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We can determine the isochromatic fringe order to the nearest order by using both the

2

dark and bright-field arrangements of a polariscope. Further improvements on the accuracy of

the fringe order determination can be achieved either by using the mixed-field patterns or by

using Post’s fringe multiplication method. In order to achieve higher accuracy, as is desirable in

many applications, the following methods may be used:

1. Compensation techniques

2. Colour matching techniques

3. Equidensometry method

Compensation Techniques

Compensation is a technique in which partial modification of relative retardation either

by addition or subtraction is brought about so that the fractional fringe order at a point become

integral. Then by knowing the amount of relative retardation added or substracted the actual

fringe order at that point can be ascertained. The following methods for compensation

techniques are most commonly used:

1. The Babinet compensation method.

2. The Babinet Soleil compensation method.

3. Tension or compression strip method.

4. Tardy method of compensation.

5. Senarmont method of compensation

6. Photometric method.

1. The Babinet Compensation Method. The Babinet compensator uses two wedges of quarts,

which is a naturally double refracting material. As shown in Figure, one of the wedges is fixed

in the instrument, while the other can be displaced relative to the first so as to alter combined

thickness by means of a fine micrometer screw with graduated drum head. With micrometer

screw at zero, the compensator is said to be in the neutral position. The compensator is placed in

the polariscope in between the model and second quarter wave plate. The optic axis of the two

wedges are orthogonal to each other. The polarized light beam in one and retarded in the other

wedge.

The relative retardation R produced when the two wedges have been displaced from their

neutral position is given by,

K

R= (d - d0 )

l

K

= (t + d 0 - d 0 )

l

Kt K

= = x tan a

l l

Figure: The Babinet Compensator

where K = n1 – n2

a = angle of wedge

2.5

x = horizontal displacement, which is equal to the micrometer reading

�K tan a �

.x

or R= � �

� l �

= C. x

where C = � �

� l �

m Micrometer reading

=

m0 � Number of turns necessary to �

thus R= � �

�produce a retardation of one �

�

� wavelength �

�

The Babinet compensator allows fringe orders, to be determined to within 0.01 fringe.

2. The Babinet Soleil Compensation Method. The Babinet-Soleil compensator shown in

figure is an improvement upon the Babinet compensator. This instrument consists of a quartz

plate of uniform thickness and two quartz wedges. The optical axes of the quartz crystals

employed in the plate and the wedges are mutually orthogonal. The birefringence exhibited by

the compensator can be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the two wedges by turning a

calibrated micrometer screw. When t1 = t2, no relative retardation takes place, however for t2 <> 1

, both positive and negative retardation can be produced over the whole area of the compensator

plate. This compensator is very useful for measuring boundary stresses.

In practice, a point is selected on the model where the fringe order is to be established

precisely. Then isoclinic parameters are established for this point to give the direction to either

1 or 2. The compensator is then aligned with the principal stress direction and adjusted to

cancel out the model retardation. The reading of the screw micrometer is proportional to the

fringe order at that point. Like this fringe order at a point can be ascertained to within 0.001

fringe.

3. Tension or Compression Strip Method. In a standard circular polariscope, at an

isotropic point the fringe order is always zero. Based upon this fact a method for the

determination of (1 - 2) has been suggested by Wetheim and developed by Coker. In this

method a pure tensile or compressive stress is superimposed over an arbitrary system of 1 and

2 in such a way as to convert the given stress system into one which is optically equivalent to an

isotropic point. White light is exclusively used in this method.

Figure shows how the plane stress system at a point can be converted to an isotropic

system plus a tension of (1 - 2). A tension compensator may be placed parallel to the minimum

stress 2 and the compression compensator must be placed parallel to the maximum stress 1.

The value of (1 - 3) equals numerically the stress in the compensator at extinction. If the fringe

order at a point by placing a tension compensator increases, then that point is having tensile

stress.

