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Abstract

The Industrial Training (I.T) program enables students to go out and gain more

practical knowledge of what they have been taught in course (Bachelor of Technology)

in graduation and to acquire industry based skills.

Office work procedure covering introduction to work ethics, procedure of work


execution, architectural and structural drawing was explained with the relevant signs
and symbols representing various items on such drawing.

Site work for the period of training was undertaken at the Celio building Thane Mumbai.

The project consists of office, residential, utility building, and shopping mall works, as well

as external electrification and landscaping of the premises.


Dedication
This report is dedicated to my parents my inspiration without whom I would
have not been reached at this stage.
I would also like to dedicate this report to all the people who are behind this
industrial training program whether the inspirational C G Edifice members or
the college faculty.

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Contents
Certificate .......................................................................................................... ii

Performance Report .......................................................................................... iii

Acknowledgement ............................................................................................ iv

Abstract ............................................................................................................. v

Dedication ........................................................................................................ vi

Contents ........................................................................ .......................................... vii

Content for Tables ............................................................................................ ix

Content for Figures ...................................................................... ...................... x

1 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 1

1.1 About Company ............................................................................................................ 1


1.2 Aims and Objective ....................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Scope of the report ....................................................................................................... 2
2 Introduction to Project ....................................................................................... 3

2.1 Objectives ..................................................................................................................... 3


2.2 Site Description ............................................................................................................. 3
2.3 Building codes ......................................................................... ...................................... 4
2.4 Floor Configuration ....................................................................................................... 4
3 Introduction to Structural Design ....................................................................... 7

3.1 Sub Structure ................................................................................................................ 7


3.2 Superstructure .............................................................................................................. 8
3.3 Standard Codes ........................................................................................................... 10
3.4 Design loads ................................................................................................................ 10
3.5 Imposed load (Live load) ............................................................................................. 11
3.6 Wind load .................................................................................................................... 12
3.7 Temperature load ....................................................................................................... 12
3.8 Seismic Load ................................................................................................................ 13
3.9 Fire resistance of members ........................................................................................ 13
3.10 Environmental exposure .......................................................................................... 14
4 Building Materials ........................................................................................... 15

4.1 Cement ........................................................................................................................ 15


4.2 Aggregate .................................................................................................................... 18
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4.3 Water .......................................................................................................................... 18
4.4 Admixtures .................................................................................................................. 18
4.5 Concrete ...................................................................................................................... 20
4.6 Reinforcement (Steel Bar) .......................................................................................... 23
4.7 Brick ............................................................................................................................ 26
4.8 Damp Proofing Material ............................................................................................. 28
5 Structural Elements .......................................................................................... 30

5.1 Column ........................................................................................................................ 30


5.2 Retaining wall .............................................................................................................. 32
5.3 Shear wall .................................................................................................................... 32
5.4 Beam ........................................................................................................................... 33
5.5 Concrete Slab .............................................................................................................. 34
6 Formwork ........................................................................................................ 37

6.1 Formwork Requirements ............................................................................................ 37


6.2 Method for Formwork ................................................................................................ 38
6.3 Formwork Types ......................................................................................................... 39
6.4 Formwork Materials ................................................................................................... 40
6.5 Order and method of removing formwork: ................................................................ 42
7 Tests for quality check ..................................................................................... 43

7.1 Test on Cement ........................................................................................................... 43


7.2 Tests on Aggregate ..................................................................................................... 45
7.3 Tests on Concrete ....................................................................................................... 47
7.4 IN-SITU DRY DENSITY .................................................................................................. 49
8 Conclusion ....................................................................................................... 50

Bibliography .................................................................................................... 51

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Content for Tables
Table 2-1 Floor Configuration of Tower. ........................................................................ 4
Table 2-2 Floor Configuration of Residential building ............................................... 6
Table 3-1 Structure system................................................................................................. 10
Table 3-2 Various IS Codes ................................................................................................ 10
Table 3-3 Unit weight of material .................................................................................... 11
Table 3-4 Imposed loads...................................................................................................... 12
Table 3-5 Primary Loads .................................................................................................... 13
Table 4-1 Grade of concrete............................................................................................... 21
Table 4-2 Mix design being used at site.......................................................................... 21
Table 4-3 Classes of bricks with their properties........................................................ 27
Table 6-1 Sizes of timber members.................................................................................. 41
Table 6-2Period of removal of formwork ...................................................................... 42

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Content for Figures
Figure 2-1 Top view of site ................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2-2 Office building layout ....................................................................................... 5
Figure 2-3 Basement layout plan........................................................................................ 5
Figure 3-1 Sub structural work .......................................................................................... 7
Figure 3-2 Superstructure .................................................................................................... 9
Figure 4-1 Strength comparison between OPC, PPC and Rapid hardening cement ........... 17
Figure 4-2 Slab concreting.................................................................................................. 22
Figure 4-3 Method of compaction .................................................................................... 23
Figure 4-4Slab reinforcement and PT tendons............................................................ 24
Figure 4-5 Overlapping of Bars ........................................................................................ 25
Figure 4-6 Rebaring work .................................................................................................. 26
Figure 4-7 Block Work of 200mm thickness ................................................................ 28
Figure 4-8 Bitumen membrane for water proofing is being covered with Screte of 25

mm thickness .......................................................................................................................... 29
Figure 5-1 Retaining wall of thickness 400mm ............................................................ 32
Figure 5-3 One way slab with beams .............................................................................. 35
Figure 5-4 Two way slab with beams .............................................................................. 35
Figure 5-5 Flat slabs ............................................................................................................. 36
Figure 6-1Formwork for slab and beam........................................................................ 37

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Introduction
The industrial training (I.T) program is designed to acquaint students with the practical or

hands-on knowledge of the past, present and the future. By the past, it affords the student an

opportunity to witness practically what they have read in books i.e. the reality of the 100%

assumption of the theories. It also affords students the current knowledge of what the field

works is all about, getting familiar with new advancement in technology. The future refers to

foreknowledge of what should be expected when he/she begins to practice the profession.

Furthermore, it avails the students an opportunity to learn inter-and intra personal

relationship, administrative skills, site management identification of equipment among other

opportunities.

This report entails some of the experience I was able to acquire in my short
period of attachment.

1.1 About Company


C G Edifice is known to be a hard work, and a can-do attitude when providing construction
services in the commercial, civil infrastructure
CG Edifice is 100% employee-owned. As owners, employees are motivated to excel, to hold each
other accountable, and to ensure that everyone has the responsibility, the freedom, and the power to
act.
CG Edifice is an integrated construction company headquartered in Mumbai, India. Founded in
2016, has grown into a company renowned for its classy developments in Office Buildings,
Residential, within a year of its inception, a phenomenal growth fuelled by the resolute and dynamic
leadership of its founding Managing Director, Mr Ajay Thakur

1.2 Aims and Objective


(i) Aim
The main aim of industrial Training program is to produce graduates who are ready to face the working
world. The program also aims to produce the knowledgeable, skilled and experienced graduates,
demanded by employers, who are able to apply the knowledge acquired at university to the working
world. The industrial training program provides opportunities for exposure to the working world, which
will make graduates more aware of the hopes and expectations that industry has of them. The program
will also equip students with real work experience. Placing students in industry also increases their
chances of employment after diploma, as there is a strong possibility that they will be offered a job in the
same place where they do their training. Apart from this, the training experience will further solidify the
on-campus learning process and activities, while also providing student with relevant work experience.
(ii) Objective
The Industrial Training program has main objectives:
 To give students the opportunity to apply the knowledge and skills they have acquired in
a real-life work situation.
 To provide students with opportunities for practical, hands-on learning from Practitioners
in the students field of study.
 To give students work experience while they are studying their chosen subject.
 To expose students to the work environment, common practices, employment
Opportunities and work ethics in the relevant field.
 To inculcate soft skills relevant to the needs of employers.
 To provide opportunities for student to be offered jobs in the same organizations where
they undergo Industrial Training.

1.3 Scope of the report


The scope of this report is basically to present in details of various activities carried
out at Celio building Thane Mumbai, as well as provide the general background
knowledge about the aspects of civil engineering applied while undergoing the
industrial training program.
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2 Introduction to Project
The proposed development for celio building thane mumbai as a modern office and residential

building which provides a strong identity as an organization providing safety and security for

its citizen. Design also should be in harmony of its natural surroundings and achieve a green

building rating like GRIHA or equivalent. The project includes a residential block, shopping

mall for Mumbai citizen. Building lower floors with proper designed landscape.

