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International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248

Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481


_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Multipath Routing in VANET: Multi-Agent based Approach

Anil D. Devangavi Rajendra Gupta


Information Science and Engg., Basaveshwar Research Cell, AISECT University,
Engineering College, VTU, Madhya Pradesh, India
Bagalkot, India rajendragupta1@yahoo.com
anildevangavi_s@yahoo.co.in

Abstract— In VANET routing of data is a exciting task owing to the high dynamics involved in this network. Delivery of data to the projected
destination turns out to be very puzzling. Single path routing suffers from drawbacks like unreliability and etc. To manage such situation
multipath data delivery is very nominal. In multipath routing more than one path discovered between source and destination node. Data packet
can be sent simultaneously in all paths or data packet can be send by selecting path one after another. It is up to the routing algorithm to select
path thoughtfully to deliver data proficiently. However existing multipath routing protocols even though compute multipath, only one path will
be engaged in actual communication at any given time. Hence this work proposes Multipath Routing in VANET: Multi-agent based Approach
which calculates multiple paths amongst source and destination. Further, all such computed paths will be employed for information
dissemination. NS2 simulation of the proposed approach in realistic mobility models show that it can select more stable link and improve the
network performance.

Keywords- Multipath, Node-disjoint, Congestion.


__________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________
are discussed in section IV. Conclusion is presented in section
I. INTRODUCTION V.
Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a variety of A. Related Work
network intended for V2V (vehicle-to-vehicle) and V2I
(vehicle to infrastructure) communication It is a core part of Authors in [3] propose a novel road topology-aware routing
Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and is being (RTR) protocol for VANETs. To adequately utilize connected
extensively researched now a days. Unique characteristics of routing paths RTR creates two junction-disjoint paths. RTR
VANET are no energy resource constraint, high mobility alternately transfers data packets through each established
patterns, relatively high moving speed. During the transit of routing path and dynamically changes the routing path based
information through multi-hop routing, if an intermediate link on the connectivity of the current path. Authors in [4] propose
was broken, the path needs to be rebuilt or restored. Hence,
efficient routing protocols are essential to function properly. Junction-based Multipath Source Routing (JMSR) a geographic
Multi-path routing protocols aim to compute several paths routing protocol which exploits the location of the nodes and
during the discovery phase between sender and receiver. Such street junctions. Two concurrent paths from the source to the
network has been extensively used in battle field, disaster destination are preserved as a series of junctions the packets
management, under water network etc. Advantages of should pass through. Routing information is injected in each
multipath routing are 1) Load Balancing 2) Fault Tolerance 3) packet. As such every node on the path is aware of the route,
Higher Aggregate Bandwidth 4) Lower Delay 5) Reduced packets to go ahead. Authors in [5] propose distributedly
Congestion and improved QoS 6) Higher resiliency 7)
finding disjoint paths (DFDP) to compute k disjoint paths from
Increased network lifetime [1].
source to destination. Further they analyze the relationship
Multipath routing protocols compute node disjoint, link between disjoint paths and network parameters like robustness,
disjoint or non-disjoint routes in the course of route discovery throughput, and load balancing. Authors in [6] propose link-
Process. Node-disjoint routes have completely disjoint routes disjoint, node-disjoint and zone disjoint multi-path algorithms
where there are no nodes or links in common. Link-disjoint aiming on the compromise between lifetime and hop count of
routes have no links in common but may have nodes in routes for MANET. Authors in [7] evaluate the applicability of
common. In an ad hoc network, identification of all node-
node disjoint multipath in VANET environment. Through
