better
decision making. Another important back ground knowledge can result decision making.
property, that is, granularity offered in more sophisticated aggregation, n

About the Authors


Sujamol S. is a former Assistant Professor at SNGIST Group of Institutions, N Paravur, completed M-Tech in Computer
Science and Engineering from Christ Knowledge City, Mannoor and B-tech from SNMIMT, Maliankara, Ernakulam. Currently
doing research in Data Mining at Amrita School of Arts and Sciences, Amrita University, Kochi.

Dr. Sreeja Ashok is currently working as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science, Amrita School
of Arts and Sciences, Amrita University, Kochi. She has blend experience in industry and academic fields. Her industrial
experience includes Data Analytics, Project Management, Software Development, and Quality Assurance (Wipro and Avenir).
Her research is broadly in the fields of computational biology, developing machine-learning algorithms for modeling
biological and clinical data; has a strong publication record to her credit.

Dr. U Krishna Kumar, a Life Member of CSI, is Director, Amrita School of Arts and Sciences and Dean (Arts,
Media and Commerce) of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University. He has more than three decades of
experience in teaching and research. Areas of interest include Data Mining, Medical Informatics, Media and
Science Communication. Has published research papers in various national and international journals.

Past President visit to Shambhunath Inst. of Engineering & Technology


On 28 September 2017, Sri H.R. Mohan, Past President, Computer Society of India along with Dr. P. Sakthivel, Chairman,
IEEE Computer Society, Madras Chapteit visited Shambhunath Institute of Engineering & Technology, Allahabad. They were
welcomed by Prof. D.K. Dwivedi, Director (Capacity Building & Entrepreneurship), Prof. Radha Raman, HOD, CSE, Prof.
Parikshit Agrawal, Prof. Abhishek Kumar Pandey, Student Coordinator, CSI-SIET Student Branch and other faculty members
of Department of Computer Science & Engineering, SIET, Allahabad.

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Using statistical approach to Machine


Translation for Indian languages
M. Sasikumar Prakash B. Pimpale
Director, Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Mumbai (C-DAC) Mumbai Senior Technical Officer, C-DAC Mumbai

Introduction disambiguation. Ambiguity can even much higher, and where such large
Machine Translation (MT), i.e., happen at sentence level as in the corpora is available, there have been
translation of content from one sentence, “I saw the man on the hill attempts to use NMT.
language to another language using the with a telescope”, which has multiple A translation problem can be
help of computers, is a necessity for a meanings depending on where ‘with a construed as figuring out what patterns
country like India. Being a multilingual telescope’ is attached. As MT involves in the source language correspond to
country with 22 official languages two languages, problems like these get what patterns in the target language. For
and only small share of population amplified. The involved languages may a new sentence, these correspondence
speaking English, communication have completely different morphology rules can be used to replace the source
of information is a major challenge. and syntax, i.e., it may happen that, a patterns to the corresponding target
Human translators try to bridge this word in one language has no equivalent patterns to produce a sentence in
information gap, but the inherent word in another language (and so has the target language. In RBMT, these
limitations of manually performing a to translated into multiple words), or patterns are manually identified and
complex knowledge intensive task like may be one language uses different coded into the system. SMT, as the
translation restricts the height one can grammatical structure than the other. name suggests, relies on statistical
reach. As the information technology These are just a few snapshots to techniques to address this problem.
is reaching masses, we will be seeing demonstrate the source of complexity Main components of any SMT system are
more focus on Indian languages. for MT. Translation Model (TM) and Language
Making all these people understand In this paper, we discuss the Model (LM). Translation Model basically
each other at run time, is a task beyond Statistical Machine Translation (SMT) captures the pattern replacement rules
human capabilities. MT systems apart approach to tackle the problem of and is learnt by an SMT system from
from automating and speeding up the translation and how we at C-DAC a bilingual parallel corpus. This is a
task, also offers confidentiality, i.e., you Mumbai have used the same in our MT probabilistic process and consequently
don’t have to expose your content to an system, Anuvad, for Indian languages. for a given pattern comes up more than
unintended (human) user just for the Statistical Machine Translation one target pattern. A language model
sake of translation. The techniques for MT are being (LM) is used to select the right target
MT has been an important field continuously improved and researchers pattern, looking at how sentences are
of research in computer science for have moved from the traditional Rule constructed in the target language.
many decades. Though it’s still work Based MT (RBMT) to Statistical MT Language Model is learnt using a
in progress, quality of translation is (SMT) and recently to Neural MT (NMT/ target language corpus. The language
improving day by day with the emerging DeepMT). Major factors which fostered model scores the sentences generated
techniques. Despite the long gestation this movement were the hope of a more by TM, based on their fluency in the
period, the complexity of natural accurate translation and lesser human target language which is represented
languages has still not allowed us to involvement in creating the knowledge by the aggregate probability of word
solve the problem completely. The structures required for RBMT. Now sequences in that language.
major source of complexity in natural the problem of MT has moved from There are variants of the SMT
language is ambiguity, in many different structural and morphological transfer model. We have used phrase based
forms. One word in a language may of one language sentence into SMT approach in Anuvad. Though
have multiple meanings; for example, another, to transfer of one pattern into SMT can save the effort of manually
word ‘bank’ in the sentence “I lost another. For SMT, the languages are generating transformation rules, going
my wallet at the bank”, may mean considered as patterns and learning to a fully statistical model raises many
that, you lost your wallet at a financial the transfer model from one pattern challenges. In practice, we need a
bank while withdrawing money or you to another became the translation hybrid model, where other knowledge
lost your wallet at a river bank while system. Availability of huge sentence sources are used to make the job of
having bath. This is called word sense aligned parallel corpora accelerated SMT less error prone. Keeping this
ambiguity and sense of such words in the development of machine-learning in mind, along with the use of core
the given sentence needs to be decided based MT systems, paving way for SMT. phrase based SMT, we have developed
using a technique called word sense For NMT, the corpora requirement is and incorporated various techniques to

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handle complexities involved in MT for Transliteration apart from the core SMT richness; a word takes many different
Indian languages. These are described training and decoding modules. These forms depending on the context it is
in the next section. are the improvements we worked on, as used in. keÀjsiee, keÀjsbies,keÀjesies, keÀ©biee etc. for
Anuvad - An English to Indian mentioned above. These are discussed the word kar (do). By default, these
language SMT system in more detail below. The block diagram words are treated as independent
Development of Anuvad was started shows English as the source language words, and makes the pattern detection
with focus on English to Hindi and and Hindi as the target language. problem harder. Further, even if we
Marathi translation. Further we have know karoonga-kartha hai (keÀ©biee –
tried to extend the approach for other keÀjlee nw) combination, we are unable to
major Indian languages, basically from convert jaoonga (peeTbiee) to jaatha hai
Indo-Aryan and Dravidian language (peelee nw). To alleviate this problem, at
families and were able to achieve some the preprocessing stage we also apply
Fig 2 : Reordering Example
improvements there also. If you like stemming and compound word splitting
to read more details about our work, to handle morphological difference
please refer our publications openly As we know, structure of an English in the source and target languages.
available at http://kbcs.in . sentence is Subject – Verb – Object (SVO), Stemming, splitting and any other
We have developed systems for whereas for those Indian languages we preprocessing, for that matter, are
English to Hindi, Marathi, Punjabi, were looking at, primarily it’s Subject – applied as per the need and nature of
Bengali, Tamil, Gujarati, Telugu, Object – Verb (SOV) and we sometimes languages involved in translation.
Konkani and Malayalam. Size of observe free word order also. For There can be situations when
the parallel corpus available is example, the English sentence ‘Ram some of the words from new sentences,
significantly important in determining Killed Ravan.’ (SVO) can be translated mostly names of entities like person,
the performance of SMT systems, and to Hindi as ‘Raamne Raavanko maaraa.’ place, etc, may not get translated by our
in most cases, large aligned corpus (SVO); translation ‘Raavanko Raamne trained system. Such words are then
is not available for Indian languages. maaraa.’ is also frequently seen. In passed to the transliteration system,
More work in this area is very important the presence of adjectives, phrases, Xlit also developed by C-DAC Mumbai,
to produce good quality translation and sub-ordinate clauses, this re- which essentially does an intelligent
systems in our languages. ordering can mean movement across script conversion. The final output is
An MT system, like any other very many words. Such movements are presented to the user as translation
Machine Learning system, has two hard to capture statistically. To ease this which he can choose to use as it is or
phases, the training phase and testing/ difference of word order, we reorder edit.
usage phase. In the training phase, the the English sentence to Hindi structure Performance of Anuvad
models are created, and these are used in an approximate fashion. After It’s important to know the accuracy
to produce translations in the testing reordering, the above English sentence of a system before relying on it for the
phase. Fig 1 shows block diagram of will become ‘Ram Ravan Killed’. Fig 2 purpose of translations. MT accuracy is
Anuvad System at an abstract level. has a complete example. mostly measured using BLEU (Bilingual
We can see that, Anuvad makes use Another characteristic typical of Evaluation Understudy) score. Many
of Reordering, Stemming, Splitting and many Indian languages is morphological times translations are also evaluated
manually, but are time consuming and
costly.
Though BLEU scores are used
widely, averages over multiple human
scores is the best way to judge accuracy
of system for deployment in the field.
In table 1, we detail the manual scores
of Anuvad for some language pairs.
This evaluation is done by an external
agency (MTIL17) and translations were
manually evaluated by three different
language experts and then averaged. In
manual evaluation, the translations are
scored for adequacy and fluency. Thats
is, this evaluation looks at how much
information from the source sentence
is carried into the target (adequacy) and
how native/fluent the translation is in
the target language. The final score is
Fig. 1 : Anuvad Block Diagram
average of these two scores.
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the role of an assistant for translators.  Koehn, Philipp. Statistical m a


ch
ine
Language Pair Expert Score/
Following are some sample application translation. Cambridge University
Accuracy (in )
scenarios for the same. Press, 2009.
English-Hindi 68.64  Customized MT system for  Philipp Koehn, Hieu H
o
ang,
Administrative, Legal, Technical, Alexandra Birch, Chris Callison-
English-Punjabi 58.34
etc. domains with higher accuracy. Burch, Marcello Federico, Nicola
English-Tamil 48.00 Bertoldi, Brooke Cowan, Wade
 Annual report translations Shen, Christine Moran, Richard
English-Malayalam 31.94
 Government agencies wanting to Zens, Chris Dyer, Ondrej Bojar,
make use of MT, but not willing to Alexandra Constantin, Evan Herbst,
Table 1 : Manual Evaluation Results share their data with third party Moses: Open Source Toolkit for
can have their own SMT system. Statistical Machine Translation,
for Anuvad
Annual Meeting of the Association
Anuvad has been tested multiple  System localisation for software
for Computational Linguistics
times internally and externally. It has applications. (ACL), demonstration session,
been awarded best MT system for Indian
For more information about our Prague, Czech Republic, June
languages, twice by ‘International
work in AI, Machine Learning, Machine 2007.
Conference on Natural Language
Translation, NLP and Data Science,  Prakash B Pimpale, Raj N ath
Processing’ (ICON) and once by ‘Shared
please visit our website www.kbcs.in or Patel, Sasikumar M, “ SMT from
Task Cum Workshop on Machine
write to kbcs@cdac.in. Agglutinative Languages: Use
Translation in Indian Languages (MTIL)’.
of Suffix Separation and Word
Our work on these languages along References
Splitting”, The 11th International
with other Indian languages is still in  Ananthakrishnan Ramanathan,
Conference on Natural Language
progress and we aim to achieve better Pushpak Bhattacharyya, Jayprasad
Processing (ICON 2014) , Goa
accuracy with improved techniques and Hegde, Ritesh M. Shah, and
University, Goa, India, December
use of a bigger parallel corpora. M. Sasikumar. 2008. Simple 18-21, 2014.
Applications of Machine Translation syntactic and morphological  Raj Nath Patel, Rohit Gupta,
Being a trainable system, an SMT processing can help English-Hindi Prakash B. Pimpale and Sasikumar
system can be used for creating a statistical machine translation. In M, Reordering rules for English-
custom machine translation system for International Joint Conference on Hindi SMT, In Second Workshop on
various domains. As the accuracy of MT NLP, 2008. Hybrid Approaches to Translation,
is yet to reach a level when machine  Jurafsky, Dan. Speech & la ngu
age ACL 2013, Sofia, Bulgaria, August
generated translations can be used as processing. Pearson Education 4-9, 2013
it is, a system built with SMT can play India, 2000. n

About the Authors


M. Sasikumar (CSI Life Membership No. 01202409) Prakash B. Pimpale works as Senior
is Director of Centre for Development of Advanced Technical Officer with C-DAC Mumbai.
Computing, Mumbai (C-DAC Mumbai). He has been He works with KBCS division and is
involved into conceptualisation and overall design of involved in R&D projects in MT, NLP, ML
and Data Analytics.
a number of research projects in e-learning, natural
language processing, accessibility and artificial
intelligence.

