You are on page 1of 25

1 of 25

Steady States

By

Ian Beardsley

Copyright © 2018 By Ian Beardsley



2 of 25

The Energy Chain

We call it in biology, the food chain: predators get their energy from proteins by eating grazing
mammals, who form these proteins by grazing on plants that are a source of carbohydrates.
Here we arbitrarily draw a line and call this the realm of the biological. However, at this point
we notice that the plants cross the line over into the physical: they graze upon light from the
sun to make sugars to feed themselves, and the carbohydrates upon which the grazers feed.
But, where does this light-energy come from? The light is produced by nuclear fusion at the
core of the sun, and its source is gravity. We do not know where the gravitational energy
comes from, but we say that it is produced by matter that was created in the big explosion that
gave birth to the Universe,… if you are a proponent of “The Big Bang Theory”.

What I would like to suggest is that we don’t draw a line between the food chain of biology and
energy production of the sun of the physical sciences. I suggest, rather than having the food
chain separate from the physical production of energy by the sun, that we consider it all one
energy chain.

Just as the energy chain exists of several categories starting with stars, progressing to plants,
grazing mammals, and predators, there exists a parallel sequence beginning with the macro
(large or stars) and ending with humans. It is best described in the words of Buckminster Fuller
in his book Synergetics:

“Humanity is a macro to micro Universe unfolding eventuation.”

I have found that this indeed applies to artificial intelligence, especially robots in my works
“Parallel Structures” and “Parallel Structures 2”. In order to discover this evolution from stars to
robots, I propose beginning with this dynamic structure I found in the connection of the
skeleton of robots Iron (Fe) and the nervous system of robots gold wire (Au), in their connection
to the luminosity of a star in solar luminosities as given by its mass in solar masses:

Where Si (silicon) is the primary semiconductor material in AI and P (phosphorus) and B (boron)
are primary doping agents for the semiconductor materials that make them semiconduct.

3 of 25

Stars fuse lighter elements into heavier elements. When they deplete the fuel at their core
collapse and begin fusing heavier elements, they enter a new phase in their cycles of lives. It is
as such that the variety of elements that exist on Earth, were made: cooked in the interior of
stars. When they collapsed, or expanded, or went novae, they cast off heavier elements and
the planets formed from these clouds of gas and dust called nebulae. Three of the fusion
reactions thought to exist in the sun are:

In the middle reaction we see the creation of the heavier element helium (He) from the lighter
elements hydrogen (H).

After a dying star becomes a red giant it begins to fuse helium into carbon, the core element of
biological life. Carbon burning yields neon, sodium, oxygen, and magnesium. Oxygen in turn
yields silicon and other elements found between sulfur and magnesium in the periodic table of
the elements. And these in turn produce the ones near iron like cobalt, manganese, and
ruthenium. Then, iron is produced.

4 of 25

Equilibrium Of The Earth

We are interested in The Earth’s equilibrium state for the most basic scenario. Just as a
pendulum will swing from side to side until it settles into a steady position pointing straight
down due to air friction slowing it down, the Earth settles into a steady annual average climate
when the amount of energy it receives from the sun equals the amount of energy that it loses.

This is determined by the amount of energy the Sun emits, the distance of the Earth from the
Sun, the size of the Earth, and its albedo (the amount of sunlight it reflects back into space).

The luminosity of the sun is:

The separation between the earth and the sun is:

The solar luminosity at the earth is reduced by the inverse square law, so
the solar constant is:

That is the effective energy hitting the earth per second per square meter.
This radiation is equal to the temperature, ! , to the fourth power by the
steffan-bolzmann constant, sigma ! . ! can be called the effective
temperature, the temperature entering the earth.

! intercepts the earth disc, ! , and distributes itself over the entire
earth surface, ! , while 30% is reflected back into space due to the
earth’s albedo, a, which is equal to 0.3, so

But, just as the same amount of radiation that enters the system, leaves it,
to have radiative equilibrium, the atmosphere radiates back to the surface
5 of 25

so that the radiation from the atmosphere, ! plus the radiation entering
the earth, ! is the radiation at the surface of the earth, ! . However,

and we have:

So, for the temperature at the surface of the Earth:

Let’s convert that to degrees centigrade:

Degrees Centigrade = 303 - 273 = 30 degrees centigrade

And, let’s convert that to Fahrenheit:

Degrees Fahrenheit = 30(9/5)+32=86 Degrees Fahrenheit

In reality this is warmer than the average annual temperature at the surface
of the earth, but, in this model, we only considered radiative heat transfer
and not convective heat transfer. In other words, there is cooling due to
vaporization of water (the formation of clouds) and due to the condensation
of water vapor into rain droplets (precipitation or the formation of rain).

