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ADVANCED DESIGN OF GLASS

STRUCTURES
Lecture L13
Design of compressed members
Viorel Ungureanu / Martina Eliášová

European Erasmus Mundus Master Course


Sustainable Constructions
under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events
520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC
Objectives of the lecture
Objectives

Introduction
• Introduction
Simple
compression
• Simple compression
Fundamental
stability
phenomenas • Fundamental stability phenomenas
Influencing
parameters • Influencing parameters
Column buckling

Design methods
• Column buckling
• Design methods

2
Compressed members
Objectives
Glass pavilion for art exhibition, Arnhem, Netherlands, 1986
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

Columns: height 3650 mm


depth 580 mm
thickness 15 mm (toughened glass)
Glass columns bolted to the concrete foundation
Steel truss – span 6,2 m; depth 600 mm
3
Compressed members
Objectives

Introduction
Glass pavilion for art exhibition, Netherlands, 1986
Simple 6000 6000 6000 6000
compression

Fundamental
ventilation
ventilation
stability ventilation
phenomenas
slope

3650
Influencing
parameters

Column buckling Longitudinal section


Design methods Cross section 10
6020
glass panel

15
silicone
joint
steel truss glass column
3650

1-1
Section1-1
2x steel angle

Concrete foundation block


4
Compressed members
Objectives

Introduction
Glass conservatory, Leiden Netherlands 2001 - 2002
Simple roof insulated
compression glass beam
glass panel
Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

4,15m
Column buckling brick wall
Design methods

3,37m
glass column

single glass panel

• area of conservatory 4,85 x 4,00 m


• height varies between 4,15 and 3,37 m
• basic structure = portal formed by glass post with a length of 3370mm and a
glass beam of 4000mm – stiff corner where beam meets post
• UV-active glue was applied on site
5
Compressed members
Objectives
Glass conservatory, Leiden Netherlands 2001 - 2002
Introduction
insulated glass: 10 – 12 – 2x 5,5 PVB • beam, post: three layers of float
Simple 8 glass with resin interlayer – 3x
compression
33 10mm
Fundamental 6
stability • roof: insulated glass – 10-12-2x
2x PE backfill structural silicone joint
phenomenas 5,5 with PVB
7,5 x 6 mm resin layered
Influencing • facade: single toughened glass –
parameters 12mm
Column buckling glass beam: 3 x 10 mm
Design methods float glass, resin layered

34

• cross section over glass roof


beam
• glued connection of insulated
panel to glass beam
6
Compressed members
Objectives
Town hall of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, 1994
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

• Height of column is 3,20m (10 + 15 + 10 mm – float glass)


• Maximum loading according to the calculation 69 kN
• One-to-one tests – maximum force at failure 430 kN
• In the case of collapse of one or even all glass columns, a
structural steel system in the roof would hold the construction,
partly by means of a tension ring around the patio
7
Compressed members
Objectives
Restaurant Amstelveen, Netherlands, 1994 - 1996
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

• Span of the truss 5,20m


• Top member 120 x 80 x 5 mm
• Compressive glass bar d = 30 mm
• Tensile steel bars d = 10 mm
Two problems:
• Broken glass member
• Connection between glass bar and steel cable
8
Compressed members
Objectives
Compression members in a truss
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas
double glass

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods
glass rod

cable, rod

cross-section
9
Simple compression
Objectives

Introduction
Glass in contact to different materials
Simple Size of glass pane:
compression F F
Lpu 120 x 120 mm
Fundamental 150 x 150 mm

tpu
stability 180 x 180 mm
phenomenas

Influencing
Thickness of glass pane:
parameters inserts 10, 12, 15 mm
tg
Lg

Column buckling Edge finishing:


Design methods
fine ground edge
polished edge

tpb
Material of inserts:
steel
Lc Lpb aluminium
polyamide
epoxy resin

Geometry of the test set-up for the glass in Length of inserts:


contact under pressure 60, 90, 180 mm

10
Simple compression The experiments served for
determination of resistance for
glass in contact with different
Objectives material. Glass panel were placed
between two inserts and loaded by
Introduction a force to the collapse. Two test
machines with load capacity 400
Simple and 1000 kN were used. We
compression carried out 4 set of test with Al, Pa,
Fe, and Ep inserts. Size and
Fundamental thickness of glass panels, edge
stability finishing, length and material of
phenomenas inserts were changed.
Transparent box allowed to
Influencing determinate first crack appearance
parameters as well as the shape of the failure.
Column buckling

Design methods

• test set-up
• transparent box for
protection

11
Simple compression
Objectives

Introduction Material properties of inserts


Simple
compression
Material of Young’s Modulus Poisson’s ratio Tensile
Fundamental inserts [MPa] strength [MPa]
stability
phenomenas
Aluminium 69 000 0,34 265
Influencing
parameters Polyamide 3 500 0,39 76
Column buckling
Epoxy resin 5 700 - 52
Design methods
Steel 210 000 0,32 400

Standard coupon tests


EN 1288-3: Glass in building – Determination of the bending
strength of glass.
EN 10002-1: Metals : Tensile test.
EN ISO 527: Plastics - Determination of tensile properties.

