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c      

 Nukarin la ring libro? c         

   c     "Where are the books?" The order and forms in which Kapampangan
     pronouns appear in sentences are outlined in the
Ibie ke ing susi kang Carmen.
The word Kapampangan is derived from the following chart.
"I will give Carmen the keys."
rootword pampang which means river bank. Very
little is known about the language prior to the Kapampangan pronouns follow a certain order
arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century. In the c         following verbs or particles like negation words.
18th century, two books were written by Fr. The enclitic pronoun is always first followed by
Diego Bergaño. He authored Vocabulario de la Kapampangan pronouns are categorized by case: another pronoun or discourse marker.
lengua Pampanga and Arte de la lengua absolutive, ergative, and oblique.
Ikit da ka.
Pampanga. Two 19th-century Kapampangan Examples: "I saw you."
writers are hailed as being the equivalent of
William Shakespeare in Kapampangan literature. Sinulat ku. Silatanan na ku.
Father Anselmo Fajardo was noted for his work ... "I wrote." "He wrote to me."

c       c     Silatanan na ku. However, the following constructions are


    "(He) wrote me." incorrect: *ikit ka da and *silatanan ku na
Standard Kapampangan has 21 phonemes: 15 Dinatang ya. Also, pronouns combine to form one
consonants and five vowels. Some western "He has arrived." portmanteau pronoun.
dialects of Kapampangan have six vowels. Syllable
structure is relatively simple. Each syllable Sabyan me kaku. Ikit ke. (instead of Ikit ku ya)
contains at least a consonant and a vowel. "Tell me it." "I saw her."
Kapampangan language - Vowels. Before the Ninu ing minaus keka? Dinan kong pera. (instead of Dinan ku lang pera.)
arrival of the Spanish, Kapampangan had three "Who called you? "I gave them money."
vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/, and /u/; some ...
Mamasa la. Portmanteau pronouns are not usually used in
Kapampangan language - Nouns. While "They are reading." questions and while using the word naman.
Kapampangan nouns are not inflected, they are Furthermore,
Genitive pronouns follow the word they modify.
usually preceded by case markers. There are
Oblique pronouns can take the place of the Akakit mya? (instead of akakit me?)
three types of case markers: absolutive genitive pronoun but they precede the word they Do you see him?
(nominative), ergative (genitive), and oblique. modify.
Unlike English and Spanish which are nominative- Buri nya naman yan. (instead of buri ne naman
Ing bale ku. yan)
accusative languages, Kapampangan is an Ing kakung bale. He likes this one, on the other hand.
ergative-absolutive language. It's a common "My house."
misconception that Kapampangan is frequently The chart below outlines the permitted
The dual pronounce ikata refers to only the first combinations of pronouns. There are blank
spoken in the passive voice. Absolutive or and second persons. entries to denote combinations which are
nominative markers mark the actor of an intran
The inclusive pronoun ikatamu refers to the first deemed impossible.
...
and second persons. It may also refer to a third The column headings (i.e., yaku, ika, etc.) in bold
c          
person(s). denote pronouns in the absolutive case while the
c       

The exclusive pronoun ikamí refers to the first row headings (i.e., ku, mu, etc.) denote pronouns
and third persons but excludes the second. in the ergative case.
c       
 