“geekExpo” - Project Exhibition


“GeekExpo”- A project exhibition was held at SSIPMT Raipur on 5th October
2017 in association with CSI Raipur Chapter and Center of Excellence of
CSE & IT. In which 22 groups presented their Projects/Models/Ideas based
on IoT/Webapps/Mobile Apps. Judges are Mr. Nishant Tripathi (Chairman,
BG SSIPMT) Dr. Alok Jain (Principal SSIPMT), Dr. J. P. Patra (Secretary,
Raipur Chapter), Prof. Riju Bhattacharya (CSE), Prof. Gurudatta Verma
(CSE) and Owner of Gifttrees & Codenicely Startups. They motivate and
appreciated the efforts of students and one participant got paid internship
by Codenicely.

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Machine learning at the Edge of Internet of


Things
Mohammad Khalid Pandit, Roohie Naaz Mir and Mohammad Ahsan Chisthi
Computer Science and Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology Srinagar. Email: Khalid@nitsri.net

INTRODUCTION forwarding and all the analysis happens discusses the problem of high latency
Internet of Things (IoT) has recently at the cloud which makes decisions of over 100’s of ms associated with the
emerged as one of the buzzwords in based on current and historical data. cloud.
the IT world. It serves as a catalyst for These decisions are then transported There has been a tremendous
rapidly growing smart networks with the back to the edge of network for actions. increase in the computing power and
deployment of sensors, communication storage capabilities of the personalized
and control infrastructure at a rapid devices (smart phones, IoT gateways).
pace. IoT envisions the concept in Smartphones today are million times
which all the physical objects, generally more powerful than all of NASA’s
referred to as “things” get connected combined computing in 1969. Popular
to each other and the internet for IoT gateway Raspberry pi has a 64 bit
information sharing. IoT goes beyond quad core ARM processor, each of
the classical machine to machine which offers one third of computational
paradigm whereas later only focuses capabilities of Intel xeon processor
on the communication infrastructure core over the cloud [4]. With such
(protocols), IoT envisions not only computing capabilities around us in
communication infrastructure but an form of IoT edge we feel there is an
intelligent network that can be sensed opportunity in exploiting this compute
and programmed using state of art capability & storage power of modern
techniques from machine learning and personal devices. This shift gives rise to
neural networks. It enables new kind Fig 1. Big Data Statistics [11] a new computing paradigm called Edge
of applications ranging from smart computing. This new paradigm will help
homes, smart body implants to self- For the dream of IoT to be in de-centralizing the computing from
driving cars and much more. It enables successful, the enormous data that it cloud towards the edge of IoT. Edge
new kind of applications ranging from generates has to be processed in real computing will complement the cloud
smart homes, smart body implants to time and classified into actionable as more computationally intensive
self-driving cars and much more. These information. Currently cloud is the tasks will be delegated to the cloud for
devices generate huge amounts of data, natural choice for large machine final outcome.
according to IBM 2.5 exabytes (EB) - learning algorithms to run and process why Intelligent Edge?
that’s 2.5 billion gigabytes (GB) - of data data. The presence of huge compute Delegating more powers to the
was generated every day in 2012 [1]. power of cloud coupled with modern edge than we have in the traditional
Estimates suggest that 90% of total data Graphics Processing Units (GPU’s) lend centralized approach requires that
has been produced in last 2 years, and naturally towards processing these some of the computation on the data
current data production output is almost huge amounts of data. generated by IoT sensors to be done
2.5 quintillion bytes per day. Currently However with continuous incoming on edge itself. The reasons for edge
we have almost 20 billion connected data from sensors, cloud being the computing becoming necessary are:
devices and IHS Markit projects 30.7 only analytical engine introduces many Data generation at the edge: most
billion IoT devices by the end of 2020 extra complications. For example. of the data for analytics is produced at
[2]. In order to create a truly smart IoT connection is always required to the the edge of network. Natural and easier
application the massive data that gets cloud, unilateral trust between client way is to process that data at the edge
generated from the sensors needs to be and cloud service. It can also incur loss itself, with the exception of historical
processed and analysed into actionable of privacy by releasing the personal data that lies in the cloud.
information. information to the centralized service Network and energy constraints:
The traditional approach of using like cloud. Security remains the prime the issue of latency becomes
centralized architecture of cloud, concern of cloud computing as the raw unacceptable for some of the mission
wherein the devices (end points in IoT) data generated by the sensors is being critical applications. Edge devices
are only used for data sensing, data send to the cloud servers. Reiter et al [3] are not always connected through
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low latency network; instead they use edge as computing resource will have but multiple output layers are trained
UMTS and LTE connections. Reiter et an advantage of using cloud as support for each hidden layer. It runs the part
al [3] shows that UMTS connections are infrastructure but puts decision related of network locally and part of it over
subject to large variations of round trip to trust and control back to edge and the cloud. Only those samples can be
times (RTT) of more than 100ms during is well suited for human centered classified locally which are processed
peak traffic hours. computing. with sufficient confidence (above
Transferring 1 bit of data over Machine learning at the Edge threshold). The remaining samples
cellular network requires about 500 Machine learning especially are send to the cloud for further
micro joules (µj) of energy. With the artificial neural networks are the processing. LeCun et al [6] performed
amount of data that is being generated, natural solutions to process such the experiments on MNIST data set
the energy consumption for transferring huge data that gets generated in (fig 4) which is the repository of over
the data will be huge and beyond our IoT environment. It can be used for 70000 images of handwritten digits. The
imagination. classification, object recognition, experiments showed that the neural
natural language processing, speech network with just two layers (i.e one
30 FB recognition etc. currently cloud is the hidden layer) is able to achieve 4.7%
only choice for training and evaluating error rate, i.e. 95.3% of the samples of
deep neural networks due to its power MNIST data set are classified by only one
Data Usage

3.7 EB and scalability. As we have already hidden layer with sufficient confidence.
discussed the short comings using
cloud only solution. Therefore, the
1 PB goal is to distribute the neural network
10 GB
among the local compute power (fig 3)
present in the IoT scenario (devices,
gateways, embedded GPU’s).
2000 2005 2015 2020

Fig 2. Monthly Data Usage

Monthly data usage (fig 2) in 2005


was about 10GB, today we use more Fig 4 : MNIST Dataset [12]
than that amount of data in a day. There
is about 100 times increase in 2005
This experiment clearly suggests
with 1 PetaBytes (PB) of data usage
that more than 95% of these samples
and more than 1000 times increase in
do not require the additional deeper
2005 to 2015 at about 3.7 EB per month.
layers and could be classified in single
Estimates suggest that more than 30EB
layer of neural network which can
of monthly data usage in 2020. To simply Fig 3 : Role of Edge and Cloud services be easily implemented on the device
calculate the energy requirements for
itself. Additionally we can only send the
transferring these huge amounts of
Training a deep neural network is processed form of the unclassified data
data over cellular network it will require
computationally very expensive task, but to the cloud, which can lower the energy
30EB * 500µj 500 terra watt hours
the trained network have to be deployed and cost of data transmission.
It roughly estimates to about 2% of the real world IoT environments. The Qualcomm researchers are trying
entire world’s electricity consumption distribution of layers of neural network to develop the neuromorphic chips
to be used only for sending data over among devices wills speedup the which can execute the neural network
cellular network [10]. This is the evaluation. The layers will be distributed in hardware, which will be clearly faster
staggering number as it does not even among the local compute power and the than the software simulated neural
include the energy consumption for cloud. The deeper layers (that will be in networks. Neuromorphic hardware
data processing. So, it is high time the cloud) will only be needed when the closely mimics the working architecture
for us to devise the solutions in which lower layers (at the edge) will not be able of human brain [9]. They are trying
we can do more with data at the edge to make the classification precisely. The to come up with neural processing
leveraging its computational power and local layers can be used to output the units (NPUs) that will replace or work
sending lesser amounts of data into the urgent decisions and the more detailed alongside the traditional CPUs and
network. information could be send to cloud for GPUs that are powering computers
Human Centered Computing: further processing. today. Qualcomm’s Zeroth machine
centralized architecture of cloud is Sam et al [8] proposed an intelligence engine provides a software
not suited for novel human centered architecture of cascade of neural development kit that will allow
computing, that would allow humans network layers among devices in which developers to perform many of the
to be the owner of their data. Making only one output layer is not trained same machine learning capabilities

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of cloud on the device (edge) through energy and performance issues. It will Edge and Cloud Platforms.” IEEE
snapdragon 820 System on Chip (SoC). be compliment to the cloud paradigm Internet of Things, May 2017.
Elias et al [7] proposed a big little whereby the ML algorithms will run [5] Kumar, Ashish, Saurabh Goyal, and
Manik Varma. “Resource-efficient
architecture for distributed neural on the small scale devices driving the
Machine Learning in 2 KB RAM for
networks for internet of things. The localised decision making. With the the Internet of Things.” International
neural network is partitioned into big amount of data being generated and IoT Conference on Machine Learning. 2017.
and small (little) networks. The little device population surpassing human [6] LeCun, Yann, et al. “Gradient-
network is housed in the edge device population, the energy requirements based learning applied to document
itself and the big network is put in the highlighted makes it imperative to do recognition.” Proceedings of the
cloud. The aim here is to use the local a lot more with the data at the edge IEEE 86.11 (1998): 2278-2324.
compute power first (little network) itself and sending far less data into the [7] De Coninck, Elias, et al. “Distributed
neural networks for Internet of Things:
before turning up to the cloud. This will network.
the Big-Little approach.” Internet of
drastically save the network, energy and There is a need for investigating the Things. IoT Infrastructures: Second
cost requirements. [7] proposes the use opportunities of distributing the deep International Summit, IoT 360° 2015,
of one vs. all or one vs. one classifiers to neural networks and other machine Rome, Italy, October 27-29, 2015,
speed up the execution of small neural learning algorithms across the edge, Revised Selected Papers, Part II.
network which is distributed among the fog and cloud devices. This seems Springer International Publishing, 2016.
local compute power. the only way by which we can actually [8] Leroux, Sam, et al. “Resource-
Microsoft researchers [5] proposed realise the dream of IoT, making devices constrained classification using
a cascade of neural network
the use of tree based learning truly smart.
layers.” Neural Networks (IJCNN),
procedure ‘Bonsai’ for resource References 2015 International Joint Conference on.
constrained devices which are typical to [1] IBM Annual Report 2013 https://www. IEEE, 2015.
IoT scenario. Bonsai aims at providing ibm.com/annualreport/2013. [9] Monroe, Don. “Neuromorphic
the alternative paradigm where in IoT [2] https://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/ computing gets ready for the (really) big
devices can make decisions locally telecom/internet/popular-internet-of- time.” Communications of the ACM 57.6
without the compulsory connection things-forecast-of-50-billion-devices- (2014): 13-15.
to the cloud. Also sometimes the by-2020-is-outdated [10] David Brooks “Hubweek Symposium
[3] Reiter, Andreas, Bernd Prünster, 09/30, David Brooks: Taking
energy requirements for executing the
and Thomas Zefferer. “Hybrid Mobile Machine Learning to Edge Devices”
instruction may be much lower than Edge Computing: Unleashing the Full 6-october-2016.
the energy required to transmit the data Potential of Edge Computing in Mobile [11] Data Never Sleeps 3.0 https://
thereby extending the battery life. Device Use Cases.” Proceedings of www.domo.com/blog/data -never-
Conclusion the 17th IEEE/ACM International sleeps-3-0/.
Symposium on Cluster, Cloud and Grid [12] MNIST data set http://csc.lsu.
This article outlines the need for
Computing. IEEE Press, 2017. edu/~saikat/n-mnist/.
the computing at the edge to solve the [4] Yogesh Simmhan, “IOT Analytics Across

