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VOL. 2, NO.

5, OCTOBER 2007 ISSN 1819-6608


ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2007 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

PERFORMANCE TEST OF IC ENGINE USING KARANJA BIODIESEL


BLENDING WITH DIESEL
N. Stalin1 and H. J. Prabhu1
1
Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: m_n_stalin@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
Biodiesel production is a modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of
petroleum diesel and environmental advantages. This paper presents a review of the alternative technological methods that
could be used to produce this fuel. Biodiesel from karanja oil was produced by alkali catalyzed transesterification process.
Performance of IC engine using karanja biodiesel blending with diesel and with various blending ratios has been evaluated.
The engine performance studies were conducted with a prony brake-diesel engine set up. Parameters like speed of engine,
fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combinations of dual fuel. Brake
power, brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were calculated. The test results indicate that the dual
fuel combination of B40 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. Also the cost of dual
fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.

Keywords: transesterification, IC engine, Karanja, biodiesel.

INTRODUCTION Effect of load on torque


Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning The effect of load on torque for different fuels is
alternative fuel, produced from domestic, renewable presented in Figure-1. The relationship between the load
resources. Biodiesel contains no petroleum, but it can be and the torque for various fuels is shown in Figure-1. It
blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a can be observed that as the load increases, torque increases
biodiesel blend. It can be used in compression-ignition to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the
(diesel) engines with little or no modifications. Biodiesel fuel samples. When the torque produced by the engine at
is simple to use, biodegradable, nontoxic, and essentially different loads for the diesel and various mixtures of dual
free of sulfur and aromatics. fuel is compared, it is found that the torque increases up to
Biodiesel is made through a chemical process B40 and then it decreases. The increase in torque is due to
called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated the higher calorific value of diesel and that of the dual fuel
from the fat or vegetable oil. The process leaves behind mixtures from B5 to B40, as well as complete combustion
two products-methyl esters (the chemical name for of fuels. In the case of dual fuel mixtures from B40 to
biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold B100, the quantity of karanja biodiesel increases which
to be used in soaps and other products [1]. results in low calorific value. Because of this low calorific
Biodiesel is better for the environment because it value the torque decreases for the blends from B40 to
is made from renewable resources and has lower emission B100.
compared to petroleum diesel.
The transesterification is achieved with
Influence of load on Torque for fuels
monohydric alcohols like methanol and ethanol in the
presence of an alkali catalyst. Biodiesel and its blends with
petroleum-based diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines 12
Diesel
without any significant modifications to the engines. The 10 B5
advantages of biodiesel are that it displaces petroleum
Torque (Nm)

8 B10
thereby reducing global warming gas emissions, tail pipe
particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and 6 B15
other air toxics. Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces 4 B20
premature wearing of fuel pumps [2] B40
2
B60
MATERIALS AND METHODS 0
0 50 100 B80
Performance evaluation of engine Load (%)
B100
The engine performance tests were conducted
with a prony brake-diesel engine set up. The parameters
like speed of engine, fuel consumption and torque were Figure-1. Load and torque for different blending ratios.
measured at different loads for diesel and with various
combinations of dual fuel. Brake power, brake specific
fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency was
calculated using the collected test data.

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VOL. 2, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2007 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

Brake power
The influence of load on brake power for Influence of load on breake specific fuel
different fuels is presented in Figure-2. It can be observed consumption for fuels
from the figure that as the load increases, brake power Diesel
increases to the maximum at 70% load and then decreases 0.8 B5
for all the fuel samples. When the brake power produced B10
by the engine at different loads for different mixtures of 0.6 B15
dual fuel is compared, it is found that the brake power

Bhp
0.4 B20
increases up to B40 and then it decreases. When the brake B40
power at different loads is compared for diesel and 0.2 B60
different combinations of dual fuel, it is noted that the B80
brake power is higher for the dual fuel combinations from 0
10 20 40 60 70 80 B100
B5 to B30 than diesel. In the case of B40 the brake power
is more or less equal to that of diesel. For the dual fuel Load (%)
combinations from B50 to B100, the brake power is less
than that of diesel. Hence it can be concluded that the dual
fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in
Figure-3. Beak horsepower for different loads.
the diesel engines without making any engine
modifications. At the same time the cost of dual fuel (B40)
Brake thermal efficiency
can be considerably reduced than pure diesel.
Referring to Figure-4, it is observed that as the
load increases, brake thermal efficiency increases up to
Influe nce of Load on brake powe r for fue ls 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel samples
tested. The low brake thermal efficiency for B60, B80 and
30
B100 may be due to the lower HHV and the increase in
Diesel fuel consumption. Further it is noticed that the brake
25 thermal efficiency for B40 is more or less equal to that of
Breake power (kW)

B5
20 B10
diesel.

15 B15
B20 Infle nce of load on Brake the rmal e fficie ncy
10
for fue ls
B40
5 Diesel
B60
0 30 B5
B80
0 50 100 25 B10
Brake thermal
efficiency (%)

B100 20
Load (%) B15
15
B20
10
Figure-2. Break power for different loads. B40
5
B60
0
Brake specific fuel consumption B80
0 50 100
Figure-3 shows that as the load increases, brake
load (%) B100
specific fuel consumption decreases to the minimum of at
70% load and then increases for all the fuel samples tested.
This can be correlated to the test results obtained for the
brake power. The specific fuel consumption (SFC) for B5, Figure-4. Brake thermal efficiency for different loads.
B10, B15, and B20 are more or less equal to that of diesel.
The SFC for B40, B60, B80 and B100 are continuously RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
increasing and they are less than the SFC for diesel. This
may be due to the lower calorific value of biodiesel than Engine performance tests using karanja biodiesel and
diesel. its blends with diesel
As the load increases, torque increases to the
maximum at 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel
samples. When the torque produced by the engine at
different loads for the diesel and various mixtures of dual
fuel is compared, it is found that the torque increases upto
B40 and then it decreases. The increase in torque is due to
the higher calorific value of diesel and that of the dual fuel
mixtures from B5 to B40 as well as complete combustion
of fuels.

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VOL. 2, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2007 ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2007 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.

www.arpnjournals.com

In the case of dual fuel mixtures from B40 to REFERENCES


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As the load increases, brake thermal efficiency
increases upto 70% load and then decreases for all the fuel
samples tested. The low brake thermal efficiency for B60,
B80 and B100 may be due to the lower HHV and the
increase in fuel consumption.
From the above discussions, following conclusions can
be drawn.
ƒ For all the fuel samples tested, torque, brake
power and brake thermal efficiency reach
maximum values at 70% load.
ƒ The dual fuel combination of B40 can be
recommended for use in the diesel engines
without making any engine modifications. Also
the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably
reduced than pure diesel.
ƒ The cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably
reduced than pure diesel.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Periyar
Maniyammai College of Technology for Women, for
funding to developing a commercial scale model of the
biodiesel production plant.

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