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# CHAPTER 3

## Elementary Fluid Dynamics

1. What is blunt and bluff bodies?
2. What is stagnation point?
Where velocity of fluid is zero.
3. What are inviscid fluids?
Fluids having zero velocity.
4. If the viscosity of fluid is zero what will be its thermal conductivity?
Also zero except heat transfer through radiation.
5. For a flowing water is viscous force will be greater than other forces?
No, it will be smaller.
6. Fluid motion is governed by which two forces?
One is gravity and other is pressure force.
7. Name two coordinate systems?
Rectangular (x,y,z) and cylindrical (r,theta,z).
8. When fluid flow the direction of velocity vector is always?
Tangent to the path of flow of particle.
9. What are streamlines?
Line tangent to velocity vector.
11. If we increase the streamline spacing for incompressible fluid then the velocity well?
Velocity will increase like in nozzles.
12. For what cases the density of gases is constant?
For velocities not too high.
13. What are assumptions in Bernoulli Equation?
- Steady flow - Incompressible flow – Inviscid--- Applicable along streamline
14. Is Bernoulli equation applicable to 2D?
No also for 3D but along streamline.
15. What is Bernoulli Equation?

## 16. What Bernoulil equation represents?

Energy per unit weight is constant or total pressure along streamline.
17. Static pressure is measure by?
Piezometer tube
18. What is hydrostatic pressure?
It is not actually and pressure. It is pressure change due to height change or potential energy
change of fluid.
19. What is dynamic pressure?
Pressure due to velocity of fluid. At stagnation point velocity is zero so all the kinetic energy
converted to pressure called dynamic pressure and this is the maximum pressure achieved along
a streamline.
20. What is Pitot tube?
It is used to measure velocity. It the combination of stagnation tube and static tube. It converts
velocity into pressure.
21. What is the formula for velocity measuring with Pitot tube?

## 22. Range for pitot tube angles for accurate readings?

12-20 Degree for error less than 1%
23. What will be the effect on density at high speeds of fluids?
Density is not constant.
24. What is directional finding tube?
Tube use to find the velocity and direction of fluid having three holes. For accurate readings the
pressure in 1 and 3 hole should be equal and angle should be 29.5 degree.
25. What is free jet?
Its pressure for incompressible fluid is equal to surrounding pressure.

## 27. What is vena contracta effect?

The diameter of jet is less than the hole diameter if the exit hole is not smooth.
28. On which the effect of vena contracta effect depends?
It depends on the geometry of outlet.
29. What is contraction coefficient (Cc)?
It is the ratio of area of jet to area of hole.
30. What is the value of Cc for re-entrant case? 0.5
31. What is meant by fixed volume?
It means that fluid rate at inlet of volume is equal to fluid rate moving outside the volume-no
more fluid accumulate in the control volume.
32. What is the formula for equation of continuity (conservation of mass)?

## 33. What is cavitation?

When pressure is reduced (by increasing velocity) to vapor pressure and liquid start boils. These
bubbles break at high pressure region.
34. What is vapor pressure?
The pressure at which liquid start boils or vapor bubbles form in liquid.
35. By increasing pressure what will be the effect on boiling temperature?
Boiling temperature will increase.
36. The hissing sound in water pipe produced due to?
It’s due to cavitation.
37. What is imploding?
It is an effect due to cavitation-bubbles break and increase local pressure and temperature.
38. Name devices to measure flow rate?
Venturi meter, nozzle meter and orifice meter.
39. What is relation between flowrate and pressure difference in these devices?
By increasing pressure difference flowrate increase but not straight line relation.
40. What is the average difference between actual and theoretical flowrate?
Small 1-2% and large upto40%
41. Name devices for flowrate measurement base on Bernoulli Equation for OPEN CHANNELS?
1—Sluice Gate (Flow rate depends on height on both side of gate)
2—sharp crested weir (Flow rate depends on height of weir, width and head of water above
weir-Triangular or rectangular weir)
42. What would be Mach No for gases to consider an incompressible gas?
Mach No should less than 0.3 for higher speeds compressibility will be important and Bernoulli
equation will not be applied but modified form.
43. What energy line and Hydraulic line represents?
These lines are graphical representation of Bernoulli Equation.
44. What is Energy line?
It represents the total head available for fluid. The height of this line is measure by Pitot tube by
measuring stagnation pressure. It is horizontal line.
45. Along the streamline which head is constant and which varies?
46. What is hydraulic grade line?
The locus provided by piezometer.
47. If fluid viscosity changes, the HGL shape will be?
Not straight line. Also energy line is not straight.
48. If the pipe is below the HGL, What will be the pressure?
The pressure will be positive (above atmospheric).
49. What will be the depth of HGL from Energy line?
V2/2g

CHAPTER 4
Fluid Kinematics
1. What is field representation?
Representation of fluid properties (density, velocity, acceleration etc) in terms of spatial
coordinates?
2. What is Eulerain and lagrangian approach?
Eulerain approach refers to field concept while lagrangian refers to follow the individual particle
and determine how properties related to these particles. Chimney example
4. Which line is used in analytical work?
Streamline while steak and path lines are used in experimental work.
5. What is streamline?
Line which is always tangent to velocity.
6. What is the shape of streamline for steady and unsteady flow?
For steady flow its shape is constant while for other it is not.
7. What is path line?
It is lagrangian approach in which line is obtain by following individual particle.
8. What is streak line?
A streamline consists of all particles in a flow that have previously passed through a common
point
9. Is for steady flow stream line, streak line and path line are same?
Yes
10. What is control surfaces?
Surfaces of control volume
11. What is deformable control volume?
Control volume whose surfaces is increasing or decreasing like ballon.
12. What are the types of control volumes?
Fixed, moving and deformable

## Last topic remaining

CHAPTER 8
FLUID FLOW IN PIPES
1. Differentiate between conduit and pipes?
Pipes are assumed to be fully filled and circular in cross section while conduits have
non circular cross section like rectangular.
2. What is the difference between open channel flow and pipe flow?
Driving force in open channel flow is gravity while in pipes pressure difference is the
driving force.
3. Which parameter tell about laminar and turbulent flow?
Reynold’s no
4. What is Reynold’s no?
Ration of inertial forces to the viscous forces.
5. What is laminar flow?
Flow having Re no less tha 2100
6. What is turbulent flow?
Reynold’s no greater than 4000
7.