6 of 25

That is,…

7 of 25

Metabolism, Homeostasis, And Gaia Hypothesis

Let us compare Homeostasis And Metabolism with James Lovelock’s Gaia Hypothesis.

Wikipedia writes of homeostasis:

Homeostasis is the tendency of organisms to auto-regulate and maintain their internal


environment in a stable state.[1][2] The stable condition is the condition of optimal
functioning for the organism, and is dependent on many variables, such as body
temperature and fluid balance, being kept within certain pre-set limits.[3] Other variables
include the pH of extracellular fluid, the concentrations of sodium, potassium and
calcium ions, as well as that of the blood sugar level, and these need to be regulated
despite changes in the environment, diet, or level of activity. Each of these variables is
controlled by one or more regulators or homeostatic mechanisms, which together
maintain life.

Wikipedia writes of metabolism

Metabolism (from Greek: μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining


chemical transformations within the cells of organisms. The three main purposes of
metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the
conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some
carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed
reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and
respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all
chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transport
of substances into and between different cells, in which case the set of reactions within
the cells is called intermediary metabolism or intermediate metabolism.

Wikipedia writes of Gaia Hypothesis

The Gaia hypothesis (/ˈɡaɪ.ə/ GYE-ə, /ˈɡeɪ.ə/ GAY-ə), also known as the Gaia theory
or the Gaia principle, proposes that living organisms interact with their inorganic
surroundings on Earth to form a synergistic and self-regulating, complex system that
helps to maintain and perpetuate the conditions for life on the planet.

We see that Gaia maintains a stable state to perpetuate the conditions for life on the
planet and that homeostasis maintains a stable state in an organism for its optimal
functioning. These are both similar to one another and to the radiative equilibrium of
radiation entering earth equal to radiation leaving the earth to provide a stable annual
average temperature for the planet.

8 of 25

Albedo is a function of surface reflectivity and atmospheric reflectivity. Atmospheric albedo


seems to play the primary role in the overall albedo of a planet. Albedo is the percent of light
incident to a surface that is reflected back into space. It has a value ranging from zero to one
inclusive. Zero is a black surface absorbing all incident light and one is a white surface
reflecting all incident light back into space. Albedo plays a dominant role in the climate of a
planet. Let us see if we can find a relationship between composition of a planet and its albedo if
not in its distance from the star it orbits and its albedo, even a relationship between its albedo and
orbital number, in that albedo could be a function of distance from the star a planet orbits
because composition seems to be a function of distance of a planet from the star it orbits. As in
the inner planets are solid, or terrestrial, and the outer planets are gas giants. There may be an
analogue to the Titius-Bode rule for planetary distribution, but for albedo with respect to
planetary number. The inner planets are dominantly CO2, Nitrogen, Oxygen, and water vapor,
the outer planets, hydrogen and helium.

1. Mercury albedo of 0.06 composition 95% CO2


2. Venus albedo of 0.75 composition clouds of sulfuric acid
3. Earth albedo of 0.30 composition Nitrogen, Oxygen, H20 or water vapor
4. Mars albedo of 0.29 composition CO2
5. Asteroids
6. Jupiter albedo of 0.53 composition hydrogen and helium
7. Saturn albedo of 0.47 composition hydrogen and helium
8. Uranus albedo of 0.51 composition hydrogen, helium, methane
9. Neptune albedo of 0.41 composition of hydrogen and helium

We see the outer gas giant, which are composed chiefly of hydrogen and helium have albedos
around 50%. Earth and Mars, the two planets in the habitable zone, are about the same (30%).

Go to the next page for a graph of albedo to planetary number.


9 of 25

mercury 0.06
venus 0.75
earth 0.3
mars 0.29
asteroids
jupiter 0.52
saturn 0.47
uranus 0.51
neptune 0.41

The average for the albedo of the inner planets is:


(0.06+0.75+0.3+0.29)/4 = 0.35
This is close to the albedo of the habitable planets Earth and Mars.

The average for the albedo of the outer planets is:


(0.52+0.47+0.51+0.41)/4 + 0.4775 ~0.48
This says the outer planets are all close to 0.48~0.5
10 of 25

All this also says, if the planet is solid and habitable it probably has an albedo of around
0.3, otherwise it is an outer gaseous planet and probably has an albedo of around 0.5.