About the Authors


Mohammad Khalid Pandit is currently pursuing his PhD from National Institute of Technology Srinagar in the
Department of Computer Science and engineering. He received Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and M.E. in Computer
Science and Engineering from Anna University Chennai. He worked as Assistant Professor in department of CSE at NIT
Srinagar from September 2013 to May 2017. He has served as student member of CSI, and is the member of IACSIT and
IAENG.. His research interests include Artificial Intelligence, Machine learning and Edge computing.
Roohie N. Mir is a professor in the Department of Computer Science &amp; Engineering at NIT Srinagar, INDIA. She
received B.E. (Hons) in Electrical Engineering from University of Kashmir (India) in 1985, M.E. in Computer Science &
Engineering from IISc Bangalore (India) in 1990 and Ph.D from University of Kashmir, (India) in 2005. She is a Fellow
of IEI and IETE India, senior member of IEEE and a member of IACSIT and IAENG. She is the author of many scientific
publications in international journals and conferences. Her current research interests include AI and Machine learning,
reconfigurable computing and architecture, mobile and pervasive computing and network security.
Dr. Mohammad Ahsan Chishti [CSI - I1501576] has done his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) from National Institute
of Technology Srinagar. He has completed Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.) and M.S. in Computer and Information
Engineering (MSCIE) from International Islamic University Malaysia. Presently he is working as Assistant Professor
and Head of the Department of Computer Science &amp; Engineering, National Institute of Technology Srinagar. He
has more than 50 research publications to his credit and 10 patents with two granted International Patents. He has
successfully completed Department of Science &amp; Technology sponsored research project. He has been awarded
“IEI Young Engineers Award 2015-2016” in the field of Computer Engineering for the year 2015-16 by the Institution of
Engineers (India) and “Young Scientist Award 2009-2010” from Department of Science &amp; Technology, Government
of Jammu and Kashmir for the year 2009-2010. He has been Executive Member, Institute of Engineers India (IEI) of
J&K Chapter.

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S E CU R IT Y C OR N ER

Empirical Survey on Advances of Network


Forensics in the Emerging Networks
A. R. Jayakrishnan V. Vasanthi
Research Scholar, Rathinam College of Arts and Science, Research Supervisor, Rathinam College of Arts and Science,
(affiliated to Bharathiar Univ.), Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India. (affiliated to Bharathiar Univ.), Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India.
E-mail: anilakkad.jk@gmail.com E-mail: vasanthi.cs@rathinamcollege.com

In the modern world, where most of the population is connected to the internet via smart devices,
the surface for committing crimes and being attacked by hackers have been increased drastically.
Number of cybercrimes keep increasing and may ramp up when IoT, M2M, 5g and other new network
technologies become more popular in coming years. The electronic crimes that involve the use of
computer networks are considered the most complex category. After an attack is identified on a
network, there is a necessity for computer forensics to investigate and gather digital evidence to bring
to justice. Network forensics is dealt with the dynamic and volatile information instead of static/stored
data. hence, highly sophisticated techniques are required for instantaneously tracing down criminals
network activities. A honeypot tool can be used to trap intruders and collect essential information on
the crime activities. Classification of network forensics, reviews on emerging network areas, intrusion
and prevention methods, attack detection process, network forensic process, reviews on various
NFATs, survey on network forensic approaches are incorporated in this paper.

Keywords: Cyber Forensics, Network Forensics, Digital Security, Live Forensics Mechanisms, NFAT, Honeypot

1. Introduction
Computer forensic experts take place or have occurred within an analysis shall also be analyzed to
often face difficulties during data information technology system. The compile the study. Questions of network
collection from a network to aid in major components of network forensics security issues and attacks and the
forensic investigation. The crime scene include intrusion detection through investigation mechanisms used in a
constantly changes and as the traditional logging and correlating with the process. network security accident will also be
crimes reduce in number, the cyber Network forensics plays a primary role discussed in the study. Concerns as
crimes incidents are occurring more in the provision of sufficient evidence whether network forensic mechanisms
frequently. To comprehensively solve the to allow the perpetrators of crime to can be used in eliminating network
emerging network problems through be successfully persecuted. Practical security issues and attacks will also be
network forensics, understanding the application of network forensics in considered in the research.
context of forensic investigation and the emerging networks could be present 2. Background
general nature of emerging networks is in areas such as email investigation, The word computer crime was first
the key issue. hacking, insurance companies, fraud used in 1976 by Donn Parker in a book
Network forensics is a scientific detection, drug trafficking, software “crime in computer” [12], [13] that it is
field that deals with the collection, piracy, credit card cloning, electoral law, referred as dealing with unauthorized
recovering and the examinations of discrimination and sexual harassment modification or deletion of data in a
network events for the purposes of [2]. computer system [14]. Nevertheless, FBI
establishing sources of security attacks. This study aims at conducting was established first actual computer
This phenomenon is useful in the a literature survey to ascertain the analysis and response team in 1984
identification of unauthorized access emerging network forensic areas to conduct advanced digital forensic
to computer network systems and is and identify effective architectures investigation of the crime scenes [15].
an investigative tool in case of such for maintaining network security. The It was in 1986 the first complicated
occurrences. According to Alzaabin [1], process for network attacks detection, digital forensic investigation case was
network forensics plays an investigative network forensic process and the executed, chasing a hacker named
role at network level, the issues that essential tools for network forensic Markus Hess [16]. Mr Hess had

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intruded to the LBL, the Lawrence- criminals behind it. From the existing networked technologies, fast advancing
Berkeley-National-Laboratory. It was network security products and tools, networking technologies and the need
detected and investigated by Mr. Clifford network log data are collected, analyzed to deal with volatile and dynamic live
Stoll. There wasn’t any standard digital for attack classification and investigated data, complicates the efforts to identify,
forensic investigation framework in to trace through the perpetuators. This collect and preserve evidence data in a
place at the time of the incident, so process can bring out deficiencies in timely fashion.
Stoll had to carry out the investigation security products which can be utilized In order to keep up to the pace
on his own. As Stoll’s objective was to guide deployment and improvement with the modern changing face of
discovering the identity of the intruder, of these security tools as well. The scope criminal activities and its growth, It is
he didn’t alter anything in the system of network related incidents should be important for the forensic research
and only collected the possible traces. quickly determined and also be able and practitioner communities to have
He finally managed to discover the to rewind the breach by the forensics an in-depth understanding of the types
identity and location of the attacker by investigator so that they can detect of artefacts that are likely to remain on
tracking the hacker for many months where to look for the potential evidence. network and on networked devices as
using alarms which send notification Network forensic investigator will well as the capability to undertake data
when the attacker was active with the require the same thought process and collection and acquisition in well-paced
cooperation of FBI and Telco Company. skill set as hackers in order to detect and in a forensically sound manner.
The case became a big issue since it why and what has happened and also Network security is not another
was involved academic and individual to identify the motivation for the crime. term for network forensics. Network
bodies in U.S, Germany and military Different networks may be spanned forensics is an extended phase of
bodies [17]. Day by day improvement across multiple geographical zones and network security. Network security
of digital devices makes digital crime various jurisdiction, which demands protects systems against attacks
more complicated than it was in 1986. the use of absolute trusted timestamps whereas network forensics focuses
Our augmented dependency on latest to make sure the integrity and on capturing evidences of the attacks.
networked technologies and the authentication of timestamps for each Network forensics is considered as
prevalent inter-connectivity of systems portion of network evidence ensuring an extension of computer forensics.
used in our networked modern world that all jurisdictions collaborate. The Monitoring is a continuous process.
are potentially be exploited for criminal network data will be available in both However, network forensics involves
purposes (e.g. malware, hacking, real time and off line modes, the former post mortem investigation of the attack
phishing, theft of trade secrets & requiring the ability to pick and analyze and is initiated post crime notification.
intellectual properties etc.). There are data on the fly. The amount of data could It is case specific since each crime
basically two approaches for network be massive due to the increasing size of development is different and the
protection. Defensive Mechanism is used network bandwidth and also it could process is time sensitive.
to defend from intruders by blocking involve various different protocols. A 2.2 Classification
malicious communications on network. protocol could in turn involve multiple Network forensics can be classified
Tools like Firewall, IDS are used by layers of signals. The current available into two types: “Catch-it-as-you-can”
this method. Firewalls control network set of forensics tools may not be able systems, whereby all the packets that
traffic according to the rules set, but has to handle the real-time and huge data are passing a specific traffic point are
many limitations. IDS is primarily a real volume. Various techniques are required captured and analyzed subsequently in
time system for detecting and reporting for instantaneously tracing criminal’s batch mode. This method requires lots
attacks as it happens on the fly, however network activities on computers and for of storage space as it captures volumes
it has no evidence gathering capability. mapping the networks topology. of data. Also, searching and finding
Preventive Mechanism will not block For any cyber-attack, an evidence required information from the stored
the network attack, but tries to prevent trajectory would be left in IDS - intrusion data is a big overhead. “Stop, look and
it by access control or authentication. detection systems, firewalls, proxies, listen” is another network forensics
Reliable and comprehensive network routers and within the network traffic. system that analyzes information in a
security and forensics architecture are Hence, there is an increasing need rudimentary manner in memory and
essential in maintaining security of the for investigators to analyze network only certain information is saved for
emerging networks. traffic, events, logs, netflow and digital future analysis [3]. Fig. 1 depicts the
2.1 Definition device log, in order to discover how an classification of forensics.
Network forensics is a science that attack was carried out. Such activities
monitors and analyzes network traffic, could lead in reconstruction of a
Network Forensics
aiming at detecting malicious network crime and eventually the identification
activities and preserving the trace to of the criminal(s). Rigorous
produce as legal evidence at court. It methodology and set of procedures
deals with capturing, recording and for conducting network forensics and Catch-it-as-you-can Stop, look and listen
analyzing of network traffic in order to investigations are very much required
discover the source of attack and the in place. However, the increasing use of Fig. 1 : Classification of forensics
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It is often a long and tedious important role in the emerging network traditional model of forensics does
process that requires standard areas such as Machine-to-machine not adequately address the recent IoT
operational procedures for the (M2M), 5G and Internet of Things (IoT). environment [19].
management. In order to come up M2M - The Internet in achieving 3.2 Preliminaries of Network Security
with a standard operating procedure intelligent interactions between and Forensics.
for network forensics in emerging machines having different terminals Intrusion detection and prevention
networks, it is recommended to have uses the Machine-to-Machine networks. systems are used to monitor network
a standard investigation image for This emerging network is composed traffic and activities of the network
system. This image should not be of equipments, back-end systems, system for any malicious activities.
of a bit stream and do not contain transmission links and front-end Intrusion prevention system takes
all the standard applications used. sensors. The front end sensors helps in action by sending an alarm, resetting
When an intrusion incident occurs, the collection and transmission data to connection, dropping malicious packets
the vulnerability of the system should the back end systems that is overhauled or blocking traffic from any offensive
be fixed to prevent any chances of and the back end nodes transmits IP addresses. Intrusion prevention
attacks. All the volatile data should be information to back end control system. System (IPS) is also essential in
acquired through live acquisition before When the M2M networks are attacked, cyclic redundancy check (CRC) errors
the system is switched off during the the terminals it is associated with correction, eliminating extra features
development of the standard procedure becomes affected and the network and network layer options as well as
for network forensics [5]. Additionally, a is eventually paralyzed and cannot unnecessary packet streams [18].
compromised drive should be acquired function. The security issues of M2M Honeypots and Forensics - With
and an image of it is taken. Comparison are attracting many concerns as the the rise of cyber-attacks, Honeypots
of forensic images should be done encounter of several attacks, hence, the have been considered one of the best in
and hash values properly checked to need for an elaborate forensic expertise network crime forensics, warm attack
ascertain if there are any changes in arises. Network security architectures detection and other aspects of active
them [5]. and protocols are evolving to counteract defense methods. A honey pot is a trap
Traditional vs Live - Live forensics the challenges experienced by emerging network that is static and is effective
(forensics on a system that cannot be networks. This evolution is key in the for attackers who are reckless. When
switched off, as in the critical systems) unauthorized access prevention leading the attackers are however aware of
and the attribution root question (linking to security improvement [18]. the existence of the honey pot, their
the criminal activities to the convicts 5G – Even though, the specifications functionality becomes degraded. In
behind it) are examples of issues that of the 5G is still not finalized, but order to increase the functionality and
requires additional research. The the technology is expected to be the persuasiveness of the Honeypots, the
traditional forensics and Live forensics fastest speed as high as 10Gbps. The behaviors of the attackers need to be
have common features, where both of new technology would lead to ultra- collected and stored in a safe place [11].
them are looking for similar artifacts low latency applications, high volume Honeypots are copies of the real
on a system. However, the differentiator data rate applications, network of servers and are often used to simulate
with live response is that the artifacts network applications. Real time threat real service through the coordination
are discovered on a live running system detection and network isolation are of various modules. These modules
against an active adversary. With going to be a big challenge for 5G include data acquisition module,
traditional forensics, images are taken networks. Interoperability and diversity remote storage module, detection
of volatile memory and hard disks before in networks increase attack surface module and implementation module.
being analyzed. Imaging alone can take and motivation of attacks. Forensics Data acquisition module captures
many hours and then the images should of such a superfast network would be and collects the activities of intruders
get processed and indexed to allow for a nightmare for the experts in coming or attackers. The remote storage
keyword searches. Obtaining and then years. [31] module in the other hand backs up the
processing the image could take a day IoT - The development and network system remotely and captures
or longer with large capacity disks. advancement of the Internet and other data to the log servers and keeps
With live response, there won’t be any smart electronic systems have led to the information without any further
scope for imaging or processing that the emergence of computing prototypes modification. Detection module protects
has to occur, everything will be real such the Internet of Things (IoT). The the host and records the invasion
time. This would dramatically improve IoT has been considered as the future process. Implementation module on
the response time in identifying and of Internet works with other emerging the other hand is used in the simulation
quantifying a threat. The quicker the networks such as M2M communication and protection of the host and prevents
threat is identified, the quicker it can be and Radio Frequency Identification attacks from any intruders.
contained and remediated. (RFID). IoT has the primary mandate Surveillance and Vulnerability
3. literature Review of adequately securing data exchange Scanning - During a forensic event,
between real world applications the surveillance and vulnerability
3.1 Emerging Network Forensic and devices. The paradigm of digital
Areas scanning systems are usually not stored
forensics in line of Internet of Things through the SIEM system. Surveillance
Network forensics plays an is challenging and diverse and the

