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The flow rate from a Coriolis measurement system can take several forms, depending on

whether the ultimate quantity being measured is mass, volume at base conditions,
energy or volume at flowing conditions. Appropriate conversions, relative to the gas
physical properties and process conditions, must be applied to accurately obtain the
desired quantity. The equation for flow rate at base conditions, including flow pressure
effect compensation factor ( ), is such that,

 Fp   Fp 
Qb  Q mUncompensa ted    Q mUncmpensat ed  
G   Eq. (8.3)
 b   r b ( Air ) 

Where: Qb = Volume flow of gas at base conditions

QmUncompensa ted = Mass flow of gas uncompensated for flow pressure
Fp = Flow pressure effect compensation factor
b = Density of gas at base conditions
Gr = Relative density of gas at base conditions
b ( Air ) = Density of air at base conditions

The relationship for the calculation of energy, including flow pressure effect
compensation factor ( ), is such that,

Qe  QmUncompensated ( Fp H m ) Eq. (8.4)

Where: Qe = Energy rate of gas

QmUncompensa ted = Mass flow of gas uncompensated for flow pressure
Fp = Flow pressure effect compensation factor
Hm = Mass heating value

Users should follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for maintenance. Monitoring
diagnostics, performing the periodic meter verification procedures discussed in Section 9.1 and
possibly the trending/long-term monitoring of performance indicators, can identify if abnormal
conditions develop.

Maintenance procedures, such as cleaning, should be condition-based (based upon meter

diagnostics, process conditions, and/or meter usage). The monitoring of performance indicators
can identify the need for cleaning. For example, by monitoring the measured flowing density and
comparing it with the calculated/real density, it is possible to infer coating on the flow tubes.
Performance indicators available to the user are design specific and the meter manufacturer
should be consulted on performance indicators available and their interpretation.

The decision to perform periodic flow test is left to the user or defined by contract. Periodic flow
test can be calendar-based or, as a minimum, condition-based. A number of companies have

flow-tested Coriolis meters that have been in service for significant (in excess of 15 years)
periods of time. These test results have shown that meters, free from flow tube corrosion, erosion
or mechanical damage, perform as originally flow-calibrated, within the uncertainty of the flow lab.
This testing has also shown that coating of the flow tubes by debris or product residue may
change flow tube balance and cause a subsequent zero shift, but if the coating is stable, left as-is
and the meter is re-zeroed, the meter performs as originally calibrated. See Section 9.2, “Flow
Performance Testing” for further discussion.

9   Meter Verification and Flow Performance Testing 
The meter manufacturer should provide the meter operator with written field meter verification test
procedures that will allow the Coriolis meter, as a component of the measuring system, to be verified
as operating properly and performing within the measurement uncertainty limits required by the
designer/operator. Further discussion of these checks can also be found in Appendix C, Section 3.4.1.

The field verification of a Coriolis metering system consists of monitoring and evaluating metering
conditions, diagnostic indicators output by the transmitter and/or ancillary devices of the metering
system designed to identify possible change in the system’s performance and the cause. The
evaluation of these indicators will guide the operator in determining the need to re-zero the
Coriolis meter, execute a flow performance test (in-situ or laboratory), adjust maintenance
intervals and implement design improvements, if necessary, to the metering system.

The operator should follow design-specific meter verification procedures recommended by the
manufacturer and as a minimum the following general meter verification procedures should be

 Meter Transmitter Verification – The meter transmitter verification should coincide with
the meter zero check. It should include the following procedures:

o Verify the sensor calibration and correction factors in the configuration of

the transmitter to be unchanged from most recent calibration.

o Verify all transmitter diagnostic indicators to be in the normal state.

 Coriolis Sensor Verification – Sensor diagnostics may be available that continuously,

on-command or procedurally verify the performance of the sensor and/or infer change in
measurement performance. Users should consult the meter manufacturer for the
availability of these types of diagnostics.

 Temperature Verification – The Coriolis transmitter monitors a temperature element

bonded to the flow tubes of the Coriolis sensor to correct for Young’s modulus of the flow
tubes. Although transmitter diagnostics on this element exist, they typically identify only
catastrophic failures; e.g., element open, element short, and an opening in the
compensation loop.
Use a temperature reference placed in an upstream thermowell or temporarily placed
tightly against the upstream flow splitter/inlet and insulated, to verify the temperature
indicated by the Coriolis meter to be within the published uncertainty of the Coriolis
meter’s temperature measurement plus the accuracy of the temperature reference.

 Meter Zero Verification – A change in the meter zero value can be used as an indicator
of change in the metering conditions. This can be caused by contamination and coating of