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....we have to filter or edit what we take in.

We mostly admit
the information that makes us feel great about ourselves,
while conveniently filtering whatever unsettles our fragile egos
and most vital beliefs. Ideology powerfully masks what, to
the uncaptivated mind, is obvious, dangerous, or absurd and
there’s much about how, and even where, we live that leaves
us in the dark. Fear of conflict, fear of change keeps us that
way. An unconscious (and much denied) impulse to obey and
conform shields us from confrontation and crowds provide
friendly alibis for our inertia. And money has the power to blind
us, even to our better selves. // MARGARET HEFFERNAN

T h e A rt i fac t P ro j e c t:
P ro c e s s Bo o k
ANDREA GOMEZ
CONTENTS

06
introduction

10
background
& history

18
social impact

30
design solution

36
bibliography

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01 ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK/ / I NTR ODUCTI ON

INTRODUCTION

According to the Merriam-Webster the golden throne. So why is it that the concept of
dictionary a toilet is a, “fixed receptacle into using the toilet is so taboo? Is it because it makes
which a person may urinate or defecate, typically us feel vulnerable and exposed? It’s funny to think
consisting of a large bowl connected to a system that using the toilet was something the Romans
for flushing away the waste into a sewer or once considered to be a part of socializing in the
septic tank,” (“Toilet”). These words, in the 21st public baths.
century, don’t happen to bring the prettiest or When I first began this project I was a bit
most glamorous notions to mind. Yet, at the same weary of the artifact I chose. I wondered if I had
time the usage of a toilet is something we are all made a mistake. At the time I did not think of the
but more than accustomed to. On average we toilet as a fascinating artifact with much current
spend roughly two years doing our business on profound relevance. I admit I felt influenced by

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / I NTR ODUCTI ON

THE VACUUM TOILET the now seeming childish stigma associated with PROJECT INTENT PROPOSAL
the object of my study. To me, going to the toilet
The vacuum toilet is something you and following all of the motions, from lifting the lid “My research topic is the toilet. I want
often see in airplanes and trains. It’s a and flushing, was such an automatic dull process. my research topic of toilets to be
type of toilet that has been affected by It was such a minute part of my day that I had
technology in recent years. Today, it’s one specifically focused on its fascinating
never given it much thought; it seemed far from
of the toilets that uses the least amount evolving history and its varied uses
fascinating. But, boy was I wrong.
of water (Toilets Around the World, worldwide. Through the conglomerate
2016). Beginning this project I had no idea what
the outcome would be. I began my preliminary use of illustrations, diagrams, and
research by observing all the different types of photography, I will demonstrate and
toilets I could find. The images on the left will
study the different toilets of the world
give you a small taste of the complex world of
toilets pertaining to cultures, regions, styles, and their impacts on society. I want
and sheer taste. I was amazed to have found all to take a taboo topic that nobody
of these interesting shapes and styles that have chooses to talk about, even though
SQUAT TOILET been unknown to me all this time. As I did a bit it’s an essential part of our everyday
more research I realized that the toilet stood
This toilet type can be both dry or use for something much bigger than what I initially
lives, and normalize it in a palpable and
water to flush. It’s primarily found in thought. The toilet in itself can be a broad object interesting manner. I want the viewer
Asian countries or in some parts of Africa. to tackle since billions of people around the world to understand and acknowledge the
The way it’s used requires for the person from all different countries, economic statuses, wicked ingenious simplicity of an item
to squat over the toilet that is positioned life situations, and religions, make use of it. How
on the floor. Sometimes this method of
we most take for granted when millions
can I look at it? How am I able to comprehend
toilet can become unsanitary (Toilets something that to me at first seems so simple and still don’t have access to it. Technology
Around the World, 2016). make it into something much bigger and long- has affected the toilet tremendously
lasting. How can I help others? This was my biggest through the years yet some people
challenge. After much deliberation I drafted my
worldwide still utilize relatively primal
project intent and began working.
This book will outline all of the process I and unsanitary variations of the toilet.
underwent to get from point A to point B. Point How can we change this? What will
A being something as simple as an object of our this situation look like in 100 years?
choice and point B being the big picture in need I hope that through this project I
COMBINATION TOILET of a design solution. I will make some big leaps
and draw connections you probably didn’t see
can open up the conversation about
For those that are torn between choosing coming but it was a pleasurable experience that an obscure topic we choose not to
a squatting toilet or a western toilet, this humbled me and made me appreciate the tools I talk about and ignore even when we
would be the choice for them. It provides can provide to affect others in this world.
the option for the person to stand or to
interact with it on a daily visit.“
squat depending on their wishes. These
types of toilets can be seen mostly in
Indian homes (Toilets Around the World,
2016).

