You are on page 1of 43

# Chopper

Frequency controller

0
Converters en Inverters

 DC-DC: Converter
 AC-DC: Converter
Rectifier
(usinf diodes and capacitors)
 DC-AC: Inverter
1. Square wave
2. Modified Sine
3. Real sine converter

1
Average Voltage

##  a 12V DC voltage with a Duty Cycle () of

30% has an average voltage of….

## This can be measured with a Multimeter

on DC

2
Effective Voltage (RMS)

previous signal.

3
RMS voltage

##  What is the RMS voltage of an triangle

waveform with an amplitude of 10V

4
Hints:

##  All 10V triangle form, dispite their form will

have the same effective voltage.
 as example take a voltage that rises in 10ms
from 0 till 10V and then falls down to 0V
 The fomula on time interval 0-T will be:

U=1t
 Try at home another triangle wave form with
a peak voltage of 10V!

5
RMS voltage

##  What is the RMS voltage of a sine wave

formed signal

6
One phase single rectified

## Only 50% of the applied voltage is used

Power losses: I(t) * UD

7
One phase, double rectified

8
Two phases, single rectified

9
3- phases rectifying

Alternator

## The alternator clamp voltage is at any moment the difference

between the highest and lowest voltage from each of the three coils

10
t0

## At t0 counts: Max positive voltage : UV

max negative voltage: UW

Altenator 11
8V

-4 V

t1

## At t1 counts: max positive voltage: UV 8V

max negative voltage: UW or UU -4V

GENERATOR 12
++

--

## Op t1 counts: UV is positive so D6 conducts

UW, is negative so D7 conducts

GENERATOR 13
For the Voltage at momentum t1 counts:

D6

 U V  U D 6  U RL  U D 7  U W  0
U RL  U V  U W  U D 6  U D 6
RL
U RL  8  (4)  U D 6  U D 6
if we neglet U D :
U RL  12 V

D7

GENERATOR 14
8V
6,93 V

-6,93V

t2

## UV(t2)=U(max).sin60° = 8. sin60° = 6,93 V.

Then UW (phaseshift -120) UW= Umax . sin(-60) = -6,93 V
And (phaseshift +120) UU= Umax . sin(180) = 0V

GENERATOR 15
For the Voltage at momentum t2 counts:

D6

 U V  U D 6  U RL  U D 7  U W  0
U RL  U V  U W  U D 6  U D 6
RL
U RL  6,93  (6,93)  U D 6  U D 6
If we neglet U D :
U RL  13,9 V

D7

GENERATOR 16
GENERATOR 17
three phases – double sided rectfied

18
The controlled rectifier

Istead of using diodes in the rectifier bridge we can control the rectifier
by using active semi conductors like Thyristors or IGBT’s. Now we can
activiate the rectifier bridge with a delay time and only use a part of the
sine wave form.
This principle is named: phase-cutting..
19
 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-

20
21
Chopper

## a chopper is able to change a DC voltage in a higher or lower DC voltage

than the input voltage.

22
The step down chopper

23
The step down chopper

24
The step down chopper

When the IGBT is ON (switch closed) the supplied voltage (V) stands
over the motor and an increasing motor current i0 runs from the source
to the motor..
25
De step down chopper

When the IGBT is OFF (switch open) the source is not longer standing
over de motor. The motor current i0 runs via the free running diode in the
same direction (but is decreasing) because of the magnetic energy
stored in the self inductivity from the motor-coil. The diode conducts
automatically while the voltage over L is in the opposite direction.
(U = Ldi/dt).
26
De step down chopper

## This is the void operation

we need to increase the frequency to
avoid this
27
De step up chopper

When the chopper is ON, the coil L is generized by the source and
increases for a time ton. During this time (magnetic) energy is stored in
the coil.
28
Thestep up chopper

29
De step up chopper

When the chopper is OFF and over the diode and the load is now a
voltage V + Vcoil the diode conducts.
The descending current through the coil runs in the same direction and
the capacitor and the load gets ernergy by this current at a high(er)
voltage.

30
The step up chopper

31
Using choppers for DC motors

## Normal operation: CH1 en CH4 “ON”

CH1 – pulsating. Free-running via CH4 andD2
32

Forward Forward
Braking Driven

Reverse Reverse
Driven Braking

I = Current
M of T = Torque
n= speed

33

##  Which Transistors are active?

 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

34
whiteout/ whit energy regeneration
 Which Transistors are active?
 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

35
whiteout/ whit regeneration
 Which Transistors are active?
 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

36
The inverter for a brushless DC motor

37
De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

## Rotorfield result by Permanent magnet

current through field
coil A and B

spoel=coil ; veld=field 38
De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

39
De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

40
DC-AC Inverter

Bron:
https://www.wpi.edu/
Pubs/E-
project/Available/E-
project-042507-
092653/unrestricted/
MQP_D_1_2.pdf

##  The most simple solution is a square waveform, beter is

the modified sine. Both must have the same effective
voltage as the sine. For resistive load only, not for