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TEC-15

Pneumatic Division North America Pipe Air Flow


Richland, Michigan 49083
Pneumatic ISSUED: January, 1999
Supersedes: June, 1998

Pipe Air Flow


The following pages contain 6 sets of curves for schedule This occurs between the sloping lines for the 2" and
40 pipe that can be used to help select the appropriate 2-1/2" pipes. The larger pipe size (2-1/2") should be
pipe size for pneumatic systems, or given a system, allow selected (Step 4). Further evaluation of this chart
system performance to be estimated. shows that for the conditions given, the pipe will flow
over 800 SCFM at 60 PSIG inlet and 3 PSI (5%)
Generally accepted practice for sizing piping for pneumatic pressure drop. (The intersection of the
systems is to use a pressure drop of 10% of gage for 60 PSIG primary pressure line and the 2-1/2" pipe
nominal pipe sizes up to and including 1/2", and 5% of size line).
gage for nominal pipe sizes of 3/4" and larger. The
following curves allow the use of these guidelines for Further uses of the curves would be to compare the size
selecting piping sizes and include other pressure drop pipe required at the other sets of pressure drops for
percentages for evaluating existing systems. Generally, 100 feet of pipe length. Using Chart A shows that if a
curves of this type are shown only for 100 feet pipe more conservative pressure drop were used, the pipe
lengths, but theoretic calculations show the curves for size would increase to 3". Using Chart C shows that if a
10 feet are also valid. more aggressive pressure drop were allowed, perhaps a
2" pipe could be used.
Below is a listing of the charts involved with their
identification: Using the curves for 10 feet of pipe length, it can be seen
because of the shorter length, much smaller pipe
Pressure Drop diameters could be used than if the length were at
Pipe Size Range (Percentage of Inlet Gage Pressure) 100 feet.
1/8" - 1/2" 5 10 15 5 10 15
These curves should only be used as general guidelines
3/4" - 3" 2.5 5 7.5 2.5 5 7.5 for selecting piping systems. Also, these curves are based
Pipe Length (Feet) 100 100 100 10 10 10 on using schedule 40 steel pipe. Different types of
Chart A B C D E F plumbing with different internal roughness will have
different results. If more detailed or precise information is
Generally accepted practice. required, the system should be designed by a competent
professional.
Perhaps the best way to explain the use of these curves
is by example.

Example 1

Given a system with desired airflow of 700 SCFM


and a supply pressure of 60 PSIG and a header
length of 100 feet, what size pipe should be used?
The generally accepted practice of 10% pressure drop
for pipes up to 1/2" and 5% for 3/4" and larger should
be used.

The above table indicates, Chart B should be used


(Step 1). Along the bottom horizontal axis locate the
60 PSIG vertical line (Step 2). On the left vertical axis
locate the 700 SCFM horizontal line (Step 3). Follow
both of these lines to the point of intersection.
Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart B (Example)
1000
900
800 NOMINAL
STEP 3 700 PIPE SIZE
IN INCHES
600

500
3
400

300
STEP 4 2-1/2

200

100
90 1-1/2
80
70
FLOW
60
SCFM 1-1/4
50

40

30
1

20

3/4

10 1/2
9
8
7

6
3/8
5

1/4 PRESSURE DROP


1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 10% OF P1 (GAGE)
2 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2, 3, - P = 5% OF P1 (GAGE) STEP 1
PIPE LENGTH = 100 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA

1/8
1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250
STEP 2
PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG
Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart A
1000
900
800
700 NOMINAL
600 PIPE SIZE
IN INCHES
500

400

3
300

200
2-1/2

2
100
90
80
70
FLOW 1-1/2
60
SCFM
50

40 1-1/4

30

20
1

10 3/4
9
8
7 1/2
6

4
3/8

PRESSURE DROP
1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 5% OF P1 (GAGE)
2
3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2, 3, - P = 2.5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 100 FEET
1/4 PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA
1/8

1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG


Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart B
1000
900
800 NOMINAL
700 PIPE SIZE
IN INCHES
600

500
3
400

300
2-1/2

200

100
90 1-1/2
80
70
FLOW
60
SCFM 1-1/4
50

40

30
1

20

3/4

10 1/2
9
8
7

6
3/8
5

1/4 PRESSURE DROP


1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 10% OF P1 (GAGE)
2 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2, 3, - P = 5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 100 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA

1/8
1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG


Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart C
1000
900
NOMINAL
800
PIPE SIZE
700 IN INCHES
600
3
500

400

300 2-1/2

200
2

1-1/2
100
90
80
70
FLOW 1-1/4
60
SCFM
50

40

1
30

20

3/4

1/2

10
9
8
7
3/8
6

3
1/4
PRESSURE DROP
1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 15% OF P1 (GAGE)
2 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, 2-1/2, 3, - P = 7.5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 100 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA
1/8

1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG


Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart D
1000
900
800
700
600 NOMINAL
PIPE SIZE
500 IN INCHES

400
2

300

1-1/2
200

1-1/4

100
90
80
70
FLOW 1
60
SCFM
50

40
3/4

30

1/2
20

3/8

10
9
8
7

6
1/4
5

3
1/8
PRESSURE DROP
1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 5% OF P1 (GAGE)
2
3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, - P = 2.5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 10 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA

1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG


Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart E
1000
900
NOMINAL
800 PIPE SIZE
700 IN INCHES
600
2
500

400

300 1-1/2

200 1-1/4

100
90 1
80
FLOW 70

SCFM 60

50 3/4

40

1/2
30

20

3/8

10
9
8 1/4
7
6

4
1/8
3

PRESSURE DROP
1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 10% OF P1 (GAGE)
2 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, - P = 5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 10 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F.
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA

1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG


Pipe Air Flow TEC-15

Flow of Air Through a Pipe


Chart F
1000
900 NOMINAL
800 PIPE SIZE
IN INCHES
700
2
600

500

400

1-1/2
300

1-1/4
200

1
100
90
80
70
FLOW 60
SCFM 3/4
50

40
1/2

30

3/8
20

10
9 1/4
8
7

4
1/8

PRESSURE DROP
1/8, 1/4, 3/8, 1/2, - P = 15% OF P1 (GAGE)
2 3/4, 1, 1-1/4, 1-1/2, 2, - P = 7.5% OF P1 (GAGE)
PIPE LENGTH = 10 FEET
PIPE ROUGHNESS = 0.0018 INCH
TEMPERATURE = 68°F
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE = 14.7 PSIA

1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 150 200 250

PRIMARY PRESSURE - PSIG