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02
BACKGROUND & HISTORY

So where did it all BEGIN?

The use of the toilet, as you can imagine, was The toilet has come a long way from its humble yet
sparked by nature’s calling! The need for a place to extremely unsanitary beginnings. Through a few
tend to one’s personal business was created by a centuries it evolved into the toilet we know and
natural physiological need. Of course, 10,000 years love today. The basic concept of the modern toilet
ago there were no ceramic bowls with flushing has not changed in itself since it was invented a
mechanics to do the deed. Instead, most people couple of hundred years ago. It’s something to
probably had a favorite bush. Today, we don’t have think about with today’s modern technology, how
recordings telling us exactly how all of this worked. come it hasn’t transformed?

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / H I STORY

Early Start | Mesopotamia Ajax Manual | London


The earliest evidence of some The Godson of Queen Elizabeth, John
sort of designated area to do Harrington, published a manual of sorts
one’s business was seen back in that spoke of a toilet that would flush.
3500 BCE. People would create The innovative thing is that it had a tank
holes in the ground and squat above that would flush when the valve was
over them to do their business triggered (The Plumber, The Men).
(McMahon, A, 19-40).

S-Trap | London
First Flush | Minoans, Crete Alexander Cumming came close to
inventing the toilet we know and love
In a castle in the island of
today by developing the S-Trap. This new
Knossos in Crete you can find
invention allowed for water to block smells
the first toilet that we know
and other gases from the sewer.
was flushed with water. By
flushing I mean waste was
washed away with buckets of
water (Wald, The First History).

Patents & More Patents | USA & UK

Baths | Roman Empire During the 1800s many patents were


created by men such as James T. Henry,
The Romans made the toilets William Smith, and William Campbell just
accessible to their people to name a few. They were refining the
through the use of communal design created by their predecessors (The
latrines and baths. People in Plumber, The Men).
power or with money could
afford private facilities.

Castle Toilet | Europe


A garderobe is a toilet common
to the middle ages. Usually
found hanging from the side of
castles. This toilet did not flush
but let the waste fall down to The Showroom | London
areas below where a cesspit or
Thomas Crapper may have not invented
moat could be (Frank, 70).
the toilet but he did popularize it. He
opened a showroom in 1870 where
people could come and shop toilets for
their homes (Thomas Crapper Co, History).

