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STRUCTURES

Lecture L13

Design of compressed members

Viorel Ungureanu / Martina Eliášová

Sustainable Constructions

under Natural Hazards and Catastrophic Events

520121-1-2011-1-CZ-ERA MUNDUS-EMMC

Objectives of the lecture

Objectives

Introduction

• Introduction

Simple

compression

• Simple compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas • Fundamental stability phenomenas

Influencing

parameters • Influencing parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

• Column buckling

• Design methods

2

Compressed members

Objectives

Glass pavilion for art exhibition, Arnhem, Netherlands, 1986

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

depth 580 mm

thickness 15 mm (toughened glass)

Glass columns bolted to the concrete foundation

Steel truss – span 6,2 m; depth 600 mm

3

Compressed members

Objectives

Introduction

Glass pavilion for art exhibition, Netherlands, 1986

Simple 6000 6000 6000 6000

compression

Fundamental

ventilation

ventilation

stability ventilation

phenomenas

slope

3650

Influencing

parameters

Design methods Cross section 10

6020

glass panel

15

silicone

joint

steel truss glass column

3650

1-1

Section1-1

2x steel angle

4

Compressed members

Objectives

Introduction

Glass conservatory, Leiden Netherlands 2001 - 2002

Simple roof insulated

compression glass beam

glass panel

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

4,15m

Column buckling brick wall

Design methods

3,37m

glass column

• height varies between 4,15 and 3,37 m

• basic structure = portal formed by glass post with a length of 3370mm and a

glass beam of 4000mm – stiff corner where beam meets post

• UV-active glue was applied on site

5

Compressed members

Objectives

Glass conservatory, Leiden Netherlands 2001 - 2002

Introduction

insulated glass: 10 – 12 – 2x 5,5 PVB • beam, post: three layers of float

Simple 8 glass with resin interlayer – 3x

compression

33 10mm

Fundamental 6

stability • roof: insulated glass – 10-12-2x

2x PE backfill structural silicone joint

phenomenas 5,5 with PVB

7,5 x 6 mm resin layered

Influencing • facade: single toughened glass –

parameters 12mm

Column buckling glass beam: 3 x 10 mm

Design methods float glass, resin layered

34

beam

• glued connection of insulated

panel to glass beam

6

Compressed members

Objectives

Town hall of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, 1994

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

• Maximum loading according to the calculation 69 kN

• One-to-one tests – maximum force at failure 430 kN

• In the case of collapse of one or even all glass columns, a

structural steel system in the roof would hold the construction,

partly by means of a tension ring around the patio

7

Compressed members

Objectives

Restaurant Amstelveen, Netherlands, 1994 - 1996

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

• Top member 120 x 80 x 5 mm

• Compressive glass bar d = 30 mm

• Tensile steel bars d = 10 mm

Two problems:

• Broken glass member

• Connection between glass bar and steel cable

8

Compressed members

Objectives

Compression members in a truss

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

double glass

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

glass rod

cable, rod

cross-section

9

Simple compression

Objectives

Introduction

Glass in contact to different materials

Simple Size of glass pane:

compression F F

Lpu 120 x 120 mm

Fundamental 150 x 150 mm

tpu

stability 180 x 180 mm

phenomenas

Influencing

Thickness of glass pane:

parameters inserts 10, 12, 15 mm

tg

Lg

Design methods

fine ground edge

polished edge

tpb

Material of inserts:

steel

Lc Lpb aluminium

polyamide

epoxy resin

contact under pressure 60, 90, 180 mm

10

Simple compression The experiments served for

determination of resistance for

glass in contact with different

Objectives material. Glass panel were placed

between two inserts and loaded by

Introduction a force to the collapse. Two test

machines with load capacity 400

Simple and 1000 kN were used. We

compression carried out 4 set of test with Al, Pa,

Fe, and Ep inserts. Size and

Fundamental thickness of glass panels, edge

stability finishing, length and material of

phenomenas inserts were changed.

Transparent box allowed to

Influencing determinate first crack appearance

parameters as well as the shape of the failure.

