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BHT-407-MM-2

CHAPTER 8 — WEIGHT AND BALANCE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Paragraph Chapter/Section Page


Number Title Number Number

WEIGHT AND BALANCE

8-1 Purpose.......................................................................................... 8-00-00 3


8-2 General .......................................................................................... 8-00-00 3
8-3 Terminology ................................................................................... 8-00-00 3

LEVELING

8-4 Leveling With the Use of a Plumb Bob .......................................... 8-00-00 5


8-4A Leveling With the Use of a Level ................................................... 8-00-00 5
8-5 Weighing Procedure ...................................................................... 8-00-00 6A
8-6 Preparation Of The Helicopter For Weighing............................ 8-00-00 6A
8-7 Weighing................................................................................... 8-00-00 6A
8-8 Calculations ................................................................................... 8-00-00 7
8-9 Calculating As-weighed Center of Gravity ................................ 8-00-00 7
8-10 Calculating Initial Weight Empty and Center of Gravity ............ 8-00-00 7
8-11 Computing an Actual Weight Record — Examples .................. 8-00-00 8
8-12 Calculating Final Weight Empty Center of Gravity.................... 8-00-00 8
8-13 Use of the weight empty center of gravity limits................ 8-00-00 8
8-14 Use of the gross weight flight limits................................... 8-00-00 14
8-15 Sample Weight Procedure........................................................ 8-00-00 24
8-16 Calculating the Laterial Center of Gravity ................................. 8-00-00 24
8-17 Installation of Ballast ...................................................................... 8-00-00 24
8-18 Model 407 Kit Weights.............................................................. 8-00-00 28

FIGURES

Figure Page
Number Title Number

8-1 Leveling............................................................................................................... 6
8-2 Calculating as-weighed center of gravity (Example)........................................... 10
8-3 Weight and balance station diagram................................................................... 12
8-4 How to find the correct ballast weight ................................................................. 15
8-5 Weight empty vs center of gravity....................................................................... 16
8-6 Gross weight longitudinal center of gravity limits – Standard units..................... 18
8-7 Completing an actual weight record – Standard units (Example) ....................... 20
8-8 Completing an actual weight record – Metric units (Example)............................ 21
8-9 Ballast installation ............................................................................................... 22
8-10 Actual weight record — Standard unit ................................................................ 26
8-11 Actual weight record — Metric units ................................................................... 27
8-12 Actual weight record ........................................................................................... 35

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TABLES

Table Page
Number Title Number

8-1 Sample weighing using electronic platform scales ............................................. 8


8-2 Weights for various fuels and oils ....................................................................... 9
8-3 Deriving initial weight empty and center of gravity (example)............................. 11
8-4 Ballast locations .................................................................................................. 13
8-5 Deriving final weight empty from initial weight empty (example) ........................ 14
8-6 Sample weighing procedure ............................................................................... 25
8-7 Kit weights (Standard units) ................................................................................ 29
8-8 Bell 407 with standard skid gear (Standard units) .............................................. 31
8-9 Kit weights (Metric units)..................................................................................... 32
8-10 Bell 407 on standard gear................................................................................... 34

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WEIGHT AND BALANCE

8-1. PURPOSE Useful Load - the maximum gross weight minus the
weight empty. The maximum gross weight includes the
This section gives the procedures that are necessary pilot, the passengers, the engine oil, fuel, baggage,
to find the actual weight empty and the center of and cargo.
gravity (CG) of a helicopter configuration, and to find
what changes, if any, are necessary to keep the Center of Gravity (CG) - the point about which all of
helicopter within the gross weight flight limits during the moments in all of the axes are exactly equal in
operation. magnitude. For balance purposes, think of the weight
of an item as being concentrated at the CG of the item.
8-2. GENERAL
Weight Empty CG - The center of gravity of the
The CG is the balance point of a body and it is used helicopter in it's weight empty condition.
when you calculate the weight and balance for the
helicopter. If we compare a helicopter with a
pendulum, the suspension point is where the main NOTE
rotor hub intersects the mast and the pendulum weight
is the helicopter. The pendulum weight will stop with its When the gross weight flight limits taper,
CG directly below the suspension point. For example: increasing weight empty can cause a
a helicopter will fly with its nose up if the CG is aft of previous payload configuration that had
the hub/mast intersection. To fly the helicopter in a been inside limits to have a center of gravity
level manner, the pilot must move the cyclic control outside limits.
stick forward. The more the pilot moves the cyclic
control stick forward, the less power there will be for Most Forward Gross Weight - the sum of the empty
forward speed and the control over the helicopter is weight, the maximum crew weight, the engine oil, and
decreased. Because this loss of control is unsafe, it is all of the useful load items which result in the most
important to keep the helicopter CG within the given forward CG.
gross weight flight limits. This is done in two ways:
Most Aft Gross Weight - the sum of the empty
1. By changing the location of the helicopter weight weight, the minimum crew weight, the engine oil, and
empty CG through equipment relocation or by adding all of the useful load items which result in the most aft
or removing ballast, and CG.

