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Chopper

Frequency controller

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Converters en Inverters

 DC-DC: Converter
 AC-DC: Converter
Rectifier
(usinf diodes and capacitors)
 DC-AC: Inverter
1. Square wave
2. Modified Sine
3. Real sine converter

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Average Voltage

 a 12V DC voltage with a Duty Cycle () of


30% has an average voltage of….

This can be measured with a Multimeter


on DC

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Effective Voltage (RMS)

 The effective (or RMS) voltage is defined as:

 Determine the effective voltage of the


previous signal.

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RMS voltage

 What is the RMS voltage of an triangle


waveform with an amplitude of 10V

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Hints:

 All 10V triangle form, dispite their form will


have the same effective voltage.
 as example take a voltage that rises in 10ms
from 0 till 10V and then falls down to 0V
 The fomula on time interval 0-T will be:

U=1t
 Try at home another triangle wave form with
a peak voltage of 10V!

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RMS voltage

 What is the RMS voltage of a sine wave


formed signal

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One phase single rectified

Only 50% of the applied voltage is used


Power losses: I(t) * UD

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One phase, double rectified

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Two phases, single rectified

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3- phases rectifying

Alternator

The alternator clamp voltage is at any moment the difference


between the highest and lowest voltage from each of the three coils

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t0

At t0 counts: Max positive voltage : UV


max negative voltage: UW

Altenator 11
8V

-4 V

t1

At t1 counts: max positive voltage: UV 8V


max negative voltage: UW or UU -4V

GENERATOR 12
++

--

Op t1 counts: UV is positive so D6 conducts


UW, is negative so D7 conducts

GENERATOR 13
For the Voltage at momentum t1 counts:

D6

 U V  U D 6  U RL  U D 7  U W  0
U RL  U V  U W  U D 6  U D 6
RL
U RL  8  (4)  U D 6  U D 6
if we neglet U D :
U RL  12 V

D7

GENERATOR 14
8V
6,93 V

-6,93V

t2

UV(t2)=U(max).sin60° = 8. sin60° = 6,93 V.


Then UW (phaseshift -120) UW= Umax . sin(-60) = -6,93 V
And (phaseshift +120) UU= Umax . sin(180) = 0V

GENERATOR 15
For the Voltage at momentum t2 counts:

D6

 U V  U D 6  U RL  U D 7  U W  0
U RL  U V  U W  U D 6  U D 6
RL
U RL  6,93  (6,93)  U D 6  U D 6
If we neglet U D :
U RL  13,9 V

D7

GENERATOR 16
GENERATOR 17
three phases – double sided rectfied

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The controlled rectifier

Istead of using diodes in the rectifier bridge we can control the rectifier
by using active semi conductors like Thyristors or IGBT’s. Now we can
activiate the rectifier bridge with a delay time and only use a part of the
sine wave form.
This principle is named: phase-cutting..
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 http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-

 RadaC6s7kzY/Tg_l-Qy5GxI/AAAAAAAAAj0/1QXrn66OiWc/s400/3+fasa+setengah+gelombang.JPG

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Chopper

a chopper is able to change a DC voltage in a higher or lower DC voltage


than the input voltage.

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The step down chopper

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The step down chopper

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The step down chopper

When the IGBT is ON (switch closed) the supplied voltage (V) stands
over the motor and an increasing motor current i0 runs from the source
to the motor..
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De step down chopper

When the IGBT is OFF (switch open) the source is not longer standing
over de motor. The motor current i0 runs via the free running diode in the
same direction (but is decreasing) because of the magnetic energy
stored in the self inductivity from the motor-coil. The diode conducts
automatically while the voltage over L is in the opposite direction.
(U = Ldi/dt).
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De step down chopper

This is the void operation


we need to increase the frequency to
avoid this
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De step up chopper

When the chopper is ON, the coil L is generized by the source and
increases for a time ton. During this time (magnetic) energy is stored in
the coil.
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Thestep up chopper

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De step up chopper

When the chopper is OFF and over the diode and the load is now a
voltage V + Vcoil the diode conducts.
The descending current through the coil runs in the same direction and
the capacitor and the load gets ernergy by this current at a high(er)
voltage.

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The step up chopper

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Using choppers for DC motors

Normal operation: CH1 en CH4 “ON”


CH1 – pulsating. Free-running via CH4 andD2
first quadrant.
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Four Quadrants Operation

Forward Forward
Braking Driven

Reverse Reverse
Driven Braking

I = Current
M of T = Torque
n= speed

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3rd Quadrant (Reverse)

 Which Transistors are active?


 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

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The 2nd quadrant (Forward Braking)
whiteout/ whit energy regeneration
 Which Transistors are active?
 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

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4th Quadrant (Reverse Braking)
whiteout/ whit regeneration
 Which Transistors are active?
 Which one pulsates?
 Free running via…?

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The inverter for a brushless DC motor

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De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

Rotorfield result by Permanent magnet


current through field
coil A and B

spoel=coil ; veld=field 38
De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

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De inverter bij een brushless DC motor

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DC-AC Inverter

Bron:
https://www.wpi.edu/
Pubs/E-
project/Available/E-
project-042507-
092653/unrestricted/
MQP_D_1_2.pdf

 The most simple solution is a square waveform, beter is


the modified sine. Both must have the same effective
voltage as the sine. For resistive load only, not for
inductive loads! (Modified might work)
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Sinus generator

 a pretty good sine can be formed with the


block and one triangle waveform.
 For high power it’s expensive (± $100/ kW)
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