12
Strength of glass in contact
Objectives
Measurements of test specimen and of inserts
Introduction

Simple Glass pane: size, thickness


compression 45°
Fundamental Inserts: length, thickness
stability before and after testing
phenomenas

Influencing a = 1,5 mm
parameters

Column buckling before testing


Design methods

after testing
10 mm

Plastic deformation of insert

13
Strength of glass in contact
Objectives
Initial failure modes
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

14
Strength of glass in contact
Objectives
Failure modes at collapse
Introduction

Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

15
Strength of glass in contact
Objectives

Introduction Different material of inserts


Simple
compression
700

Fexp [kN]
Fundamental
stability 600
phenomenas 500 Steel
Influencing 400 Aluminium
parameters
300 Polyamide
Column buckling Epoxy resin
200
Design methods
100
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of the test

• identical size, thickness and edge finishing of glass panels


• identical length of inserts

16
Strength of glass in contact
Objectives
Reduction of the resistance
Introduction Aluminium
Simple Polyamide

Fexp / Ftheor
0,8
compression Steel
Fundamental 0,6 Epoxy resin
stability
phenomenas
0,4
Influencing
parameters
0,2
Column buckling

Design methods 0
0 1 2 3 4 5
Material of insert
Fred = βj fc,u Ai
βj material coefficient,
Ai contact area of the glass,
fc,u strength of glass in compression (500 MPa)

Material Aluminium Steel Polyamide Epoxy resin

Coefficient βj 0,50 0,55 0,25 0,25


17
Fundamental stability phenomenas
Objectives
Stability of the perfect compressed member
Introduction
N > Ncr
Simple • critical (Euler's) load 1744 (instable)
compression
N = Ncr N = Ncr
Fundamental π 2E I
stability Ncr = (indifferent)
phenomenas L2 impulse impulse
-δ δ
Influencing • critical stress N
parameters
Ncr
Column buckling σ cr = Ncr A
Design methods
N < Ncr
(stable)

• geometrical slenderness is defined as

λ = π E σ cr
δ

λ = π E L2 A π 2 E I = L2 i 2 = L i → λ

18
Fundamental stability phenomenas
Objectives

Introduction
Critical load of compressed columns
Simple Basic stability conditions
compression
• pin-ended column with end point loads
Fundamental
stability • cantilever with concentrated end axial point load
phenomenas • cantilever with uniformly distributed axial load
Influencing
parameters N N
Column buckling

Design methods p

p
L
p

Ncr/N = π2EI/(NL2) π2EI/(4NL2) 7,84EI/(pL3)

19
Fundamental stability phenomenas
Objectives

Introduction
Ideal versus real column
Simple
compression

Fundamental Linear buckling Nonlinear buckling


stability
phenomenas
N N
Influencing
parameters
Ideal beam failure
Column buckling buckling by bifurcation σcr
L0 L0
Design methods
w σcr
w0 Real beam
buckling by divergence
x x
y w y w0 w
z z
initial imperfection

20
Fundamental stability phenomenas
Objectives
Column buckling - tests
Introduction

Simple
compression
failure
Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

experiment
analytical model

Buckling tests at EPFL Lausanne 2003

21
Influencing parameters
Objectives

Introduction • Geometry
Simple Thickness
compression
Length of compressed member
Fundamental
stability
phenomenas
• Material parameters
Influencing
parameters
Elastic modulus glass
Column buckling
Interlayer stiffness in laminated glass
Design methods
• Residual stresses
• Initial curvature
• Eccentricities
• Boundary conditions

Deviation from nominal values → IMPERFECTIONS

22
Influencing parameters
Objectives
Initial curvature
Introduction
Product standards define tolerances on (local and global) bow…
Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods
… depending on glass type → annealed glass is assumed FLAT!