2. By deriving the combinations of useful load items Weight Empty CG Limits - a range of weight empty
which are permitted for each flight. CG based on the standard fuel and passenger loading.
A helicopter that is ballasted within this range will not
8-3. TERMINOLOGY go outside the gross weight flight limits with standard
loading.
If it is necessary to apply weight and balance control,
use the terms that follow: Gross Weight Flight Limits - the center of gravity
range plotted against gross weight within which the
Weight Empty - the value you get when you add up helicopter meets the requirements of the Federal
the weight of the airframe, the power plant, the Aviation Regulations under which it is certified.
required equipment, serviceable and special
equipment, the fixed ballast, hydraulic fluid, Datum - the intersection of the vertical, lateral, and the
transmission and gearbox oil, fuel that is not usable, horizontal planes from which all measurements are
and engine oil that is not drainable. taken for balance purposes. The distance to the CG of
an item is measured from the datum in terms of
Maximum Gross Weight - the maximum approved Fuselage Station (FS), Buttline (BL) and Waterline
take-off weight of the helicopter plus its contents. (WL) (Figure 8-6).

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Arm - the distance from the datum to the CG of an Minimum Fuel - for weight and balance purposes, this
item. The longitudinal arm is the fuselage station, the is the same as unusable fuel.
lateral arm is the buttline, and the vertical arm is the
waterline. The algebraic sign convention is plus (+) for
Undrainable Fuel/Oil - the fuel and oil remaining in
an object that is aft of the datum, above the datum,
their respective system after the draining procedures
and to the right of the datum (when looking forward).
are completed.
The minus sign (-) is used when parts are forward of
the datum, below the datum and to the left of the
datum when looking forward. Tare Weight - for mechanical scales, the weight of
chocks, blocks, stands, etc. that are used during
Moment - the result when you multiply the weight of weighing. This weight is included in the scale
an item and the arm of the item. readings. For electronic scales, consult the scale
manufacturer's data.
Unusable Fuel - whichever is the greater: the amount
of fuel remaining in the system when, in the worst As-Weighed Weight - the weight of the helicopter
attitude in which flight is maintained, the fuel pump configuration on the scales. This should be as close to
cavitates, or when the fuel gage reads zero. weight empty as possible.

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LEVELING

8-4. LEVELING WITH THE USE OF A 6. Adjust all three jacks (3) evenly until the
PLUMB BOB helicopter is level. The helicopter is level when the
point of the plumb bob (6) is directly over the
intersection of the cross on the level plate (4).
A level plate (4, Figure 8-1) is located in the baggage
bay at fuselage station 170.10 and buttock line -8.40.
A slotted level plate (1) is located directly above the 8-4A. LEVELING WITH THE USE OF A
level plate on the underside of the engine pan. To level LEVEL
the helicopter, do the steps that follow:
This is an alternate procedure to weigh the helicopter
1. Remove the access panel in the baggage bay using a level.
roof.
1. Install a spirit level or a digital level nesting flat on
the inner surface of the cabin floor.
2. Hang a plumb bob (6, Detail A) from the small
hole in the slotted level plate (1). Hang it in such a
manner that the plumb bob is just above the level plate
(4) in the baggage bay.
CAUTION

MAKE SURE THE HELICOPTER IS ON A


CAUTION HARD AND LEVEL SURFACE BEFORE
YOU PUT IT ON THE JACKS. IF YOU DO
NOT DO THIS, THE HELICOPTER CAN
MAKE SURE THE HELICOPTER IS ON A FALL ON ITS SIDE AND DAMAGE CAN
HARD AND LEVEL SURFACE BEFORE OCCUR.
YOU PUT IT ON THE JACKS. IF YOU DO
NOT DO THIS, THE HELICOPTER CAN
FALL ON ITS SIDE AND DAMAGE CAN 2. Put the helicopter on a hard and level surface in
OCCUR. an enclosed hangar.

3. Put the helicopter on a hard and level surface in 3. Put three jacks (3, Figure 8-1) under the
an enclosed hangar. helicopter at the permanent jack and tie down the
fittings. The two forward jack fittings (5) are located at
fuselage station 55.16 and the aft jack fitting (2) is
4. Put three jacks (3) under the helicopter at the located at fuselage station 204.92 (Chapter 7). If you
permanent jack and tie down the fittings. The two have not completed step 1 and step 2, do them now.
forward jack fittings (5) are located at fuselage station
55.16 and the aft jack fitting (2) is located at fuselage
station 204.92 (Chapter 7). If you have not completed 4. Adjust the aft jack (3) at the aft jack fitting (2) until
the previous step 1 and step 2, do them now. the helicopter is almost level.

5. Adjust the aft jack (3) at the aft jack fitting (2) until NOTE
the helicopter is almost level.
When you make the helicopter level for the
weight check, the landing gear skids must
be clear of the floor.
NOTE
When you make the helicopter level for the 5. Adjust all three jacks (3) evenly until the
weight check, the landing gear skids must helicopter is level. The helicopter is level when the
be clear of the floor. level is true both laterally and longitudinally.

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Figure 8-1. Leveling

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8-5. WEIGHING PROCEDURE 5. Make sure the engine oil system is either fully
drained or topped up to the full mark.
8-6. PREPARATION OF THE HELICOPTER
FOR WEIGHING
NOTE
Before you weigh the helicopter, make sure that the
The weight empty configuration is the
configuration is as near the weight empty as possible.
weight of the basic helicopter plus the
Do the steps that follow:
weight of the kits, special equipment, fixed
ballast, transmission and gearbox oil,
1. Remove, as much as possible, dirt, grease, hydraulic fluid, unusable fuel, and
moisture, and any equipment that is not required for undrainable oil.
weighing from the helicopter.
6. Drain the fuel system (Chapter 12).
2. Make sure that the baggage compartment is
empty.
8-7. WEIGHING
3. Put all of the kits and the required equipment for
weighing in their proper locations. 1. Do not weigh the helicopter outdoors or in an
open building because wind, flapping rotors, and body
4. Make sure that the transmission, gearbox, and sway may seriously affect the accuracy of the scale
hydraulic reservoirs are full (Chapter 12). readings.