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / H I STORY

a dozen people to do their business within truly revolutionary. - S-trap design


mere feet of each other. There were no stalls The toilet we know
or barriers blocking each bench (Suddath, and love today was
History of Toilets). still not perfected.
Most of these baths had no social class In 1861, a
restrictions. Anyone could attend the Roman man named Thomas
baths depending on the baths themselves. Crapper opened up
At the baths in Caerleon they have found a plumbing business
evidence of women and even children. They in London, England. With the passing of
have also found evidence of upper class time it became evident that the toilet
members of society and soldiers (Whitmore, business was a lucrative one (Unknown,
HISTORICAL BREAKDOWN 134). This gives you the idea that anyone “The History”). Industrialization and
from whichever social class could really mix urbanization was increasing and the idea of
As you can see, one of the first records of
and mingle in the facilities. better sanitation and clean bathrooms really
a toilet appeared in Greece and Scotland
The latrines were similar to the baths appealed to people. Crapper’s toilets had
over 5,000 years ago. This system was very
except dirtier and more grim. People would perfected the system of flushing. Crapper
robust. A more sophisticated system was not
have preferred to use their own cesspit at does get all of the credit when it comes to
developed until the Roman empire.
home if possible but sometimes duty called, inventing the toilet, when he actually bought
The Romans were known for their
according to Olga. The latrines were dark the patent from a man called Albert Giblin
aqueducts, baths, and latrines. The intricate
and some Romans believed there were (Unkown, “The Men That”). Crapper himself
aqueducts allowed for plenty of water to
demons creeping the pipes below. Not only did have multiple other patents though, nine
be transported into the city from far away.
were there the occasional demons but also to be exact, to his credit (Axford, 122).
Sometimes this provided water for the toilets
rats and other critters that would sneak The magnificent thing about this new
to be “flushed.” By flushing I mean just
and maybe bite an innocent person or two toilet business was the way he portrayed the
washed away by the constant running water
Koloski-Ostrow, “Talking Heads”). toilet itself. At Thomas
traveling underneath the seats. But this was
After the fall of the Roman empire the Crapper & Co he opened
not always the case. Most baths did have an
evolution of the toilet took a turn for the a showroom where
elaborate underground structure of pipes
worse. There was no major advancement people could come by
that allowed for a drainage system, usually
in technology or even technique until Sir and browse toilets.
at an incline for gravitational purposes.
John Harrington came about. Harrington He made toilets
Many times these communal toilets were
published a manual called Metamorphosis of more accessible,
not necessarily clean. For example, there
Ajax. In this manual he described a toilet with common, and less taboo.
was a communal sponge in a bucket for
a raised water tank that made it possible for
cleaning oneself and no sewers (Kleiner, 635).
water to run down a pipe when a valve was
Researcher, Olga Koloski-Ostrow, believes
triggered (Suddath, History of Toilets). This
that the Romans used their massive sewers Thomas Crapper -
did not stifle the foul odors, a mechanism
such as the Cloaca Maxima more for the
was needed to keep smells at bay.
movement of stagnant water than for the
In 1775, about 200 years after
passing of human waste (Koloski-Ostrow,
Harrington’s pioneering invention, a man
“Talking Heads”).
called Alexander Cumming invented
The Roman baths were a place where
something known as the S-trap. The S-trap
socialization was key. At the baths you could
was meant to keep sewer gases and even
find an outdoor area to play sports, a sauna
critters out of the toilet with the use of water
to lounge in, or even a pool to swim in. It was
(Saltzman, “Primer on S”). The appearance
the ultimate pastime for Romans. The toilets
of the trap itself, you guessed it, takes the
at the baths were part of this socialization
shape of an S. There were some problems
- Julius Caesar and the way they were set up allowed for
with this new invention but at the time it was

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / H I STORY

JUST WHEN YOU THOUGHT I WAS DONE


TALKING ABOUT TOILETS.