Column buckling

Design methods

• test set-up

• transparent box for

protection

11

Simple compression

Objectives

Simple

compression

Material of Young’s Modulus Poisson’s ratio Tensile

Fundamental inserts [MPa] strength [MPa]

stability

phenomenas

Aluminium 69 000 0,34 265

Influencing

parameters Polyamide 3 500 0,39 76

Column buckling

Epoxy resin 5 700 - 52

Design methods

Steel 210 000 0,32 400

EN 1288-3: Glass in building – Determination of the bending

strength of glass.

EN 10002-1: Metals : Tensile test.

EN ISO 527: Plastics - Determination of tensile properties.

12

Strength of glass in contact

Objectives

Measurements of test specimen and of inserts

Introduction

compression 45°

Fundamental Inserts: length, thickness

stability before and after testing

phenomenas

Influencing a = 1,5 mm

parameters

Design methods

after testing

10 mm

13

Strength of glass in contact

Objectives

Initial failure modes

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

14

Strength of glass in contact

Objectives

Failure modes at collapse

Introduction

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

15

Strength of glass in contact

Objectives

Simple

compression

700

Fexp [kN]

Fundamental

stability 600

phenomenas 500 Steel

Influencing 400 Aluminium

parameters

300 Polyamide

Column buckling Epoxy resin

200

Design methods

100

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Number of the test

• identical length of inserts

16

Strength of glass in contact

Objectives

Reduction of the resistance

Introduction Aluminium

Simple Polyamide

Fexp / Ftheor

0,8

compression Steel

Fundamental 0,6 Epoxy resin

stability

phenomenas

0,4

Influencing

parameters

0,2

Column buckling

Design methods 0

0 1 2 3 4 5

Material of insert

Fred = βj fc,u Ai

βj material coefficient,

Ai contact area of the glass,

fc,u strength of glass in compression (500 MPa)

17

Fundamental stability phenomenas

Objectives

Stability of the perfect compressed member

Introduction

N > Ncr

Simple • critical (Euler's) load 1744 (instable)

compression

N = Ncr N = Ncr

Fundamental π 2E I

stability Ncr = (indifferent)

phenomenas L2 impulse impulse

-δ δ

Influencing • critical stress N

parameters

Ncr

Column buckling σ cr = Ncr A

Design methods

N < Ncr

(stable)

λ = π E σ cr

δ

λ = π E L2 A π 2 E I = L2 i 2 = L i → λ

18

Fundamental stability phenomenas

Objectives

Introduction

Critical load of compressed columns

Simple Basic stability conditions

compression

• pin-ended column with end point loads

Fundamental

stability • cantilever with concentrated end axial point load

phenomenas • cantilever with uniformly distributed axial load

Influencing

parameters N N

Column buckling

Design methods p

p

L

p

19

Fundamental stability phenomenas

Objectives

Introduction

Ideal versus real column

Simple

compression

stability

phenomenas

N N

Influencing

parameters

Ideal beam failure

Column buckling buckling by bifurcation σcr

L0 L0

Design methods

w σcr

w0 Real beam

buckling by divergence

x x

y w y w0 w

z z

initial imperfection

20

Fundamental stability phenomenas

Objectives

Column buckling - tests

Introduction

Simple

compression

failure

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

experiment

analytical model

21

Influencing parameters

Objectives

Introduction • Geometry

Simple Thickness

compression

Length of compressed member

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

• Material parameters

Influencing

parameters

Elastic modulus glass

Column buckling

Interlayer stiffness in laminated glass

Design methods

• Residual stresses

• Initial curvature

• Eccentricities

• Boundary conditions

22

Influencing parameters

Objectives

Initial curvature

Introduction

Product standards define tolerances on (local and global) bow…

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

… depending on glass type → annealed glass is assumed FLAT!

23

Influencing parameters

Objectives

Initial curvature (measured values)

Introduction

Characteristic value of initial geometrical imperfection = u0/L = 0.0025 mm/mm

Simple

compression Global bow = u0 = L/400

Fundamental Good shape approximation = half SINUS wave (alternative: parabola)

stability

phenomenas = first eigenmode! => GLOBAL bow is relevant for stability!