4. The Tardy Method of Compensation. The Tardy method of compensator is generally

preferred over the Babinet-Soleil method since no auxiliary equipment is required and the

analyzer of the polariscope serves as the compensator. In this method the polarizer of the

polariscope is aligned with the direction of the principal stress 1 at the point of interest and all

other elements of the polariscope are rotated relative to the polarizer so that a standard dark-field

polariscope exists. Then the analyzer alone is rotated to obtain extinction. The rotation of the

analyzer gives the fractional fringe order.

As shown in Figure, here = -/4 and the light vector emerging out from the second

QWP becomes (see Art).

� �a �

E 3l = -� wt + D - �

sin � �cos �

�- ��- cos �

wt - �

� sin �

� - �

� ��

� � 2 4� � 4� � 4� � 4� �

a� � �

=- � wt + D - �

sin � �

wt - �

�+ cos � ��

2� � 4� � 4� �

Figure: The Tardy compensation method.

a

� � �

E 4l = sin �

� wt - ��cos �

- �

�

�

�- cos �wt + D - �sin �

� �- �

��

� �2 4� � 4� � 4� � 4� �

a� �

- sin �

= � wt - �

�

�

wt + D - �

�- cos � ��

2� � 4� � 4��

Let be the angle through which analyzer should be rotated to obtain extinction, i.e. Et = 0, then

E t = E 4l cos �

� -�

� - E 3l cos �

� + �

�

�4 � �4 �

a� � � �

=- � sin �wt - ��+ cos �

�wt + D - �

�cos � - �

� �

2� � 4� � 4�� �4 �

a� � � �

+ � wt + D - �

sin � �

wt - �

�+ cos � ��cos � + �

�

2� � 4� � 4�� �4 �

Simplifying, we get

D � �D �

E l = a sin �

wt + �

� �sin � - �

� �= 0

�

� 2�� �2 �

D

Hence sin � �

� - �= 0

�2 �

D

or - = n , n = 0, 1, 2, .......

2

D

or = n +

2

D

or N= = n+

2

If the analyzer is rotated in the opposite direction then

N = (n + 1) -

Thus the Tardy method of compensation can be accomplished in the following way:

1. Using a plane-polariscope set up, determine the principal stress directions at the point of

interest by rotating the crossed polarizer and analyzer until an isoclinic passes through

that point.

2. Now rotate only the quarter wave plates of a circular polariscope to obtain a standard

dark-field arrangement.

3. Rotate only the analyzer then until an isochromatic fringe coincides with the point.

Determine the angle that the analyzer has rotated.

4. If the Nth order fringe moves to the point as the analyzer rotates through the angle , the

fringe order N0 at the point is

N0 = N +

If the (N + 1)st order fringe moves to the point as the analyzer rotates through the angle ,

the fringe order N0 at the point is

N 0 = (N + 1) -

To account for the finite fringe width, the following procedure, as illustrated in fig, may be

followed:

1. The angle of analyzed ra = 0 [Fig (a)].

2. Rotate the analyzer until the fringe N just touches the boundary at the point of interest.

This is angle rb. [Fig (b)].

Figure: Illustration of Tardy method of fringe order determination.

3. Continue to rotate the analyzer until N vanishes from the field of view. This is angle r c

[Fig.(c)]

Then the fringe order at the point of interest of the free boundary is

rb + rc

N0 = N +

360

5. The Senarmont Method of Compensation.

(Friedel’s Method)

The following steps are involved for this method:

1. Remove first quarter wave plate.

2. Rotate system of polarizer and analyzer so that their axes make angles of 45 with the

principal directions in the modal at the point of interest.

3. Rotate second quarter-wave plate until one axis is parallel to the axis of the polarizer.

4. Rotate the analyzer until extinction is obtained at the point of interest.

The arrangements of the elements of the polariscope are shown in Fig.