2.1 Objectives
To create a modern iconic structure for Mumbai people which is
harmonious to its architectural surrounding of
Mumbai To design a building which provide safety environment for

its user. Green development sensitive towards its environment.

2.2 Site Description


Total area of land as on paper is 3000 sqft. (0.0688 Acre) located Hira
nandani meadows Thane Mumbai.
The site is approx 280 mt. from R MALL.
From the soil investigation report, strata of moderate safe bearing are
available at the foundation depth of 11 mt.

2.2.1.1 Roads
The plot is bounded on three sides by 16 mt. wide main roads namely
Meadows Road Thane.
Figure 2-1 SLAB CONCRETING
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Figure 2-2 Office building layout

Basement It is for parking and approx 2-% area is to be used for services
required, like STP, rainwater harvesting tank, fan rooms, electrical panel
and underground storage tank for domestic and fire.

Figure 2-3 Basement layout plan

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Ground Floor (GF) entrance lobby and parking. There is a parking for car .
1st to 12 floor Both tower comprises of office and residential flat
2.4.1.2 Residential Building (G + 12 floor)
Ground floor height 4.5 m
Floor height 2.9 m
Total FAR 2200 sqft
Built up area 3000sqft
Table 2-2 Floor Configuration of Residential building

Ground covered parking for 50 cars.


Floor Three BHK with servant quarter, having independent entry from lobby.

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3 Introduction to Structural Design
The structure of a building is the part which is responsible for maintaining the shape of

the building under the influence of the forces to which it is subjected. A building must be

designed to safely withstand the most severe combination of forces or loads likely to be

applied during its lifetime. Building consists of many structural components. Generally,

structural components are divided into two categories-

Sub Structure
Super Structure

3.1 Sub Structure

The structure below ground level is called sub structure. Sub structure can also be
divided into two parts- a) Foundation and b) Plinth

Figure 3-1 Sub structural work

3.1.1.1 Foundation
The most lower part of the building. The main function of the foundation is to transfer
load to sub soil. It is the most important part of structure. Most of the failure of a structure
may happen due to foundation failure. Foundations are generally considered either shallow
or deep. Foundation should be strong enough to meet the following requirements-
It should be strong enough to distribute the load to sub soil. 7
It is capable to support structure.
Shallow foundations, often called footings, are usually embedded about a meter or so into
soil. One common type is the spread footing which consists of strips or pads of concrete (or
other materials) which extend below the frost line and transfer the weight from walls and
columns to the soil or bedrock.
Deep foundation is used to transfer the load of a structure down through the upper weak
layer of topsoil to the stronger layer of subsoil below. There are different types of deep
footings including impact driven piles, drilled shafts, caissons, helical piles, geo-piers and
earth stabilized columns.
According to final soil investigation report available for the site, strata of moderate
safe bearing capacity is available at depth of 12.35m below Ground level (NGL).
Therefore raft foundation was provided. Gross bearing capacity is 48.5 T/sqm.
Plinth
The part between surrounding ground level and ground floor of the building is called
plinth. The purposes of the plinth are-
Transfer the incoming load from super structure to the foundation.
Provide damp proof to the building
Support the back filling as a retaining wall.
Plinth also increases the esthetical look of the building.

3.2 Superstructure

The part above plinth level is called super structure. Super structure contains many
other structural components. Such as-
Wall
Floor/Slab
Lintel and sunshade

Step and stair

Roof
Wall is used to separate the usable area of floor for different purpose. Such as
bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, living etc. Other prime purpose of wall is to provide
privacy and security.

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Figure 3-2 Superstructure

Floor, the main purpose of floor is to provide better living space and support of
occupants, furniture and other equipment of a building. The purpose of making different
floor in different level of a building is to create more accommodation within limited space.
Floor should be strong, durable, damp prove and heat protected. Lintel and Sunshade,
Lintel is provided for the purpose of supporting wall above door or window opening.
Sunshade is generally combined with lintel above window opening to protect rain and sun.
Step and Stair, Stair is made for easy communication among various floors of a
building. Stair consists of steps. Steps height should be comfortable enough for
vertical movement.
Roof, the top most part of a building is the roof. Roof is build for the purpose of
enclosing and protects the living area/floor area from weather effect. Roof should be
stable, durable and weather resistant.
Two tower and bridge require column free space, more flooring to ceiling height. Also
ease and speed of construction are the important parameter while making a choice for
particular system of superstructure.

Type of System Beam slab system Flat slab with drop Flat slab without
System drop system
Clear height Less More Maximum

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Ease of construction Less More Maximum

Speed of construction Moderate Fast Faster

Performance under Better Moderate Poor


seismic load
Fire resistance Good Good Good

Cost of construction Marginally less More Expensive

Table 3-1 Structure


system

According to above table Flat slab with drop system is considered more suitable and is
being provided at site according to design.

3.3 Standard Codes

IS:456-2000 Code of Practice for PCC and RCC

IS:800-2007 Code of Practice for General Construction in Steel

IS:3370-2009 Code of Practice for Concrete Structure For Storage of Liquid

IS:875-1987 Code of Practice for Design loads of building and structure


(except Earthquake)

IS:2911-1979 Code of Practice for design and construction of pile


Foundation

IS:1904-1986 Code of Practice for design and construction of foundation in


Soil

IS:1893-2002 Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structure

IS:13920-1993 Code of Practice for ductile detailing of RCC structure


subjected to seismic force

IS:383-1920 Specification for course and fine aggregate

IS:1786-1985 Specification for High strength Steel deformed bars

Table 3-2 Various IS Codes

3.4 Design loads

A building has to perform many functions satisfactorily. Amongst these functions are the

utility of the building for the intended use and occupancy. Structural safety, fire safety

and compliance with hygienic, sanitation, ventilation and daylight standards. The design

of the building is dependent upon the minimum requirements prescribed for each of the

above functions. The minimum requirements pertaining to the structural safety of

buildings are being covered in this code by way of laying down minimum design loads

which have to be assumed for dead loads, imposed loads, snow loads and other external
loads, the structure would be required to bear. Strict conformity to loading standards

recommended in this code, it is hoped that it will not

only ensure the structural safety of the buildings which are being designed and 10
constructed in the country and thereby reduce the hazards to life and property caused

by unsafe structures, but also eliminate the wastage caused by assuming unnecessarily
heavy loadings. (IS:1857-1987 )
Various types of loads on structure are
Dead load
Imposed load
Wind load
Snow loads
Special loads and loads combination
Seismic loads

3.4.1.1 Dead load


Dead loads to be assumed in the design of buildings and same as given in the-form of unit
weight of materials. The unit weight of other materials that are likely to be stored in a
building are also included for the purpose of load calculations due to stored materials.
Dead load of various materials extracted from (IS : 875 ( Part 1 ) - 1987 ) as follows.
Material Nominal size or Weight/Mass

Thickness kn kg per

PCC 23m

RCC 24

Floor Finish 2.0

Water proofing 2.5

Brick Masonry 20

230 mm 5.1

115mm 2.8

Concrete block 20

200mm 4.6
Table 3-3 Unit weight of material

3.5 Imposed load (Live load)

The load assumed to be produced by the intended use or occupancy of a building,


including the weight of movable partitions, distributed, concentrated loads, load due to
impact and vibration, and dust load but excluding wind, seismic, snow and other loads
due to temperature changes, creep, shrinkage, differential settlement, etc. Imposed loads
for building shall be taken as per the (IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987) are as follows.
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Area
Weight/Area(kn/ )

Office area (including storage) 4.0kn/

Passages/corridors/staircase/service area 4.0kn/

Electrical room 7. kn/

Kitchen/Cafeteria/dining room 3.0 kn/

Toilets 2.0 kn/

Terrace(accessible) / podium 1.5 kn/

Terrace(Inaccessible) 0.75 kn/

Parking(stacked) 6.0 kn/

Single parking/ ramp 5.0 kn/

Auditorium 4.0 kn/

Projector room 5 kn/

Auditorium roof 5 kn/

Table 3-4 Imposed loads

3.6 Wind load

Wind is air in motion relative to the surface of the earth. The primary cause of wind is
traced to earth’s rotation and differences in terrestrial radiation. The radiation effects are
primarily responsible for convection either upwards or downwards. The wind generally
blows horizontal to the ground at high wind speeds. Since vertical components of
atmospheric motion are relatively small, the term ‘wind’ denotes almost exclusively the
horizontal wind, vertical winds are always identified as such. The wind speeds are assessed
with the aid of anemometers or anemographs which are installed at meteorological
observatories at heights generally varying from 10 to 30 meters above ground. Winds loads
are considered on basis of (IS : 875 ( Part 3 ) - 1987).
Basic wind speed for Delhi (Vb) is 47m/s.