disjoint paths between a given pair of nodes is a challenging
task [2]. simulation results author„s present that it improves the packet
Rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section I. A delivery ratio and reduces the end-to-end delay. Authors in [8]
discusses related works. In section I. B methodology is present a modified form of AOMDV known as Maximally
presented. In section II structure of the proposed work is Spatial Disjoint Multipath routing protocol (MSDM) for
discussed. Network environment is mentioned in section II. A. MANETs. The data is communicated employing multiple paths
Section II. B discusses mathematical models. Section II. C which are mostly spatially separated and node-disjoint paths.
describes the proposed agency. The proposed scheme for the Results show that spatially node-disjoint routes perform better
work is stated in section II. D. Section II. E describes the
algorithm for the proposed work. Simulated model for the than AOMDV which selects only link-disjoint paths.
proposed work is discussed in section III. Results and analysis
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IJFRCSCE | November 2017, Available @ http://www.ijfrcsce.org
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International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248
Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Authors in [9] propose a 2path routing protocol which is a 8) Source vehicle determines the context of the information to
special case of multipath routing. Two paths are recognized be sent.
amongst source and destination. The nodes contributed in 9) If the context is critical, Source communicates the
path-1 and path-2 forms a connected graph. Non-interference is information on all the paths employing all paths. Else the
guaranteed as no edge shared between path-1 and path-2. information is communicated along the best path to the
Authors in [10] present AODV based node disjoint multipath destination.
Our contributions are as follows:
routing protocol. They focus on residual energy of nodes and
 Use of agent technology to compute multipath.
discovery of multiple node disjoint paths with low routing
 Use of agents to compute node disjoint paths
overhead. Authors in [11] propose a node disjoint multipath  Reduced communication cost owing to the use of
protocol based on AODV with additional features data security mobile agents
during transmission and link failure. Routing overhead is  Various agencies are employed to gather information
substantially reduced because through a single flooding of a of intermediate nodes on the multiple paths and to
RREQ message route discovery and maintenance process is prioritize the multiple paths.
completed. Authors in [12] propose a multipath routing
protocol which integrates dynamic clustering and ant colony The proposed work Multipath Routing in VANET: Multi-
optimization. The routing protocol focus on issues related to agent based Approach (MRMA) is compared with 2 Path
energy consumption nodes. The cluster head are elected Routing Protocol (2PR). The advantages of proposed approach
over 2PR are as follows:
considering residual energy. Multiple paths between cluster
 Optimization of congestion.
head and destination node are computed by ACO. Final
 All the calculated paths are positively used.
selection of route is based on energy consumption of individual  Higher reliability.
paths by cluster heads. Network lifetime is thus increased  Competent usage of bandwidth.
reducing node energy consumption.
Disadvantages of the existing system:
 Complexity. II. STRUCTURING THE PROPOSED SSYSTEM
 Extra overhead. This section presents the network environment, network and
 At low bit rate there will be more end-to-end delay. mathematical models, proposed agency, scheme and algorithm.
A. Network Environment
B) Methodology The network structure is depicted in Figure 1.
In this paper, we propose a new approach for Multipath
Routing in VANET: Multi-agent based Approach. Every
vehicle in the VANET is connected to at least one RSU at any
given time. We use an approach where multiple node disjoint
paths are employed between sender and receiver. The proposed
work thus aims to optimize congestion focusing on multipath
routing. Accordingly information is communicated from sender
vehicle to destination vehicle over multi paths simultaneously.
The proposed scheme works as per the following procedure:
1) Source vehicle identifies destination.
2) Source vehicle triggers mobile agent and creates m clones
Figure1. VANET Environment
of it.