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& vulnerability systems are potential information for network forensics. and outside network attack detection,
parameters in attacks minimization via Another module that can be data recovery, risk analysis, attack
firewall rule adaptations or alterations. designed is the data analysis layer. It patterns detection, future attacks
The above mentioned preliminaries of analyzes network contents from the prediction and detection of anomalies
network security and forensics helps in content crawling layer. It extracts and in the network system. The main
the detection of all network anomalies displays information that is useful and properties of network forensics analysis
and are useful in the identification of all related to the attackers and finally tools include collection of information
the attackers. After the attackers have helps in the compilation of a report of [6].
been traced by these systems network evidence. Forensics implementation Some of the network forensics
forensics then follows. This process layer is an additional module that analysis tools include but are not limited
experiences challenges such as the loss is significant in the adjustment of to NetIntercept, which collects and
lag of network forensics and to some the evidence collection stability and analyzes bundles of traffic, Iris, which
extent even loss of evidence. Attack flexibility and it modifies the acquisition collects data from the Internet, then
detection needs to be integrated with of information and filters them in order reassembles them and reconstructs
network forensics in order to improve to simulate the login rules [7]. the actual text from the session.
the timeliness of forensics after the During network forensics process, NetDetector is another NFATs that
detection of attackers. after the design and compilation of capture the attack, integrates signature
Attack Detection Process - During the layers in the forensics analysis anomalies and reconstructs the actual
the attack, the network defense system modules, the network forensic analysis text from the session [10]. NetDetector
sends out attack alerts. Such alert needs to finish the collection of data, also supports network interfaces and
information needs to be collected in collection of information, analysis of analyzes report on network traffic.
order to identify the exact location. the collected data and ultimately and Silent Runner is a network forensic tool
Access authority is then sought and most importantly the implementation that primarily focuses on inside threats
the behaviors of the attackers analyzed of the forensics process [8]. A waterfall and analyzes the threats in a three
according to their path and finally model which has been commonly dimension on the network in order to
their operations intercepted and the followed in forensics has various steps monitor all the packets passing through
information of the attackers recorded. – Preparation, Detection, Collection, a specific network. Other network
The main attack detection process Preservation, Examination, Analysis, forensic tools include NetWitness,
includes sending a request to the URL Investigation, Presentation and Incident NetworkMinor, and NetStumbler etc [9].
that has been accessed to request the response. Feedback from steps 3.5 Literature survey evaluation on
collection of data information, recording examination, analysis and presentation Network Forensic approaches
the results of traffic anomalies and the can be used for improvement of network Evidence Graphs for Network
actual suspicious traffic, analysis of the security, tools used etc. Fig. 2 depicts Forensics Analysis [21], is a technique
obtained suspicious traffic and then the process of network forensics. for network forensics analysis which
accessing the relevant static resources. Preparation includes manipulation, effective
The behaviors of the attackers are then
Improvement of Security Tools

evidence presentation and automated


analyzed and finally the interception and Detection Incident Response reasoning. Also included is an evidence
recording of the information will help in graph which facilitates the presentation
the network criminal forensics process Collection
and manipulation of intrusion evidence.
[4]. Automated evidence analysis has
Preservation
3.3 Network Forensics Process an ordered hierarchical reasoning
Demand for evidences collection Examination framework that includes local and
is changeable in the process of global reasoning. Local reasoning
network forensics. For one to meet Analysis
aims to infer the roles of suspicious
such demand, composition of network Iterative
Investigation
hosts from local observations. Global
Process
forensic modules has to be designed. Reasoning aims to identify group of
This can be done through network data, Presentation strongly correlated hosts in the attack
which records the process of network and derive their relationships. Most
communication evidence collection Fig. 2 : Network forensics process comprehensive and sophisticated step
and binary network data packets is the analysis step. More realistic
preservation. Content crawling network experiments and investigate methods to
is one module that can be designed in 3.4 Network Forensics Analysis Tools automate the process for hypothesizing
meeting the demand of data collection. (NFAT) missing evidence and validating
This layer helps in the preservation Network Forensic Analysis Tools hypotheses are needed in the model in
of documents relevant to a specific (NFATs) are essential forensic tools used local and global reasoning process as
network and that, which is readable in the collection of data and aggregation mentioned by the authors.
in terms of images and text data. With of data form various security tools. They Step by step framework [22], has
such a module, it is easy to extract function in IP security provision, inside detailed about merging the previous
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frameworks to form a reasonably requires more tools to conduct network reduction and organization), and
complete framework that groups forensic analysis in order to provide post analysis (report and resolution).
all the existing processes into three accurate results in investigation phase. Standard methods of detecting and
stages - preparation, investigation and Two-dimensional evidence collecting evidence doesn’t exist, which
presentation. They are implemented reliability amplification process produces insignificant evidence and
as guidelines in network forensics. The model [24], it consists of sixteen sub- it affects the accuracy of the incident
aim of the framework is to establish phases and they are then grouped in response as well.
guideline of what steps should be to five main phases namely initializing, Digital forensics investigation
followed in a forensic process. However, evidence collection, evidence procedure model [25], it consists of ten
it looks to be difficult in understanding examination or analysis, presentation phases with investigation preparation,
how the Forensics Zachman (FORZA) and case termination. All phases of classifying cybercrime & deciding
[23] depicts a framework that focuses the model are explained in detail by investigation priority, investigating
on the legal rules and participants in identifying the roles of the inspector damaged (victims) digital crime
the organization rather than technical and manager in each phase. The model scene, criminal profiling consultant
procedures. The framework tries to aims to provide answers to common and analysis, tracking suspects,
solve complex problems by integrating cybercrime queries, however it doesn’t investigating injurer digital crime scene,
answers for the queries why (the focus on intention and strategic analysis beckoning suspect, writing criminal
motivation), what (the data attributes), (why and how questions). It has much profiling and reporting. Model presents
who (the people involved), where (the similarity with incident response and block diagram without any technical
location), how (the procedures) and computer forensics. Both presents a details or process to manipulate with
when (the time) questions. Framework common process model for incident all these phases. Main focus was on
also includes eight rules namely case response and computer forensics to the number and the type of the network
leader, legal advisor, system or business improve the investigation phase. The forensics phase rather than how they
owner, security or system architect model includes steps grouped into three works and how they conduct outcomes.
or auditor, digital forensic specialist, main phases consisting of pre analysis Categorization of investigation
digital forensic analyst, digital forensic (detection of incidents, initial response procedure was done [26] to group and
investigator or system administrator and formulation of response strategy), merge the similar processes in five
or operator and legal prosecutor. analysis (live response, data recovery, phases that provide the same outcome.
Framework is human dependent and forensic duplication, harvesting, The phases lists: Phase-1 (preparation),
Table 1: literature survey on Network Forensic approaches

Author Proposed work Advantages Disadvantages


Stephenson et. al Forensics Zach man The framework could solve complex problems It is human dependent. Requires many tools
2003 (FORZA) by integrating answers for the queries why to conduct network forensic analysis in order
(motivation factor), what (data attributes), to deliver accurate results in investigation
who (people involved), where (location), how phase.
(procedures) and when (time) questions.
Kohn et. al 2006 Step-by-step framework It reasonably has complete framework which Clarity of understanding how framework
groups all existing processes in to three stages addresses all the phases of network forensics
like preparation, investigation and presentation, in main stages is a bit difficult.
which are implemented as guidelines in
Network forensics.
Khatir et. al 2008 Two-dimensional evidence Consists of 16 sub phases and are grouped No standard method of detection and
reliability amplification them in to five main phases. This methodology collection of evidence exists, it affects the
process. aims to provide answers to most of cybercrime accuracy of incident response.
queries.
Yong-Dal et. al Digital forensics Contains ten phases. This model shows block Main focus deviated from how the phases
2008 investigation procedure diagram without technical details or methods to work and how they organize the outcomes.
model manipulate with these phases. Rather it focused on the volume and the type
of network forensics phases.
Rahayu et. al 2008 categorization of proposes a mapping process of digital forensic Little bit of unclarity on grouping and
investigation process investigation process model to eradicate the merging the various process and arriving at
redundancy of the process involved in the model 5 processes.
and standardize the terms used in achieving the
investigation goal.
Wei et. al 2010 Evidence graphs for It includes effective evidence presentation, The model needs to be refined in both native
Network Forensics automated reasoning and manipulation of and global reasoning process with more
Analysis intrusion evidence with a graph. representative experiments.