3.7 Temperature load

Expansion and contraction due to changes in temperature of the materials of a structure


shall be considered in design. Provision shall be made either to relieve the stress by
provision of expansion/contraction joints in accordance with IS:3414-1968* or design the
structure to carry additional stresses due to temperature effects as appropriate to the
problem.

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As per IS: 875 (part5) and IRC:6-2010, for expansion and contraction due to change in the
temperature of the material of the structure due to daily or seasonal fluctuations in the
temperature.
For Delhi as per IRC: 6-2010
Maximum air shed Temperature = 47°C
Minimum air shed Temperature = -1.5°C
Mean Temperature = 22.75°C
Temperature at which the structure is effectively restrained = mean + 10
= 22.75+10
= 32.75°C
Variation in temperature
Maximum = 47-32.75 = 32.75°

Minimum = -1.5-32.75= -34.75°C

3.8 Seismic Load

Designing and detailing shall be in accordance with IS: 1893 (part1):2002 and
IS:13920-1993.
Type of load Abbreviation

Dead load DL

Live load LL

Wind load in positive X direction WLxp

Wind load in negative X direction WLxn

Wind load in positive Y direction WLyp

Wind load in negative Y direction WLyn

Seismic load in X drection EQx

Seismic load in Y drection EQy

Maximum temperature load TL max

Minimum temperature load TL min

Table 3-5 Primary Loads

3.9 Fire resistance of members

All structure will design for two hours fire rating. The requirement for fire resistance is
met by adopting the minimum structural dimensions and clear cover to reinforcement.
Minimum dimension of structural member and nominal cover to reinforcement is
being provided as given in (IS:456-2000).

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3.10 Environmental exposure

The site is situated in Delhi which receive moderate rainfall also it is away from sea coast.

Soil investigation also indicates that sulphate and chloride content are well within

permissible limits; hence the building is designed for moderate exposure. Minimum

nominal cover to the structural members like Retaining wall which are in contact with soil

is not less than 45mm and for UG tank and STP which are in contact with water and

footing shall be minimum 50mm. for all structure in superstructure the minimum cover to

the reinforcement shall be 30mm.

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4 Building Materials

Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally

occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood are used to construct buildings.

Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some

more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established

industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into

specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work. The

quality and effectiveness of building materials used in the construction and their storage

are as important as the other phases of building activity like planning, designing and

constructing the building itself.

Historically choice of building materials was determined by what was locally available,

appropriateness to geo-climatic conditions and affordability of users. In recent past,

different initiatives have been taken in the areas of research and development,

standardization, and development and promotion of innovative materials. A review of

the recent trends indicates that the growth in the area of building materials covers

emerging trends and latest developments in the use of wastes, mineral admixtures in

cement and concrete, substitutes to conventional timber, composite materials and

recycling of wastes, at the same time ensuring desired response of materials to fire, long

term performance and durability. In addition to these developments, the future decade

may witness development of specific materials which may be structured and designed to

meet needs to specially developed construction technologies, such as, for disaster prone

areas or aggressive climatic and industrial situations. (STANDARDS, 2005)

4.1 Cement

Cement is a binder, a substance used in construction that sets, hardens and adheres to

other materials, binding them together. Cement is seldom used solely, but is used to bind

sand and gravel (aggregate) together. Cement is used with fine aggregate to produce

mortar for masonry, or with sand and gravel aggregates to produce concrete.

The initial setting time of cement = 30 minutes (1/2 hr)


The final setting time of cement = 10 hrs.

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4.1.1.1 Types of Cement
Ordinary Portland cement

Portland slag cement

Portland Pozzolana cement


Masonry cement
High alumina cement for

Super sulphated cement

Rapid hardening Portland cement


white Portland cement
Hydrophobic Portland cement
Sulphate resisting Portland cement

Low heat Portland cement

4.1.1.2 Ordinary Portland Cement


Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is by far the most important type of cement. Prior to

1987, there was only one grade of OPC which was governed by IS 269-1976. After 1987

higher grade cements were introduced in India. The OPC was classified into three grades,

namely 33 grade, 43 grade and 53 grade depending upon the strength of the cement at 28

days when tested as per IS 4031- 1988. If the 28 days strength is not less than 33N/mm2, it

is called 33 grade cement, if the strength is not less than 43N/mm2, it is called 43 grade

cement, and if the strength is not less then 53 N/mm2, it is called 53 grade cement. But the

actual strength obtained by these cements at the factory is much higher than the BIS

specifications. (SHETTY, 2005)

4.1.1.3 Portland Pozzolana Cement


Portland Pozzolana cement (PPC) is manufactured by the inter grinding of OPC clinker

with 10 to 25 per cent of pozzolanic material (as per the latest amendment, it is 15 to

35%). A pozzolanic material is essentially a siliceous or aluminous material which while

in itself possessing no cementitious properties, which will, in finely divided form and in

the presence of water, react with calcium hydroxide, liberated in the hydration process, at

ordinary temperature, to form compounds possessing cementitious properties. The

pozzolanic materials generally used for manufacture of PPC are calcined clay or fly ash.

Fly ash is a waste material, generated in the thermal power station, when powdered coal

is used as a fuel.

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Portland pozzolana cement produces less heat of hydration and offers greater resistance

to the attack of aggressive waters than ordinary Portland cement. It is important to

appreciate that the addition of pozzolana does not contribute to the strength at early ages.

Strengths similar to those of ordinary Portland cement can be expected in general only at

later ages provided the concrete is cured under moist conditions for a sufficient period.

Technically PPC has considerable advantages over OPC when made by using optimum

percentage of right quality of fly ash.

Figure 4-1 Strength comparison between OPC, PPC and Rapid hardening cement

Grading of PPC
In many countries, PPC is graded like OPC depending upon their compressive strength
at 28 days. In India, so far PPC is considered equivalent to 33 grade OPC, strength wise,
although some brand of PPC is as good as even 53 grade OPC. Many cement
manufacturers have requested BIS for grading of PPC just like grading of OPC. They
have also requested for upper limits of fly ash content from 25% to 35%. Recently BIS
has increased the fly ash content in PPC from 10–25% to 15–35%. Application
Portland pozzolana cement can be used in all situations where OPC is used except where
high early strength is of special requirement. As PPC needs enough moisture for sustained
pozzolanic activity, a little longer curing is desirable. Use of PPC would be particularly
suitable for the following situations:
For hydraulic structures.
For mass concrete structures like dam, bridge piers and thick foundation.
For marine structures.
For sewers and sewage disposal works etc.

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4.2 Aggregate
Aggregates are the important constituents in concrete. It is a broad category of coarse

particulate material used in construction like sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag etc. They

give body to the concrete, reduce shrinkage and effect economy. The mere fact that the

aggregates occupy 70–80 per cent of the volume of concrete, their impact on various

characteristics and properties of concrete is undoubtedly considerable.

4.2.1.1 Types of Aggregate


Coarse Aggregate (size greater than 4.75mm)

Fine Aggregate (size Smaller than 4.75)

The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate should be as large as possible within the
limits specified but in no case greater than one-fourth of the minimum thickness of the
member, provided that the concrete can be placed without difficulty so as to surround all
reinforcement thoroughly and fill the comers of the form. For most work, 20 mm aggregate
is suitable. Where there is no restriction to the flow of concrete into sections, 40 mm or
larger size may be permitted. In concrete elements with thin sections, closely spaced
reinforcement or small cover, consideration should be given to the use of 10 mm nominal
maximum size. Coarse and fine aggregate shall be batched separately.

