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FLUID MECHANICS(UES011) PROJECT REPORT

DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC COEFFICIENTS OF


ORIFICE

Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala

Submitted To: Submitted By:


Mr. Mandeep Singh Harshul Agarwal (101615052)
Japkeerat Singh (101615055)
Javesh Vasu (101615056)
OBJECTIVE:-
To determine the various coefficients of a sharp edge circular
orifice and to determine the time taken for emptying the tank
through the orifice.

SUB-OBJECTIVES:-
1.) To determine the coefficient of contraction, coefficient of
velocity and coefficient of discharge for a given sharp edge
circular orifice.
2.) To derive the equation to determine the time taken for
emptying a tank through the circular orifice.
3.) To calculate the required head over the orifice so that the time
taken for emptying a tank through the orifice will be equal to
assigned time.
4.) To calculate the error if any between the time taken for
emptying a tank through the orifice and the assigned time.
THEORY:-
An orifice is an opening provided either in one of the walls or at the bottom of a
tank for discharging liquid from the tank. An orifice can also be used for the
measurement of discharge of liquid from the tank. Orifices may be of any shapes
such as circular, square, rectangular etc. and they have sharp, square or bell
mouthed entrance.

The liquid particles approach the orifice from all the sides and the discharging
liquid emerges from the orifice in the form of free jet. The jet of liquid continues
beyond the orifice till the minimum area of jet is achieved. Beyond the vena
contracts, the jet expand i.e. diverges and directed in the downward direction by
gravity.

The constants of the orifice are defined as follows:


Coefficient of contraction:

The ratio of the area of the jet at vena contracta to the area of the orifice is known
as coefficient of contraction.

Coefficient of velocity:

The ratio of actual velocity of the jet at vena contracta to the theoretical velocity is
known as coefficient of velocity.

Coefficient of discharge:
The ratio of actual discharge through an orifice to the theoretical discharge is
known as coefficient of discharge.

The three coefficients are related to each other by the following relationship:

Cd = Cv * Cc

The actual discharge (Q) is measured by the volumetric method of discharge


measurement and the theoretical discharge is given by the following expression:

Qth = A * (2gH) ½

Where A is the area of orifice and H is the head acting on orifice also called head
causing the flow. The head acting on the orifice is to be measured from the center
of the orifice up to the free water surface.

The standard values of hydraulic coefficients of a sharp edge circular orifice are:
Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.61 to 0.65

Coefficient of contraction, Cc = 0.61 to 0.69

Coefficient of velocity, Cv = 0.85 to 0.99

Observations and Calculations

Diameter of orifice = 10mm


Area of orifice = 78.54mm2
Area of discharge measuring tank = 397*397= 157609mm2
Coordinates at origin i.e. vena contracta (X o, Yo) = ( 0.89,
25.9)

Run Initial Final Rise, h Time, t Q=Am*h/t X Y Head


no. level level (cm) (sec) (cm3/s) (cm) (cm) (cm)
(cm) (cm)
1 3.5 9.2 5.7 51 176.15 16.9 24.3 56.2
2 3 7.1 4.1 49 131.73 11.7 24.4 28.0
3 4 9.5 5.5 41 211.42 15.1 24.3 61.8
4 3.5 8.4 4.9 38 203.23 16.1 29.2 55.5

Run Head X Y Q Q(theoretical Cv= Cd= Cc=


No. (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm3/s) ) (cm3/s) X/√4YH Q/Qth Cd/Cv
1 56.2 16.01 1.6 176.15 260.81 0.844 0.673 0.797
2 28.0 10.81 1.5 131.72 182.12 0.943 0.704 0.746
3 61.8 14.21 1.6 211.42 274.81 0.755 0.725 0.960
4 55.5 15.21 1.7 203.23 260.59 0.778 0.768 0.987
AVERAGE 0.83 0.717 0.864
So, from the above table we get,
Average Coefficient of velocity, Cv = 0.832
Average Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.717
Average Coefficient of contraction, Cc = 0.864

Derivation of equation to determine the time taken for emptying


through circular orifice:
Consider a square, rectangular or circular tank of uniform cross-sectional area,
containing some liquid and having an orifice at its bottom.

Let, A = Surface area of the tank

• = Initial height of the liquid

• = Final height of the liquid


• a = Area of the orifice

At some instant, let the height of the liquid be h above the orifice. We know that
the theoretical velocity of the liquid at this instant,
After a small interval of time dt, let the liquid level fall down by the amount dh
Therefore volume of the liquid that has passed in time dt

The value of dh is taken as negative as its value will decrease with the increase in
discharge. We know that the volume of liquid that has passed through the orifice in
time dt,
= Coefficient of discharge Area Theoretical velocity Time

Equating equations:

Now the total time t required to bring the liquid level from to may be found
out by integrating the equation between the limits H1 to H2 i.e.,

Taking minus out from the bracket (as H1 is greater than H2)
If the tank is to completely emptied, then putting H2= 0 in this equation, we get:

This is the required derivation of the equation to determine the time taken for
emptying through circular orifice.

Calculation of required Head so that Time assigned is equal to Time taken to


empty the tank:

Tassigned = 4 min 20 sec = 260 sec

A = 0.0841 m2

Cd = 0.717

π ( 0.01 )2 2
a= m
4

H2 = 0 cm

Using the formula, we get:

H1 = 15.13 cm

Error between time taken and time assigned to empty the tank
through orifice:
T assigned = 4 min 20 sec = 260 sec

T actual = 4 min 38 sec = 278 sec


T ( assigned ) − T ( actual )
Error = X 100 %
T ( assigned )
(278 − 260 )
= X 100 %
260

= 7%

Error = 7%

RESULT:
1) All the hydraulic coefficients of orifice are almost in the prescribed ranges.
The average values of coefficients are:
Coefficient of discharge, Cd = 0.717

Coefficient of velocity, Cv = 0.832

Coefficient of contraction, Cc = 0.864

2) The time to empty the tank through orifice depends on various factors like
area of orifice, area of the tank, Coefficient of Discharge, initial height of the
tank.
3) The required Head for time assigned and actual time to be same is 15 cm.
4) The error between actual time and the time assigned to empty the tank
through orifice is 7 %