SEWERS & PLUMBING

As you can probably gather there have been


a thousand smaller tweaks to the toilets here
and there as time has passed. There have
been changes in piping, materials, plumbing,
and water closets just to name a few;
amounting to hundreds of new patents. The
main changes have been covered but I would
like to paint a more wholesome picture. You
have to understand that when I began this
project I was overwhelmed with not only United States
the length of the time-line of the toilet but We in the United States and other well developed countries have the luxury of excellent
also the surrounding areas that have greatly sanitation methods. A lot of the time we can thank the piping and sewer system but that
affected it. One the biggest changes has would lead us nowhere if the waste was not disposed of correctly. Across the country there are
been sewers and plumbing. Even though hundreds of water treatment plants that take care of our waste water.
these systems might not take the shape of an
actual toilet they directly affect its demand, Petra, Jordan
supply, and design. Petra was built as early as in the 5th century Kelifi County, Kenya
BC. That cut-out rock you see there on the In low income countries sometimes running
edge of the mountain served as a water water and piping is hard to come by. This is
conduit system. This goes to show that more so in rural areas that make it almost
finding mechanisms and systems to carry near impossible. These women in Kenya walk
water in and out of cities or settlements has approximately 13 miles each day to reach
always been a priority of populations through the nearest source of water. Well what does
the ages. that have to do with the toilet? If they don’t
have running water then that means they
don’t have plumbing or pipes or the means
Roman Baths, England to ever even own a toilet. Even if they had
The Romans were largely interested in the physical toilet where would the waste go
getting water in and around the city. They to? Not only that but these villagers are worn
had major sewer lines used all throughout down from so much strain walking to and
the towns. The sewage systems were used to from the water source each day. An average
get rid of stagnant water more than to get of 13 miles a day can turn into 4,500 miles a
rid of waste. Their water lines serviced the year. Sometimes people walk hours each day
bath houses, latrines, and sometimes even for just a simple cup of water. They also have
those rich enough to afford a personal bath to do the routine twice daily. The sad truth
space. Their engineering was ingenious yet is, that the time spent fetching water is time
maybe not so sanitary. According to experts, women and children could be using to go to
the Roman were known to throw their waste school. Once again, it’s a heavy burden that
right out into the streets (Suddath, A Brief). turns into a vicious cycle (Thomas, We Take It).

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03 ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / S OC I AL I M PACT

SOCIAL IMPACTS

As I’ve mentioned before, some sort a toilet might be seen as the ultimate luxury.
of toilet situation has existed for as long as we Sometimes all it takes is a little bit of perspective.
humans have been around. This means it has been This part of the research gave me room
with us through the good, the bad, and the ugly of to do plenty of self-reflection and a bit of self-
human society through the ages. When I touched loathing. It made me realize that I give myself
on the history of this artifact in the previous the freedom of taking a lot of things in my life
pages I mentioned the technological advances for granted. There are millions of people that
that have taken place but excluded cultural and don’t have access to something, that for me, has
social relevance. For instance, in America there are become a fact of life such as a toilet. Additionally,
corporations that allow for the toilet to become a through time it has also been the center of racism,
simple commodity whereas in rural India having power, and privilege.

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / S OC I AL I M PACT

2.4
RUSSIA
39,468,700

PAKISTAN
68,666,800
CHINA

BILLION
329,851,200

NIGERIA
130,387,500 INDIA
774,222,300
ETHIOPIA
71,217,200

CONGO INDONESIA
50,833,300 100,168,400

PEOPLE EXIST AROUND THE WORLD WITH


POOR OR LITTLE TO NO TOILET SANITATION
Number of people without access
Many factors come into play when it comes to improved toilets by country .
to the development of the toilet across the
Data: WaterAid
globe. Some of the biggest factors include
poverty and achieved level of education.
These then create a domino effect, piling on
to the already existing list of problems. For
for people to use but the general public does not my peers and educators, not one person knew the
example, in a third world country with a weak
seem interested, reverting back to the way that crude reality. I always got the “Oh my God, are you
economy the pipes and plumbing across cities
has been custom to them for years (Royte, Nearly serious?”I have personally been guilty of doing
would be lacking, making it even more gruesome
a Billion). this myself but this project really opened my eyes
or nonexistent in rural areas. By not having a
Open defecation is a major problem in a because it’s so much more than just lack of toilets.
sound pipeline system in place it makes it hard
large list of countries and at this point of our time I guess that’s the current theme of the research
for people to have access to running water, governments aren’t always willing to jump in and on earth it’s a shame that it is. It’s often a problem I’ve conducted, it always comes down to the
something needed for the modern toilet. These alleviate the problem. There are always those that that is not talked about enough. I personally feel fact that it’s always so much more than a simple
countries probably also has a large percentage truly try to make a positive impact. Vietnam has like when it is talked about people just brush it off ceramic bowl and a tank; it’s the social and in this
of the population not being able to go to school seen a drastic change in the number of people as, “Oh, what a pity,” give it a quick thought and case medical implications.
adequately. Once again, all of these numbers that defecate in the open. The numbers have then move on with their lives. Maybe because it
exponentially increase in the countryside. All fallen at such rates that open defecation has been usually does not affect us in developed countries
of these factors create the perfect storm of basically eradicated in Vietnam. In countries like so we have sadly become desensitized and
ignorance and sheer incapability of access to India though, it hasn’t been so easy. There have detached. It’s actually kind of interesting that
clean and working toilets. It also doesn’t help that been efforts made such as creating public latrines when I did all of this research and shared it with

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / S OC I AL I M PACT

HEALTH RISKS

Understanding the health risks of the issue at


hand is important to really grasp the intensity
of the problem. Here some quick facts you
probably didn’t know.