Ala tang nasi.
"We (you and I) do not have rice." c        
c         
Ala tamung nasi.
While Kapampangan nouns are not inflected, "We (you and I and someone else) do not have Kapampangan's demonstrative pronouns are
they are usually preceded by case markers. There rice." outlined in the chart below.
are three types of case markers: absolutive Ala keng nasi. This particular system of demonstrative pronouns
(nominative), ergative (genitive), and oblique. "We (someone else and I, but not you) do not differs with other Philippine languages by having
Unlike English and Spanish which are nominative- have rice." having separate forms for the singular and plural.
accusative languages, Kapampangan is an Furthermore, Kapampangan stands out among The demonstrative pronouns ini and iti (as well as
ergative-absolutive language. It's a common many Philippine languages in requiring the their respective forms) both mean "this" but each
misconception that Kapampangan is frequently presence of the pronoun even if the noun it have distinct uses.
spoken in the passive voice. represents, or the grammatical antecedent, is Iti usually refers to something abstract but may
Absolutive or nominative markers mark the actor present. also refer to concrete nouns. For example, iting
of an intransitive verb and the object of a Dinatang ya i Erning. (not *dinatang i Erning) musika (this music), iti ing gagawan mi(this is
transitive verb. "Ernie arrived." what we do).
Ergative or genitive markers mark the object Mamasa la ri Maria at Juan. (not *mamasa ri Ini is always concrete and never abstract. For
(usually indefinite) of an intransitive verb and the Maria at Juan) example ining libru(this book), ini ing asu na ni
actor of a transitive one. It also marks possession. "Maria and Juan are reading." Juan (this is Juan's dog).
Oblique markers are similar to prepositions in Silatanan na kang José. (not *silatanan kang José) Furthermore, in their locative forms, keni is used
English. It marks things such as location and "José wrote you." when the person spoken to is not near the
direction. subject spoken of. Keti, on the other hand, when
As a comparison, it would be akin to sayinbg the person spoken is near the subject spoken of.
Furthermore, noun markers are divided into *dumating siya si Erning, *bumabasa sila sina
two classes: one for names of people (personal) For example, two people in the same country will
Maria at Juan and *sinulatan ka niya ni José in refer to their country as ketihowever, they will
and the second for everything else (common). Tagalog.
Below is a chart of case markers. refer to their respective towns as keni. Both
The pronouns ya and la have special forms when meanhere.
Examples: they are used in conjunction with the Nanu ini?
Dinatang ya ing lalaki. words ati (there is/are) and ala (there is/are not). "What's this?"
"The man arrived." Ati yu king Pampanga. (not *Ati ya king Mangabanglu la rening sampaga.
Ikit neng Juan i Maria. Pampanga) "These flowers are fragrant."
"John saw Maria." "He is in Pampanga."
Ninu ing lalaking ita?
Munta la ri Elena at Robertu king bale nang Ala lu ring doktor keni. (not *ala la ring tau keni) "Who is that man?"
Miguel. The doctors are no longer here.
"Elena and Roberto will go to Miguel's house."
Me keni. verbs having the vowel /u/ in the first syllable.
"Come here." For example, the verblucas (to take off) is In nominative-absolutive languages, also
conjugated lukas (will take off), lulukas (is taking
Ati ku keti.
off), and likas (took off) (rather than *linukas).
"I am here." called marked-nominative languages, the
This chance of vowel also applies to certain
Mangan la keta.
object-focus verbs in the completed aspect. In nominative has a case inflection, while the
"They will eat there."
addition to /u/ becoming /i/, /a/ becomes /e/ in
Ninu ing anak niyan? certain cases. For example, dela (brought
accusative and citation form do not. The
"Who is the child of that?" something) and not *dinala, semal (worked on
something) and not *sinamal, and seli(bought)
Oyta ya pala ing salamin mo! unmarked accusative/citation form may be called
and not *sinali.
"So that's where your glasses are!"
Furthermore, there is no written distinction
E ku pa menakit karen. absolutive to clarify that there citation form is
"I haven't seen these yet." between the two mag-affixes in
writing. Magsalita can either mean is
Oreni adwang regalo para keka. used for the accusative case role rather than for
speaking or will speak. There is an audible
"Here are two gift for you."
difference, however. [m gsali ta ] means "will
the nominative, which it is in most nominative-
speak" while [ ma gsali ta ] means "is
c         speaking".
accusative languages.
Kapampangan verbs are morphologically complex
and take on a variety of affixes reflecting focus, In grammar,  or   is the
    
aspect, mode, and others modification of a word to express
Speakers of other Philippine languages find different grammatical categories such
Kapampangan verbs to be more difficult than as tense,mood, voice, aspect, person, number, ge In tripartite languages, both the agent and object
their own languages' verbs due to some verbs nder and case. Conjugation is the inflection
belonging to unpredictable verb classes as well as of verbs; declension is the inflection of a transitive clause have case forms, ergative
ambiguity with certain verb forms.
ofnouns, adjectives and pronouns.
To illustrate this, let's take the and accusative, whereas the agent of an
rootword sulat (write) which exists in both
Tagalog and Kapampangan. intransitive clause is the unmarked citation form.
The   (abbreviated !") is
For example:
This is occasionally called the intransitive case,
the unmarked grammatical case of a core

ÔY susulat means "is writing" in but absolutive is also used and is perhaps more
argument of a verb (generally other than
Kapampangan but "will write" in
Tagalog. accurate, since it is not limited to core agents of
the nominative) which is used as thecitation
ÔY sumulat means "will write" in
Kapampangan but "wrote" in intransitive verbs.
form of a noun.
Tagalog. This form is also the
infinitive in both languages.
    
