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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA

Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

DEPARTMENT OF ENGINEERING MECHANICS

STATICS LABORATORY

LAPORAN MAKMAL/LABORATORY REPORT

Kod M/Pelajaran/
ENGINEERING LABORATORY I BDA 17001
Subject Code
Kod & Tajuk Ujikaji/ TOPIC 4: PRINCIPLE OF
Code & Title of Experiment MOMENTS
Kod Kursus/ Seksyen /Section
Course Code BNJ17001 6
No. K.P / I.C No.
Kumpulan/Group
7
LUQMAN HAKIM B MOHD No. Matrik
Nama Pelajar/Name of Student
MASROR
1.EN. MOHD NAZRUL BIN ROSLAN
Lecturer/Instructor/Tutor’s Name
2.
Nama Ahli Kumpulan/
No. Matrik Penilaian / Assesment
Group Members

1. LUQMAN HAKIM B MOHD AN120115 Teori / Theory 10 %


MASROR
2. AN120113 Keputusan / Results 15 %
FUAD RIDZUAN B MOKHTAR
Pemerhatian
3. ARIF AIMRAN B AHMAD AN120129 20 %
/Observation
Pengiraan /
4. NORASIKIN BT AB RANI AN120032 10 %
Calculation
Perbincangan /
25 %
Discussions
Tarikh Ujikaji / Kesimpulan /
4 OCT 2012 15 %
Date of Experiment Conclusion
Tarikh Hantar / Rujukan /
11 OCT 2012 5%
Date of Submission References

ULASAN PEMERIKSA/COMMENTS JUMLAH / TOTAL 100%

COP DITERIMA/APPROVED
STAMP
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

COURSE INFORMATION
COURSE TITLE: ENGINEERING LABORATORY I (BDA17001)
TOPIC 4: PRINCIPLE OF MOMENTS

1. INTRODUCTION
The principle of moments is frequently used in engineering and building work
where forces have to be balanced to prevent any turning movement. It can
be applied both to parallel forces and to oblique forces. If a body has several
forces applied to it which have turning effects in opposite directions, the body
will not turn if the total turning moment in each direction are equal. This is
called Principle of moments.

2. OBJECTIVES
The objective of this experiment is to verify the principle of moments for
parallel and non-parallel forces.

3. LEARNING OUTCOMES
At the end of this topic, the students will be able to display basic skills and
knowledge of principle of moments using laboratory equipments, analyze
observable data obtained from principle of moments experiment properly,
work effectively in a group through laboratory experiment and presentation
and demonstrate comprehension of the general ideas of the topic through
written report that comply with specified standards.

4. THEORY
A concept often used in mechanics is the principle of moments, which is
sometimes referred to as a Varignon’s theorem since it was originally
developed by the French mathematician Varignon. The moment of a force
indicates the tendency of a body to turn about an axis passing through a
specific point.
UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

It was defined as, M = F x d (in Nm) ……………………… (1)

Which, F is the action of force;


d, is the perpendicular distance between F and centre of
moment. (Figure 1a/1b)

The principle of moments states that the moment of a force about a point is
equal to the sum of the moments of the forces components about the point.
For a body in equilibrium or not rotate:

The Moment Clockwise = The Moments Anti-Clockwise (Refer to Figure 1c).

So,
F1d1 - F2d2 = 0

F1 d 2
 ……………………………….. (2)
F2 d1

F d1 d2
F

d
d
F1 F2

Figure 1a Figure 1b Figure 1c

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

4.1 ADDITIONAL THEORY

Varignon ’s theorem can be proven easily using vector cross


product that is obey distributive law. For two-dimensional problems , we
can use the principle of moments by resolving the force into its
rectangular components and then determine the moment using a scalar
analysis. The moment is a scalar quantity,

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

5. EQUIPMENTS

Table 1: Principles of Moments Equipment List


No. Apparatus Qty.
1 Panel board 1
2 Pivot bar and stop ( EX5) 2
3 Pulleys ( P12) 4
4 Nuts 6
5 Screw 5
6 Weight hook ( P10) 1
7 Cord approx (40cm long) 1
8 Set of weights 1

6. PROCEDURES
1. Set up the panel board as shown in Figure 2. Ensure pivot bar is in
balance and attached pulley using bolt and nut.
2.