4.3 Water

It is an important ingredient of concrete because it combines with cement and forms a


binding paste. The paste thus formed fills up the voids of the sand and coarse aggregate
bringing them into close adhesion.
Water used for mixing and curing shall be clean and free from injurious amounts of oils,

acids, alkalis, salts, sugar, organic materials or other substances that may be deleterious

to concrete or steel. Potable water is generally considered satisfactory for mixing

concrete. The pH value of water shall be not less than 6.

In this project source of water is a bore well which is closely spaced to the building.
The quality of water is good and can be used for drinking purpose also.

4.4 Admixtures

A material other than water, aggregates, and hydraulic cement and additives like

pozzolana or slag and fiber reinforcement used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar

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and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing to modify one or more of
the properties of concrete in the plastic or hardened state. The different types of
admixtures:
Chemical admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the
concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. In
normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement and are added to the
concrete at the time of batching/mixing the common types of admixtures are as follows:
Accelerators speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete accelerating
admixtures are especially useful for modifying the properties of concrete in cold
weather.
Retarders slow the hydration of concrete and are used in large or difficult pours
where partial setting before the pour is complete is undesirable..
Air entraining agents add and entrain tiny air bubbles in the concrete, which reduces
damage during freeze-thaw cycles, increasing durability.
Plasticizers increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete, allowing it be placed
more easily, with less consolidating effort. Plasticizers can be used to reduce the water
content of a concrete while maintaining workability and are sometimes called water-
reducers due to this use. Such treatment improves its strength and durability
characteristics.
Pigments can be used to change the color of concrete, for aesthetics.
Corrosion inhibitors are used to minimize the corrosion of steel and steel bars in
concrete.

4.4.1.1 Mineral Admixtures and Blended Cements Inorganic materials that have
pozzolanic or latent hydraulic properties, these
very fine-grained materials are added to the concrete mix to improve the properties of

concrete (mineral admixtures), or as a replacement for Portland cement (blended

cements). Products which incorporate limestone, fly ash, blast furnace slag, and other

useful materials with pozzolanic properties into the mix, are being tested and used. This

development is due to cement production being one of the largest producers (at about 5 to

10%) of global greenhouse gas emissions, as well as lowering costs, improving concrete

properties, and recycling wastes. Mineral admixtures are Fly ash Ground granulated,

blast, furnace slag, Silica fume, Carbon nanofibres.

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Admixtures should not impair durability of concrete nor combine with the constituent to

form harmful compounds nor increase the risk of corrosion of reinforcement. The

workability, compressive strength and the slump loss of concrete with and without the use

of admixtures shall be established during the trial mixes before use of admixtures.

4.5 Concrete

Concrete production is the process of mixing together the various ingredients—water,

aggregate, cement, and any additives—to produce concrete. Concrete production is time-

sensitive. Once the ingredients are mixed, workers must put the concrete in place before it

hardens. In modern usage, most concrete production takes place in a large type of

industrial facility called a concrete plant, or often a batch plant.

In general usage, concrete plants come in two main types, ready mix plants and central
mix plants. A ready mix plant mixes all the ingredients except water, while a central mix
plant mixes all the ingredients including water. A central mix plant offers more accurate
control of the concrete quality through better measurements of the amount of water
added, but must be placed closer to the work site where the concrete will be used, since
hydration begins at the plant.

4.5.1.1 Concrete Mix Design


The process of selecting suitable ingredients of concrete and determining their relative
amounts with the objective of producing a concrete of the required, strength, durability,
and workability as economically as possible, is termed the concrete mix design.
Requirements of concrete mix design
The requirements which form the basis of selection and proportioning of mix
ingredients are :
The minimum compressive strength required from structural consideration The

adequate workability necessary for full compaction with the compacting


equipment available.
Maximum water-cement ratio and/or maximum cement content to give
adequate durability for the particular site conditions
Maximum cement content to avoid shrinkage cracking due to temperature
cycle in mass concrete.

20
Grade Designation Specified characteristic Compressive Strength of 150
mm cube at 28 days in N/
M10 1O

Ordinary M15 15

Concrete M20 20

M25 25

M30 30

M35 35

Standard M40 40

Concrete M45 45

M50 50

M55 55

M60 60

M65 65
High Strength
Concrete M70 70

M75 75

M80 80
Table 4-1 Grade of concrete

Mix Design for 1 cumec


Material M55 M50 M45 M40 M35 M30

Cement (kg) 470 435 415 390 345 320

Fly ash (kg) 60 60 50 60 75 70

Water (Lt) 164 163 168 170 172 164

Fine Agg (kg) 580 595 615 640 665 700

10 mm (kg) 590 600 595 585 572 568

20mm (kg) 590 600 595 585 572 568

Admixture (kg) 2.65 2.55 2.40 2.30 2.10 1.95

Density 2455.5 2440.4 2432.3 2432.3 2403.1 2391.35


Table 4-2 Mix design being used at site

In the designation of concrete mix M refer to the mix and the number to the specified
compressive strength of 150 mm size cube at 28 days, expressed in N/ 2.
At site M10 is being used for PCC, M35 is being used for slab, M45 is being used for

vertical members like shear walls, columns and as well as for drop panel of slab.
4.5.1.2 RCC
Its full name is reinforced cement concrete. RCC is concrete that contains steel bars, called

reinforcement bars, or rebars. This combination works very well, as concrete is

21
very strong in compression, easy to produce at site, and inexpensive and steel is very
strong in tension.

4.5.1.3 Placing of Concrete


1. Concrete pump with pipeline is used for conveyance of concrete to the
pouring area.
2. Concrete for the slab is placed in approx. 400mm-450mm thick layers

each. Each layer is compacted before the next layer is placed.

3. Concrete is carefully worked around all reinforcement and embedded


fixtures and corner of formwork.
4. The top surface of the concrete is leveled with aluminum box section of 3m

long followed by steel trowel to produce the required surface finish.


5. Concrete placing is uninterrupted until placing of a section as defined by
construction joints is completed.
6. The concrete at the surface of cold joints is cleaned with a high pressure air
water jet before the concrete achieves a primary set to provide an irregular
clean surface free from laitance. Prior to restarting concreting, the surface will
be wetted.
7. Maximum free fall of concrete will be limited to 1.5m.
8. The temperature of the concrete should not exceed the limiting temperature
mentioned in the plan .

Figure 4-2 Slab concreting

22
4.5.1.4 Compaction of concrete
Concrete is compacted during placing by immersion vibrators. An immersion vibrator is

operated in a near vertical position, and it penetrates the full length of the layer of concrete

placed and just into the layer below to stitch in between. Vibration will be applied

continuously until the expulsion of air has practically ceased. The vibrators will be

withdrawn slowly to avoid the formation of voids. During the compaction care should be

taken to avoid the displacement of reinforcement, formwork, pre-fixed pipes, etc. A

minimum of one standby vibrator will be provided during concreting.

Figure 4-3 Method of compaction

4.6 Reinforcement (Steel Bar)


Rebar (short for reinforcing bar), collectively known as reinforcing steel and reinforcement
steel is a steel bar or mesh of steel wires used as a tension device in reinforced concrete and
reinforced masonry structures to strengthen and hold the concrete in tension. Rebar's surface is
often patterned to form a better bond with the concrete.
Concrete is a material that is very strong in compression, but relatively weak
in tension. To compensate for this imbalance in concrete's behavior, rebar is cast into it to carry
the tensile loads. Most steel reinforcement is divided into primary and secondary reinforcement,
but there are other minor uses:
Primary reinforcement refers to the steel which is employed to guarantee the

resistance needed by the structure as a whole to support the design loads.


Secondary reinforcement, also known as distribution or thermal reinforcement is

employed for durability and aesthetic reasons, by providing enough localized resistance

to limit cracking and resist stresses caused by effects such as temperature changes and
shrinkage.

Rebar is also employed to confer resistance to concentrated loads by providing enough


localized resistance and stiffness for a load to spread through a wider area.

23
Rebar may also be used to hold other steel bars in the correct position to
accommodate their loads.
Masonry structures and the mortar holding them together have similar properties to concrete and

also have a limited ability to carry tensile loads. Some standard masonry units like blocks and

bricks are made with voids to accommodate rebar, which is then secured in place with grout.