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each digital counter to find the difference from zero.


NOTE Subtract these numbers from the first scale readings
If you use electronic platform scales, (when you subtract a negative number, you add it) to
always align the jackpoint on the center of get the three net weights.
the scale. Do not cross the scale coax wire
on the ground or put any weight on the 8. Add the individual weights to get the “As-
cable. Weighed” Weight. Refer to Table 8-1.

2. If you use electronic loadcells, make sure that the In some cases, tare weight can be negative after
loadcells and the adapters are tightened to the pads of removing weight from electronic scales. This example
the jacks that are used to raise the helicopter. Put the shows this situation.
load cells in position on the jacks. Do the warm-up
recommended by the scale manufacturer. Refer to the
8-8. CALCULATIONS
instructions supplied by the manufacturer and adjust
each load cell to zero.
8-9. CALCULATING AS-WEIGHED CENTER OF
GRAVITY
3. Make sure that each of the scale calibrations
have a zero reading before you do each weighing 1. The distance from Fuselage Station 0.00 to the
procedure. centers of the forward jack fittings (5, Figure 8-1) is
called the forward arm, A. (Figure 8-3). The distance
4. If you will weigh the helicopter on portable scales, from Fuselage Station 0.00 to the center of the aft jack
put the scales in position on level ground. Put a scale fitting (2, Figure 8-1) is called the aft arm, B (Figure 8-
under each jack point. Align the jackpoint on the center 3). The forward arm is 55.16 inches (1401 mm) long
of the scale. Use the jacks to make the helicopter level and the aft arm is 204.92 inches (5205 mm) long.
in the longitudinal and lateral directions (Paragraph 8-
4). 2. Multiply the sum of the net weights of the forward
scales by the forward arm. The result is called the
forward moment and the units are in inch-pounds
(millimeter-kilograms).
CAUTION
3. Multiply the net weight of the aft scale by the aft
MAKE SURE THAT THE LANDING GEAR arm. The result is called the aft moment and the units
SKIDS DO NOT TOUCH THE WEIGH are in inch-pounds (millimeter-kilograms).
SCALES OR THE FLOOR. IF THEY
TOUCH, THE SCALES WILL NOT BE 4. Add the forward and the aft moments. Divide this
BALANCED CORRECTLY. sum by the As-Weighed Weight. The result is the As-
weighed helicopter CG in inches (millimeters) aft of FS
5. Balance each scale and make a note of the 0.00. Refer to Figure 8-2
readings. If you are using electronic scales, find the
weight on each cell from the digital counter. Refer to 8-10. CALCULATING INITIAL WEIGHT EMPTY
the instructions given by the manufacturer. AND CENTER OF GRAVITY

6. Remove the helicopter from the jacks (Chapter 1. Before you find the ballast requirements, you
7). On each scale, weigh the weight tare. This includes must compute the initial weight empty from the As-
the applicable jack, blocks, and any other equipment weighed weight. Balance calculations are based on
that you had in position between the helicopter and the the Weight Empty condition. Start with the As-
scale. Subtract this weight tare from the first scale Weighted weight, the CG, the moment, and do the
reading to get the net weights. steps that follow:

7. If you use electronic scales, remove the a. Add the weight of all the Empty Weight items
helicopter from the jacks (Chapter 7). Make sure that that are not on the helicopter when it was weighed.
the load cells do not touch the jack points. Examine Some examples are:

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• unusable fuel, Both procedures are shown in the sections that


• undrainable engine oil, follows:
• transmission oil, and
• gearbox oils. 8-13. Use of the weight empty center of gravity
limits
b. Subtract the weight of all of the non Weight
Empty items on the helicopter when it was weighed,
When a helicopter has a standard fuel system and a
such as: the plumb bob, the engine oil, the undrainable
standard seating arrangement, use the weight empty
fuel, etc.
CG limits (Figure 8-5) as a guide to correctly ballast
the helicopter.
2. Table 8-2 lists the density weights and quantities
that must be used for weight and balance calculations.
The fuel quantities are for a standard day. If a 1. If the initial weight empty and CG are within the
helicopter has to be weighed with full tanks (this is not weight empty CG limit lines (Figure 8-5), the initial
recommended), do a specific gravity check to find the weight empty is the final weight empty. Write this value
correct weight of fuel on board. down on the Actual Weight Record form that is
included in the flight manual.
3. Table 8-3 shows a typical calculation for deriving
the initial weight empty and the CG. 2. If the computed center of gravity is outside the
limits, the required center of gravity is found by moving
8-11. COMPUTING AN ACTUAL WEIGHT horizontally to the nearest limit and reading the value
RECORD — EXAMPLES at this point. If the limit lines are not vertical, the
required CG that you use should be inside the limit line
For these examples, the helicopter has no weight to allow for the increase in weight because of the
empty equipment missing, the fuel system is drained, addition of the ballast.
the engine oil system is full, and the helicopter was
leveled with a plumb bob. The helicopter was serviced
with JP-5 fuel and MIL-L-23699 oil. a. If the CG is aft of the limit and if the mid
tailboom ballast is already installed, remove the ballast
All changes made to the As-Weighed condition must and calculate the initial weight empty and CG again
be shown on the Actual Weight Record (Figure 8-7 before you calculate the required ballast.
and Figure 8-8).
b. If the CG is forward of the limit line and if the
8-12. CALCULATING FINAL WEIGHT EMPTY nose ballast is already installed, remove the ballast
CENTER OF GRAVITY and calculate the initial weight empty and CG again
before you calculate the required ballast.
The final Weight Empty CG may be found by two
procedures: use the weight empty CG limits (Figure 8-
5) or use the gross weight flight limits (Figure 8-6).