Influencing

parameters

8

Column buckling

u0(z) [mm]

7

Design methods

6

0

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000

z [mm]

24

Influencing parameters

Objectives

Eccentricities

Introduction

Load application with eccentricities,

Simple

compression depending on :

Fundamental • Deflection of the glazing and

stability therefore rotation of the edge

phenomenas

• Oblique (no 90°) edge

Influencing

parameters • Lamination process

Column buckling

• Pane offset

Design methods

25

Influencing parameters - summary

Objectives

Influences on the behaviour of compression glass

Introduction

compression

stability

phenomenas

• visco-elastic PVB interlayer used for laminated safety glass

Influencing

parameters

shear modulus GPVB = 0,01 – 10 MPa

Column buckling

Design methods

• ultimate breaking stress in glass, depends on:

load duration

26

Influencing parameters - summary

Objectives

Introduction

Simple

•The glass thickness and the initial deformation of glass panels were

compression measured for more than 200 test specimen from two different glass

Fundamental manufacturers. The thickness of annealed flat glass panels differs

stability from the nominal value because glass manufacturers try to save

phenomenas

material. The real glass thickness is often less than the nominal

Influencing value, therefore reducing the moment of inertia of the cross section

parameters

and, thus the buckling strength. The measurements confirmed that

Column buckling

the values follow a normal distribution.

Design methods

•The initial geometric deformation w0 of flat glass is mainly caused by

the tempering process. The results confirmed that non-tempered

annealed flat glass has a very low initial deformation (< 1/2500) while

heat-strengthened and fully toughened glass can have a sinusoidal

initial deformation up to 1/300 of the length L. However maximum

initial deformations depend strongly on the quality of the furnace and

can therefore vary between different glass manufacturers.

27

Column buckling

Objectives

1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model

Introduction

Simple load carrying behaviour of single layered glass can be describe using

compression

second order differential equation

Fundamental

πx

EI w ( x ) + N w 0 sin + e + w ( x ) = 0

stability

phenomenas ''

Influencing L

parameters

N

Column buckling N axial compression

L length of bar

Design methods

e N w0 initial sinusoidal deformation

e eccentricity

perfect bar

Ncr,K Critical buckling load Ncr

LK w0 w

π 2 EI

imperfect bar with initial Ncr =

deformation w0 L2

Geometrical slenderness

w0 w

EA E

N λK = π =π

Ncr ,K σ cr

28

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

29

Column buckling

Objectives

1) Monolithic (single layered) glass – analytical model

Introduction

Simple

Solution of second order differential equation

compression

stability

e w0

w = +

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

cos (LK / 2 N Ncr ,K ) 1 − N Ncr ,K

Column buckling

Design methods

Maximum surface stress can be determined as:

σ=

N M N N

± = ± (w max + w 0 + e )

A W A W

N N e w0

σ = ± +

A W cos (LK / 2 N EI ) 1 − N Ncr ,K

A area

W section modulus

I moment of inertia

E Young modulus 30

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

2) Monolithic glass – non linear FEM analysis

N1 N2 N3

Simple 1. Modelling

compression

Fundamental

stability 2. Eigenvalue/-form analysis

phenomenas

smallest eigenvalue corresponds to critical

Influencing buckling load Ncr,K

parameters EF1 EF2 EF3

Column buckling +

3. Application of imperfections

Design methods the imperfection w0 is applied as a scaled

shape of the first eigenform 1 w0

system N

N

Ncr,K

w0 w

31

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

3) Laminated glass – analytical models

Simple

compression

Critical Non-linear

Design

Fundamental Approach buckling Stress interlayer

stability concept

load behaviour

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Luible (2004) X X (with teff)