23
Influencing parameters
Objectives
Initial curvature (measured values)
Introduction
Characteristic value of initial geometrical imperfection = u0/L = 0.0025 mm/mm
Simple
compression Global bow = u0 = L/400
Fundamental Good shape approximation = half SINUS wave (alternative: parabola)
stability
phenomenas = first eigenmode! => GLOBAL bow is relevant for stability!
Influencing
parameters
8
Column buckling

u0(z) [mm]
7
Design methods
6

0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
z [mm]

24
Influencing parameters
Objectives
Eccentricities
Introduction
Load application with eccentricities,
Simple
compression depending on :
Fundamental • Deflection of the glazing and
stability therefore rotation of the edge
phenomenas
• Oblique (no 90°) edge
Influencing
parameters • Lamination process
Column buckling
• Pane offset
Design methods

25
Influencing parameters - summary
Objectives
Influences on the behaviour of compression glass
Introduction

Simple • production tolerances – glass thickness


compression

Fundamental • initial deformation (float x tempered glass)


stability
phenomenas
• visco-elastic PVB interlayer used for laminated safety glass
Influencing
parameters
shear modulus GPVB = 0,01 – 10 MPa
Column buckling

Design methods
• ultimate breaking stress in glass, depends on:

embedded compressive surface stress due to tempering process

degree of damage of the glass surface

load duration

26
Influencing parameters - summary
Objectives

Introduction

Simple
•The glass thickness and the initial deformation of glass panels were
compression measured for more than 200 test specimen from two different glass
Fundamental manufacturers. The thickness of annealed flat glass panels differs
stability from the nominal value because glass manufacturers try to save
phenomenas
material. The real glass thickness is often less than the nominal
Influencing value, therefore reducing the moment of inertia of the cross section
parameters
and, thus the buckling strength. The measurements confirmed that
Column buckling
the values follow a normal distribution.
Design methods
•The initial geometric deformation w0 of flat glass is mainly caused by
the tempering process. The results confirmed that non-tempered
annealed flat glass has a very low initial deformation (< 1/2500) while
heat-strengthened and fully toughened glass can have a sinusoidal
initial deformation up to 1/300 of the length L. However maximum
initial deformations depend strongly on the quality of the furnace and
can therefore vary between different glass manufacturers.

27
Column buckling
Objectives
1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model
Introduction

Simple load carrying behaviour of single layered glass can be describe using
compression
second order differential equation
Fundamental
 πx 
EI w ( x ) + N w 0 sin + e + w ( x ) = 0
stability
phenomenas ''
Influencing  L 
parameters
N
Column buckling N axial compression
L length of bar
Design methods
e N w0 initial sinusoidal deformation
e eccentricity
perfect bar
Ncr,K Critical buckling load Ncr
LK w0 w
π 2 EI
imperfect bar with initial Ncr =
deformation w0 L2
Geometrical slenderness
w0 w
EA E
N λK = π =π
Ncr ,K σ cr
28
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model
Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

29
Column buckling
Objectives
1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model
Introduction

Simple
Solution of second order differential equation
compression

Fundamental Maximum deformation is given by:


stability
e w0
w = +
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters
cos (LK / 2 N Ncr ,K ) 1 − N Ncr ,K
Column buckling

Design methods
Maximum surface stress can be determined as:

σ=
N M N N
± = ± (w max + w 0 + e )
A W A W

N N e w0 
σ = ±  +
A W  cos (LK / 2 N EI ) 1 − N Ncr ,K 

A area
W section modulus
I moment of inertia
E Young modulus 30
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
2) Monolithic glass – non linear FEM analysis
N1 N2 N3
Simple 1. Modelling
compression

Fundamental
stability 2. Eigenvalue/-form analysis
phenomenas
smallest eigenvalue corresponds to critical
Influencing buckling load Ncr,K
parameters EF1 EF2 EF3

Column buckling +
3. Application of imperfections
Design methods the imperfection w0 is applied as a scaled
shape of the first eigenform 1 w0

4. Non linear analysis of the imperfect


system N
N

Ncr,K

5. Evaluation of stress and deflection w0

w0 w

31
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
3) Laminated glass – analytical models
Simple
compression
Critical Non-linear
Design
Fundamental Approach buckling Stress interlayer
stability concept
load behaviour
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters
Luible (2004) X X (with teff)

Column buckling
Kutterer (2005) X X X
Design methods

Blaauwendraad (2007) X X X

Amadio (2011) X X X

example: Kutterer 2005


32
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
3) Laminated glass – analytical models
Simple
glass
compression t1
Fundamental PVB glass t1 tPVB z1
stability z1
phenomenas
glass
tPVB PVB t2
Influencing
z2
gravity t2 tPVB z1
parameters glass
axis
Column buckling t1
glass
Design methods