3) The clones (m clones) of the mobile agent thus created The above figure presents the network environment in
computes neighbouring nodes (next intermediate node) and which we can notice that number of vehicles move with
migrates to them. different speed in different lanes. Some of the assumptions in
4) The process in step 3 is repeated at each intermediate this work are: RSU exists at regular intervals and all the RSUs
vehicle until every clone reaches destination. Multiple paths to are networked, each vehicle is connected to at least one RSU at
destination are thus calculated. any given time, all vehicles and RSUs are fitted with GPS. The
5) Destination triggers a static agent to compute n node location of RSUs is known to one another, Information of all
disjoint paths amongst multiple paths computed in step 4 [15]. incoming and outgoing vehicles is updated in the database of
6) Destination triggers a static agent to compute the weight RSU. The database of RSU is updated with information like
factor of each n path. Weight factor of a path between any two current position of vehicle, vehicle‟s mobility and direction.
vehicle nodes is based on the parameters like mobility of Each vehicle communicates with other vehicle within its
intermediate vehicles in the path, bandwidth utilized, trust communication range (VRAN) via V-to-V communication with
value (behavior) of the intermediate vehicle on the path. It then road side units via V-to-R communication. The vehicles that lie
prioritizes the n paths based on weight factor with path having within the transmission range of a particular vehicle are the
higher weight factor at the top [16]. neighbouring vehicles of that vehicle. Each vehicle‟s status and
7) Destination communicates the priority list to the source information (parameters) is updated by itself and also by
vehicle along the best path (path with highest weight factor). neighbouring vehicles in a local database. The information is
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IJFRCSCE | November 2017, Available @ http://www.ijfrcsce.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248
Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
related to vehicle ID, position of the vehicle in terms of latitude density of the vehicles on the path (VDEN) and inversely
and longitude, current speed of the vehicle, direction and etc. proportional to the average mobility of the vehicles on the path
Every vehicle is connected to at least one road side unit (fixed (MA) (Eq. 1).
infrastructure). Pw BAVP
Pw VDEN
B. Network and Mathematical Models Pw 1 /MA
Pw BAVP * VDEN / MA
This subsection deals with the network and mathematical
Pw = P * BAVP * VDEN / MA (where P is a constant) (1)
model for the proposed work.
1) Network Model
C. Proposed Agency
Link disjoint paths are the path between pair of nodes with no
link in common between the node pair [13]. Node disjoint Various agencies are employed to perform communication
among vehicles and road side units viz. Vehicle Agency, Road
paths are path between pair of nodes where no node is
Side Unit Agency [14] [15][16] [17].
common except source and destination. The node disjoint path
Vehicle Agency: Vehicle Agency consists of a set of static and
is also link disjoint in nature as no link is common in node
mobile agents like Vehicle Manager Static Agent (VNSA),
disjoint path between source and destination node. However
Vehicle Manager Knowledge base (VMK) and Path Requester
link disjointis not always node joint because several links may Agent (PRA).
share node. In figure 2 three different link disjoint paths shown Vehicle Static Manager Agent: It is a static agent residing
between S (source) and D (Destination) node are S-a-b-c-d-D, in every vehicle. It is responsible for creating all other static
S-i-k-e-g-D and S-me-f-D. The last two paths share the node e. and mobile agents and knowledge base. It also synchronizes the
In figure 3 there are two node disjoint paths shown between S agent interactions. It keeps track of parameters like speed,
and D node S-a-b-c-d-D and S-e-f-g-h-D. They do not share direction, location, status and unique vehicle ID of the parent
any node. node. It stores the relevant information in VMK. VSMA of
source vehicle triggers mobile agent Multipath Finder Mobile
Agent (MFMA) whenever path is required to destination.
VSMA of the destination triggers static agent (NDPF) to
compute node disjoint paths amongst the multiple paths
computed. VSMA of the destination triggers static agent
(MPE) to assign priorities to each node disjoint path computed.