Table 8-1. Sample weighing using electronic platform scales

SCALE LOCATION SCALE READING TARE WEIGHT NET WEIGHT

(LBS) (KG) (LBS) (KG) (LBS) (KG)

Fwd Left 679.2 308.1 2.2 1.0 677.0 307.1

Fwd Right 692.7 314.2 -3.3 -1.5 696.0 315.70

Aft 1523.0 690.8 4.0 1.8 1519.0 689.0

As Weighed 2894.9 1313.1 2.9 1.3 2892.0 1311.8

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Table 8-2. Weights for various fuels and oils

FUEL OIL DENSITY


LBS/GAL (KG/L)
JP-4 (Jet B) 6.5 0.779
JP-5 (Jet A) 6.8 0.815
JP-8 6.8 0.815
DOD-L-85734 8.4 1.007
MIL-L-7808 7.7 0.923
MIL-L-23699 8.4 1.007
UNUSABLE FUEL
FUEL WEIGHT CG MOMENT
(MM-KG/
(LBS) (KG) (INCHES) (MM) (IN-LBS)
100)
JP-4 17.2 7.8 114.6 2911 1971 227.1
JP-5 18.0 8.2 114.6 2911 2063 238.7
JP-8 18.0 8.2 114.6 2911 2063 238.7
TRAPPED/UNDRAINABLE FUEL
JP-4 4.5 2.0 110.6 2809 498 56.2
JP-5 4.7 2.1 110.6 2809 520 59.0
JP-8 4.7 2.1 110.6 2809 520 59.0
UNDRAINABLE ENGINE OIL
DOD-L-85734 1.6 0.7 192 4877 307 34.1
MIL-L-7808 1.4 0.6 192 4877 269 29.3
MIL-L-23699 1.6 0.7 192 4877 307 34.1
USABLE ENGINE OIL
DOD-L-85734 13.0 5.9 205 5207 2665 307.2
MIL-L-7808 11.9 5.4 205 5207 2440 281.2
MIL-L-23699 13.0 5.9 205 5207 2665 307.2

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Figure 8-2. Calculating as-weighed center of gravity (Example)

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Table 8-3. Deriving initial weight empty and center of gravity (example)

ITEM WEIGHT CG MOMENT

(MM-KG/
(LBS) (KG) (INCHES) (MM) (IN-LBS)
100)

As-weighed 2892.0 1311.8 133.82 3399 387008 44587.9

Remove:
Engine Oil -13.0 -5.9 205.0 5207 -2665 -307.2

Plumb Bob -0.3 -0.1 170.1 4321 -51 -4.3

Undrain- -4.7 -2.1 110.6 2809 -520 -59.0


able Fuel

Add:
Unusable 18.0 8.2 114.6 2911 2063 238.7
Fuel

Initial Weight 2892.0 1311.9 133.41 3389 385835 44456.1


Empty

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Figure 8-3. Weight and balance station diagram

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d. Calculate the required ballast using the


NOTE formula that follows:
Do not install ballast in both the nose and
the mid tailboom locations at the same time.

c. If the CG is aft of the limit and if the nose Ballast = (weight empty) (required CG — calculated CG)
ballast is already installed (or if the CG is forward of ballast CG — required CG
the limit and if the mid tailboom ballast is already
installed) calculate the additional ballast that will be
required.
NOTE
To avoid interference with the controls the
NOTE mid tailboom ballast must be applied as
When a helicopter has a unique loading shown in paragraph 8-17.
configuration that is not standard, such as
the crew or the passenger weights, the
3. To find the exact ballast, you may have to do
baggage compartment loading, or other
more than one calculation because the ballast weight
variations, use the gross weight flight limits
to calculate the ballast. is limited at each location. To find the correct ballast
weight, refer to Figure 8-4.

4. Once you find the correct ballast, calculate the


final Empty Weight shown in Table 8-5.

Table 8-4. Ballast locations

MAXIMUM
LONGITUDINAL CG LATERAL CG
BALLAST

(LBS) (KG) FS(INCHES) FS (MM) BL (INCHES) BL (MM)

Note 1 23.5 10.7 14.3 363 -4.8 -122

32 14.5 15.6 396 -2.5 -64

32 14.5 15.6 396 4.5 114

Note 2 12 5.4 303.4 7706 0.0 0

Note 2 12 5.4 313.4 7960 0.0 0

Note 2 1 0.5 299.3 7602 0.0 0


Note 2 1 0.5 307.5 7811 0.0 0

Note 2 1 0.5 309.3 7856 0.0 0

Note 2 1 0.5 317.5 8065 0.0 0

Note 1: Cannot be used when a 28 ampere hour battery kit is installed.