Column buckling

Kutterer (2005) X X X

Design methods

Blaauwendraad (2007) X X X

Amadio (2011) X X X

32

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

3) Laminated glass – analytical models

Simple

glass

compression t1

Fundamental PVB glass t1 tPVB z1

stability z1

phenomenas

glass

tPVB PVB t2

Influencing

z2

gravity t2 tPVB z1

parameters glass

axis

Column buckling t1

glass

Design methods

critical buckling load of a two layer elastic sandwich with a width b and

the geometrical slenderness are given as

π 2 (1 + α + π 2αβ ) EI s λk ,sandwich =

L

N cr ,K = I s 1 + α + π 2αβ

1+ π 2β LK

2

A 1+ π 2β

33

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

3) Laminated glass – analytical models

Simple Coefficients for laminated glass

compression

Double layered glass Triple layered glass

Fundamental

stability

I1 + I2 2I1 + I 2

phenomenas

α= α=

Influencing Is Is

parameters

t PVB EIs t PVB EI s

Column buckling β = β =

Design methods GPVB b(z1 + z2 )2

L2k GPVB bz1 2 L2k

bt i3 bt i3

Ii = Ii =

12 12

(

EIs = Eb t1z12 + t 2 z22 ) EI s = 2 Ebt1 z1

2

34

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

3) Laminated glass – analytical models

Simple Effective thickness according to the prEN 13 474-1

compression

• effective thickness of double layered glass pane for calculation of deflection

Fundamental

( )

stability 1 shear transfer coefficient for the

hef ,w = h + h + 12Γ Is

phenomenas 3 3 3

1 2 interlayer of laminated glass

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling • effective thickness of double layered glass pane for calculation of stress

Design methods

hef3 ,w hef3 ,w

h1,ef ,σ = h2 ,ef ,σ =

h1 + 2Γ hs ,2 h2 + 2Γ hs ,1

effective thickness for the first ply and second ply

hs h1

hs = 0,5(h1 + h2 ) + hv hs ,1 =

h1 + h2

Is = h1 hs2,2 + h2 hs2,1 hs ,2 =

hs h2

h1 + h2

35

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

3) Laminated glass – analytical models

Simple Effective thickness according to the prEN 13 474-2

compression

stability

phenomenas Short duration actions, e.g. wind Other actions

Influencing

parameters

Laminated glass 0 0

Column buckling Laminated safety glass 1 0

Design methods

•

hef ,σ = hef ,w = ∑ hi

i

∑i

h 3

hef ,w = 3 ∑i

i

h 3

hef ,σ , j = i

hj

36

Column buckling

Objectives

prEN 13474: Glass in building — Determination of the strength

Introduction

of glass panes by calculation and testing

Simple

compression Effective thickness

Fundamental • shear transfer coefficient Γ depends on the interlayer stiffness family

stability

phenomenas

Load case family 0 family 1 family 2 family 3

Influencing

parameters Wind load (Mediterranean areas) 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,6

Column buckling Wind load (other areas) 0,0 0,1 0,3 0,7

Design methods Personal load - normal duty 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,5

Personal load - crowds 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,3

Snow load - external canopies 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,3

Snow load - roof 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,1

Permanent load 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0

• Snow load – roof of heated buildings 5 days -20°C < T < 20°C

37

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

4) Laminated glass – non linear FEM analysis

a) without restriction of displacement

Simple

compression

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas bonding

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

b) with partial restriction of

Design methods displacement

undeformed deformed

38

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

5) Load carrying behaviour

Simple • Strength of compressed structural glass members generally

compression limited by tensile strength of the material

Fundamental

stability • Influence of residual stress due to tempering and inherent strength

phenomenas

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Design methods

39

Column buckling

Objectives

Introduction

5) Design

Simple • Buckling curves

compression

Slenderness ratio λ

Fundamental

stability Reduction factor χ

phenomenas

Buckling strength

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

• Buckling strength analysis

Design methods

Appropriate analytical or numerical

model (including all imperfections)

Buckling strength check

• To be established

Safety concept

40

Design methods

Objectives

on the tensile surface

Simple

compression • weakest point is the point of the

highest tensile stress

Fundamental

stability • load carrying behaviour is

phenomenas

independent of the embedded

Influencing compressive surface stresses,

parameters

• toughened glass showed higher

Column buckling deformations and stresses at

Design methods breakage

• influences:

glass thickness

initial deformation w0

load eccentricity e

tensile strength of glass σp,t

shear modulus of PVB foil GPVB

strength of glass σp,t

41

Design methods

Objectives

Introduction

Column buckling curves

Simple STEEL – to simplify the design of compressive members

compression buckling curves were developed, curves are based on slenderness ration λk