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Report of ‘3rd IT Excellence Awards 2017’


by CSI Ghaziabad Chapter
Ghaziabad Chapter organized ‘3rd IT Excellence Awards 2017’ on 9th
September 2017 at Auditorium of Inderprastha Engineering College,
Sahibabad. IT Excellence Awards were presented in various categories to
individuals and organisations working in promotion of IT. This was the 3rd
edition of awards which was originally instituted for spread and awareness
of IT in Ghaziabad region but this year it covered nominations from Northern
India (CSI Region 1) as well. Some award recipients were marquee achievers
at National level.
Award recipients were:
 All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) for patient experience
improvement in OPD
 Mr Rajesh Dogra (National Head of Passport Operations) for excellence
in Government-to-Citizen services
 Dr Anil Pandey & Mrs Usha Pandey – For dedicating their life to
wholesome education to slum children
 Purple Arrow Consultancy Services – Special Startup award for
innovation & Entrepreneurship
 Aptron Solutions – IT Training institute for designing relevant courses
for Engineering students
A panel discussion was also organized during the event on the topic – ‘Can
initiatives like Start-up India and Digital India generate employment by
creating more entrepreneurs?’
Panelists were Dr A K Chawla (HR Data Privacy Lead, TCS and Former HR Head for North India, TCS), Ms Sarita Chauhan (Business Power
Coach) and Prod Manoj K Pandey (Director, SRM University NCR Campus). Discussion was quite interesting which was excellently moderated
by Ms Charu Garg (Former anchor, Zee News).
CSI awards were also presented to Student members, member Engineering Colleges and academicians. Prof A K Nayak (Hony National
Secretary, CSI) was the Chief Guest on the occasion. He emphasized the importance of Digital India and how it is critical for today’s society.
Mr Saurabh Agrawal (Patron CSI and Chair – Awards Jury) briefed on the essence of IT Excellence Awards and how they are being recognized
at the regional level.
Er. Anil JI Garg (Chairman CSI Ghaziabad Chapter) briefed about the growth and evolution of Ghaziabad chapter over last 13 years and how
it has been the best performing chapter in the entire region. Chapter’s performance can be gauged from the fact that out of 12 student
branches in the state of U.P., 10 are in Ghaziabad alone. Dr Kavita Saxena (Secretary, CSI Ghaziabad Chapter) presented her annual report on
chapter activities for 2016-17. Dr B C Sharma (Director, IPEC) and Shri Piyush Goyal (Founder Secretary, CSI Ghaziabad Chapter & DGM SAIL)
also spoke on the occasion and shared his thoughts with the delegates and students. Also present were former RVP(1), Shri Shiv Kumar and
UP SSC, Dr Sunil K Pandey.
Next morning on 10th September 2017, Prof Nayak had a breakfact think-tank meeting with the chapter patrons and OBs. Hony Secretary
congratulated Ghaziabad chapter on the excellent show and on its continuous good work in the region. Meeting generated several ideas and
Prof Nayak promised to present them in the upcoming National Executive Committee meeting.

About the Authors


Mr. A. R. Jayakrishnan [Member No: I1503330] is currently pursuing PhD in Cyber Forensics from Bharathiar
University. He pursued MCA from MG University in 2001, PGDBA from Pondicherry University in 2005 and has
industry experience of 16 years in IT companies in India and UK. His area of interests are Network Forensics,
Information Security, IoT Forensics, Honeypots. He can be reached at anilakkad.jk@gmail.com

Dr. (Mrs.) v. vasanthi pursued M.Sc(CS), M.Phil, and Ph.D Computer Science from Karpagam University,
Coimbatore in 2014. She is currently working as a Professor in Department of Computer Science at Rathinam
College of Arts and Science, Coimbatore since 2015. She has published many research papers in reputed
international journals including Thomson Reuters (SCI & impact factor) and conferences including IEEE &
Springer. Her main research work focuses on Adhoc and Sensor Networking. She can be reached at vasanthi.
cs@rathinam.in

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A REPORT
TM
Computer Society of India
CSI Young IT Professional (YITP) Awards 2017
Final Round at Nashik on 7th Oct. 2017

Back row – SB Bagal, Principal GN Sapkal college of Engg., person as mentioned above.
Manas Ranjan Pattnaik CSI treasurer, Shri.Gautam Mahapatra  Motivate upcoming professionals and enhance the
CSI Vice President, Prof. A K Nayak Hon Secretary CSI, prestige of the profession by enabling them to exercise
Sanjay Mohapatra CSI President, Ravindra Sapkal CMD their skills and competencies in the best possible and
Sapkal Knowledge Hub, Prof. E. Vayunandan VC YCMOU, innovative manner
Nitin Mahajan GM BSNL, Dr. Anirban Basu CSI IPP, Jury Mr.  Directly or indirectly contribute towards the improvement
Hussain Dahodwala, Shri SR Karode, Dr. RS Tiwari of professional effectiveness in different spheres of life
 Motivate young men and women to imbibe the
Front row – Prabhakar & team, Shreyasi Datta winner, Dr.
entrepreneurial spirit and thereby encourage more and
SS Sane RVP region VI & YITP convener, Jury Rohit Kulkarni,
more people to venture into entrepreneurship
Sandeep Karkhanis Chairman CSI Nashik Chapter
 Encourage contribution in boosting the economy of the
CSI had announced “CSI Young IT Professional (YITP) country and promote research
Awards” competition for Individual IT Professionals and the IT
The Criteria:
Professional Teams below 35 Years Age, with objectives to:
The most outstanding technology project related to any
 Recognize the significant contribution(s) made by a
theme mentioned below & completed during the year 2016/
The regional winners:
Region Competition Winner Winner’s Project Runner-up Runner’s Project
Location
I Lucknow Mr. Ashutosh Kumar Route Finder and Communicator Mr. Manish Kumar Design and Development of a
for Blind, Deaf and Dumb Web Crawler for Hidden Web
II Kolkata Ms. Shreyasi Datta Detection of AF and Other Mr. Purnendu Debnath Smart BIO Secure Server Login
Arrhythmia Using Single Lead
ECG
III Vadodara Ms. (Dr.) Deepshikha Fire Detection in Visible Spectral Mr. Rushi Trivedi Modem Trace Tool & Automation
(Baroda) Tiwari Range of Carrier Acceptance Testing
IV Bhubaneswar Mr. Sanjaya Kumar Dynamic Data Normalization in Mr. Santosh Kumar Online Query Tracking System
Panda Cloud Computing Satapathy
V Bengaluru Mr. Shanmuga Vehicle Clutch Health Ms. Shresta Anatha Xcelerator - Education, Project
prognostics and Vehicle Fuel and Career Guidance Portal
Consumption calculation
VI Pune Mr. Prabhakar My Robot – Personal Assistant Mr. Sudhir Gorade, & Bandhan / MahaBandhan – A
Gadupuddi Team Self-Help-Group of Women
VII Kovai / Mr. S. Sathish “Vibo” - An Artificial Mr. V. Gokula An Intelligent Smart Energy
Kovanputhur Kumar, & Team Intelligence based Machine Krishanan, & Team Saver
(Coimbatore) Learning ROBOT for Assisting
Physiotherapists

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A REPORT

2017 (project duration could be of 2-3 years from the start well achieved in this research. The innovative Sensing is the
date) within an organization were judged for following criteria Low-Cost “Single Lead” but at the same time, recognizing and
by the selection committee: accepting that “Every irregularity in the pattern is NOT noise!!”
Criticality of IT Usage, Improvement of Customer Service, Therefore, the Noise in the Signal cleaning (removing) and the
Innovation, Return on Investment, Quality of Management, Marker Detection utilized the Spectrogram Method of Digital
Impact on Organization and/or Society & Presentation Skills Signal Processing which is analyzing the Signal Frequency
The completion was carried first at each of the 7 Regions Components in Hz with respect to time in Seconds (Time
of CSI at the following Centers where the Winners and Runners Domain) for the Frequency band of 0 to 150 Hz (higher power
up of the regional contest from each region were selected for at higher frequency means noisy window, to be rejected) in the
the Final Round Competition at Nashik. time frame of 0 to 30 Seconds. Traditional systems generally
The winners of the regional contest were qualified for record a longer duration of ECG (more than 1 Hour) using
competing in the final national round. 12-Leads Medical-Grade Device.
Each Participant / Team Leader at the Final Round
was given 30 Minutes for the presentation, followed by the The automated feature extraction techniques made the
questions by the Juries & the Audience. Invisible features, visible to the doctors!
However, all 14 Regional Winning Teams, 2 from each of More than 200 ECG Features can be extracted which are
the 7 Regions, could not appear for the Final Round due to domain specific which are impossible for the doctors to do.
various reasons. So, the Computers catch them fast and accurately.
The 4 Juries appointed for the evaluation of the Final Round
Teams were eminent & very well experienced IT Professionals The Arrhythmia Screening Process Block Diagram showed a
from Nashik who cross-questioned the contestants to really Patient / Person using the Single-Lead Sensor for his left-hand
judge them and bring-out on the front their IT Skills. & right-hand fingers. The Sensor provided an Ultra-Sound
The Jury team comprising of 1] Shri. S. R. Karode, 2] Electro-Acoustic Coupling to a side-by Mobile Microphone.
Dr. Anand Tiwari, 3] Mr. Rohit Kulkarni and 4] Mr. Hussain The ECG acquired in the Mobile Memory is transmitted to a
Dahodwala were keen to understand from the participants Server (Cloud). The Signal Processing done on the Server are
about their contributions. Noise Cleaning from the ECG waveform, Feature Extraction,
The Program started off with introduction speeches, and the Classification based on the Inputs from Pre-trained Models.
inauguration of the function by performing puja of goddess This Project Team has obtained a Patent for this project. The
of knowledge, Ma Saraswati Devi, followed by the dignitaries Team won an International Competition of the Physionet
on the dais lighting the traditional oil lamp, symbolizing the Challenge in 2017. The Team has excellent support from the
removal of the darkness of ignorance and lighting-up the medical doctors.
knowledge.
Overall, involvement, enthusiasm and the devotion noted
The competition was rightly set for - on this project was the highest and highly technical and
thoroughly professional. This IT Professional would continue
Category Final Round - to demonstrate even brighter results in time to come.
National Awards (`)
Winner 25,000/- The second prize was bagged by team lead by Ms. Shresta
Anatha on their Team’s development & Implementation of the
1st Runner-up 15,000/-
Education, Project and Career Guidance Portal (Excelerator).
Special mention 10,000/-
She highlighted the gap between the Industry Requirements
All teams presented their creative and innovative solutions and the Academic Output, addressing the serious problems
and product developed by them for their organisations. This of large number of Un-employable professionals with un-
difficult task of selecting the final Winner, the 1st Runner-up adequate skills which are demanded by the Industry.
and the Special mention was ably performed by the jury team.
The Industry needs, apart from the basic knowledge & the
The winner Ms. Shreyasi Datta on her domain knowledge, soft-skills, ability to analyze the problems,
project - Detection of Atrial Fibrillation and the problem solving approaches. She stated that formal
(AF) and Other Arrhythmia Using Single learning constitutes only 10% where as 20% is the informal
Lead Electro-Cardio-Gram (ECG). learning and the most significant part, that is 70% is by way of
The subject itself was highly technical, the on-the-job experience.
combining the technologies of Sensor, So, the 3 Buckets of making the potential candidate employable
Electronic Signal Processing, Medical are: Education, Exposure to Industry and Hands-on Experience
Electronics / Diagnosis, Machine Learning, and Intelligent from 2 Weeks up to the required duration.
Algorithms & Validation Schemes etc.
To address the situation, her team cleverly came-up with the
The motivation behind this project is to enable continuous Solution, “Xcelerator” as a Conceptual Architecture which
monitoring of cardiac conditions of the elderly through a holistically considers the Recommendations, the Skills
simple, easy to use, smart-phone based attachment by Framework, and helps in building the Candidate’s Digital
constant analysis of ECG data by doctors remotely, which is Portfolio suitable for Recruitment.