    
ÔY sinulat means "wrote" in both
languages. However in
Kapampangan it's in the actor focus In nominative-accusative languages, both core
In ergative-absolutive languages, the absolutive is
but object focus in Tagalog
The object-focus suffix -an represents two types cases may be marked, but not infrequently only
the case used to mark both the subject of
of focuses. However, the only difference between
the two is that one of the conjugations the accusative is. In such situations the term
an intransitive verb and the object of a transitive
preserves -an in the completed aspect while it is
dropped in the other conjugation. Take the two 'absolutive' would aptly describe the nominative,
verbs below: verb, in addition to being used for the citation

bayaran (to pay someone): bayaran (will pay but the term is seldom used that way.
form of a noun. It contrasts with the
someone), babayaran(is paying
someone), j  (paid someone) bayaran (to The    (abbreviated $%) is one of
pay for something): bayaran (will pay for marked ergative case, which marks the subject of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of
something), babayaran (is paying for speech, which generally marks the subject of
something), j (paid for something) a transitive verb. a verb or the predicate noun or predicate
Note that other Philippine languages have
adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb
separate forms. For example, there is -in and -
arguments. (Generally, it is a noun that is doing
an in Tagalog, -on and -an in Bikol and in most of For example, in Basque the noun mutil ("boy")
the Visayan languages, and -en and -an in Ilokano. something.)
This is due to historical sound changes concerning takes the bare singular article -a both as subject
Proto-Philippine /*e/ mentioned above.
There are a number of actor-focus verbs which do of the intransitive clause mutila etorri da ("the The     (abbreviated &
) is
not use the infix -um- but are usually conjugated
like other verbs that do. For example,gawa (to boy came") and as object of the transitive the grammatical case that identifies
do), bulus (to immerse), terak (to
dance), lukas (to take off), sindi (to the subject of a transitive verb in ergative-
smoke), saklu (to fetch), takbang (to clause Irakasleak mutila ikusi du ("the teacher has
step), tuki (to accompany), etc. are used instead
of *gumawa, *bumulus, *tumerak, *lumukas, seen the boy"), in which the subject bears the absolutive languages.
*sumindi, *sumaklu, *tumakbang, *tumuki,
Many of the verbs mentioned in the previous ergative ending -a-k.
In such languages, the ergative case is
paragraph undergo a change of their vowel rather
than use the infix -in- (completed aspect). In the  #    
typically marked (most salient), while
actor focus (i.e., -um- verbs), this happens only to
the absolutive case is unmarked. New work the ͛s clitic or a preposition (usually of) ʹ but the öY description ("man of honour", "day of

in case theory has vigorously supported the idea personal pronouns do have distinct possessive reckoning")

that the ergative case identifies the agent (the forms. öY compounds ("doomsday" ("doom's

intentful performer of an action) of a verb day"), Scottish Gaelic "ball coise" =


Depending on the language, specific varieties of
(Woolford 2004). "football", where "coise" = gen. of "cas",
genitive-nounʹmain-noun relationships may

"foot")
In Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) for example, the include:

ergative case is used to mark subjects of Depending on the language, some of the

transitive verbs and possessors of nouns.


öY possession (see Possessive case):
relationships mentioned above have their own

öY inalienable distinct cases different from the genitive.


Nez Perce has a three-way nominal case system
possession ("Janet͛s height",
with both ergative (-nim) and accusative (-ne) Possessive pronouns are distinct pronouns, found
"Janet͛s existence", "Janet͛s long
plus an absolute (unmarked) case for intransitive in Indo-European languages such as English, that
fingers")
subjects: hipáayna qíiwn ͚the old man function like pronouns inflected in the genitive.
öY alienable
arrived͛; hipáayna wewúkiye ͚the elk They are considered separate pronouns if
possession ("Janet͛s jacket",
arrived͛; wewúkiyene péexne qíiwnim ͚the old contrasting to languages where pronouns are
"Janet͛s drink")
man saw an elk͛. regularly inflected in the genitive. For example,
öY relationship indicated by the noun
English my is either a separate possessive
Sahaptin has an ergative noun case (with suffix -
being modified ("Janet͛s husband")
adjective or an irregular genitive of I, while in
n m) that is limited to transitive constructions
öY composition (see Partitive case):
Finnish, for example, minun is
only when the direct object is 1st or 2nd
öY substance ("a wheel of cheese")
regularly agglutinated from minu- "I" and -
person: iwapáatayaaš łmáman m ͚the old
öY elements ("a group of men") n (genitive).
woman helped me͛; paanáy iwapáataya
öY source ("a portion of the food")
łmáma ͚the old woman helped him/her͛ In some languages, nouns in the genitive case
öY participation in an action:
(direct); páwapaataya łmámayin ͚the old woman also agree in case with the nouns they modify
öY as an agent ("She benefited
helped him/her͛ (inverse). (that is, it is marked for two cases). This
from her father's love") ʹ this is
phenomenon is calledsuffixaufnahme.
In grammar, the   (abbreviated
;
called the subjective
also called the   or  ) is In some languages, nouns in the genitive case
genitive (Compare "Her father loved
the case that marks a noun as modifying another may be found in inclusio ʹ that is, between the
her", where Her father is
noun. It often marks a noun as being the main noun͛s article and the noun itself.
the subject.)
possessor of another noun but it can also indicate
öY as a patient ("the love of music") ʹ Many languages have a genitive case,
various relationships other than possession;
this is called the objective including Albanian, Arabic, Armenian, Basque, Cz
certain verbs may take argumentsin the genitive
genitive (Compare "She loves ech, Slovak, Estonian, Finnish, Gaelic, Georgian, G
case; and it may have adverbial uses
music", where music is the object.) erman, Greek,Icelandic, Irish, Latin, Latvian, Polis
(see Adverbial genitive). Modern English does not
öY origin ("men of Rome") h, Romanian, Russian, Sanskrit, Bosnian, Serbian,
typically mark nouns for a genitive
Croatian, Slovene, Turkish and Ukrainian. English
öY reference ("the capital of the
case morphologically ʹ rather, it uses
does not have a proper genitive case, but a
Republic"  "the Republic's capital")
possessive ending, -͛s (see below), although öY "Give me that ball": ̜̔̌ ̛̥ ̯a̛̚ ̨̡̯̪̌ The

pronouns do have a genitive case. (day mi tazi topka) pronoun me i

öY "Give that ball to me" ̜̔̌ ̯a̛̚ ̨̡̯̪̌ ̦̌ s


An '  (abbreviated $"; Latin: casus

̥̖̦ (day tazi topka na men) not inflected


generalis) in linguistics is a noun case of synthetic
differently in
languages that is used generally when a noun is There is also one for masculine nouns with
any of these
the object of averb or a preposition. An oblique the article:
uses; it is
case can appear in any case relationship except

öY "The wind is blowing": ʦ̯̻̬̻̯́ ̖̖̏ used for all


the nominative case of a sentence subject or

(vyat r t vee) grammatical


the vocative case of direct address.

öY "I despise the wind": M̬̌́̚ ̯̻̬̏́̌ relationships


Languages with a nominative or an oblique case
(mrazya vyat ra) except
system also contrast with those that have
the genitive
In analytic Indo-European languages, the oblique
an absolutive or ergative case system. In ergative-
case of
case is a relic of the original, more complex
absolutive languages, the absolutive case is used
possession
system of noun cases from the common Proto-
for a direct object (the subject will then be in the
and a non-
Indo-European language. Oblique cases appear in
ergative case); but the absolutive case is also
disjunctive n
the English pronoun set; these pronouns are
used for the subject of an intransitive verb, where
ominative
often called objective pronouns. One can observe
the subject is being passively described, rather
case as the
how the first person pronoun meserves a variety
than performing an action. Nevertheless, there
subject.
of grammatical functions:
are ergative-absolutive languages that
A  (    , or simply
demonstrate oblique cases; in the Northwest
öY as an accusative case for a direct object: an    , is a language that marks
Caucasian
rhe bit me! the direct object of transitive verbsdistinguishing
languages Adyghe, Kabardian and Ubykh, the
them from the subject of both transitive
oblique case marker serves to mark the ergative
öY as a dative case for an indirect
and intransitive verbs.[1]
case, the dative case, and the object of a
object:
verbal applicative. If the language has morphological case, then the
„ive me the rubber hose!
direct object is marked with a case conventionally
Bulgarian, an analytic Slavic language, also has an
known as "accusative", while the subject is
oblique caseͶor, rather, two of them öY as the object of a

marked with another case called "nominative". If


for pronouns: preposition:

there's no case marking, the language can resort


rtop spitting on me!
Accusative:
to word order (for example, the subject comes

öY and as before the verb and the object comes after it, as
öY "Kiss me!": ̶̖̣̱̜̏̌ ̥̖! (tseluvay me!)
a disjunctive to in English).
öY "Kiss me! (not him)" ̶̖̣̱̜̏̌ ̥̖̦!
An   (  language (or simply
pic marker:
an    language) is a language that treats
(tseluvay men!)
the argument ("subject") of an intransitive
Me, I like French. verb like the object of a transitive verb, but
Dative: distinctly from the agent ("subject") of
a transitive verb.