• 842,000 people die every year from


improper sanitation or hygiene, this makes
up 58% of diarrheal deaths.
• Around 892 million people defecate in
the open around the world.
• Over 361,000 children deaths under the
age of five could be prevented every year
with better sanitation efforts.
• At least 10% of the people on this earth
eat food that is irrigated with wastewater.
• Poor sanitation and toilet facilities are
linked to a myriad of diseases including
but not limited to: cholera, dysentery,
hepatitis A, typhoid and polio.
Data: WHO Organization

These are not the numbers you’d expect


correct? What if I told you that according
to the WHO “only 39% of general global
population used a safely managed sanitation
service – defined as use of a toilet or
improved latrine, not shared with other
households, with a system in place to ensure
that excreta are treated or disposed of
safely.” This is the toilet you and I both know
in western civilization. That’s insane! That’s
less than half of the world’s population. So
what are the efforts made to fix this? (WHO,
Sanitation: Facts)

EFFORTS & BENEFITS

The solution for the billions of people


suffering from poor sanitation and latrines
across the world won’t suddenly come any
time soon. It’s unfortunately a slow and
hopefully steady process. Like I mentioned
earlier, in Vietnam open defecation has
been eradicated so there is definitely hope.

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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / S OC I AL I M PACT

The problem is that it varies depending on begin utilizing the facing hardships. India is not the only place system is really expensive for the city and the
the people of each country, their resources latrines as storage sheds and animal keeps having these issues. The same can be said people.
and government planning. India is one (Royte, Nearly A Billion). for many other countries such as Bangladesh, Having a sewer system doesn’t
the countries struggling with it the most. Personally, I believe it is all about China, and Haiti. necessarily mean the end to the problem.
India has roughly 569 million people still education. But it’s an endless grim cycle. In cities like Delhi, only 56% of the waste is
defecating outdoors. This means in the People first need to be taught about the A HIGH PRICE managed in a proper and safe manner. In
bushes or sometimes even into a direct water dangers and diseases related to open urban cities the problem of open defecation
In countries like the US, the sewers are
source, contaminating the water (Royte, defecation. At the same time, in these small is rising because so is the population and
directly connected to a water treatment
Nearly A Billion). rural areas the poverty levels are extremely there are no more extra toilets in sight.
plan. These plants are costly not only to build
India’s prime minister campaign in 2014 high. This means that if someone has the Communal toilets aren’t people’s favorites
but to keep running and up to standards.
even had the slogan, “toilet before temples.” option of using a latrine as a livestock shelter either. They are dirty, foul, and overcrowded
In lower income countries, the alternative is
With his ideas and positive attitude he to make money to feed their families instead with long lines. The toilets at night can also
collecting the sludge from septic tanks and
planned to put and end to open defecation of a restroom facility, which would they be violent for women since they become
latrines which sometimes isn’t done correctly.
in India by 2019. In order to achieve these choose? Their priorities need to shifted. targets. This leaves citizens opting to
Additionally, households are responsible for
goals, 40 billion dollars were put in place What they need to understand is that better defecate outdoors (Royte, Nearly A Billion).
getting rid of their own waste. Otherwise,
to create latrines and behavior changing sanitation will positively affect every aspect
connecting all the toilets to a main sewer
“blitzes” called the Clean India Mission. of their lives. By having better sanitation
Would all of this work to make a lasting efforts and toilet facilities, people won’t
impact? Hopefully yes, but realistically no. fall sick as often and water sources will
India has deep rooted customs that are hard have a smaller chance of being polluted.
to change. In the past, other governments This in return allows for greater clean water
and leaders have tried implementing these measures to be taken because the results
new latrines in rural areas and nothing would be evident and not truncated by the
changes. What ends up happening is people ignorant but desperate actions of humans.
It’s a domino effect. In the end, children
are the ones who suffer the most when it
comes to contracting diseases related to
feces-contaminated water. The bacteria
found in the water can cause cholera and
even hepatitis A. In a well developed
country these diseases might not have a
high fatality rate but in places like rural India
they do. Diarrheal related illnesses affect
the already malnourished children and can
stunt growth. When a child falls ill they have
to miss school, when they miss school they
are being deprived of the very knowledge
that could potentially save them. Girls also
have a particularly difficult time when they
menstruate because the bathrooms at school
are not adequate and clean. This also forces
the girls to stay at home, missing more days
of school.
This is a problem that needs to be
looked at from all different angles and needs
to be understood from the perspective of
the impoverished individuals that are