This combination is known as reinforced masonry.

At the site the high strength steel bars of 500D and T.M.T. (Thermo Mechanically Treated)
bars of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, 12mm 16 mm, 20mm, 25mm & 32 mm as per requirement of
design is being used.

Figure 4-4Slab reinforcement and PT tendons

4.6.1.1 METHOD FOR REINFORCEMENT WORK


All reinforcement shall be placed above the ground by using PVC cover block or
concrete blocks.
For reinforcement, care shall be taken to protect the reinforcement from

exposure to saline atmosphere during storage, fabrication and use.

Bars shall be cut and bent to shape and dimension as shown in bar bending schedule
based on Good For Construction (GFC) drawings.
Reinforcement shall be tied as per the latest GFC drawing.
Unusable cut rods and scrap reinforcement shall be properly placed at yard.

4.6.1.2 BAR BENDING SCHEDULE


Prepare bar bending schedule based on the latest GFC drawings and to be
submitted to Engineer for review

24
Bar bending schedule shall clearly specify the following:
a. Bar diameter,
b. Numbers,
c. Spacing
d. Cut-lengths,
e. Shapes.
Bar bending schedule shall take into account the following field/ design
requirement.
a. Desirable lap locations and staggering of laps.
b. Lap lengths.
c. Development length/ Anchorage length.

4.6.1.3 Overlapping of Bars


Staggering of reinforcement shall be carried out in such a manner that not more than
50% lapping be provided at any section.

Figure 4-5 Overlapping of Bars

4.6.1.4 REBARING
Rebaring is the method of insertion of steel bars when:-
There is change in design or there is some extension of present structure.
When steel rod as per has been not installed and to install the same rebaring. Mostly
HILTI chemical are used for rebaring at site.

25
Figure 4-6 Rebaring work

Steps involved:-
Drilling in the existing structure as per drawing
Cleaning of holes by ELE blower
Filling of chemical in well cleaned holes Then

inserting bars slowly inside the holes

4.7 Brick
A brick is building material used to make walls, pavements and other elements in masonry

construction. Traditionally, the term brick referred to a unit composed of clay, but it is now

used to denote any rectangular units laid in mortar. A brick can be composed of clay-bearing

soil, sand, and lime, or concrete materials. Bricks are produced in numerous classes, types,

materials, and sizes which vary with region and time period, and are produced in bulk

quantities. Two basic categories of bricks are fired and non-fired bricks. The unburnt or sun-

dried bricks are those bricks which are dried with the help of heat that is received from sun after

the process of moulding. The unburnt bricks can only be used in the construction of simple

temporary and cheap structures. Unburnt bricks should not be used at places exposed to heavy

rains. Bricks used in masonry can be of two types

Traditional bricks (size 23cm*11.4cm*7.6cm)

Modular bricks (size 19cm*9cm*9cm)

Concrete block (62.5cm*22.5cm*20cm)

26
4.7.1.1 Classes of Bricks
Class of brick Strength in kg/ Water absorption after 24 hours in
Water
First class bricks 105 ≤20%

Second class bricks 70 ≤22%

Third class bricks 30 ≤25%


Table 4-3 Classes of bricks with their properties

At site first class traditional bricks are being used for brick masonry is being used for drainage
at basement and brick work below DPC layer. Block work is being used for partition walls of
thickness 200mm and 100mm.

4.7.1.2 Laying of Blocks


Stand and set lumbers with straight edges along the vertical line of wall face to vertical
alignment of the work.
Then stretch a string line indicting the top level of the starting course
Top of concrete slab, from which block are laying up, should be kept clean and wet.
Lay the blocks for the course with a uniform thickness of horizontal joint. Standard

length of block is 400mm and in case a cut unit is required to make

up the course, place that unit made of standard unit at least one block away from the
concrete column, quoins of the wall or service openings including doors and
windows.
After finishing the course, carry out jointing with the steel trowel to strike off joints
slightly lower than the block face in case plastering or rendering are not required at a
later stage. However, only where plastering is required, take out joints to a depth of
between 10mm to 15mm as the works proceeds, to give an adequate key to plastering.
Repeat sequence for the next course.

27
Figure 4-7 Block Work of 200mm thickness

4.8 Damp Proofing Material


Damp proofing is defined by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a
material that resists the passage of water with no hydro-static pressure and waterproof as a
treatment that resists the passage of water under pressure.[1] Generally damp proofing keeps
moisture out of a building where vapor barriers keep interior moisture from getting into walls.
Damp proofing is accomplished several ways including: Damp-proof course (DPC) is a barrier
through the structure by capillary action such as through a phenomenon known as rising damp.
Rising damp is the effect of water rising from the ground into property. The damp proof course
may be horizontal or vertical. ADPC layer is usually laid below all masonry walls, regardless if
the wall is a load bearing wall or a partition wall.
Damp-proof membrane (DPM) is a membrane material applied to prevent moisture
transmission. A common example is polyethylene sheeting laid under a concrete slab to prevent
the concrete from gaining moisture through capillary action.[4] A DPM may be used for the
DPC.
Integral damp proofing in concrete involves adding materials to the concrete mix to make the
concrete itself impermeable.
Surface coating with thin water proof materials for resistance to non-pressurized moisture such
as rain water or a coating of cement sprayed on such as sortcrete which can resist water under
pressure. (damp proof)

28
Water proofing materials are butyl rubber, hot bitumen, plastic sheets, bituminous sheet, sheet
of lead, copper, mastic asphalt and Mortar with waterproofing compounds.
At site water proofing compounds, hot bitumen and bitumen sheets are being used as a water
proofing material. Screte of 25mm is being provided above the bitumen membrane in water
proofing of slab.

Figure 4-8 Bitumen membrane for water proofing is being covered with Screte of 25 mm thickness

29
5 Structural Elements
Those members that are interconnected in such a way so as to constitute a structure
are called structural elements.

5.1 Column
Column is a vertical member which takes complete load of the beam, slabs and the entire
structure and the floor and other area of the building. A column is a vertical member which
effectively takes load by compression. Basically column is a compression member as load
acts along its longitudinal axis. Bending moment may occur due to wind earthquake or
accidental loads.
Column transfers the load of the structure of slabs beams above to below, and finally load is
transferred to the soil. Position of the columns should be so that there are no tensile stresses
developed at the cross section of the columns. Columns location should be such that it hides in
the walls partially or fully.

5.1.1.1 Classification of RCC Column


Classification based on Shapes
Circular for exposed outside for good architecture view
Square or rectangular traditional for any structure

Short column – if L/B<=12


Long column – if L/B > 12
Where L is the height and B is width of the column.

Generally, floor height is approximately 3 m or 10 feet, L/B ratio will be less than 12, so in
maximum cases short column is placed. In case where height of floor is more than 3 m or 10
feet, we need to check L/B ratio so result may be long or short column. Generally, on long
column there are more forces generated so should be designed carefully.

5.1.1.2 Size of Columns at Site


900mm*1100mm (basement to ground floor)
800mm*1000mm (1st floor till 7th floor)

5.1.1.3 Steps for Construction of RCC Columns


Column layouts
Column reinforcement work

30
Column formwork
Pouring of concrete
Layout of Columns
Column layouts are done by laying rope in the grid lines and mark the location of columns

Column Reinforcement
Column reinforcement works needs following checklist on site:
Check the numbers and diameter of vertical bars
Spacing between vertical bars
Check Development length which depends on diameter of bar
Lapping in alternate bars should come at same height.
Lapping should not come inside beam or slab.
Lapping should be at l/3 or 2l/3 of column as per structural notes
Spacing between stirrups is as per the drawing
Hook should be bend properly at right angles.
Check the stirrups corner. Vertical bar should come at right angle edge of stirrup
properly bound with binding wire.

Concreting of an RCC column can be done manually or with the help of machine
or pump
Following points to be followed during and after concreting:
For less quantity machine mix concrete is done and for larger quantity ready mix
concrete (RMC) is ordered.
Approval of placing concrete whether by pump or manually has to be taken from
client.
Concrete should be poured up to slab bottom; the remaining column gets
concreted during pouring of slab & beam.
Mechanical vibrator to be compulsorily used in the column but excess vibration can

cause segregation. Each layer should be thoroughly compacted.