Figure 2.Link Disjoint Path

Figure 4.Vehicle Agency

VSMA of the destination then communicates the prioritized list


Figure 3.Node Disjoint Path of paths to the source along the best path (path with highest
weight factor). It is the responsibility of VSMA to decide on
In general a path is sequence of vertices: s, v_1.... v_ m, t. the no. of paths, based on the context to be used from the
Two paths s, v_1.... v_ m, t and s, u_1.... u_ m, t are called priority list to communicate the information. If the context of
node-disjoint if v_ i ! = u_ j for any valid I and j. the information is critical then the information is
communicated employing all paths. Else information is
2) Path weight factor communicated to be source along the best path.
Path weight factor of each path (Pw) is computed as follows. Vehicle Knowledge Base: It is the repository of the vehicle.
Let All the agents store the relevant information in this repository.
MA be the average mobility of the vehicles on the path BAVP be It resembles blackboard and enables agent interactions. It stores
the bandwidth available on the path and VDEN be the density of the parameters like speed, direction, location, status and unique
the vehicles on the path Priority of the path (PR) is directly vehicle ID of the parent node and neighbour vehicles.
proportional to bandwidth available on the path (BAVP), the

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IJFRCSCE | November 2017, Available @ http://www.ijfrcsce.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248
Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Multipath Finder Mobile Agent (MFMA): It is a mobile agent  The process in step 3 is repeated at each intermediate
triggered by VSMA of source vehicle. Clones of MFMA vehicle until every clone reaches destination. Multiple
computes and migrates to next neighbour vehicles till they paths to destination are thus calculated [19] [20].
reach destination. Multiple paths are thus created.  The VSMA of destination triggers Node Disjoint Path
Node disjoint Path Finder: It is a static agent triggered by Finder (NDPF) to compute n node disjoint paths
VSMA of destination vehicle with list of multiple paths as amongst multiple paths computed in step 4 [21] [22].
input parameter. It computes all possible node disjoint paths  The VSMA of the destination triggers Multiple Path
amongst the multiple paths. Evaluator (MPE). MPE computes the weight factor of
Multiple Path Evaluator: It is a static agent triggered by each n path. Weight factor of a path between any two
VSMA of the destination. It computes the weight factor of all vehicle nodes is based on the parameters like mobility
the node disjoint paths. Weight factor of a path between any of intermediate vehicles in the path, bandwidth utilized,
two vehicle nodes is based on the parameters like mobility of trust value (behaviour) of the intermediate vehicle on
intermediate vehicles in the path, bandwidth utilized, trust the path. It then prioritizes the n paths based on weight
value (behavior) of the intermediate vehicle on the path. It then factor with path having higher weight factor at the top
prioritizes the n paths based on weight factor with path having [25].
higher weight factor at the top.  The VSMA of the destination communicates the
Road Side Unit Agency: It consists of a set of static and priority list to the source vehicle along the best path
mobile agents viz. Road Side Unit Manager Static Agent (path with highest weight factor).
(RMSA), Roadside Unit Knowledge Base RKB and Behavior  The VSMA of the source vehicle determines the
Predictor Agent (BPA). context of the information to be sent.
Roadside unit Static Manager Agent: It is a static agent  If the context is critical, VSMA of the source
which resides in every roadside unit. It allocates specific task to communicates the information on all the paths
all the created agents and synchronizes the agent interactions. It employing all paths. Else the information is
monitors the information of incoming vehicles and outgoing communicated along the best path to the destination.
vehicles. The behavior of each outgoing vehicle is
communicated to neighbour RSU. E. Algorithm
Assumptions:
 All the RSUs are networked.
 Each vehicle is connected to atleast one RSU at any
time.
 All vehicles and RSU are fitted with GPS. The location
of RSUs is known to one another.
Algorithm for the communication of information along
multipath to the destination is as below:
Input: A set of vehicles V= {V1…...Vn}
A set of RSUs R= {R1………Rn}
Every vehicle has vehicle agency, RSU has RSU agency.
Figure 5.Road Side Unit Agency Let VS: Source Vehicle and VD: Destination Vehicle
Behavior Predictor Agent (BPA): This is a static agent DL: Location of destination vehicle
residing in every RSU. It keeps track of the behavior (speed, VSMAS: VSMA of source vehicle
direction and etc.) of each vehicle in the range of parent RSU. VSMAD: VSMA of destination vehicle
Using this information it predicts the future behavior of the
vehicle. The relevant information is stored in RKB.
Roadside Unit Knowledge Base (RKB): This is the Algorithm 1: To Communicate information along
repository residing in each RSU. It stores the information of multipath to destination
incoming and outgoing vehicles. It also stores the information
regarding the behavior of each vehicle. Begin
VSMAS identifies VD;
D. Proposed Scheme VSMAS triggers mobile agent MPMA and creates m clones
of it (DL as input parameter);
 Source identifies destination. Do
 The VSMA of the source triggers Multipath Finder At each intermediate vehicle, each clone of MPMA
Mobile Agent (MPFA) and creates m clones of it. computes neighbour vehicles and migrates to them;
 The clones (m clones) of MPFA thus created computes Until neighbour vehicle = VD
neighbouring nodes (next intermediate node) and VSMAD triggers NDPF to compute n node disjoint paths;
migrates to them [18]. VSMAD triggers MPE to assign priority (Eq. 1) to each
node disjoint path;