Note 2: Maximum total tailboom ballast is 20 lbs (9 Kg). Maximum ballast stack height is 0.5 inches
(12.7 mm).

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added to the initial weight empty, results in the most


5. Write down the ballast weight requirements on
forward CG.
the helicopter Actual Weight Record (Figure 8-7 and
Figure 8-8). When ballast is removed from the
As-Weighted weight (step a. or b.), it must be shown a. Include all items with a CG that is forward of
on the Actual Weight Record. If part of the removed the forward flight limit.
ballast is added again, add the entries together to
show the total weight that was removed from each b. Exclude all items with a CG that is aft of the
location. flight limit, except those items that are required for
flight, such as engine oil.
6. Install and secure the required ballast
(Paragraph 8-9). c. Exclude most items that have a CG within the
flight limit except those that are required for flight.
8-14. Use of the Gross Weight Flight Limits Also, because the upper forward flight limit decreases,
the items with a CG close to the flight limit should be
checked to see if adding them will result in a gross
When a helicopter has a custom configuration such
weight CG that is outside the upper limit.
that the empty weight is more than the maximum
empty weight on the chart (Figure 8-5), or the fuel
system or the seating arrangement is not standard, d. The sum of the weights and the moments for
use the gross weight flight limits to calculate the these items is known as the most forward useful load,
required ballast (Figure 8-6). Then the most forward and must be shown on the Actual Weight Record
and the most aft useful loads are calculated for the (Figure 8-10 and Figure 8-11).
configuration. Examples of the steps that follow are
given at the end of this section. 3. Find the combination of useful load items which,
when added to the initial weight empty, results in the
1. Use the procedures in Paragraphs 8-9 and 8-10 most aft CG.
and find the initial weight empty and CG.

2. Find the combination of useful load items (fuel,


crew, passengers, baggage, and cargo) which, when

Table 8-5. Deriving final weight empty from initial weight empty (example)

ITEM WEIGHT CG MOMENT

(LBS) (KG) (INCHES) (MM) (IN-LBS) (MM-KG/


100)

Initial Weight 2892.0 1311.9 133.41 3389 385835 44456.1


Empty (from
Table 8.3)

Add:

Ballast @ 23.5 10.7 14.3 363 336 38.8


FS 14.3
(363)
Ballast @ 18.0 8.2 15.6 396 281 32.5
FS 15.6
(396)

Final Weight 2933.5 1330.8 131.7 3346 386452 44527.4


Empty

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Figure 8-4. How to find the correct ballast weight

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Figure 8-5. Weight empty vs center of gravity (Sheet 1 of 2)

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Figure 8-5. Weight empty vs. center of gravity (Sheet 2)

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Figure 8-6. Gross weight longitudinal center of gravity limits - Standard units (Sheet 1 of 2)

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Figure 8-6. Gross weight longitudinal center of gravity limits - Standard units (sheet 2)

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Figure 8-7. Completing an actual weight record - Standard units (Example)

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Figure 8-8. Completing an actual weight record - Metric units (Example)

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Figure 8-9. Ballast installation

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a. Include all items with a CG that is aft of the ballast is already installed, calculate the required addi-
flight limit. tional ballast.

b. Exclude all items with a CG that is forward of NOTE


the forward flight limit, except those items that are The required CG is at the intersection of the
required for flight, such as minimum crew weight. gross weight and the appropriate gross
weight limit line. If the limit lines are not
c. Exclude most items that have a CG within the vertical, the required CG that you use
flight limit, except those that are required for flight. should be inside the limit line to show the
increase in weight because of the addition
d. The sum of the weights and the moments for of the ballast.
these items is known as the most aft useful load, and
must be shown on the Actual Weight Record (Figure d. Calculate the required ballast. Use the formula
8-10 and Figure 8-11). that follows:

4. Add the most forward weight and moment to the


initial empty weight and moment. The result is known Ballast = (gross weight) (required CG — computed CG)
as the most forward gross weight.
ballast CG — required CG

5. Add the most aft weight and moment to the initial


empty weight and moment. The result is known as the
NOTE
most aft gross weight.
To avoid interference with the controls, the
mid-tailboom ballast must be applied as
6. Compare the most forward gross weight and the
shown in paragraph 8-17.
most aft gross weight to the gross weight flight limits
(Figure 8-6).
1. If the most forward gross weight and the most aft
gross weight CG are both outside the gross flight
7. If either the most forward or most aft gross weight limits, change one of the useful load combinations in
CG is outside the gross weight flight limits, find the order to move the applicable gross weight CG on or
ballast requirements as follows: inside the limit. Calculate the required ballast
according to Step 7. Write down the useful load
a. If the aft CG is outside the flight limits and if limitations on the Actual Weight Record (Figure 8-10
the mid tailboom ballast is already installed, remove and Figure 8-11).
the ballast. Calculate the most forward and the most
aft gross weight CGs again. Then calculate the 2. If the required ballast is more than the maximum
required ballast. that is permitted, do one of the steps that follow:

b. If the forward CG is outside the flight limits and a. Change the empty weight configuration to
if the nose ballast is already installed, remove the move the empty weight CG closer to the flight limit
ballast. Calculate the most forward and the most aft until the required ballast is equal to or less than the
gross weight CGs again. Then calculate the required maximum that is permitted, or
ballast.
b. Adjust the useful load combination to
decrease the required ballast to the maximum that is
NOTE
permitted or less. Write down the useful load
Do not install ballast in both the nose and limitations on the Actual Weight Record (Figure 8-10
the mid tailboom locations at the same time. and Figure 8-11).