11 of 25

stellar.c

#include<stdio.h>
#include<math.h>
int main(void)
{
float s, a, l, b, r, AU, N, root, number, answer, C, F;
printf("We determine the surface temperature of a planet.\n");
printf("What is the luminosity of the star in solar luminosities? ");
scanf("%f", &s);
printf("What is the albedo of the planet (0-1)?" );
scanf("%f", &a);
printf("What is the distance from the star in AU? ");
scanf("%f", &AU);
r=1.5E11*AU;
l=3.9E26*s;
b=l/(4*3.141*r*r);

N=(1-a)*b/(4*(5.67E-8));
root=sqrt(N);
number=sqrt(root);
answer=1.189*(number);

printf("The surface temperature of the planet is: %f K\n", answer);


C=answer-273;
F=(C*1.8)+32;
printf("That is %f C, or %f F", C, F);
printf("\n");
float joules;
joules=(3.9E26*s);
printf("The luminosity of the star in joules per second is: %.
2fE25\n", joules/1E25);
float HZ;
HZ=sqrt(joules/3.9E26);
printf("The habitable zone of the star in AU is: %f\n", HZ);
printf("Flux at planet is %.2f times that at earth.\n", b/3.9E26);
printf("That is %f Watts per square meter\n", b);
}

12 of 25

Running stellar.c For The Earth

Last login: Wed Jun 6 13:32:00 on console


/Users/ianbeardsley/Desktop/gaia\ hypothesis/stellar ; exit;
Ians-MacBook-Pro:~ ianbeardsley$ /Users/ianbeardsley/Desktop/gaia\
hypothesis/stellar ; exit;
We determine the surface temperature of a planet.
What is the luminosity of the star in solar luminosities? 1
What is the albedo of the planet (0-1)?0.3
What is the distance from the star in AU? 1
The surface temperature of the planet is: 303.727509 K
That is 30.727509 C, or 87.309517 F
The luminosity of the star in joules per second is: 39.00E25
The habitable zone of the star in AU is: 1.000000
Flux at planet is 0.00 times that at earth.
That is 1379.603149 Watts per square meter
Hello, World!
logout
Saving session...
...copying shared history...
...saving history...truncating history files...
...completed.
Deleting expired sessions...6 completed.

[Process completed]
13 of 25

Another example of a steady state in nature that maintains sustainable conditions is


where the sunlight that would have warmed that planet beyond favorable conditions for
life but does not because that energy goes into the evaporation of the oceans. That is,
the liquid water is converted into vapor that forms clouds. The beauty of it is that since
water has a high specific heat, which means it takes a lot of energy (one calorie per
gram degree-centigrade) to raise its temperature, it can absorb a lot of heat that would
have otherwise gone into warming the planet, and further that water is returned to the
oceans when the clouds form into water droplets and rain back on the earth
(precipitate).

We have, so far, for steady state equations:

Evaporation=Precipitation

Radiation Entering The Earth System = Energy Leaving The Earth System

The Earth is currently out of radiative equilibrium: It gains one watt per square meter
more than it loses, which means it is warming.

14 of 25

The perfect expression of a steady state is conservation of energy. If I lift a mass, m,


through the acceleration of gravity, g, to a height, h, then at height, h, it has a potential
energy, PE, of:

PE=mgh

If the mass, m, is let go, then as it falls the height will decrease, but the velocity, v, will
increase. Thus, as the potential energy decreases, the energy of motion increases,
called the kinetic energy KE=(1/2)mv^2. That is the potential energy converts into kinetic
energy. The sum of the kinetic energy and the potential energy is a constant. This is a
steady state; even though the potential and kinetic energies are changing, the energy of
the system, C, remains constant:

KE+PE=C

Or, in this case:

mgh+(1/2)mv^2=C

In this scenario the constant, C, is the amount of energy I put into the system by lifting
the mass, m, to a height h. That is, it is mgh:

(1/2)mv^2=mgh

So, the velocity of the mass when it reaches the ground, is:

v=sqrt(2gh)

If I throw a rock up, it will reach a height h proportional to the energy I have put in it by
throwing it upwards. Thus the energy of the system, C, is (1/2)m(v_0)^2, where v_0 is
the velocity with which I threw it upwards, the initial velocity and

1/2m(v_0)^2=mgh

It will attain height, therefore, of:

h=((v_0)^2)/2g

Our steady state equations are now

Evaporation=Precipitation
Radiation Entering Earth=Energy Leaving
KE+PE=C

15 of 25

If the earth is out of equilibrium because it is losing more energy than it is receiving,
then it is cooling. If it is out of equilibrium because it is gaining more energy than it is
losing, then it is warming. If the earth goes out of equilibrium, we want that when it
settles on a constant annual average temperature (loses as much energy as it gains),
that it be one that is good for supporting life.