Proper cover as per structural drawings to be maintained.


Temperature should be below 30 degree while pouring concrete.
After the pouring of concrete and vibrating it with the help of a vibrator the
horizontality and verticality of column to be checked.

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5.2 Retaining wall
A retaining wall is a structure designed and constructed to resist the lateral pressure of soil, when
there is a desired change in ground elevation that exceeds the angle of repose of the soil.
A retaining wall is a structure that retains (holds back) any material (usually earth) and
prevents it from sliding or eroding away. It is designed so that to resist the material pressure
of the material that it is holding back.
Concrete Cantilever retaining wall
At site cantilever retaining wall is constructed. This consists of a wall which is connected to
foundation. A cantilever wall holds back a significant amount of soil, so it must be well
engineered. They are the most common type used as retaining walls. Cantilever wall rest on a
slab foundation. This slab foundation is also loaded by back-fill and thus the weight of the back-
fill and surcharge also stabilizes the wall against overturning and sliding.

Figure 5-1 Retaining wall of thickness 400mm

5.3 Shear wall


Shear wall a rigid vertical diaphragm capable of transferring lateral forces from exterior walls,

floors, and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their planes. Examples are the

reinforced-concrete wall or vertical truss. Lateral forces

32
caused by wind, earthquake, and uneven settlement loads, in addition to the weight of structure
and occupants; create powerful twisting (torsional) forces. These forces can literally tear (shear)
a building apart. Reinforcing a frame by attaching or placing a rigid wall inside it maintains the
shape of the frame and prevents rotation at the joints. Shear walls are especially important in
high-rise buildings subject to lateral wind and seismic forces.

5.3.1.1 POSITIONING OF SHEAR WALLS:


The shape and plan position of the shear wall influences the behavior of the structure
considerably. Structurally, the best position for the shear walls is in the centre of each half of the
building. This is rarely practical, however, since it dictates the utilization of the space, so they
are positioned at the end.
This shape and position of the walls give good flexural stiffness in the short direction, but relies
on the stiffness of the frame in the other direction.
This arrangement provides good flexural stiffness in both directions, but may cause problems
from restraint or shrinkage. As does this arrangement with a single core, but which does not
have the problem from restraint of shrinkage.
However, this arrangement lacks the good torsional stiffness of the previous
arrangements due to the eccentricity of the core.
If the core remains in this position then it must be designed explicitly for the torsion.
It is far preferable to adopt a symmetrical arrangement to avoid this.

5.4 Beam
A beam is a structural element that primarily resists loads applied laterally to the beam's axis. Its
mode of deflection is primarily by bending. The loads applied to the beam result in reaction
forces at the beam's support points. The total effect of all the forces acting on the beam is to
produce shear forces and bending moments within the beam, that in turn induce internal
stresses, strains and deflections of the beam. Beams are characterized by their manner of
support, profile (shape of cross-section), length, and their material.

5.4.1.1 Classification Based on Supports


Simply supported - a beam supported on the ends which are free to rotate and have
no moment resistance.
Fixed - a beam supported on both ends and restrained from rotation.
33
Over hanging - a simple beam extending beyond its support on one end.
Double overhanging - a simple beam with both ends extending beyond its supports
on both ends.
Continuous - a beam extending over more than two supports.
Cantilever - a projecting beam fixed only at one end.
Trussed - a beam strengthened by adding a cable or rod to form a truss.

5.4.1.2 Size of beams at site


400-600mm
250*450mm
200*450mm
450*600mm
300*600mm
350*600mm
425*425mm
500*600mm
400*750mm
400*850mm
600*600mm
600*450mm
1000*1100mm

5.5 Concrete Slab


Structural Concrete Slabs are constructed to provide flat surfaces, usually horizontal, in

building floors, roofs, bridges, and other types of structures. The slab may be supported

by walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically with the slab, by

structural steel beams, by columns, or by the ground. The depth of a slab is usually

very small compared to its span. Slabs whose thickness ranges from 100 to 500 mm

are most often used for the construction of floors and ceilings. Thin concrete slabs are

also used for exterior paving purpose.

5.5.1.1 Classification or Type of Concrete Slab


In general, slabs are classified as being one-way or two-way. Slabs that primarily deflect in one
direction are referred to as one-way slabs. When slabs are supported by columns arranged
generally in rows so that the slabs can deflect in two directions they are usually referred to as
two-way slabs.
34
One way and two way slabs
One more definition regarding one-way and two –way slab is that if one direction span to
other direction span ratio (or more precisely if longer dimension to shorter dimension ratio)
is greater than 2 it is termed as two way slab, otherwise if less than two it is termed as
two-way slab.

Figure 5-2 One way slab with beams

Two way Slabs


Two way slabs may be strengthened by the addition of beams between the columns, by
thickening the slabs around the columns (drop Panels), and by flaring the columns under the
slabs (Column Capitals).

Figure 5-3 Two way slab with beams

Flat Plates Slab


These are solid concrete slabs of uniform depths that transfer loads directly to the
supporting columns without the aid of beams or capitals or drop panels.

35
Figure 5-4 Flat slabs

At site one way, two way and flat slab with drop panel is being provided. Having thickness
of 210mm, 350mm and 450mm according to design.

36
6 Formwork
Formwork is the term given to either temporary or permanent molds into which concrete or
similar materials are poured. In the context of concrete construction, the false work supports
the shuttering molds.

Figure 6-1Formwork for slab and beam

6.1 Formwork Requirements


Formwork is made from different materials, and requires great skill and experience in its
manufactures. To produce concrete forms that meet all job requirements, the construction
engineer must understand the characteristics, properties, and behaviors of the materials used, be
able to estimate the loads applied to the forms, and be familiar with the advantages and
shortcomings of various forming systems.

6.1.1.1 Major Objectives in Designing Formwork


Economy: The main materials of the reinforced concrete work are concrete,
reinforcement and formwork, so the total cost can be approximately distributed among
the three items. Economy should be considered when planning the formwork for a
concrete structure.
Quality: Forms must be designed and built with sufficient stiffness and accuracy so

the size, shape, position, and finish of the cast concrete are attained within the

required tolerances. The quality of the formwork itself has a direct impact on safety,

accidents, and failures. Correctly designed formwork will ensure that the concrete

37
maintains the desired size and shape by having the proper dimensions and being rigid
enough to hold its shape under the stresses of the concrete.
Safety: Formwork operations are risky, and workers are typically exposed to unsafe
working conditions. Partial or total failure of concrete formwork is a major contributor to
deaths, injuries, and property damages within the construction industry. Forms must be
built with sufficient strength and factors of safety so they are capable of supporting all
dead and live loads without collapse or danger to workers and to the concrete structure.
Speed and Time: Speed of construction is defined as the rate in which concrete
building is raised and can be expressed in terms of number of floors erected per week
or months. Speed of construction can be also measured in terms of inches or
millimeters of concrete poured per hour. Formwork operations can control the pace of
construction projects.

6.2 Method for Formwork

6.2.1.1 Pre Check


Check if the shutters are properly cleaned by removing the concrete/ mortar and
protruding nails.
Formwork shall be made to the exact dimensions within the permissible tolerances as
mentioned below.
Required thickness and quality of plywood conforming to IS 6461 shall be used to meet
the requirements of design and surface finish.
For beam bottom & sides, proper size of timber at required spacing shall be provided to
take the design loads/ pressure considering sleeves, conduit anchors &inserts.

6.2.1.2 Erection of Formwork


1. Sufficiently rigid and tight to prevent the loss of grout or mortar from the
concrete.
2. Capable of providing concrete of the correct shape and surface finish within the
specified tolerance limits.
3. Soffits forms capable of imparting a camber if required.
4. Erect staging/shuttering as per drawing/sketches in such a way that de-shuttering can

be done easily including provision for re-propping, if planned.


5. Check the location, line, level, plumb and dimensions of the formwork to ensure

that the deviations are within the permissible limits.

38
6. Provide bracing at proper places as per formwork scheme to take care of lateral
loads.
7. Apply mould oil/other coatings as release agents before reinforcement steel is placed.
8. Check all the shutters are properly aligned and fixed firmly with required lateral
supports and ties.
9. Check all the spanning members have proper bearing at the supports.
10. Wedges or jacks shall be secured in position after the final check of alignment.

11. Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned of all dirt, mortar and other matters such as metals,
blocks, saw dust and foreign materials before concreting.
12. Check all the gaps/openings are properly closed to avoid leakages.
13. Check all the inserts/embedment and openings are exactly placed as per the
drawings.
14. In case of leakages, bulging and sagging immediate actions shall be taken by
tightening wedges or adjusting by jacks which must be done before the concrete takes
its initial set.

6.3 Formwork Types


Formwork components can be assembled in a wide variety of systems for casting many
structural shapes. The terms formwork and falsework are often used in combination. Formwork
system can be generally classified as Vertical Systems (wall and column) and Horizontal
Systems (slab and beam). The material serving as the contact face of forms is known as
sheathing and it is used in both the vertical and horizontal systems .

6.3.1.1 Formwork Horizontal Systems


Horizontal formwork systems are used to temporarily support horizontal concrete work
such as concrete beams and slabs.
Formwork for Concrete Slabs (soffit formwork)
Conventional wood systems for horizontal concrete work are made of plywood or lumber

sheathing for decking. Sheathing is supported by horizontal members called joists or runners.

Joists are supported by another set of horizontal members perpendicular to the joists, called

stringers (bearer or secondary beams). The stringers are supported by vertical members called

shores (PROP). Vertical timber shores can be replaced by the scaffold type, which has been

proven to be more efficient because

39
of its high number of reuses and its height, which means that no splicing is typically required.
Formwork for Concrete Beams
Formwork for beams consists of a bottom and two sides (open through section) in addition to
their supporting elements. The bottom is typically made of ply wood or lumber sheathing. The
bottom is supported by and fastened to horizontal joists. Beam sides are also made of plywood
or lumber sheathing.
Beam forms must be designed and constructed to safely support the vertically applied dead
loads and live loads as described above.

6.3.1.2 Formwork Vertical Systems


Vertical formwork systems are those used to form the vertical supporting elements of the
structure such as columns and walls. The functions of the vertical supporting systems are to
transfer the floor loads to the foundation and to resist the lateral wind and earthquake loads .

Formwork for Column Systems


Column-form materials tend to vary with the column shape. Wood or steel is often used with
square or rectangular columns. Round column forms, more typically pre-manufactured in a
range of standard diameters, are available in steel, paperboard, and fiber-reinforced plastic.
Square and rectangular forms are composed of short-span bending elements contained by
external ties or clamps.

Formwork for Wall System


Wall forms principally resist the lateral pressures generated by fresh concrete as a liquid or
semi-liquid material. The pressures can be quite large; certainly many times the magnitude of
live loads on permanent floors. Thus, wall form design often involves closely spaced and well-
supported members. A concrete form tie is a tensile unit connecting opposite sides of the form
and providing a link for equilibrium. Form ties are usually steel, although some fiber-reinforced
plastic ties are also available.

6.4 Formwork Materials


The selection of materials suitable for formwork should be based on the price, safety during
construction, and the quality required in the finished product. The selection of

40
materials suitable for formwork should be based on the price, safety during
construction, and the quality required in the finished product.

6.4.1.1 Timber Formwork:


Timber for formwork should satisfy the following requirement:

It should be

well seasoned
light in weight
easily workable with nails without splitting free
from loose knots

Timber used for shuttering for exposed concrete work should have smooth and even surface
on all faces which come in contact with concrete.

Normal sizes of members for timber formwork:


sheeting for slabs, beam, column 25 mm to 40mm thick
side and beam bottom
Joints, ledges 50 x 70 mm to 50 x 150 mm
Posts 75 x 100mm to 100 x 100 mm
Table 6-1 Sizes of timber members

6.4.1.2 Plywood Formwork


Resin bonded plywood sheets are attached to timber frames to make up panels of required sizes.
The cost of plywood formwork compares favorably with that of timber shuttering and it may
even prove cheaper in certain cases in view of the following considerations:
It is possible to have smooth finish in which case on cost in surface finishing is there.
By use of large size panels it is possible to effect saving in the labor cost of fixing
and dismantling.
Numbers of reuses are more as compared with timber shuttering. For

estimation purpose, number of reuses can be taken as 20 to 25.

6.4.1.3 Steel Formwork


This consists of panels fabricated out of thin steel plates stiffened along the edges by small steel
angles. The panel units can be held together through the use of suitable clamps or bolts and nuts.
The panels can be fabricated in large number in any desired 41
modular shape or size. Steel forms are largely used in large projects or in situation where
large number reuses of the shuttering is possible. This type of shuttering is considered most
suitable for circular or curved structures.
Steel forms compared with timber formwork:
Steel forms are stronger, durable and have longer life than timber formwork and their
reuses are more in number.
Steel forms can be installed and dismantled with greater ease and speed.
The quality of exposed concrete surface by using steel forms is good and such surfaces
need no further treatment.
Steel formwork does not absorb moisture from concrete. Steel
formwork does not shrink or warp.

6.5 Order and method of removing formwork:


The sequence of orders and method of removal of formwork are as follows:
Shuttering forming the vertical faces of wall beams and column sides should be

removed first as they bear no load but only retain the concrete.

Shuttering forming soffit of slabs should be removed next.


Shuttering forming soffit of beams, girders or other heavily loaded shuttering
should be removed in the end.
S.No Description of structural member Period of time (Days)
1 Walls, columns and vertical sides of beams 1to 2
2 Slabs (props left under) 3
3 Beam soffits (props left under) 7
4 Removal of props to slabs

(a) For slabs spanning upto 4.5 m 7


(b) For slabs spanning over 4.5 m 14
5 Removal of props to beams and arches

(a) Spanning upto 6 m 14


(b) spanning over 6 m 21
Table 6-2Period of removal of formwork

Rapid hardening cement, warm weather and light loading conditions allow early removal of
formwork. The formwork should under no circumstances be allowed to be removed until all the
concrete reaches strength of at least twice the stresses to which the concrete may be subjected at
the time of removal of formwork. All formworks should be eased gradually and carefully in
order to prevent the load being suddenly transferred to concrete.
42
7 Tests for quality check
7.1 Test on Cement

7.1.1.1 Consistency

AIM
To determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of standard consistency as
per IS: 4031 (Part 4) - 1988.
PRINCIPLE
The standard consistency of a cement paste is defined as that consistency which will permit the
Vicat plunger to penetrate to a point 5 to 7mm from the bottom of the Vicat mould.
APPARATUS
Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 - 1976 Balance, whose permissible variation

at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 - 1982
PROCEDURE
i. Weigh approximately 400g of cement and mix it with a weighed quantity of water.
ii. The time of gauging should be between 3 to 5 minutes.
iii. Fill the Vicat mould with paste and level it with a trowel.
iv. Lower the plunger gently till it touches the cement surface.
v. Release the plunger allowing it to sink into the paste.
vi. Note the reading on the gauge.
vii. Repeat the above procedure taking fresh samples of cement and different quantities of
water until the reading on the gauge is 5 to 7mm.
REPORTING OF RESULTS
Express the amount of water as a percentage of the weight of dry cement to the first place of
decimal.

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7.1.1.2 Initial and Final Setting Time
AIM
To determine the initial and the final setting time of cement as per IS: 4031 (Part 5) -
1988.
APPARATUS
Vicat apparatus conforming to IS: 5513 - 1976 Balance, whose permissible variation

at a load of 1000g should be +1.0g Gauging trowel conforming to IS: 10086 - 1982

PROCEDURE
i) Prepare a cement paste by gauging the cement with 0.85 times the water
required to give a paste of standard consistency.
ii) Start a stop-watch, the moment water is added to the cement.
iii) Fill the Vicat mould completely with the cement paste gauged as above, the
mould resting on a non-porous plate and smooth off the surface of the paste
making it level with the top of the mould. The cement block thus prepared in the
mould is the test block.
INITIAL SETTING TIME
Place the test block under the rod bearing the needle. Lower the needle gently in order to
make contact with the surface of the cement paste and release quickly, allowing it to
penetrate the test block. Repeat the procedure till the needle fails to pierce the test block to a
point 5.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould . The time period elapsing
between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle fails to pierce the
test block by 5.0 ± 0.5mm measured from the bottom of the mould, is the initial setting time.
FINAL SETTING TIME
Replace the above needle by the one with an annular attachment.
The cement should be considered as finally set when, upon applying the needle gently to the
surface of the test block, the needle makes an impression therein, while the attachment fails to do
so. The period elapsing between the time, water is added to the cement and the time, the needle
makes an impression on the surface of the test block, while the attachment fails to do so, is the
final setting time.
REPORTING OF RESULTS
The results of the initial and the final setting time should be reported to the nearest
five minutes.