Elastic theory for sandwich structures


critical buckling load of a two layer elastic sandwich with a width b and
the geometrical slenderness are given as

π 2 (1 + α + π 2αβ ) EI s λk ,sandwich =
L
N cr ,K = I s 1 + α + π 2αβ
1+ π 2β LK
2

A 1+ π 2β
33
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
3) Laminated glass – analytical models
Simple Coefficients for laminated glass
compression
Double layered glass Triple layered glass
Fundamental
stability
I1 + I2 2I1 + I 2
phenomenas
α= α=
Influencing Is Is
parameters
t PVB EIs t PVB EI s
Column buckling β = β =
Design methods GPVB b(z1 + z2 )2
L2k GPVB bz1 2 L2k

bt i3 bt i3
Ii = Ii =
12 12

(
EIs = Eb t1z12 + t 2 z22 ) EI s = 2 Ebt1 z1
2

A = b(2 t1 + t 2 + t PVB ) A = b(t1 + t 2 + t PVB )

example: Luible 2004


34
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
3) Laminated glass – analytical models
Simple Effective thickness according to the prEN 13 474-1
compression
• effective thickness of double layered glass pane for calculation of deflection
Fundamental

( )
stability 1 shear transfer coefficient for the
hef ,w = h + h + 12Γ Is
phenomenas 3 3 3
1 2 interlayer of laminated glass
Influencing
parameters

Column buckling • effective thickness of double layered glass pane for calculation of stress
Design methods
hef3 ,w hef3 ,w
h1,ef ,σ = h2 ,ef ,σ =
h1 + 2Γ hs ,2 h2 + 2Γ hs ,1
effective thickness for the first ply and second ply

thickness of the interlayer


hs h1
hs = 0,5(h1 + h2 ) + hv hs ,1 =
h1 + h2

Is = h1 hs2,2 + h2 hs2,1 hs ,2 =
hs h2
h1 + h2
35
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
3) Laminated glass – analytical models
Simple Effective thickness according to the prEN 13 474-2
compression

Fundamental Type of glass Shear transfer coefficient Γ


stability
phenomenas Short duration actions, e.g. wind Other actions
Influencing
parameters
Laminated glass 0 0
Column buckling Laminated safety glass 1 0

for wind Γ = 1,0


Design methods

hef ,σ = hef ,w = ∑ hi
i

• other actions Γ = 0,0


∑i
h 3

hef ,w = 3 ∑i
i
h 3
hef ,σ , j = i

hj
36
Column buckling
Objectives
prEN 13474: Glass in building — Determination of the strength
Introduction
of glass panes by calculation and testing
Simple
compression Effective thickness
Fundamental • shear transfer coefficient Γ depends on the interlayer stiffness family
stability
phenomenas
Load case family 0 family 1 family 2 family 3
Influencing
parameters Wind load (Mediterranean areas) 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,6
Column buckling Wind load (other areas) 0,0 0,1 0,3 0,7
Design methods Personal load - normal duty 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,5
Personal load - crowds 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,3
Snow load - external canopies 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,3
Snow load - roof 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,1
Permanent load 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0

• Snow load – external canopies 3 weeks -20°C < T < 0°C


• Snow load – roof of heated buildings 5 days -20°C < T < 20°C

37
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
4) Laminated glass – non linear FEM analysis
a) without restriction of displacement
Simple
compression

Fundamental
stability
phenomenas bonding
Influencing
parameters

Column buckling
b) with partial restriction of
Design methods displacement

undeformed deformed

Analysis is similar to monolithic glass.


38
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
5) Load carrying behaviour
Simple • Strength of compressed structural glass members generally
compression limited by tensile strength of the material
Fundamental
stability • Influence of residual stress due to tempering and inherent strength
phenomenas

Influencing
parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

39
Column buckling
Objectives

Introduction
5) Design
Simple • Buckling curves
compression
Slenderness ratio λ
Fundamental
stability Reduction factor χ
phenomenas
Buckling strength
Influencing
parameters

Column buckling
• Buckling strength analysis
Design methods
Appropriate analytical or numerical
model (including all imperfections)
Buckling strength check

• To be established

Safety concept

(example buckling curves: Langosch, 2010)