Pivot bar

Figure 2

Weight
Hook

Pulley

Figure 2: Experiment Setup

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. Hang weight hooks from the end holes of the bar entering the hook
from the back of the bar.(Refer Figure 3a). The weight of hooks each
weight 0.1N.
4. Add a 1.9N load to each hook to make the total of 2N.
5. Record the value of F1 and F2. Then measure and record the distance
d1 and d2.
6. Move the right hand weight hook to a hole nearer the pivot bar (Refer
Figure 3b) and load it with just sufficient weighs to balance the bar in
the level position.
7. Record the weight value F2 and the distance d2
8. Then, hang right hand weight hook (without weight) through pulley
(refer Figure 3c).
9. Load the weight hook to balance the bar.
10. Record the weight value F2 and the perpendicular distance d2.
11. Set up the panel as shown in Figure 3d, repeat the procedure from 7
to 9 with the cord passing over the left hand pulley and attach to the
lowest hole of the centre arm of the bar.
12. Fill in the Table 2

d1 d2

2N 2N

Figure 4.3a: Test 1

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

d1 d2

2N F2

Figure 3b: Test 2

d1

2N
d2

F2

Figure 3c: Test 3

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

d1

d2

2N

F2

Figure 3d: Test 4

7. RESULT

1. Fill in the experimental result in the Table 2.

F1 d 2
2. Plot a graph for vs .
F2 d1

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Table 2: Results

Moment Left Pivot Bar Right Pivot Bar Total Ratio


Test

F1 d1 M1 F2 d2 M2 M1 - M2 F1 d2
(N) (m) (Nm) (N) (m) (Nm) (Nm) F2 d1

Figure
2.00 0.16 0.32 2.00 0.16 0.32 0.00 1.00 1.00
4.3a

Figure
2.00 0.16 0.32 3.20 0.10 0.32 0.00 0.62 0.62
4.3b

Figure
2.00 0.16 0.32 3.50 0.09 0.32 0.00 0.57 0.56
4.3c

Figure
2.00 0.16 0.32 4.00 0.08 0.32 0.00 0.50 0.50
4.3d

* Data sheet must approved by the instructor

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

8. CALCULATON
1. Calculate the Moment for Left Pivot Bar and Right Pivot Bar.

Moment for left pivot , M = F x d (in Nm)


Figure 4.3 (a)
2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (b)


2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (c)


2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (d)


2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Moment for right pivot


Figure 4.3 (a)
2N (0.16m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (b)


3.20N (0.10m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (c)


3.5N (0.09m) = 0.32 Nm

Figure 4.3 (d)


4N (0.08m) = 0.32 Nm

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

2. Calculate the ratio of forces and distance.

Ratio of distance
Figure 4.3 (a)
2 N ÷ 2 N = 1.00

Figure 4.3 (b)


2 N ÷ 3.20 N = 0.62

Figure 4.3 (c)


2 N ÷ 3.5 N = 0.57

Figure 4.3 (d)


2 N ÷ 4 N = 0.50

Ratio of distance
Figure 4.3 (a)
0.16m ÷ 0.16m = 1

Figure 4.3 (b)


0.16m ÷ 0.1m = 0.62

Figure 4.3 (c)


0.16m ÷ 0.09m = 0.56

Figure 4.3 (d)


0.16m ÷ 0.08m = 0.50

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

9. OBSERVATIONS

For the test1, the distance of force for left pivot bar was equal to the
distance for left pivot bar from the centre pivot bar. The force of F1 and F2
are equal, sop the total value of moment is equal to zero. Thus, it is in
equilibrium.