Fundamental design of members with different steel grade

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

GLASS – same approach = buckling curves

parameters

1) slenderness ratio for glass must be based on the maximum tensile strength

Column buckling σp,t, compressive strength is not limiting its buckling strength

Design methods

λK λK

λK = =

λ E π E σ p ,t

glass

42

Design methods

Objectives

2) Buckling curves can be determined using geometric slenderness

Introduction

Simple EA E

compression λK = π =π

Fundamental Ncr ,K σ cr

stability

phenomenas

Influencing

• family of curves for different tensile strength

parameters

Column buckling

CHECK OF THE COMPRESSIVE ELEMENT

Design methods

σK A

Ned ≤ NK ,Rd =

γK

where σk is maximum compressive strength of glass element from

diagram

• additional lateral loads and end moments can be taken into account by

means of interaction formulas similar to the design of compressive steel

members

43

Design methods

Objectives

Example of the buckling curves which are based on the

Introduction

geometrical slenderness

Simple

σK [MPa]

compression 50

w0 = LK/300

Fundamental

stability Euler

phenomenas

40 20 MPa

Influencing

parameters 40 MPa σp,t

Column buckling 80 MPa

30

Design methods test results for heat-strengthened

glass

20

10

0

50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

λK

44

Design methods

Objectives

Introduction

Elastic second order equation

Simple

compression

• direct calculation of the maximum tensile stress by means elastic second

order equation

Fundamental

stability

N N e w0

σ= ± +

( )

phenomenas

Influencing A W cos L K / 2 N EI 1 − N N cr ,K

parameters

Column buckling

• in contrast to steel construction this is relatively simple to carry out

Design methods because of the ideal elastic behaviour of glass

σ p ,t

σ Ed ≤ σ Rd =

γK

The calculated maximum tensile stress has to be smaller than tensile surface

strength of the glass.

45

Design methods

Objectives

Introduction

Laminated safety glass

Simple

compression • effect of the interlayer on the load carrying capacity due to the

different temperature and loading speed

Fundamental

stability

phenomenas • low temperature and very short loading – almost monolithic section

Influencing

parameters • long-term loading and temperature higher than 25°C – composite

effect is marginal

Column buckling

Design methods • simplification: same methods for single glass can be applied to

laminated glass elements – sandwich cross-section can be replaced

by an effective monolithic cross-section with the effective thickness

46

Design of compressed members

Objectives

Introduction

Critical structural issues

Simple • how the structure will behave

compression

• how the structure will behave after one or more glass elements have

Fundamental failed

stability

phenomenas • safety implications of failure of a glass piece, people can be injured by

falling glass

Influencing

parameters

Column buckling

Two ways for column glass

Design methods 1) use glass only for uppermost part

of column (protection from likely

impact + elements supported by

the glass fall only a short distance) X

2) Use of additional glass layers to

protect an inner = load bearing

column failure

47

References

Educational pack of COSTActin TU0905 „Structural Glass - Novel design methods and next generation

products“

HALDIMANN, Matthias; LUIBLE, Andreas; OVEREND, Mauro.

Structural Use of Glass. Structural Engineering Documents 10 , IABSE, Zürich:2008. ISBN 978-3-85748-

119-2

THE INSTITUTION OF STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS

Structural use of glass in buildings, London: The institution of Structural Engineers, 1999.

LUIBLE, A.

Stabilität von Tragelementen aus Glas. Dissertation EPFL thèse 3014. Lausanne: 2004.

.

48

This lecture was prepared for the 1st Edition of SUSCOS

(2012/14) by Prof. Martina Eliasova (CTU).

2nd Edition of SUSCOS

49

Thank you

for your attention

viorel.ungureanu@upt.ro

http://steel.fsv.cvut.cz/suscos

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