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A REPORT

A Recruitment Dashboard on the Portal provides for Job Scope of the solution as presented has the high level features
Description, going in details of Use Case, Recommendations, as Personal assistant, IT Assets management and Device
Clarity on the Job Role, Skills Frames covering all aspects of management.
Education, Exposure and Experience. The Portal Technology
This project realized well their goal of providing a single
Stack was explained in terms of layered & robust architecture
application which automates IT assets management, Personal
in terms of Top Layer as Presentation Layer utilizing the
assistant, Device management as well as it helps individuals
ReactJS & NginX (both acting as the web server) and Sub-
to simplify their daily routine tasks.
Layers as Navigational Feeds, the Application Layer based
on Phoenix Web Development Framework written in Elixir, Features/ Functionality successfully lively demonstrated
deriving it’s strength from Erlang (concurrent, fault-tolerant were Voice enabled features for E-mail integration, Device(s)
and real-time system – A Virtual Machine); the Data Layer of management, Artificial intelligence enabled Chat-bot
Redis (mainly used for caching and to manage job queues) & integration, IT Assets/ compliance management, and Personal
Postgres (it runs Relational DB and NoSql DB in the same assistance.
server); and Infrastructural Layer of Docker (to manage the The Project’s Software and hardware requirements for 25 users
whole application stack by containers being run), AWS (Cloud are, Cloud Server (Hard Disk 80 GB, RAM 2 GB); Software:
Server). Android V 6.0+, Python required libraries Version 2.7+, MySQL
The Candidate’s Attitudinal Problems too are attending DB v5.0+, TensorFlow -, Google Speech recognizer – Natural
including a Blogger Forum. Language Tool Kit (NLTK); Mobile application – Android
application V6.0+
The Return on Investments were discussed on 4 Revenue
Streams of Workshops, platform subscriptions, mentoring and The Development tools and technologies utilized were, Front
guidance fees, recruitment service fees, affiliate agreements, end – Android layout model (XML); Back end – MySQL DB,
etc. Rest APIs and the Development environment – Android Studio
/ Eclipse environment (Java)
Finally, Impact on Society was presented in detail as the Team
want to give students pursuing a degree, a sense of purpose, The System Implantation Level Block Diagram showed the
to help them choose a goal, make a plan to achieve the goal, Mobile as a Voice Input & Output Device which sends digital
and help them stick to the plan to achieve their goal. The information to the Gateway which includes IMEI Operation and
platform empowers students to articulate and pursue their Model Token. The Services APIs are Loader, Main, Audit, Device,
aspirations and ambitions. The Teams’ Future Plans as Services, Chatbot, Remind. The Request generated is filtered
explained include expansion to an even wider college base and bundled. The cloud Storage provides the databases.
– more students on the platform will help them make their This project showed effectively how “Time is Money!!” and
recommendation algorithms more robust. how this application reduces the Total Cycle Time. A Physical
A similar effort on the industry side to expand the number Method which would take say about 14 Minutes, the “My Robot”
of companies on the platform is also underway. Their URL: can do the same in just 2 Seconds.
https://www.xcelerator.ninja On the whole, the entire presentation was most attentively
The special mention prize was awarded to Mr. Prabhakar watched by the audience and for the Non-IT personnel; it
Gadupuddi and his Team on the Project - My Robot – Personal would have given the feel of a Sci-Fi Movie. The Juries queries
Assistant. were most successfully fielded by the presenters.
The Project summary explained “My Robot – Personal It was enjoying moments as to watch and experience what
Assistant” as a mobile application and end user(s) can talk to today’s Information & Communication Technologies can do for
their mobile phones using natural language and assign the the mankind.
task for automation. Users can talk to their mobile phone and
mobile phones will control/ monitor user’s daily activities,
meetings, reminders, personal computers and IT assets, The event got overwhelming response from IT professionals
virtual machines and etc. from Nashik, Academia, Students and was appreciated
by participants, guest and executive committee of CSI for
In this application, artificial intelligence module is enabled. arrangements done by Nashik Chapter & Sapkal Knowledge
Mobile phones virtual think and respond to users for the Hub under guidance of Prof. Shirish Sane, RVP region VI and
task completion. All devices (computers, servers, mobiles) YITP 2017 convener.
are inter connected for sharing the device status and info for
n
monitoring/ controlling.

www.csi-india.org
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Pilgrims in the Digital World Book Review
By Sandeep godbole

has stated that we are only at the beginning of this journey


and tomorrow may be different than what we may imagine it
to be. This is a book on digital technology for users who may
not want to dive into the technical details.
The book is organized into four parts, each representing a
theme relevant to the digital world. Part one aptly named
as ‘Sunrise’ introduces digital world and “town square” of
our era – the Internet. This part also discusses the change
that has been brought about in India by harnessing the
power of digital technology. It makes a case for the need
for digital technology given the country’s demographics
and aspirations. The chapter on data explosion and ‘Big
Data’ reveals the importance of data for analytics and our
own progress. The chapter on the application of the digital
technology provides us glimpses into the digital aspects
related to health and education.
The second part is focused on the Issues that arise in the
digital world. IT awakens us to the reality that though digital
technology is immensely beneficial, there are aspects
that are a serious concern. Complex issues are explained
in simple terms by the author. The issues discussed are
freedom in digital world, data privacy, and the intrusion and
encroachment of personal space that can even impact the
safety and wellbeing of individuals.
The third part talks about the new threats and dangers
that afflict the digital world. Cyber security has become an
essential to the digital world. Technology is a double edged
sword, it can bring us immense benefits but can also be a
vehicle to inflict serious damage. Technology in the hands of
criminals, enemy nations and adversaries can be exploited
by them to cause damage. This part discussed threats like
Reviewed by Sunil Bakshi, CISA, CISM, CGEIT, CRISC, AMIIB, cyber war, cybercrime, hacks malware enabled attacks like
BS 25999 LI, CEH, CISSP, ISO 27001 LA, MCA, PMP, Visiting advanced persistent threats, Botnets etc.
Faculty and Industry expert at the National Institute of Last part provides the means and response to the threats
Banking Management (NIBM), consultant and trainer in IT that are discussed in previous part. This part explains
governance and information security. Sunil has served as security techniques and approaches in simple terms. One
President at CSI Pune and is a life member. of the chapters is devoted to encryption, which is perceived
‘Tomorrow is not what we were told it would be’ goes an as complex and technical. Sandeep has made is simple and
English adage and the world is busy experiencing it each explained the technical concepts in a language that readers
day. Proliferation of information and digital technology can understand. This part also discussed Governance of IT
and at a blistering pace has left users bewildered. The and how it can help in creating value to the society.
change - though unexpected and largely organic, has found The reader is treated to an elegantly written and logically
acceptance in the global community. The role of technology composed book. It stands testimony to Sandeep’s writing
is central to the changes that have permeated multiple skills. The quotes, references and data provided by Sandeep
spheres. It is important that the role of technology the to argue and put forth his views is indicative of a well-
changes and its implications be discussed for the benefit of researched writing. Edward teller, the father of hydrogen
the common users. Sandeep Godbole’s book has achieved bomb has once said that “Science today is technology
this with elegance, simplicity and ease. tomorrow”. Yesterday’s Computer science is Digital
The title of the book is apt to the theme of the book. The technology of the day and we need to master its use, while
book describes the journey, the digital transformation and being cognizant of the benefits and limitations. Sandeep’s
presents what the future could possibly hold for us. Robert book takes you on an interesting pilgrimage that leaves you
E Stroud (past President, ISACA) when discussing this book better informed and enriched.

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F ROM C h AP TERS & DI v I S I O NS

COIMBATORE ChAPTER Business at Dr Damodaran College of Science on 6th October


2017. The audience of the seminar entitled “Disrupting
Digital Business” were enlighten by the knowledge shared
by the resource person Mr. S. Ravi Shankar, Chief Technical
Officer, Kovai Medical Centre and Hospital, Coimbatore.
He started the session with an introduction to digital
transformation and insisted the need of accepting digital
transformation in this technology arena for a successful and
consistent business. He also discussed about the evolution
of hardware and software technology which paved way
for a clean and groomed business environment. This also
The Chapter organized Young IT Professional (YITP) Contest supports in improving the management and accessibility
2017 - Regional Round for Region VII on 17th September 2017. of data. The environment of the current generation is
Dr R Nadarajan, Professor & Head, Dept of Mathematics & highly surrounded by the digital media. Online shopping
Computer Applications, P S G College of Tech., Coimbatore, websites have reduced the traditional purchase, affecting
Dr. N K Karthikeyan, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, a family outing and social communication. He pointed out
and Mr. S Manoharan, Head IT, the drivers driving those disruptions as globalization, data
Elgi Ultra Industries Limited, Coimbatore were the selection explosion, mobility, rise of social business, etc. He listed out
committee members. Out of 13 papers received, the team and discussed the key areas to govern the future technology.
selected 3 papers and called for presentation. The Winners/ He insisted students to equip themselves with any of the
Runners are as listed below industry requirement and update their knowledge base to
shine in their future endeavors.
Winner
Mindnotix Technologies, Dr. S Balamurugan hARIDwAR ChAPTER
Coimbatore Mr. S SathishKumar
Mr. R Deepak Engineers day was celebrated by CSI Haridwar Chapter on
15th September 2017. This very special day dedicated to all
Runner Mr. S Kaviarasan engineers, Online quiz competition for students by students
Panimalar Inst of Tech, Mr. A IrudayaPaulraj on students created platform. In this competition students
Vinod Mr. V Gokulakrishnan took part and Mr Japneet Singh won the award of ` 1,000/-.
Special mention Ms. Ramyaa R In continuation, an expert lecture on Big Data and Hadoop
Sri Ramakrishna Engg College, Ms. Sivaranjani N was delivered by Mr Mohit Kaushik, who worked for Oracle
Coimbatore Mr. N Deepak and Mr. Vivek Chaudhary, Director, Arise Data. This event
was organized by Mr Suyash Bhardwaj.
Mr. Sivabalan, Vice Chairman announced the results.
Trophy, Certificate and cash award winner ` 5,000/-, Runner NAShIK ChAPTER
` 3,000/- Special Mention ` 2,000/- Dr. R Nadarajan
distributed trophy and certificate to winners and Dr. M
Sundaresan, RVP-VII distributed trophy and certificate to
runners. Mr. N Valliappan distributed trophy and certificate
to special mention and Dr. G Radhamani, Hon. Secretary
proposed the Vote of Thanks.

CSI Nashik organized a seminar on 64-bit processor


technology from AMD on 22nd September 2017. AMD is
one of the leading x86 processor & graphics organization in
the world today. As the originator of 64-bit x86 technology,
integrated memory controller, integrated graphics and
compute cores (APU) AMD leads the world in cutting-edge
technology globally. The purpose of the seminar was to
create awareness amongst SMB, Education sector across
The Chapter and Dr. Damodaran College of Science, Nashik periphery. The presenters were Shri Ajay Koul,
Coimbatore organized a seminar on Disrupting Digital Regional Sales Manager(West), Enterprise Division, Shri

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C S I C o mm u n I C a t I o n S | n o V E m B ER 2 0 1 7
F ROM C h AP TERS & DI v I S I O NS

Manmit Desai, Business Development Manager (India), Retrieval using Opinion Mining, Machine Learning and
Professional Graphics for AMD. Ajay presented on AMD Data Analytics in Multimedia IR and Information Retrieval
processors, which mainly include, AMD Godavari, AMD – Research Perspective. There were 113 participants who
Kaveri, AMD Bristol Ridge, & New Processor Ryzen, Server have registered for the seminar, out of which 54 members
platform EPYC. He explained AMD presence and stake were from the various colleges in Tamil Nadu. The speakers
in India as well as global. Manmit explained about AMD were leading researchers and academicians in the field of
graphics. Bahubali movie on AMD pro graphics. Radeon Information Retrieval from top engineering institutions and
Pro Graphics and applicable industry. Testimony given industry. The session speakers were Dr S Swaminathan,
by M/s Minitek and AMD core architecture was explained Anna University, Chennai, Dr Janet, NIT, Tiruchirappalli, Prof
by Shri. Jaykrushna Puranik committee member and J Naveen, Christ University, Bangalore, Dr E Kirubhakaran
experienced in microprocessor based controllers and , BHEL, Tiruchirappalli, Dr U Srinivasalu Reddy, Assistant
systems development. Session was interactive and followed Professor and Associate Dean, NIT, Tiruchirappalli and Dr
by technical Q and A. The participants expressed that the S Nicolas, NIT, Tiruchirappalli. Dr S Ravimaran, Principal
session was indeed a nice and informative one. & Chairman of CSI Tirchirappalli chapter rendered the
welcome address and explain the objectives of this two days
RAIPUR ChAPTER seminar to the participants. He congratulated the faculty
members for their support and stated how the two-days
seminar will be helpful for the academicians and research
scholars.

GeekExpo, a project exhibition was held at SSIPMT Raipur on


5th October 2017 in association with the Chapter and Center
of Excellence of CSE & IT. In which 22 groups presented
their Projects / Models / Ideas based on IoT / Webapps /
Mobile Apps. Judges are Mr Nishant Tripathi, Chairman, BG MAM College of Engineering in association with CSI
SSIPMT, Dr Alok Jain, Principal SSIPMT, Dr J P Patra, Hon Coimbatore Chapter organized TRIGGER 2017 - 7th District
Secretary, Raipur Chapter, Prof Riju Bhattacharya (CSE), Level Inter School Technical Competition – TRIGGER 2017
Prof Gurudatta Verma (CSE). They appreciated the efforts of on 14th October 2017. About 532 students from 26 various
students and one participant got paid internship. schools participated. Initially, the events started off with a
TIRUChIRAPPAllI ChAPTER colorful and grand inaugural ceremony headed by Director,
M.A.M. College of Engineering Prof. U.S. Saravadayaparan
and Dr S.Ravimaran, Principal of the college and
Immediate Past Chairman of CSI Tiruchirappalli Chapter. A
lot of enthusiasm was seen in all the student participants.
Director and Principal of the college distributed the prizes
and trophies to the winner and runners of various events.

vADODARA ChAPTER

The Department of CS and Engg. has organized a Two


Days AICTE Sponsored National Seminar on Multimedia
Information Retrieval- Research Issues on 25th and 26th
of September 2017 in association with CSI Tiruchirappalli
Chapter. As Multimedia Information Retrieval has become
one of the most active sub-fields of multimedia research, this
two days seminar has provided a platform for researchers
and academicians to network and exchange different The Chapter hosted the Regional Round of Young IT
techniques to retrieve multimedia data and focused various Professional (YITP) Award 2017 for CSI Region III. The event
topics such as Multimedia Information Retrieval, Basic was scheduled on Sunday, 24th September 2017. Followed
Concepts and Issues, Multimedia Indexing Research Issues by the event, there was a Meeting with Dr. Vipin Tyagi,
and Tools, Social Media Information Retrieval, Information Regional Vice President, Region-III the MC Members of CSI,

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C S I C o mm u n I C a t I o n S | n o V E m B ER 2 0 1 7
F ROM C h AP TERS & DI v I S I O NS

Vadodara Chapter, Chairpersons of the Chapters under the


purview of CSI Region III and Ex-Chairmen of CSI, Vadodara
Chapter

vEllORE ChAPTER

The Chapter organized its fifth edition of Laser Tag. It was


a three days event, starting on 22nd September to 24th
September 2017 at VIT University. The arena was dimly
The Chapter in association with Apple Developer Group VIT lit and was set up with neon obstacles and UV lights. The
Student Branch organized a workshop on Virtual Reality and participants were divided into teams of four and were
Augmented on 16th & 17th Sep 2017 at VIT University. Mr provided with laser guns and vests. The objective of the
A. Mani, General Manager, Wipro Technologies, Bangalore game was to the tag the vest of the opponent player with
explained the basics of augmented reality and virtual reality the laser beam to score points. The equipment for the
with the help of tool called “Oculus Rift”. The speaker game was provided by Talk to the Hand- a Bangalore based
explained the different features and functions of the tool company. It was a very interactive game which required well
to develop application in real life scenario. Around 200 thought through tactics and teamwork. Around 300 students
members participated in workshop, organized by Dr. R participated in the event and organized by Dr. R. Rajkumar,
Rajkumar, Prof. K Govinda. Prof. K Govinda and Prof. Sendhil.

FR OM S T U D E N T B R A N C h ES

REgION-I
Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, Delhi Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan

31-8-2017 - CSI Orientation programme 15-9-2017 - workshop on Massive Open Online Courses
(MOOCS) by Prof Mangala Sunder Krishnan, IIT Madras

www.csi-india.org
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FR OM S T U D E N T B R A N C h ES

REgION-I
Dronacharya College of Engineering, gurgaon

12-10-2017 - Guest Lecture on Information Security by 13-10-2017 - Workshop on CISCO Networking


Mr. Narasimha Rao, C-DAC Hyderabad by Mr. Siddharth Tiwari
REgION-III
Sagar Institute of Science and Technology(SISTec), Bhopal

27-9-2017 - Expert Lecture on Data Warehousing and 7-10-2017 - Expert Lecture on C/C++ : An Expert’s View
Business Intelligence by Mr. Tarang Gupta
Jaypee University of Engineering & Technology, guna

23-9-2017 & 24-9-2017 - Workshop on C Programming 27-9-2017 – Event on KODEATHON


g h Patel College of Engineering & Technology, vallabh vidyanagar

20-9-2017 & 21-9-2017 - Event on QRIOSITY’ 17 23-9-2017 Workshop on Introduction to Python Programming
- A quizzing contest

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C S I C o mm u n I C a t I o n S | n o V E m B ER 2 0 1 7
FR OM S T U D E N T B R A N C h ES

REgION-III
The lNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur

4-8-2017 - Introduction of CSI to the freshers & short quiz 4-9-2017 - SIP (Summer Internship Project)

REgION-v
Scient Institute of Technology, hyderabad

16-9-2017 - Workshop on Mathematical Applications 9 -10-2017 to 14-10-2017 - Workshop on Android Hackathon

CMR Technical Campus, hyderabad

29-9-2017 - Guest Lecture on Education Counselling 5-10-2017 –Seminar on Full Stack Development by Mr. Rohit
by Mr. Amarnath Goud

NBKR Institute of Science and Technology, Nellore

5-10-2017 to 6-10-2017 - Workshop on 10-10-2017 - Training Program on Website Designing


Cyber Security and Malware Analysis

www.csi-india.org
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C S I C o mm u n I C a t I o n S | n o V E m B ER 2 0 1 7
FR OM S T U D E N T B R A N C h ES

REgION-v
geethanjali Institute of Science & Technology, Nellore vasavi College of Engineering (Autonomous), hyderabad

15-9-2017 to 17-9-2017 - Workshop on 9-9-2017 – Contest on Connect It


Google Android Developer Workshop
Anurag group of Institutions, hyderabad

15-9-2017 to 17-9-2017 - Short Term Training program on 12-10-2017 - Orientation Program about CSI by Mr Mohan
Ruby on Rails by Mr Pavan Manne Raidu, Chairman, CSI Hyderabad Chapter
REvA UNIvERSITY, Bengaluru

1-9-2017 – Event on Best Idea Competition 7-10-2017 - Inauguration of CSI Student Branch
by Dr. Anirban Basu, IPP, CSI
St Joseph Engineering College, Mangaluru JSS Academy of Technical Education, Bangalore

18-9-2017 - CSI Student Branch Inauguration 23-9-2017 - Technical talk on Information and storage issues in
Modern Intelligent environments by Mr Hanu Ramasanjeeva

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FR OM S T U D E N T B R A N C h ES

REgION-v
K S Institute of Technology, Bangalore

28-8-2017 - Seminar on Overseas Education 11-9-2012 to 12-9--2017 – Hands-on workshop DBMS


gSSS Institute of Engineering & Technology Maharaja Institute of Technology, Mandya
for women, Mysore

22-9-2017 National Level Coding Competition : 16-9-2017 - Technical Talk on Cloud Computing and Mobile
CODE IGNITER – 2017 Computing by Mr Manu Kamath
REgION-vI
Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur Pillai hOC College of Engineering and Technology, Rasayani

16-8-2017 & 17-8-2017 - Two Days National Level Technical 16-9-2017 - Workshop on Web Application Development
Fest on iTECHROOTS 8.0 Using MVC & SERVLET
late g. N. Sapkal College of Engineering, Nashik

25-9-2017 - Seminar on CCNA Certification 26-9-2017 - Workshop on Project to Entrepreneurs

www.csi-india.org
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REgION-vII
Panimalar Institute of Technology, Chennai

23-9-2017 to 7-10-2017 – Training Program on SQL 2016 and C# 24-9-2017 - Runner up team with the organizers in the CSI
.NET by Mr Joel S Davis Young IT Professional (YITP) Award 2017
Rajalakshmi Engineering College (Autonomous), Chennai

11-9-2017 - Workshop on Web Application Development 13-9-2017 - Seminar on Bootstrapping in Mobile Application
Using Hibernate with Spring MVC by Mrs Banu Manoharan Development by Mr Ashwin Irudayarajan
Nehru Institute of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore Avinashilingam Institute for home Science and
higher Education for women, Coimbatore

21-9-2017 – Dr. Sundaresan, RVP-VII, 22-9-2017 - Workshop on Arduino Controller and its
CSI Inaugurated CSI Student Branch Applications by Mr. Madhan Kumar
Toc h Institute of Science & Technology, Ernakulam vIT University, vellore

18-8-2017 – Dr Rajesh Maliyeckal, Past Chairman, CSI Cochin 30-9-2017 - Workshop on coding “Send CodeZ”
Chapter Inaugurated CSI Student Branch

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REgION-vII
Jeppiaar Institute of Technology, Sriperumpudur

13-9-2017 - Guest Lecture on 15-9-2017 - Guest Lecture on Theory of Computation


Computer Graphics and Multimedia by Dr. Aju by Dr. Anand Mahendran

CSI CA l EN D AR 2 0 1 7 - 1 8

gautam Mahapatra, Vice President, CSI, Email: vp@csi-india.org

Date Event Details & Contact Information

NOvEMBER State Level Student Convention for Andhra Pradesh organized by CSI Student Branch of GITAM Inst. of Tech., GITAM
24-25, 2017 University, Visakhapatnam. Contact : Prof. R Sireesha, 9848503365, sireesha.rodda@gitam.edu

DECEMBER Regional Level Student Convention for Region-VI organized by CSI Student Branch of Bansilal Ramnath Agarawal
19-20, 2017 Cheritable Trust’s Vishwakarma Institute of Information Technology, Pune. Contact : Prof Snehal Rathi, 9850604785,
snehal.rathi@viit.ac.in

21-23, 2017 State Level Student Convention for Tamil Nadu by Karpagam College of Engineering, Coimbatore. Contact : Dr. S. Angel
Latha Mary, 9842242882, angellathamary.s@kce.ac.in

28-29, 2017 Regional Level Student Convention for Region-V “Malwares in Social Media” organized by CSI Student Branch of
NBKR Institute of Science and Technology (Autonomous), Nellore. Contact : Dr. S. Maruthuperumal, 9848772088,
maruthumail@gmail.com

2018 Regional Level Student Convention for Region-VII organized by CSI Student Branch of Jeppiaar Engineering College,
JANUARY Chennai. Contact : Dr P Jesu Jayarin, 9444053102, jjayarin@gmail.com
23-24, 2018

24-25, 2018 State Level Student Convention for Maharashtra State organized by CSI Student Branch of St.Vincent Pallotti College of
Engineering & Technology, Nagpur. Contact : Prof. Abhishek D. Pathak, 9890919330, abhishekpathak81@rediffmail.com

FEBRUARY State Level Student Convention for Gujarat State organized by CSI Student Branch of G H Patel College of Engineering &
09, 2018 Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar. Contact : Dr Moulika S Patel, 9428488563, maulikapatel@gcet.ac.in

www.csi-india.org
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52nd Annual Convention of Computer Society of India
In Technical Collaboration with
(CSI 2017)
host: Kolkata Chapter | venue: Science City
19-21 January, 2018
On enormous request the last Date of Submission has been extended up to 15th November 2017
Theme: Social Transformation - Digital way
Proceedings will be published by Springer Nature Singapore in CCIS Series indexed by SCImago, Scopus, DBlP
52nd Annual Convention of Computer Society of India (CSI 2017) will be held at Science City, Kolkata during 19th January to
21st January 2018. The CSI Annual Conventions are held in different cities across India. The CSI Annual Conventions, usually
attracting 2000 plus participants have been held since 1965. Apart from technical sessions, tutorials, panel discussions and
Exhibition are main features of the convention. The Conventions held at Kolkata include CSI 66 (First Convention), CSI 78, CSI
86, CSI 90, CSI 94, CSI 2001, CSI 2006, CSI 2012.
The theme of the CSI 2017 is “Social Transformation - Digital Way”. It will cover all aspects of digital technology and machine learning in
computer science and engineering, general science, educational research and management science. This convention will provide a platform
to the participants to share their views and ideas on latest technological developments in an inter - and intradisciplinary perspective. There
are total eight tracks in the call for papers. Tracks of the international Conference are (but not limited to): Signal Processing, Microwave and
Communication Engineering; Electronic Devices, Circuits and Systems; Data Science and Data Analytics; Security and Forensics; Digital
Mapping in Environment; Bio Computing and Biomedical Engineering; Mobile, Nano and Quantum Computing; e-Governance, e-Learning
and confidence based Learning.
Participations in the 52nd Annual Convention of Computer Society of India (CSI 2017) are solicited from Industry Houses, Acad emicians,
Corporate Houses, Exhibitors, Faculty Members, Researchers and Students.

Submission guidelines:
The publication for the International Conference will be in SCI Mago, Scopus DBLP Indexed CCIS Series of Springer (Confirmed) and the
article should be within 15 pages in the Springer CCIS one-column format. All submissions are subject to screening for plagiarism by
iThenticate®. Double blind review system will be followed and each paper will be reviewed by at least three reviewers. Formatting style is
available in http://www.springer.com/computer/lncs?SGWID=0-164-6-793341-0. Each paper should be registered separately with at least
one full registration fee and papers only of student authors are eligible for student registrations (proof needed). Research scholars will not
be considered as any category of student.
Submission Link: https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=csi20170

Contact Details
Organizing Chair: Dr. Phalguni Muherjee (+91 9433477369) Exhibition Chair: Mr. Sib Daspal (+91 9830333781)
(phalguni.mukherjee@gmail.com) (sibdaspal@gmail.com)
Organizing Co-Chair: Mr. Subir Lahiri (+91 9432284548) Exhibition Co-Chair: Mr. Gautam Hajra (+91 7980739842)
(subirlahiri49@gmail.com) (computerhom@gmail.com)
Technical Program Committee Chairs: Event Chair: Dr. Samir K. Bandopadhyay (+91 9831030823)
Dr. Kalyanmoy Deb, Michigan State University, USA (1954samir@gmail.com>)
Dr. J. K. Mandal (+91 8240323373) (jkm.cse@gmail.com) Event Co-Chair: Dr. A. K. Mukhopadhyay(+919434385282 )
Program Co-Chair: Dr. Devadatta Sinha (+91 9830269278) (askm55@gmail.com)
(devadatta.sinha@gmail.com) Registration Chair: Mr. Aniruddha Nag (+91 9830876463)
Tutorial Chair: Dr. Amlan Chakrabarti (+91 9831129520) (ani_nag123@rediffmail.com)
(achakra12@yahoo.com) Registration Co-Chair: Mr Abhijit Sarkar(+919831611033)
Tutorial Co-Chair: Dr. Debasis De(+918617256060) (abhijit_sarkar_1@rediffmail.com)
(dr.debashis.de@gmail.com) Publicity Chair: Mr. Subhobrata Roy Chaudhuri
Tutorial Convener: Dr. Somnath Mukhopadhyay (+919475413463) (sabsrc@yahoo.co.in)
(som.cse@live.com) Publicity Co-Chair: Dr. Kaushik Roy (+919432841740)
Finance Chair: Mrs. Alakananda Rao (+91-98300-58313) (kaushik.mrg@gmail.com)
(alka.rao@alvarisys.com) Hospitality Chair: Dr Manas Kumar Sanyal(+919434451520)
Finance Co-Chair: Mr. Sourav Chakraborty (sourav_ch@rediffmail.com) (manas_sanyal@rediffmail.com)
Convener: Mr. Devaprasanna Sinha (+91 9830129551) Hospitality Co-Chair: Mr Subhranshu Roy(+919051377068)
Subhranshu_81@yahoo.com
Interested persons are requested to contact the respective Chair/Co-chair for further details for participating in this mega event to be held
at the City of Joy, Kolkata. The weather during January at Kolkata will be very much conducive for this mega event. All are requested for wide
publicity of the event so that the information about the event can reach to each corner of the globe at the earliest for their comprehensive
planning to visit Kolkata during the event.

Convention Secretariat
Computer Society of India, Kolkata Chapter, 5, Lala Lajpat Rai Sarani (Elgin Road), 4th Floor, Kolkata - 700 020
E-mail : csical@gmail.com, chairoccsi2017@gmail.com, csi2017kolkata@gmail.com
Registered with Registrar of News Papers for India - RNI 31668/1978 If undelivered return to :
Regd. No. MCN/222/20l5-2017 Samruddhi Venture Park, Unit No.3,
Posting Date: 10 & 11 every month. Posted at Patrika Channel Mumbai-I 4th floor, MIDC, Andheri (E). Mumbai-400 093
Date of Publication: 10th of every month

Call for Papers


International Conference on
Social Transformation - Digital Way
Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Convention of Computer Society of India (CSI 2017) In Technical Collaboration with
Host: Kolkata Chapter | 19-21, January, 2018
Venue : Science City, Kolkata
Proceedings will be published by Springer Nature Singapore in CCIS Series indexed by SCImago, Scopus, DBLP

Conference Chair: Dr. Goutam Mahapatra, DRDO,GOI, VP,CSI Computer Society of India
Convenor: Mr. D. P. Sinha, RVP-II, CSI
The Springer Nature Sponsored International Conference on Social Transformation - Digital Way, is being organized by the CSI
Organising Chair: Dr. Phalguni Mukherjee, CSI
Kolkata Chapter at the Science City during 19th-21st January 2018. Proceedings will be published by the Springer in CCIS Series
Organising Co-Chair: Mr. Subir Lahiri, CSI
(approved) indexed by SCImago, Scopus, DBLP etc. Extended versions of presented papers will be submitted for publication in S CI
Technical Programme Chairs: and Scopus indexed journals.
Dr. Kalyanmoy Deb, Michigan State University, USA The event is also technically sponsored by the IEEE Young Professionals, IEEE Computational Intelligence Society, BCC & I etc.
Dr. J. K. Mandal, University of Kalyani, India
Technical Programme Co-Chair: Dr. D. D. Sinha, Calcutta University The articles for the International Conference should be within 15 pages in the Springer CCIS one-column format. All submissions
Finance Chair: Ms. Alakananda Rao, Alvari Systems are subject to screening for plagiarism by iThenticate®. Double blind review system will be followed and each paper will be reviewed
Finance Co-Chair: Mr. Sourav Chakraborty, CSI by at least three reviewers.
Exhibition Chair: Mr. Sib Daspal, The Bengal Chamber & Sasha Important Dates :
Group Last date of submission: 15.11.2017; Date of Notification:15.12.2017; Camera Ready Submission and Registration: 31.12.2017.
Exhibition Co-Chair: Mr. Gautam Hajra, CSI
Registration Chair :Mr. Aniruddha Nag, CSI Submission link: https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=csi20170
Registration Co-Chair: Mr. Abhijit Sarkar, JOBexo Call for Papers
Event Chair: Dr. Samir K Bandopadhyay, CU The theme of the CSI 2017 is “Social Transformation - Digital way”. It will cover all aspects of digital technology and machine
Event Co-Chair: Dr. A K Mukhopadhyay,CSI learning in computer science and engineering, general science, educational research and management science. This convention
Publicity Chair: Dr. Subhobrata Roychaudhuri, Techno University will provide a platform to the participants to share their views and ideas on latest technological developments in an inter- and intra-
Publicity Co-Chair: Dr. Kaushik Roy, WBSU disciplinary perspective. There will be total eight tracks for the international conferences.
Hospitality Chair:Dr. Manas Kumar Sanyal, KU
Tracks of the Conference (not limited to) • Digital Mapping in Environment
Hospitality Co-Chair: Mr. Subhranshu Roy, KU
Tutorial Chair: Dr. Amlan Chakrabarti, CU • Mobile and Wireless Communication • Intelligent Bio Computing
Tutorial Co-Chair: Dr. Debasish Dey, MAKAUT • Nano Device Modelling • Digital Judiciary
Tutorial Convenor: Dr. Somnath Mukhopadhyay, Hijli College
• Data Analytics • e-Learning and confidence based Learning
& RSC II
• Security and Forensics • Intelligent Data Mining
Advisory Committee(Partial)
Mr. Snajay Mahapatra, President, CSI Conference highlights
Dr. Anirban Basu, Immd. Past President, CSI Keynote/Invited/Banquet Talks, Technical Paper Sessions, Student Research Forum, Panel Discussions, Demos & Exhibits,
Dr. A. K. Nayak, Secretary, CSI Mentoring Sessions
Mr. Manas Ranjan Pattnaik, Tresurer, CSI Important Dates :
Dr. Aditya Bagchi, RKM University, India Formatting Guidelines: http://www.springer.com/computer/lncs?SGWID=0-164-6-793341-0
Dr. S Bandopadhyay, Calcutta University Submission link: https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=csi20170
Mr. R. N. Lahiri, CSI WikiCFP Link: http://www.wikicfp.com/cfp/servlet/event.showcfp?eventid=66231
Dr. Kalyanmoy Deb, MSU, USA
Dr. Aynur Unal, Stanford University, USA Registration Fees :
Dr. Prith Banerjee, Schneider Electric, USA
Category of Delegates/ Authors Early Bird (On or before 10th After 10th October,2017 Spot Registration(Only in
Dr. Shikharesh Majumdar, CU, Canada October, 2017) Cash)
Dr. Amiya Nayak, OU, Canada
Dr. Sajal Das, UTA, USA Indian Authors & Delegates(in INR) including GST
Dr. Santosh Mohanty, TCS, India CSI Members General CSI Members General CSI Members General
Dr. Zbigniew Michalewicz, UA, Australia
Full time Students 1,800/-* 2,000/-* 2,300/-* 2,500/-* 2,300/-* 2,500/-*
Dr. Y Narahari, IISC Bengaluru, India
Dr. Hyeona Lim, MSU, USA Academician/Research Scholar 6,500/- 7,000/- 7,000/- 7,500/- 8,000/- 8,500/-
Dr. Rajkumar Buyya, UM, Australia
Industry/Govt./PSU 7,000/- 7,500/- 7,500/- 8,000/- 8,500/- 9,000/-
Dr. Somnath Mukhopadhay TU, USA
Dr. A. Kaykobad, BUET, Bangladesh One Day Registration 3,000/- 3,500/- 3,500/- 4,000/- 4,000/- 4,500/-
Dr. B. B. Chaudhuri, ISI Kolkata, India Pre-convention Tutorial INR 1,000 for authors and INR 1,500 for others
Dr. S. Satapathy, PVPSIT, India
Foreign Delegates $300 for Registration and $ 100 for Tutorial
Dr. Atulya Nagar, LHU, UK
Dr. B. K. Panigrahi, IIT Delhi, India *Including Tutorial Sessions
Dr. Basabi Chakraborty, IPU, Japan
Dr. Subarna Shakya, TU, Nepal Sponsorship Platinum Gold Silver Knowledge Partner Academic Conference Kit Conference Cultural Program
Dr. Girijasankar Mallik UWS, Australia Partner Dinner
Technical Program Committee Members: Amount (`) 15 Lakh 10 Lakh 5 Lakh 2.5 Lakh 1 Lakh 2 Lakh 2 Lakh 1 Lakh
Dr. S. K. Basu, BHU, India
(I) Each paper should be registered separately with at least one full registration fee.
Dr. P. K. Jana, ISM Dhanbad, India
Dr. A. Damodaram, TU, India (II) Papers only of student authors are eligible for Student registrations (proof needed).
Dr. Subir Sarkar, JU, India (III) Research scholars will not be considered as any category of student.
Dr. S. P. Maity, IIEST, India
Email: csi2017kolkata@gmail.com Accommodation: To be made on payment basis Convention Website: www.csi2017.in
Dr. Vipin Tyagi, CSI
Dr. Durgesh Nandi, CSI Group Registrations:
Dr. Paramartha Dutta, Viswa Bharti University, India Student Author Delegate
Dr. P. K. Roy, APIIT, India
Group of 4 or 5 Group of 6 or more Group of 4 or 5 Group of 6 or more Group of 4 or 5 Group of 6 or more
Dr. D. K. Pratihar, Indian Inst. of Technology Kharagpur, India
Dr. B. B. Pal, University of Kalyani, India ` 1,800 Per Head ` 1,600 Per Head ` 6,500 Per Head ` 6,000 Per Head ` 7,000 Per Head ` 6,500 Per Head
Dr. Dhananjay Bhattacharyya, SINP, Kolkata, India