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you own the
toilets, you
sir own the
world, always
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ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / S OC I AL I M PACT

A TOTALLY DIFFERENT KIND OF usually take the little ones into the stalls with
SOCIAL IMPACT them. So she mentions that restrooms are
technically equal in space but not when taking
When I said it’s more than just a toilet, I into consideration bodies, experiences, and
meant it. When it comes to sexism, racism, needs (Chemaly, The Everyday).
and power the toilet has found itself at the So it’s not all about sexism but
center of it all. unfortunately racism as well. For a long time
Let’s go back to the Victorian era restrooms were segregated by skin color. Jim
where the toilets were made for men and Crow laws were harsh and inhumane meaning
the creation of gender segregated restrooms black men and women across the nation were
began to be a step in the right direction, demanded by law to actually use different
somewhat. Before the social construct of toilets, if they were even available. This
extreme privacy and intimacy of the toilet would translate to the ultimate act of white
came to be, people had no qualms about supremacy and ignorance. Jim Crow laws led
using the toilet together (remember the to accommodations and facilities that were
Roman baths?) and not separated by sex. inferior than those for whites (Hansan, 2011).
In London, as urbanization and presumed More recently, the issues of gender
morality soared, a more solid concept of segregated restrooms have come to light
privacy and this vulnerability associated with due to the topic of gender itself and what it
the toilet came to be. The horrible thing is entails for trans-gender people. For instance,
that the public restrooms primarily catered to a controversial law was passed in North
men at the time. Some places even refused Carolina that instructed people to use the
to hire women because they could not bathroom that corresponded to the gender
accommodate them to their facilities. Women listed on their birth certificate.
could go out of the house as far as their
bladders could take them. Women even had
to resort to utilizing a sort of device
that they could place underneath
their dresses, called a urinette, so they
could relieve themselves sometimes
even on the side of the street (Moss,
The Dirty Secret).
Even in today’s day and age we see
some problems between restrooms for men
and women. Soraya Chemaly wrote an article
for TIME magazine that highlighted the sexist
nature of today’s queues to use the restroom.
Personally I would not call it sexist but just a
complete lack of understanding and reality.
When you go to a football game and during
halftime everyone rushes to the restroom,
you will see longer desperate lines for the
females and not the males. Why is that? Well
Chemaly brings up excellent points. Initially,
the women have to sit whereas men can use
an urinal, cutting the space in half allowing
for more urinals. Women also menstruate and

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04 ART I FACT PROC ES S BOOK / / DES I GN S OLUTI ON

After wrapping up my research I couldn’t wait to begin brainstorming on a design solution. I


wanted to keep it realistic and doable within maybe a year or two, nothing 10 years out. These
people around the world have been suffering for a long time and it’s about time something
happens. Like I mentioned in mt reflection, my biggest inspiration was the fact of knowing and
DESIGN SOLUTION PROPOSAL becoming aware. I think that was the drive behind most of the ideas swirling in my head. Below
you will find the ideas that really stuck with me.