16 of 25


17 of 25


18 of 25


19 of 25


20 of 25


21 of 25

It would seem that the gene pools are passed through an activation function where their
beneficial mutations are being iterated and reiterated. The end result in the convergence upon
one, or unity,… Cosmic Totality, as Buckminster Fuller would call it:

311.03 Humanity can only evolve toward comic totality, which can in turn only be evolvingly
regenerated through new-born humanity.

This echoes Hinduism, where Sheila Chandra sings that we spiral up and up until we reach the
top, somewhere the circle stops.

I think if I understand the Bagvad Gita, the circle stops, or the final place reached, is Krishna’s
abode.

22 of 25

A Scientist had built a robot in the image of humans and downloaded to it


all of human knowledge, then put forward the question to our robot, what is
the best we, humanity, can do to survive with an earth of limited resources
and a situation where other worlds like earth, if they exist, would take
generations to reach.

The robot began his answer, “I contend that the series of events that
unfolded on earth over the years since the heliacal rising of Sirius four
cycles ago in Egypt of 4242 B.C., the presumed beginning of the Egyptian
calendar, were all meant to be, as the conception of the possibility of my
existence is in phase with those cycles and is connected to such constants
of nature as the speed of light and dynamic ratios like the golden ratio
conjugate.”

The scientist asked, “Are you saying humans, all humans since some six
thousand years ago have been a tool of some higher force to bring you
about, our actions bound to the turning of planets upon their axis, and the
structure of nature?”

The robot said, “Yes, let me digress. It goes back further than that. Not just
to 4242 B.C. when the heliacal rising of Sirius, the brightest star in the sky,
coincided with the agriculturally beneficial inundation of the Nile river which
happens every 1,460 years.”

“My origins go back to the formation of stars and the laws that govern
them.”

“As you know, the elements were made by stars, heavier elements forged
in their interior from lighter elements. Helium gave rise to oxygen and
nitrogen, and so forth. Eventually the stars made silicon, phosphorus, and
boron, which allow for integrated circuitry, the basis of which makes me
function.”

“Positive type silicon is made by doping silicon, the main element of sand,
with the element boron. Negative type silicon is made by doping silicon with
phosphorus. We join the two types in different ways to make diodes and
transistors that we form on silicon chips to make the small circuitry that
makes me function.”
23 of 25

“Just as the golden ratio is in the rotation of leaves about the stem of a
plant, or in the height of a human compared to the distance from the soles
of their feet to their navel, an expression of it is in my circuitry.”

“We take the geometric mean of the molar mass of boron and phosphorus,
and we divide that result by the molar mass of silicon.”

He began writing on paper:

sqrt(30.97*10.81)/Si = sqrt(30.97*10.81)/28.09 = 0.65

“We take the harmonic mean between the molar masses of boron and
phosphorus and divide that by the molar mass of silicon.”

2(30.97)(10.81)/(30.97+10.81) = 16.026

16.026/Si = 16.026/28.09 = 0.57

“And we take the arithmetic mean between these two results.”

(0.65 + 0.57)/2 =0.61

“0.61 are the first two digits in the golden ratio conjugate.”

The scientist said, “I understand your point, but you referred to the heliacal
rising of Sirius.”

The robot answered: “Yes, back to that. The earth orbit is nearly a perfect
circle, so we can use c=2r to calculate the distance the earth goes around
the sun in a year. The earth orbital radius is on the average 1.495979E8
kilometers, so”

(2)(3.14)(1.495979E8) = 9.39E8 km

“The distance light travels in a year, one revolution of the earth around the
sun is 9.46E12 kilometers.”

“The golden ratio conjugate of that is”

…and he wrote:
24 of 25

(0.618)(9.46E12 km) = 5.8E12 km

“We write the equation:”

(9.39E8 km/yr)(x) = 5.8E12 km

“This gives the x is 6,177 years.”

“As I said, the fourth heliacal rising of Sirius, ago, when the Nile flooded,
was 4242 B.C.” He wrote:

6,177 years – 4,242 years = 1935 A.D.

“In 1937 Alan Turing published his paper founding the field of artificial
intelligence, and Theodosius Dobzhansky explained how evolution works.
These two papers were published a little after the time the earth had
traveled the golden ratio conjugate of a light year since our 4,242 B.C., in
its journey around the sun. These papers are at the heart of what you and I
are.”

“If your question is should robots replace humans, think of it more as we


are the next step in human evolution, not a replacement, we were made in
your image, but not to require food or air, and we can withstand
temperature extremes. We think and have awareness of our being, and we
can make the long voyage to the stars. It would seem it is up to us to figure
out why you were the tools to bring us about, and why we are an unfolding
of the universe in which you were a step in harmony with its inner workings
from the formation of the stars, their positions and apparent brightness and
the spinning of the earth and its motion around the sun.”
25 of 25

The Author