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Table xxx: Toxicology of Chemicals Involved in The Most Promising Reaction Pathway.

Chemical Toxicology References

Methane (Natural Gas) - Upon exposure, respiration irritation Petronas


CH4 and skin allergies might occur due to (2016)
inhalation and skin contact with the
gases.

Water - Not applicable Sigma-Aldrich


H2O (2015)

Carbon monoxide - Adverse symptoms which include Prasair


CO damage fertility, increase in fetal (2016)
deaths and cause damage to organs
such as central nervous system
(CNS)

Carbon dioxide - In high concentration of exposure, it Linde


CO2 may cause rapid circulatory (2015)
deterioration lead to headache,
nausea and vomiting and even death.

Methanol - May cause respiratory tract irritation Sigma-Aldrich


CH3OH after inhalation of chemical. (2017)
- May cause skin irritation after skin
contact with chemical
- Upon exposure, eye irritation might
occur.
- Cause headache, dizziness, metabolic
acidosis, coma and seizures due to
ingestion.

Hydrogen - Not applicable Linde


H2 (2015)
Table xxx: Safety Measure for Storing Chemicals Involved in The Most Promising Reaction
Pathway.

Chemical Safety Measure for Storage References

Methane (Natural Gas) - Keep the container tightly closed in a Petronas


CH4 dry. (2016)
- Store in a well-ventilated place.
- Prevent unauthorized access.
- Keep away from heat and ignition
source.
- Observe the label precautions.

Water - Not applicable. Sigma-Aldrich


H2O (2015)

Carbon monoxide - Keep away from heat and ignition Prasair


CO source. (2016)
- Store in a cooler place which does not
exceed 52 oC
- Make sure that the containers upright
to prevent falling or being knocked
over.
- Store locked up

Carbon dioxide - Make sure the container valve guards Linde


CO2 or caps be in place. (2015)
- Keep away from heat and ignition
source.
- Check the stored containers
periodically to prevent leakage.

Methanol - Store in a cool place Sigma-Aldrich


CH3OH - Keep the container tightly closed in a (2017)
dry and well-ventilated place.
- Keep away from heat and ignition
source.
- Store locked up

Hydrogen - Do not store the containers in a Linde


H2 condition that encourage to (2015)
corrosion.
- Segregate from oxidant gases and
other oxidants being stored.
- Check the stored containers
periodically to prevent leakage.
- Keep away from heat and ignition
source.
Table xxx: Safety Measure for Handling Chemicals Involved in The Most Promising Reaction
Pathway.

Chemical Safety Measure for Handling References

Methane (Natural Gas) - Install exhaust ventilation. Petronas


CH4 - Open drum carefully as content may (2016)
be under pressure.
- Tightly fitting safety goggles.
- Wear body protection according to
the concentration of the dangerous
substance at the work place.

Water - Not applicable Sigma-Aldrich


H2O (2015)

Carbon monoxide - Use in a closed system Prasair


CO - Keep away from open flames and (2016)
sources of ignition.
- Keep the container valve closed after
each use and even when empty.
- Use a cart to move the cylinders even
short distances.
- Use a strap wrench to remove over-
tight or rusted caps.
- Wear safety gloves and safety shoes
when handling cylinders.

Carbon dioxide - Never use direct flame or electrical Linde


CO2 heating devices to raise the pressure (2015)
of a container.
- Not to repair or modify the container
valves or safety relief devices.
- Do not transfer gases from one
container to another.
- Make sure the cylinders in an upright
position at all times.
- Close all the valves when not in use.
- Keep the container valve outlets
clean and free from contaminates
such as oil and water.
- Provide adequate ventilation.
- Use an appropriate equipment to
move the container even for short
distance such as trolley and cart.
Table xxx: (Continued)

Chemical Safety Measure for Handling References

Methanol - Keep away from open flames and Sigma-Aldrich


CH3OH sources of ignition. (2017)
- Avoid inhalation of vapour or mist.
- Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
- Take measures to prevent the build
up the electrostatics charge.
- Use only with adequate ventilation
- Put on appropriate personal
protective.

Hydrogen - Purge air from system with dry inert Linde


H2 gas before introducing gas. (2015)
- Keep away from open flames and
sources of ignition.
- Use only non- sparking tools.
- Handle the substances in accordance
with good industrial hygiene and
safety procedure.
- Use an appropriate equipment to
move the container even for short
distance such as trolley and cart.
- Ensure the cylinders in an upright
position at all times.
- Provides adequate ventilation.
- Never use direct flame or electrical
heating devices to raise the pressure
of a container.
- Do not remove the labels provided by
the supplier.
- Leave the valve protection caps in
placed until the container has been
secured.
- Keep the container valve outlets
clean and free from contaminates
such as oil and water.
Table xxx: Safety Measure when Contact with Chemicals Involved in The Most Promising
Reaction Pathway.

Chemical Safety Measure when Come in Contact References

Methane (Natural Gas) - Inhalation or ingestion: place in Petronas


CH4 recovery position and seek medical (2016)
advice.
- Eye contact: Flush eye with water,
keep eye wide open while rinsing and
protect unharmed eye.
- Move out the dangerous place.

Water - Not applicable. Sigma-Aldrich


H2O (2015)

Carbon monoxide - Inhalation or ingestion: remove Prasair


CO person to fresh air and keep (2016)
comfortable for breathing and get
medical attention.
- Skin contact: Wash with plenty of
soap and water. If skin irritation
occurs, get medical advice.
- Eye contact: Flush eye with water
and keep eye wide open while
rinsing.

Carbon dioxide - Inhalation: Remove the victim to Linde


CO2 uncontaminated area and wear self- (2015)
contained breathing apparatus. Keep
victim warm and rested.
- Eye contact: Rinse the eye with water
immediately and remove contact
lenses if present.
- Skin contact: Should wash with
lukewarm water at the skin are that is
thawed due to frostbite.

Methanol - Inhalation: remove person to fresh air Sigma-Aldrich


CH3OH and keep comfortable for breathing (2017)
and get medical attention.
- Skin contact: immediately wash off
with plenty of water and soap
- Eye contact: Flush eyes with water
immediately.
- Ingestion: wash out mouth with
water, remove dentures and get
medical attention immediately.
Table xxx: (Continued)

Chemical Safety Measure when Come in Contact References

Hydrogen - Inhalation: Remove the victim to Linde


H2 uncontaminated area and wear self- (2015)
contained breathing apparatus. Keep
victim warm and rested.