Let the light vector from the polarizer be given by

E = a cos wt

Since the polarizer is set as 45 to the principal directions in the model hence on entering the

model the light vector is resolved into two components, given by

1

E1e = a cos wt.cos 45o = a cos wt

2

1

E 2e = a cos wt.sin 45o = a cos wt

2

The model introduces a phase different of D. Therefore, on leaving the model, the components

of light vector become,

a

E1l = cos(wt + D )

2

a

E 2e = E 2e = cos wt

2

The fast axis of the QWP is set at 90 to the polarizer axis. Hence on entering the QWP, the light

components become

a

= [cos(wt + D) - cos wt]

2

E bc = E1l cos 45o + E 2l cos 45o

a

= [cos(wt + D) - cos wt]

2

The QWP introduces a phase difference of /2. Hence on leaving the QWP , the light

vectors become,

a� � �

Eal = � wt + D + �

cos � �- cos �

�

wt + �

��

2� � 2� � 2� �

a

= [- sin(wt + D ) + sin wt]

2

a

E bl = E bc = [cos(wt + D) + cos wt]

2

Now the analyzer is rotated through an angle to obtain extinction at the point of interest. Light

transmitted through the analyzer is

E t = E al cos - E bt sin

a

= - [{ sin( wt + D) - sin wt} cos + { cos( wt + D) + cos wt} sin ]

2

a� D D D D �

=- � 2 cos �

�wt + � � sin cos + 2 cos � � wt + � �cos sin �= 0

2� � 2� 2 � 2� 2 �

D D

Hence sin cos + cos sin = 0

2 2

D

sin � �

� + �= 0

�2 �

D

or + = n , n = 0,1, 2,.... f

2

D

= n -

2

D

N= = n-

2

Tardy and Senarmont compensation methods are called the ‘goniometric’ or ‘null location’

methods.

6. Photometric Method: A serious disadvantage of the Tardy and Friedel’s methods of

compensation is that they involve a sequence of operations and are, therefore, suitable only

when the state of stress is static. By means of the photometric method, also known as the

intensity method, it is possible to determine both the phase difference and the directions of

the principal stresses at a point from a single operation. The intensity of light transmitted by

the analyzer is measured with a photocell or photo-multiplier.

Three-dimensional Photoelasticity

Introduction

Many stress analysis problems are three-dimensional in nature for which the two-

dimensional photoelastic method cannot be employed. These problems, however, can be solved

either by locking in the stresses in the model or a multilayer reflection technique may be used to

determine the stresses at the inner layers of the body. Three-dimensional stress distribution in

the body can also be determined by the scattered light method. In this chapter we shall discuss

the locking-in method the stresses in three-dimensional models in detail and the multilayer

reflection technique in brief.

The stresses in a three-dimensional model can be locked-in either by stress-freezing, by

curing method, by creep method or by gamma-ray irradiation method. Out of these methods, the

stress-freezing method is most widely used. This method consists in loading the model at room

temperature (at which the primary secondary bonds break down), keeping at that temperature for

few hours and then cooling to room temperature at a slow rate. The stresses thus frozen in the

model can be analyzed by slicing and viewing in a polariscope.

Maxwell in 1853, and Filon and Harris in 1923 had both obtained the stress-frozen effect

accidentally, while Tuzi in 1927 and Solakian in 1935 both attempted to calculate the residual

stresses and to relate them to the applied loads. None of these, however, fully appreciated the

significance of the phenomenon, and it was Solakian who in 1935 and Oppel in 1936 first

produced a quantitative solution of a three dimensional problem, followed by He’tenyi, who in

1938 first established the strict proportionality of stresses. This discovery opened the way to the

complete solution of the three-dimensional problems and resulted in a very sharp increases in

activity in photoelastic research. Hetenyi, O’ Rourke, Drucker and Mindlin, Drucker and

Woodward, Frocht and Mindlin developed methods of measurement of the frozen stresses and

Jessop in 1949 devised integration methods for determining the separate stresses. Jessop and

Stableford in 1953 published an extension to three dimensions of the Lame-Maxwell equations,

which made it possible to determine the principal stresses along a stress trajectory in a plane of

symmetry. The stress-freezing method of three-dimensional photoelasticity today is a practical

instrument of stress analysis, particularly in complex structures.

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