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Artificial Intelligence Is Connected To Evolution

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2018 by Ian Beardsley



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Perhaps we should start with the AI elements that were used to make the first computing
machines. They were tungsten (W) cathodes enclosed in a glass tube (basically SiO2) which
were the so-called vacuum tubes:

We considered considered the first example of primitive computing machine as a tungsten


filament in a glass tube that is evacuated. Tungsten (W) is the thermionic cathode, but in a
more sophisticated primitive machine silica (SiO2) is doped with boron trioxide (B2O3) and is
used for a lower coefficient of thermal expansion, which is borosilicate glass, preventing the
glass from breaking when the cathode is heated, and for its ability to form a metal to glass
seal. The metal seal is designed to have the same coefficient of thermal expansion as the
borosilicate glass so it expands equally as much as the borosilicate glass, to prevent the tube
from breaking. This metal is called kovar (FerNiCo 1), which is nickel-cobalt-ferrous alloy. The
borosilicate is greater than 80% SiO2 and, typically 12-13% B2O3 (boron trioxide). The alloy of
nickel (II) oxide, cobalt (II) oxide, and iron, is proportionally lower in iron.

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But, let’s consider borosilicate glass independent of it’s chemical formulas and consider boron,
silicon, and oxygen as their representative elements:

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The Author