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7.2 Tests on Aggregate

7.2.1.1 Sieve Analysis


AIM
To determine the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving as per IS:
2386 (Part I) - 1963.
PRINCIPLE
By passing the sample downward through a series of standard sieves, each of decreasing size
openings, the aggregates are separated into several groups, each of which contains aggregates in
a particular size range.
APPARATUS
A SET OF IS SIEVES
i) A set of IS Sieves of sizes - 80mm, 63mm, 50mm, 40mm, 31.5mm, 25mm, 20mm,
16mm, 12.5mm, 10mm, 6.3mm, 4.75mm, 3.35mm, 2.36mm, 1.18mm, 600μm, 300μm,
150μm and 75μm
ii) Balance or scale with an accuracy to measure 0.1 percent of the weight of the test sample

i) The test sample is dried to a constant weight at a temperature of 110 + 5oC and weighed.
ii) The sample is sieved by using a set of IS Sieves.
iii) On completion of sieving, the material on each sieve is weighed.
iv) Cumulative weight passing through each sieve is calculated as a percentage of the total
sample weight.
v) Fineness modulus is obtained by adding cumulative percentage of aggregates retained on
each sieve and dividing the sum by 100.

i) The cumulative percentage by weight of the total sample


ii) The percentage by weight of the total sample passing through one sieves and retained

on the next smaller sieve, to the nearest 0.1 percent.

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7.2.1.2 Water Absorption
AIM
To determine the water absorption of coarse aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part III) -
1963.
APPARATUS
i) Wire basket - perforated, electroplated or plastic .
ii) Water-tight container for suspending the basket
iii) Dry soft absorbent cloth - 75cm x 45cm (2 nos.)
iv) Shallow tray of minimum 650 sq.cm area
v) Air-tight container of a capacity similar to the basket
vi) Oven

i) The sample should be thoroughly washed to remove finer particles and dust,

ii) drained and then placed in the wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a

iii) Temperature between 22 and 32oC.


iv) After immersion, the entrapped air should be removed by lifting the basket and allowing
it to drop 25 times in 25 seconds. The basket and sample should remain immersed for a
period of 24 + 1 2 hrs. afterwards.
v) The basket and aggregates should then be removed from the water, allowed to drain for a few

minutes, after which the aggregates should be gently emptied from the basket on to one of the

dry clothes and gently surface-dried with the cloth, transferring it to a second dry cloth when

the first would remove no further moisture. The aggregates should be spread on the second

cloth and exposed to the atmosphere away from direct sunlight till it appears to be completely

surface-dry. The aggregates should be weighed (Weight 'A').

vi) The aggregates should then be placed in an oven at a temperature of 100 to


110oC for 24hrs. It should then be removed from the oven, cooled and
weighed (Weight 'B').
REPORTING OF RESULTS
Water absorption = [(A-B)/B] x 100%

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7.3 Tests on Concrete

7.3.1.1 Slump test


AIM
To determine the workability of fresh concrete by slump test as per IS: 1199 - 1959.

APPARATUS
Slump cone, tamping rod
PROCEDURE
i) The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat of
oil.
ii) The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and non- absorbent surface.

iii) The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete, each approximately
to one-fourth of the height of the mould.
iv) Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are
distributed evenly over the cross- section).
v) After the top layer is taped, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel.
vi) The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the vertical
direction.
vii) The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of
the subsided concrete is measured.
This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.
REPORTING OF RESULTS
The slump measured should be recorded in mm of subsidence of the specimen during the test. Any

slump specimen, which collapses or shears off laterally gives incorrect result and if this occurs, the

test should be repeated with another sample

7.3.1.2 Compressive strength test/cube test


Out of many test applied to the concrete, this is the outmost important which gives an idea about
all the characteristics of concrete. Preparation of cube specimens
MOULD
The mould shall be of size 15cm X 15cm X 15cm for the maximum nominal size of aggregate
not exceeding 40mm. Each mould shall be provided with base plate having a plane surface and
made of non-absorbent material.
SAMPLE OF CONCRETE

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Sample of concrete for the test specimen shall be taken at the mixer or in the case of ready mixed
concrete from the transportation vehicle discharge or as directed by Engineer-in-charge.

SAMPLING

i) Clean the mould and apply oil.


ii) Fill the concrete in the mould in layer approximately 5cm thick.
iii) Compact each layer with not less than 35 strokes per layer using a tampering rod (steel
bar 16mm diameter and 60cm long, bullet pointed at lower end)
iv) Level the top surface and smoothen it with trowel

CURING
The tests specimens are then stored in moist air for 24 hours and after this the
specimens are marked and removed from the molds and kept submerge in clear fresh
water until taken out prior to test.

TESTING PROCEDURE
i) Remove the specimens from the water after specified time and wipe out excess water
from the surface
ii) Take the dimension of the specimen to the nearest 0.2m
iii) Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine Fig: cube testing

iv) Place the specimen in the machine in such a manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite side of the cube cast.
v) Rotate the movable portion gently by hand so that it touches the top surface of the
specimen
vi) Apply the load gradually without shock and continue till the specimen fail

vii) Record the maximum load and note any unusual features in the type of failure.

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7.4 IN-SITU DRY DENSITY

7.4.1.1 CORE CUTTER METHOD


AIM
To determine the in-situ dry density of soil by core cutter method as per IS: 2720 (Part XXIX) -
1975.
APPARATUS
Cylindrical core cutter, Steel dolley, Steel rammer, Balance with an accuracy of 1g, Straightedge,
Square metal tray - 300mm x 300mm x 40mm, Trowel

PROCEDURE
i) The internal volume (V) of the core cutter in cc should be calculated from its
ii) Dimensions which should be measured to the nearest 0.25mm.
iii) The core cutter should be weighed to the nearest gram (W1).
iv) A small area, approximately 30cm square of the soil layer to be tested should be exposed
and leveled. The steel dolly should be placed on top of the cutter and the latter should be
rammed down vertically into the soil layer until only about 15mm of the dolly protrudes
above the surface, care being taken not to rock the cutter. The cutter should then be dug
out of the surrounding soil, care being taken to allow some soil to project from the lower
end of the cutter. The ends of the soil core should then be trimmed flat in level with the
ends of the cutter by means of the straightedge.
v) The cutter containing the soil core should be weighed to the nearest gram (W2).
vi) The soil core should be removed from the cutter and a representative sample should be

placed in an air-tight container and its water content (w) determined.

REPORTING OF RESULTS
Bulk density of the soil γ = (W2 −W1)/V g /cc
Dry density of the soil γd = [100γ/100+w] g c

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8 Conclusion
In conclusion, there were many things that I have experienced and learned during the four
month of my Industrial Training at Nelson India. The whole training period was very
interesting, instructive and challenging.
Through this training I was able to gain new insights and more comprehensive understanding
about the real industry working condition and practice. The four month of duration also has
provided me the opportunities to develop and improve my functional skills. All of these valuable
experiences and knowledge that I have gained were not only acquired through the direct
involvement in task given but also through other aspect of the training such as work observation,
interaction with colleagues, superior, and other people related to the field.
From what I have undergone, I am very sure that the industrial training program has achieved
its entire primary objectives. It is also the best way to prepare students to face the real working
life. As a result of the program now I am more confident to build my future career.

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Bibliography
damp proof. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damp_proofing
IS : 875 ( Part 1 ) - 1987 . Dead load.
IS : 875 ( Part 2 ) - 1987. Imposed Load.
IS : 875 ( Part 3 ) - 1987. Wind Load.
IS:1857-1987 . Design Loads.
IS:456-2000. Code for desing of concrete and RCC structure.
STANDARDS, B. O. (2005). NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA 2005 .

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