01. POP-UP TOILET 02. NEWS APP 03. CONFERENCE


Looking at the run down One of the biggest shocks I’m not going to lie but this
latrines and communal for me while doing all of was my shakiest idea because
facilities in rural areas I was this research was the lack of I felt like it has been done
inspired to redesign my own. knowledge about it. It wasn’t before and the problem
A lot of them are gloomy, run just me though, every person still persists. I wanted this
down and not welcoming or I would mention the facts conference to become a sort
safe. When you use the toilet to reacted in disbelief. They of TED Talks where people
it brings along a certain sense would look at me baffled could come to understand
of vulnerability so it would in questioning the harsh topics and issues affecting
only make sense for people reality. In our world, one of the world that nobody talks
to want to feel comforted the things we use the most about or is reminded of on
and welcomed. I wanted is our phones; technology an everyday basis, unlike
to take into consideration: has quickly taken over. So I the latest trend or the
gender, lighting, safety, thought why not make some last Kardashian baby. This
understanding, and sort of application that would conference would serve as a
educational protocols with allow us to get to know these way for younger crowds like
these pop-up toilets or little problems better and to truly me to come together and
toilet huts for a lack of a understand them. brainstorm, raise awareness,
better word. and help the world.

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PROJECT PROPOSAL encountered was what if I would like to learn
more about other unspoken of issues that
Out of the three design solutions I had
exist, where would I go? What if I wanted
finalized, the phone application won my heart
to help this problem or hear interviews?
and is the one I have decided to pitch as
I’d probably have to conduct an extensive
my ultimate design solution. The inspiration
Google search hoping the sources were
for this app came about after realizing my
correct.
extreme lack of knowledge of issues that
All of this gave me even more energy
affect other countries or other people in this
and encouragement to create Omitted.
world, sometimes here in the United States.
Omitted will provide users with simple and
It’s not just about the lack of knowledge but
quick different type of “news.” It’ll give us
also about my interest of wanting to know
the awareness of other people’s problems
more; how many other problems are out
that are not just our own. I titled it Omitted
there that affect millions of people each
because usually things like the toilet are
day yet I don’t know about them? There are
topics we choose to not think about because
bound to be others around the globe that
they make us feel uncomfortable, dirty, or
want to become more in tune with the world
ashamed. They are the issues that constantly
just like me.
get left out of the narrative, and ultimately,
In the beginning, I was particularly
out of our lives.
driven and interested by the lack of coverage
I also didn’t want this to be the next
by mainstream news sites and by news sites
trendy thing, Instead it can become a place
I’m not particularly referring to the videos
where people can share comments and
your aunt shares on FaceBook about sick
stories. Making it more of an encouraging
puppies. Even though this could become
and positive community working together for
a more serious outlet since it’s constant
a common goal: to become more aware of
content people are exposed to each day
the problems that exist in this world.
regularly, but how can we make it more
than just a thumbs up? The other issue I

32 33
FUTURE VISION & PLANS book is quickly coming to an end let me add
that I have thoroughly enjoyed all of the parts
Above you can see what the app could
and pieces that have made this book what
potentially look like. The branding and colors
it is. It was something that I was originally
from the design actually heavily influenced
afraid of doing, I mean a toilet? Yuck. But
the look and feel of this book. I want it to
I can say with all of my heart that my heart
be captivating and engaging. Since some of
and mind are changed. It was a pleasure.
the topics covered could potentially be really
Thankfully, this process is not done just yet!
sensitive or just difficult to discuss I want
Here are some of the things I plan on doing
to create a system with vibrant yet serious
as part of my next steps:
tones.
Ideally, the next steps of this • Personas
project would be to fully go into design • User Flow Charts
and prototyping mode! I want to create
• Prototypes
something that does all of my research and
people I’ve read about justice. I am looking • Scenario Maps/User Stories
forward to reading about other topics that • User Tests
aren’t talked about enough and it would be • Animation Tests
my honor to shed some light on them. As this

34 35
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thank you

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