c. If the aft CG is outside the flight limits and if 3. Write down the ballast weight requirements on
the nose ballast is already installed, or if the forward the helicopter Actual Weight Record (Figure 8-10 and
CG is outside the flight limits and if the mid tailboom Figure 8-11). When the ballast is removed from the

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BHT-407-MM-2

As-Weighed weight (Step a. or b.), it must show on the 5. As the empty weight is calculated (Paragraph 8-
Actual Weight Record. If part of the removed ballast is 10 and Paragraph 8-12), write down the lateral arms
added again, put the entries together to show the and moments on the Actual Weight Record.
weight removed from each location.

4. Install the required ballast (Paragraph 8-17). 6. Do not ballast for lateral CG, Refer to BHT-407-
FM. For the seating limitations to maintain the
helicopter within the lateral gross weight flight limits.
8-15. SAMPLE WEIGHING PROCEDURE

For this example, the helicopter is unpainted, the fuel


8-17. INSTALLATION OF BALLAST
system is drained and the engine oil system is full. The
helicopter was serviced with JP-5 fuel and MIL-L-
23699 oil. The helicopter is configured for night Ballast weights are manufactured from lead sheets
rescue. The helicopter has litters installed, but does and vary in thickness from 0.0625 inch (1.58 mm) to
not have the searchlight and a receiver/transmitter 0.25 inch (6.35 mm). Each ballast weight has the value
box. Refer to Table 8-6 and Figure 8-10. For the metric of its weight stamped on it. Ballast weights may require
equivalent of the example, refer to Figure 8-11. special support assemblies, brackets, or hardware to
be installed. Refer to Figure 8-9 for the ballast
The most forward gross weight and the most aft gross installation. Ballast weights may be modified to meet
weight are both inside the gross weight flight limits.
the ballast requirements without excess weight as
The initial weight empty is the final weight empty. Write
shown on Figure 8-9.
down all the data on the Actual Weight Record (Figure
8-10 and Figure 8-11).
1. Find the amount of ballast to be added or
8-16. CALCULATING THE LATERAL CENTER OF removed at each location (Paragraph 8-8).
GRAVITY

1. The centerline of the helicopter is Buttline 0.00.


The moment arms to the left hand side (when looking NOTE
forward) are negative (-) and the moment arms to the Do not install ballast in both the nose and
right hand side are positive (+). The forward jack the mid tailboom locations at the same time.
fittings are located at BL - 16.82 (- 427 mm) and at BL
16.82 (427 mm). The aft jack fitting is on the centerline
(BL 0.00). 2. Find the number of each size of ballast weight
that is required to get the correct weight at each
location.
NOTE
Left hand moment will be negative. a. In the battery compartment at FS 14.3
(363mm), the total weight of the ballast installation is
2. On each forward scale, multiply the net weight by 23.5 pounds (10.7 Kg) if the 17 ampere hour battery is
its arm to get the left hand and the right hand moments installed. If the 28 ampere hour battery kit is installed,
for the helicopter. Do not calculate the lateral moment this ballast location cannot be used. Refer to the 407
for the aft scale because the lateral moment for the aft Illustrated parts breakdown (IPB) for the
scale is always zero.
nominal weights of the ballast.

3. Add the left hand and right hand moments


together. Divide this total by the As-Weighed weight. b. In the landing light compartment at FS 15.6
The result is the As-Weighed helicopter lateral CG in (396 mm), the total weight of the ballast installation is
inches (millimeters) to the left hand side or right hand 64 pounds (29.1 Kg), accommodating 32 pounds (14.5
side of Buttline 0.00. Kg) in both left hand and right hand installations. Refer
to 407 IPB for the nominal weights of the ballast. For
4. Write down these calculations on the Actual weight adjustment, holes that are not greater than 2.5
Weight Record Form (Figure 8-7 through Figure 8-11). inches (63.5 mm) in diameter may be drilled 3.0 inches

8-00-00
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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-6. Sample weighing procedure

ITEM WEIGHT CG MOMENT


(LBS) (INCHES) (IN-LBS)
As-Weighed 3270.0 129.6 423793
Remove:
Engine oil -13.0 205 -2665
Plumb bob -0.3 170.1 -51
Undrainable fuel -4.7 110.6 -520
Add:
Unusable fuel 18.0 114.6 2063
Paint 16.7 167.0 2789
SX-16C searchlight 36.0 13.1 472
800 MHz R/T 6.8 200.0 1360
Initial Weight Empty 3329.5 128.3 427241
FIRST, CALCULATE THE MOST FORWARD USEFUL LOAD
Pilot 170.0 65.0 11050
Passenger (Mid) 170.0 91.0 15470
Litter Patients (2) 340.0 108.0 36720
Engine Oil 13.0 205.0 2665
Fuel (74.8 gallons) JP-5 508.6 116.0 58998
Most FWD useful load 1201.6 104.0 124903
SECOND, CALCULATE THE MOST AFT USEFUL LOAD
Pilot 170.0 65.0 11050
Engine oil 13.0 205.0 2665
Fuel (28.4 gallons) JP-5 193.1 137.0 26455
Most aft useful load 376.1 106.8 40170
THIRD, CALCULATE THE MOST FORWARD GROSS WEIGHT AND MOST AFT GROSS WEIGHT
Initial weight empty 3329.5 128.3 427241
Most FWD useful load 1201.6 104.0 124903
Most FWD gross weight 4531.1 121.9 552143

Initial weight empty 3329.5 128.3 427241


Most aft useful load 376.1 106.8 40170
Most aft gross weight 3705.6 126.1 467410

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-10. Actual weight record — Standard unit

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-11. Actual weight record — Metric units

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BHT-407-MM-2

(76.2 mm) from the top edge and 4.5 inches (114.3 pounds (9.1 Kg) The maximum stack height is 0.5 inch
mm) from the forward edge. (12.7 mm). Refer to the 407 IPB for the nominal
weights of the ballast. For weight adjustment, holes
that are no greater than 0.75 inch (19 mm) in diameter
may be drilled in the plates.
CAUTION
3. When you install the ballast weights, make sure
TO AVOID CONTROLS INTERFERENCE, that the plates are aligned as shown in Figure 8-9. The
LIMIT THE MAXIMUM STACK HEIGHT OF length of the bolts (6) and (9) is given by the total
THE BALLAST IN THE MID-TAILBOOM thickness of weights that are installed. Tighten the
LOCATION TO 0.5 INCH (12.7MM). bolts (6) and (9) to the standard torque.

c. In the mid-tailboom location, the not-to-exceed 8-18. MODEL 407 KIT WEIGHTS
weights are as follows: 12.0 pounds (5.4 Kg) at FS
303.4 (7706 mm), 12.0 pounds (5.4 Kg) at FS 313.4 Refer to Table 8-7 (Standard units) and Table 8-9
(7960 mm) with a total not-to-exceed weight of 20.0 (Metric units) for various Bell Helicopter kit weights.

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-7. Kit weights (Standard units)

LONG LAT.
NOMENCLATURE WEIGHT LONG CG LAT. CG
MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER CHANGE (INCHES) (INS)
(LB. INS.) (LB. INS.)

Snow baffles 5.2 130.5 678.6 0.0 0.0


206-706-208-103
Partical separator 13.2 141.8 1871.8 1.0 13.2
206-706-212-119

Cargo hook 16.7 121.0 2020.7 0.0 0.0


206-706-341-109

Cargo hook 3.7 102.9 380.7 -3.5 -13.0


provisions
206-706-341-111

Rotor brake 9.9 120.9 1196.9 0.1 1.0


206-706-502-103

VHF/ADF provisions 3.9 72.5 282.8 0.2 0.8


407-705-001-101

VHF equipment 9.8 64.4 631.1 1.4 13.7


KX155
407-705-001-103

VHF equipment 8.6 67.4 579.6 1.4 12.0


KX165
407-705-001-105
ADF equipment 8.9 103.2 918.5 0.5 4.5
KR87
407-705-001-107

Transponder 0.9 52.2 47.0 -6.2 -5.6


provision (KT76)
407-705-001-109

Transponder eq 3.0 43.6 130.8 1.3 3.9


KT76
407-705-001-111

Transponder 0.6 44.4 26.6 0.0 0.0


provision (KT70)
407-705-001-113

Transponder eq 4.0 40.6 162.4 0.4 1.6


KT70
407-705-001-115

GPS provision 3.1 45.6 141.4 0.2 0.6


KLN89
407-705-001-117

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-7. Kit weights (Standard units) (Cont.)

LONG LAT.
NOMENCLATURE WEIGHT LONG CG LAT. CG
MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER CHANGE (INCHES) (INS)
(LB. INS.) (LB. INS.)

GPS equipment 6.5 39.5 256.8 0.8 5.2


KLN89
407-705-001-119
OMNI (with CDI) 3.4 141.7 481.8 -1.7 -5.8
407-705-001-121

VHF provisions 1.6 99.3 158.9 -1.0 -1.6


KY196
407-705-001-123

VHF equipment 3.6 62.0 223.2 0.9 3.2


KY196
407-705-001-125

Avionic master switch 0.6 59.8 35.9 0.4 0.2


407-705-001-127

KCS55 provision 4.0 98.1 392.4 -0.7 -2.8


407-705-002-101

KCS55 equipment 7.6 164.8 1252.5 -2.7 -20.5


407-705-002-103

KCS55/GPS 4.3 93.0 399.9 -0.6 -2.6


provisions
407-705-002-105

KCS55/GPS equip- 8.5 151.0 1283.5 -2.6 -22.1


ment
407-705-002-107

Cargo restraint 1.4 85.1 119.1 -0.6 -0.8


407-705-201-101

Encoding altimeter 0.7 40.4 28.3 9.9 6.9


407-706-001-101

Flight instruments 9.3 37.9 352.5 7.4 68.8


407-706-003-101

28 amp hour battery 24.7 15.8 390.3 1.0 24.7


407-706-004-101

Emergency locator 3.8 38.1 114.8 -3.3 -12.5


transmitter
407-706-005-101
High skid gear 34.5 113.0 3898.5 0.0 0.0
407-706-007-101
(includes Flitesteps)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-7. Kit weights (Standard units) (Cont.)

LONG LAT.
NOMENCLATURE WEIGHT LONG CG LAT. CG
MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER CHANGE (INCHES) (INS)
(LB. INS.) (LB. INS.)

Pop out floats 237.9 104.7 24908.1 0.1 23.8


407-706-008-101
(includes Floatsteps)

L/G fairings 11.8 114.9 1355.8 0.0 0.0


407-706-010-101

Sliding window 2.4 116.1 278.6 0.0 0.0


407-706-301-103

Dual controls 10.4 48.8 507.5 -13.3 -138.3


407-706-702-101

Table 8-8. Weight and balance calculation for Bell 407 with standard skid gear (Standard units) — Example

CENTER OF
WEIGHT LONGITUDINAL LATERAL
DESCRIPTION GRAVITY
(LBS) MOMENT MOMENT
(INCH)

Helicopter Empty Weight 2391.3 129.8 310390.7 265

High skid, 407-706-007-101, 34.5 113.0 3898.5 0


weight change

New helicopter empty weight 2425.8 129.6 314289.2 265

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-9. Kit weights (Metric units)

WEIGHT LONG LAT.


NOMENCLATURE LONG CG LAT. CG
CHANGE MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER (MM) (MM)
(KG) (KG.MM/100) (KG.MM/100)

Snow baffles 2.4 3315 79.6 0.0 0.0


206-706-208-103

Partical separator 6.0 3602 216.1 25 1.5


206-706-212-119
Cargo hook 7.6 3073 233.5 0.0 0.0
206-706-341-109

Cargo hook 1.7 2614 44.4 -89 -1.5


provisions
206-706-341-111

Rotor brake 4.5 3071 138.2 3 0.1


206-706-502-103

VHF/ADF provisions 1.8 1842 33.2 5 0.1


407-705-001-101
VHF equipment 4.4 1636 72.0 36 1.6
KX155
407-705-001-103

VHF equipment 3.9 1712 66.8 36 1.4


KX165
407-705-001-105

ADF equipment 4.0 2621 104.8 13 0.5


KR87
407-705-001-107
Transponder 0.4 1326 5.3 -157 -0.6
provision (KT76)
407-705-001-109

Transponder eq 1.4 1107 15.5 33 0.5


KT76
407-705-001-111

Transponder 0.3 1128 3.4 0.0 0.0


provision (KT70)
407-705-001-113

Transponder eq 1.8 1031 18.6 10 0.2


KT70
407-705-001-115

GPS provision 1.4 1158 16.2 5 0.1


KLN89
407-705-001-117

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-9. Kit weights (Metric units) (Cont.)

WEIGHT LONG LAT.


NOMENCLATURE LONG CG LAT. CG
CHANGE MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER (MM) (MM)
(KG) (KG.MM/100) (KG.MM/100)

GPS equipment 2.9 1003 29.1 20 0.6


KLN89
407-705-001-119
OMNI (with CDI) 1.5 3599 54.0 -43 -0.6
407-705-001-121

VHF provisions 0.7 2522 17.7 -25 -0.2


KY196
407-705-001-123

VHF equipment 1.6 1575 25.2 23 0.4


KY196
407-705-001-125

Avionic master switch 0.3 1519 4.6 10 0.0


407-705-001-127

KCS55 provision 1.8 2492 44.9 -18 -0.3


407-705-002-101

KCS55 equipment 3.4 4186 142.3 -69 -2.3


407-705-002-103

KCS55/GPS 2.0 2362 47.2 -15 -0.3


provisions
407-705-002-105

KCS55/GPS 3.9 3835 149.6 -66 -2.6


equipment
407-705-002-107

Cargo restraint 0.6 2162 13.0 -15 -0.1


407-705-201-101

Encoding altimeter 0.3 1026 3.1 251 0.8


407-706-001-101

Flight instruments 4.2 963 40.4 188 7.9


407-706-003-101

28 amp hour battery 11.2 401 44.9 25 2.8


407-706-004-101

Emergency locator 1.7 968 16.5 -84 -1.4


transmitter
407-706-005-101
High skid gear 15.6 2870 447.7 0.0 0.0
407-706-007-101
(includes Flitesteps)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Table 8-9. Kit weights (Metric units) (Cont.)

WEIGHT LONG LAT.


NOMENCLATURE LONG CG LAT. CG
CHANGE MOMENTS MOMENT
KIT NUMBER (MM) (MM)
(KG) (KG.MM/100) (KG.MM/100)

Pop out floats 107.9 2659 2869.1 3 3.2


407-706-008-101
(includes Floatsteps)
L/G fairings 5.4 2949 159.2 0.0 0.0
407-706-010-101

Sliding window 1.1 2936 32.3 0.0 0.0


407-706-301-103

Dual controls 4.7 1240 58.3 -338 -15.9


407-706-702-101

Table 8-10. Weight and balance calculation for Bell 407 with standard skid gear (Metric units) — Example

CENTER OF LONGITUDINAL LATERAL


WEIGHT
DESCRIPTION GRAVITY MOMENT MOMENT
(KG)
(MM) (MMKG/100) (KG.MM/100)

Helicopter Empty Weight 1084.7 3297 35762.6 27.1

High skid, 407-706-007-101, 15.6 2870 447.7 0.0


weight change

New helicopter empty weight 1100.3 3291 36210.3 27.1

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 1 of 7)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 2)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 3)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 4)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 5)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 6)

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BHT-407-MM-2

Figure 8-12. Actual weight record (Sheet 7)

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