For test2, the F1 is maintain and small than F2 because the load require
for right pivot is more than left pivot to balance the pivot bar. Thus, the
ratios of force and distance small. The distance of right pivot was shorter
than then distance of left pivot.

All the experiment was success because the total moment equal to zero
according to the theory. From my observation, the ratio of force equal to
the ratio of distance. This experiment obey the principle of moment state
that the moment of clockwise equal to the moment of anticlockwise.

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UNIVERSITI TUN HUSSEIN ONN MALAYSIA
Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

10. DISCUSSIONS

1. Discuss the graph obtained.


The graph obtain is decreasing graph. When the ratio of force
smaller, then the ratio of distance will decrease. Thus, the force
become larger as the distance decrease.

2. Discuss your opinion about the summation of moment from your


experiment results.
Value of moment increase as the force becomes larger and as the
distance from force’s line of action increase. If the line of action of F2
is perpendicular to the distance that we let, d as shortest distance
between these two lines , then the moment produced by F1 has size
F1d (Nm). The total moment will be zero or equilibrium when the value
moment of left pivot bar are equal to the value moment of right pivot
bar.
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………

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Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

3. If the moment is nonzero, what are the factors may influence the
experiment.

The factors may influence the experiment when the moment is nonzero obtain
after experiment is the force of load that we set up not balance. Second, the
pivot bar that we were set up not balance before we added the load. Then, the
distance between the load and the centre of pivot bar not accurate because
when we measure the distance, maybe there was an error. The angle of
perpendicular distance not equal to 90 also can influence the moment obtain.

10.1 QUESTIONS

1. What is the principle of moment and how moments achieved?


The principle of moment also known as Vargnon’s thorem. It state that
the moment of a force about a point is equal to the sum of the moment of the
force’s components about the point. Principle of moments is if an object is
balanced then the sum of the clockwise moments about a pivot is equal
to the sum of the anticlockwise moments about the same pivot.
The moment can achieve when the distance from the line of action of the force
to the pivot was obtained and its perpendicular to the force. The moment depends on
the size of the force, the direction of the force and the distance from the force to the
hinge.
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………

2. What does the principles of Moment state about the turning moments
of forces acting on a body?

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Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

It will produce a tendency for the body to rotate about a point that is
not on the line of action of the force. It is called simply the moment.
The larger the force or the longer the moment arm, the greater the
moment or turning effect. If the force applied at an angle, θ ≠ 90, then
it will be more difficult for turning occur. It moment arm will be zero
since the line of action of force will intersects to the z-axis. As the
result, the moment of force about z-axis is also zero and the turning
moment of forces cannot occur.

3. How to determine the moment in three dimensions body?

The moment in three dimensions body can be determine using the


formula of clockwise moments equal to anticlockwise moment. You need to
consider the force of three dimension bodies. You also need consider the
distance of the bodies.
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11. CONCLUSION

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Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

Deduce conclusions from the experiment. Please comment on your


experimental work in terms of achievement, problems faced throughout the
experiment and suggest recommendation for improvements.

Moment of a force depends on both the forces and the location of the point about
which the moment evaluated. Moment of force is equal to the sum of the moment of
the components of the force after we carried out the experiment. So, the principle of
moment was achieved.

The principle of moment for parallel and non-parallel forces was verified.
During the experiment, the pivot bar is unbalance, so we should ensure the pivot bar
is in balance before we added the load. The ratio of force and the ratio of distance
must be equal after calculating them because the moment of clockwise equal to the
F1 d 2
moment of anti-clockwise. So, the graph of vs could be plot. Lastly, when
F2 d1
carrying the experiment, we should avoid the parallax error while measure the
distance using a ruler.

12. REFERENCES

-Http://En.Wikipedia.Org/Wiki/Moment_(Physics)

-Http://Www.S-Cool.Co.Uk/A-Level/Physics/Moments-Couples-And-
Equilibrium/Revise-It/The-Principle-Of-Moments

-Engineering mechanics statics, Twelfth edition, R. C. Hibbeler

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