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IJFRCSCE | November 2017, Available @ http://www.ijfrcsce.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248
Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
VSMAD communicates the priority list to VSMAS along the TABLE I. SIMULATION INPUT PARAMETERS
best path; Simulation parameters Values
VSMAS determine the context of the information; Network simulator ns-2.34
If context = Critical Simulation time Simulation time: 600 seconds
Then Simulation area 5000m X 5000m
Communicate the information to VD employing all paths Number of vehicles 50/100/150
in the list; Communication range 500m
Else Minimum: 20 Km/hr.,
Speed
Communicate the information to VD along the best Maximum: 40 and 60 Km/hr.
path; Data type Constant Bit Rate
End MAC protocol IEEE 802.11e EDCA based DCF
Safety distance between
3mts.
vehicles
III. SIMULATION MODEL Available bandwidth 4000 Mbps
The proposed technique is simulated by taking Bangalore city Road type Free way
map as an example [23]. The simulation is done using NS-2.34
[24] to test the efficacy of approach. We consider “N” number C. Performance Metrics
of vehicles moving in a fixed region of length “A” Km. and
Some of performance metrics evaluated are as follows:
breadth “B” Km. We consider vehicle to move in number of
lanes “L”. Communication coverage area for each vehicle is TABLE II.PERFORMANCE METRICS
considered as “VRAN” meters. At the start of the simulation, Metric Description
vehicles are uniformly distributed in lanes. We assume free Packet Delivery It is the ratio of no. of packets reaching the destination to
flow movement of vehicles and congestions are ignored. Every Ratio (PDR) the no. of packets originating from the source node.
Path Discovery It is the time taken to compute multipath to destination
vehicle is presumed to be equipped with a communication
Time from source.
device and knows start position, start time of vehicle, route that
Transmission It is the time spent by the data packet to reach destination
it selects, and speed at which it travels. Safety distance of “R” Time from the source.
meters between vehicles is assumed. It is the amount of time spent in the dissemination of
Communication
added information other than intended information.
Overhead
Overhead is due to the formation of multipath.

IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALYSIS


This section presents the results obtained during simulation.
We compare results of proposed work with an existing
multipath routing 2PR. The below mentioned figures are
generated based on the simulation results.

Transmission Time
Figure 7 shows the Transmission Time evaluated for 2PR
and MPMA protocols by increasing the number of paths
between the source and destination in urban scenario. From
Figure 6.Bangalore City Map the figure it is evident that the transmission time decreases
with the increase in the number of paths. Nevertheless the
A. Simulation Procedure
transmission time of MPMA is lower than 2PR routing
Simulation inputs are as follows: A= 5000m, B= 5000m, protocol. This is because as the number of vehicles increases
N= 50, VRAN = 300m, I= 20 Kmph, J= 60 Kmph, L= 2, R = 4 and also due to the multipath between the source and
mts. Simulation procedure for proposed intelligent agent model destination the stability is more. Because of which
is as follows. retransmissions are minimized.
Begin
 Generate VANET in given road length by placing
vehicles uniformly.
 Maintain a data structure at each vehicle to store
information as detailed by scheme.
 Apply mobility to nodes.
 Generate agency.
 Compute performance of system.
End

B. Simulation Inputs
The simulation input parameters are as below: Figure 7.Transmission time V/s No. of vehicles

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IJFRCSCE | November 2017, Available @ http://www.ijfrcsce.org
_______________________________________________________________________________________
International Journal on Future Revolution in Computer Science & Communication Engineering ISSN: 2454-4248
Volume: 3 Issue: 11 475 – 481
_______________________________________________________________________________________________
that our approach performs better w.r.t transmission time,
Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) number of multipath computed, communication overhead and
Figure 8 shows the Packet Delivery ratio (PDR) evaluated packet delivery ratio. The simulation results show better
for 2PR and MPMA protocols by increasing the mobility of performance achieved by MPMA with multipath routing. In
the vehicles in the urban scenario. Number of paths is taken as future work, we foresee the process of allocation of granularity
the third quadrant. From the figure it is evident that PDR which specifies the smallest unit of information allocated to
increases with the increase in the number of paths despite each path.
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