40
Design methods
Objectives

Introduction • initial fracture occurred always


on the tensile surface
Simple
compression • weakest point is the point of the
highest tensile stress
Fundamental
stability • load carrying behaviour is
phenomenas
independent of the embedded
Influencing compressive surface stresses,
parameters
• toughened glass showed higher
Column buckling deformations and stresses at
Design methods breakage

• influences:
glass thickness
initial deformation w0
load eccentricity e
tensile strength of glass σp,t
shear modulus of PVB foil GPVB

The buckling strength of glass is limited by the maximum tensile


strength of glass σp,t
41
Design methods
Objectives

Introduction
Column buckling curves
Simple STEEL – to simplify the design of compressive members
compression buckling curves were developed, curves are based on slenderness ration λk
Fundamental design of members with different steel grade
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
GLASS – same approach = buckling curves
parameters
1) slenderness ratio for glass must be based on the maximum tensile strength
Column buckling σp,t, compressive strength is not limiting its buckling strength
Design methods
λK λK
λK = =
λ E π E σ p ,t

IMPRACTICAL = large variations for different tensile strength of


glass

42
Design methods
Objectives
2) Buckling curves can be determined using geometric slenderness
Introduction

Simple EA E
compression λK = π =π
Fundamental Ncr ,K σ cr
stability
phenomenas

Influencing
• family of curves for different tensile strength
parameters

Column buckling
CHECK OF THE COMPRESSIVE ELEMENT
Design methods

σK A
Ned ≤ NK ,Rd =
γK
where σk is maximum compressive strength of glass element from
diagram

• additional lateral loads and end moments can be taken into account by
means of interaction formulas similar to the design of compressive steel
members

43
Design methods
Objectives
Example of the buckling curves which are based on the
Introduction
geometrical slenderness
Simple

σK [MPa]
compression 50
w0 = LK/300
Fundamental
stability Euler
phenomenas
40 20 MPa
Influencing
parameters 40 MPa σp,t
Column buckling 80 MPa
30
Design methods test results for heat-strengthened
glass
20

10

0
50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400
λK
44
Design methods
Objectives

Introduction
Elastic second order equation
Simple
compression
• direct calculation of the maximum tensile stress by means elastic second
order equation
Fundamental
stability
N N e w0 
σ= ±  +
( ) 
phenomenas

Influencing A W  cos L K / 2 N EI 1 − N N cr ,K 
parameters

Column buckling
• in contrast to steel construction this is relatively simple to carry out
Design methods because of the ideal elastic behaviour of glass

• take into account glass thickness and initial deformation

Check of the compressed members


σ p ,t
σ Ed ≤ σ Rd =
γK
The calculated maximum tensile stress has to be smaller than tensile surface
strength of the glass.
45
Design methods
Objectives

Introduction
Laminated safety glass
Simple
compression • effect of the interlayer on the load carrying capacity due to the
different temperature and loading speed
Fundamental
stability
phenomenas • low temperature and very short loading – almost monolithic section
Influencing
parameters • long-term loading and temperature higher than 25°C – composite
effect is marginal
Column buckling

Design methods • simplification: same methods for single glass can be applied to
laminated glass elements – sandwich cross-section can be replaced
by an effective monolithic cross-section with the effective thickness

46
Design of compressed members
Objectives

Introduction
Critical structural issues
Simple • how the structure will behave
compression
• how the structure will behave after one or more glass elements have
Fundamental failed
stability
phenomenas • safety implications of failure of a glass piece, people can be injured by
falling glass
Influencing
parameters

Column buckling
Two ways for column glass
Design methods 1) use glass only for uppermost part
of column (protection from likely
impact + elements supported by
the glass fall only a short distance) X
2) Use of additional glass layers to
protect an inner = load bearing

load path in a roof after a


column failure

47
References
Educational pack of COSTActin TU0905 „Structural Glass - Novel design methods and next generation
products“
HALDIMANN, Matthias; LUIBLE, Andreas; OVEREND, Mauro.
Structural Use of Glass. Structural Engineering Documents 10 , IABSE, Zürich:2008. ISBN 978-3-85748-
119-2
THE INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS
Structural use of glass in buildings, London: The institution of Structural Engineers, 1999.
LUIBLE, A.
Stabilität von Tragelementen aus Glas. Dissertation EPFL thèse 3014. Lausanne: 2004.
.

48
This lecture was prepared for the 1st Edition of SUSCOS
(2012/14) by Prof. Martina Eliasova (CTU).

Adaptations brought by Prof. Viorel Ungureanu (UPT) for


2nd Edition of SUSCOS

49
Thank you
for your attention

viorel.ungureanu@upt.ro

http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos