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2 February 2016

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PHYSICS MUSING

P hysics Musing was started in August 2013 issue of Physics For You with the suggestion of Shri Mahabir Singh. The aim of Physics Musing is to augment

the chances of bright students preparing for JEE (Main and Advanced) / AIIMS / Other PMTs with additional study material.

In every issue of Physics For You, 10 challenging problems are proposed in various topics of JEE (Main and Advanced) / various PMTs. The detailed

solutions of these problems will be published in next issue of Physics For You.

The readers who have solved five or more problems may send their detailed solutions with their names and complete address. The names of those who

send atleast five correct solutions will be published in the next issue.

We hope that our readers will enrich their problem solving skills through “Physics Musing” and stand in better stead while facing the competitive exams.

31

single oPtion correct tyPe 5. Consider two hollow glass spheres, one containing

1. A particle starts from rest at A and moves with water and the other containing mercury. Each liquid

uniform acceleration a m s–2 in a straight line. After fills about one-tenth of the volume of the sphere. In

1/a seconds, a second particle starts from A and zero gravity environment

moves with uniform velocity u in the same line and (a) water and mercury float freely inside the

same direction. If u > 2 m s–1 then during the entire spheres

motion, the second particle remains ahead of first (b) water forms a layer on the glass while mercury

particle for a duration floats

a (c) mercury forms a layer on the glass while water

(a) 2 u(u − 2) (b) u(u − 2) floats

a 2 (d) water and mercury both form a layer on the

2 1 glass.

(c) u(u − 2) (d) u(u − 2)

a a subjective tyPe

2. A block of mass 100 g moves with a speed

of 5 m s–1 at the highest point in a closed circular 6. A body starts from rest and moving with uniform

tube of radius 10 cm kept in a vertical plane. The acceleration of 4 m s–2 covers half of its total path

cross-section of the tube is such that the block just fits during the last second of its motion. Find the time

in it. The block makes several oscillations inside the taken and the total distance covered.

tube and finally stops at the lowest point. The work 7. A cone of height h and base radius r is fixed base to

done by the tube on the block during the process is base on a hemisphere of equal radius. Find h so that

(a) 1.45 J (b) – 1.45 J the centre of gravity of the composite solid lies on

(c) 0.2 J (d) zero the common base. (Assume same density for both

3. Two identical balls A and B are released from the objects.)

positions shown in figure. They collide elastically

on horizontal portion MN. All surfaces are smooth. 8. A rod PQ of length l is pivoted at an end P and

The ratio of heights attained by A and B after freely rotated in a horizontal plane at an angular

collision will be (neglect energy loss at M and N) speed w about a vertical axis passing through P. If

coefficient of linear expansion of material of rod is

(a) 1 : 4 B a, find the percentage change in its angular velocity ,

(b) 2 : 1 A

if temperature of system is increased by DT.

4h

(c) 4 : 1 h

9. Distance between the centres of two stars is 10a. The

(d) 2 : 5 45° M N 60°

masses of these stars are M and 16 M and their radii

4. A stone of mass m, tied to the end of a string, is a and 2a, respectively. A body of mass m is fired

whirled around in a horizontal circle. (Neglect the straight from the surface of the large star towards

force due to gravity.) The length of the string is the smaller star. What should be its minimum initial

reduced gradually, keeping the angular momentum speed to reach the surface of the smaller star?

of the stone about the centre of the circle constant. 10. The first overtone of an open organ pipe beats with

Then, the tension in the string is given by T = Arn, the first overtone of a closed organ pipe with a beat

where A is a constant, r is the instantaneous radius frequency of 2.2 Hz. The fundamental frequency of

of the circle, and n is the closed organ pipe is 110 Hz. Find the lengths of

(a) 1 (b) – 1 the pipes. (Take, speed of sound in air = 330 m s–1)

(c) – 2 (d) – 3 nn

Motion in a Plane

PaPer-i (single oPtion correct tyPe) vertical displacements of the particle in m from

1. From a certain height, two bodies are projected origin(point of projection). Find the maximum

horizontally with velocities 5 m s–1 and 15 m s–1. distance of the projectile from x-axis.

(a) 1.5 m (b) 3 m

They reach the ground in time t1 and t2 respectively.

(c) 1 m (d) 2 m

Then

(a) t1 = t2 (b) 3t1 = t2 7. A car is moving horizontally along a straight line

(c) t1= 3t2 (d) none of these with a uniform velocity of 25 m s–1. A projectile is,

to be fired from this car in such a way that it will

2. Two balls A and B are thrown with speeds u and return to it after it has moved 100 m. The speed of

u/2 respectively. Both the balls cover the same the projectile with respect to car should be

horizontal distance before returning to the plane of (Take g = 9.8 m s–2)

projection. If the angle of projection of ball B is 15° (a) 19.6 m s–1 (b) 15.6 m s–1

–1

with the horizontal, then the angle of projection of (c) 9.8 m s (d) 24.6 m s–1

A is 8. The ceiling of a hall is 40 m high. For maximum

(a) (1/2) sin–1 (1/8) (b) (1/4) sin–1 (1/8) horizontal distance, the angle at which the ball may

(c) (1/3) sin–1 (1/8) (d) sin–1 (1/8) be thrown with a speed of 56 m s–1 without hitting

3. A projectile is fired at an angle 30° to the horizontal the ceiling of the hall is (Take g = 9.8 m s–2)

such that the vertical component of its initial (a) 45° (b) 60°

velocity is 80 m s–1. Find approximate velocity of (c) 30° (d) 25°

the projectile at time T/4 where T is time of flight. 9. Two paper screens A and B are separated by 150 m.

(a) 155 m s–1 (b) 130 m s–1 A bullet pierces A and then B. The hole in B is 15 cm

(c) 145 m s–1 (d) 180 m s–1 below the hole in A. If the bullet is travelling

horizontally at the time of hitting A, then the

4. A particle is projected with a velocity u so that

velocity of the bullet at A is (Take g = 10 m s–2)

the horizontal range is twice the greatest height

attained, then the greatest height attained is (a) 500 3 m s −1 (b) 200 3 m s −1

(a) 2u/5g (b) 4u2/2g (c) 100 3 m s −1 (d) 300 3 m s −1

(c) 2u2/5g (d) u2/2g 10. A flag is mounted on a car moving due north with

velocity of 20 km h–1. Strong winds are blowing due

5. A bomb is dropped from a plane flying horizontally

west with velocity of 20 km h–1. The flag will point

with velocity 720 km h–1 at an altitude of 980 m.

in direction

The bomb will hit the ground after (Take g = 9.8 m s–2)

(a) east (b) north-east

(a) 14.14 s (b) 1.414 s (c) south-east (d) south-west

(c) 7.2 s (d) 141.4 s

11. The graph shows position as a function of time

6. The trajectory equation of a particle is given as for two trains running on parallel tracks. Which

y = 4x – 2x2 where x and y are the horizontal and statement is true?

Contributed by : Shiv R Goel, Intelli Quest, 9878359179

15. Two particles P1 and P2 are moving with velocities

v1 and v2 respectively. Which of the statements

about their relative velocity vr is true?

(a) vr cannot be greater than v1 + v2

(b) vr cannot be greater than v1 – v2

(c) vr > (v1 + v2 )

(d) vr < (v1 – v2 )

(a) At time tB, both trains have the same velocity.

(b) Both trains have the same velocity at some time 16. A boat having a speed of 5 km h–1 in still water,

after tB. crosses a river of width 1 km along the shortest

(c) Both trains have the same velocity at some time possible path in 15 minutes. The speed of the river

in km h–1 is

before tB.

(a) 1 (b) 3

(d) Nowhere the trains have some velocity.

(c) 4 (d) 41

12. A wedge is placed on a smooth horizontal plain

17. A man can swim in still water with a speed of 2 m s–1. If

and a rat runs on its sloping side. The velocity of

he wants to cross a river of water current of speed

wedge is v = 4 m s–1 towards right. What should be

the velocity of rat with respect to wedge (u), so that 3 m s–1 along shortest possible path, then in which

the rat appear to move in vertical direction to an direction should he swim?

(a) At an angle 120° to the water current

observer standing on ground?

(b) At an angle 150° to the water current

(c) At an angle 90° to the water current

(d) None of these.

18. A ship is travelling due east at 10 km h–1. What

must be the speed of a second ship heading 30° east

(a) 2 m s–1 (b) 4 m s–1 of north if it is always due north of the first ship?

(c) 8 m s–1 (d) 4 2 m s −1 (a) 30 km h–1 (b) 25 km h–1

(c) 15 km h–1 (d) 20 km h–1

13. A plank is moving on ground with a velocity v and a

block is moving on the plank with respect to it with 19. Width of a river is 100 m. Water flows in the river

a velocity u as shown in figure. What is the velocity with a velocity of 0.5 m s–1. A boat starts travelling

of block with respect to ground? in water from one bank. If the direction of boat with

respect to water makes an angle 60° with upstream,

find the velocity of boat with which it should travel

in water to reach the other bank by shortest route.

(a) 0.5 m s–1 (b) 1 m s–1

(a) v–u towards right (b) v–u towards left –1

(c) 2 m s (d) 1.5 m s–1

(c) u towards right (d) none of these

20. A bird flies to and fro between two cars which move

14. A man is crossing a river flowing with velocity

with velocities v1 = 20 m s–1 and v2 = 30 m s–1. If

of 5 m s–1. He reaches a point directly across at a

the speed of the bird is v3 = 10 m s–1 and the initial

distance of 60 m in 5 s. His velocity in still water distance of separation between them is d = 2 km,

should be find the total distance covered by the bird till the

cars meet.

(c) 5 m s–1 (d) 10 m s–1

(a) 2000 m (b) 1000 m (c) Both are starting from same point.

(c) 400 m (d) 200 m (d) A covers greater distance than B in the same time.

21. A car is moving towards a wall with a fixed velocity 27. A man wishes to throw two darts one by one at the

of 20 m s–1. When its distance from the wall is 100 m, target at T so that they arrive at T at the same time

a bee starts to move towards the jeep with a constant as shown in figure. Mark the correct statements

velocity 5 m s–1. The time taken by bee to reach the about the two projections.

jeep is

(a) 5 s (b) 4 s

(c) 2 s (d) none of these

22. A stone is allowed to fall from the top of a tower and

covers half of the height of tower in the last second (a) Projectile that travels along trajectory A was

of the journey. The time taken by the stone to reach projected earlier.

the foot of the tower is (b) Projectile that travels along trajectory B was

(a) (2 − 2 ) s (b) 4 s projected earlier.

(c) (2 + 2 ) s (d) (2 ± 2 ) s (c) Both were projected at same time.

(d) Darts must be projected such that qA + qB = 90°.

23. If a, b, c are unit vectors such that a + b − c = 0,

28. In the figure shown, two boats start simultaneously

then the angle between a and b is

with different speeds relative to water. Water flow

π π

(a) (b) speed is same for both the boats. Mark the correct

6 3

statements. qA and qB are angles from y-axis at

π 2π which boats are heading at initial moment.

(c) (d)

2 3

24. The sum of magnitudes of two forces acting at a

point is 16 N and magnitude of their resultant is

8 3 N. If the resultant is at 90° with the force of

smaller magnitude, then their magnitudes(in N)

are

(a) 3, 13 (b) 2, 14 (a) If vA > vB then for reaching the other bank

(c) 5, 11 (d) 4, 12 simultaneously qA > qB.

25. The resultant of two forces acting at an angle of 150° (b) In option (a), drift of boat A greater than boat B.

is 10 N and is perpendicular to one of the forces. (c) If vB > vA and qA > qB, boat B reaches other

The other force is bank earlier than boat A.

(a) 20/ 3 N (b) 10 3 N (d) If vB = vA and qA > qB, drift of A is greater.

(c) 20 N (d) 20 3 N 29. A particle has an initial velocity of 4i + 4 j m s −1

PaPer-ii (one or More oPtions correct tyPe) and an acceleration of −0.4i m s–2, at what time

will its speed be 5 m s–1?

26. The velocity time graph of two bodies A and B is (a) 2.5 s (b) 17.5 s

given here. Choose correct statements.

(c) 7 2 s (d) 8.5 s

30. A boat is traveling due east at 12 m s–1. A flag on the

boat flaps at 53° north of west. Another flag on the

shore flaps due north.

(a) Speed of wind with respect to ground is 16 m s–1

(b) Speed of wind with respect to ground is 20 m s–1

(a) Acceleration of B > acceleration of A. (c) Speed of wind with respect to boat is 20 m s–1

(b) Acceleration of A > acceleration of B. (d) Speed of wind with respect to boat is 16 m s–1

laws oF Motion; work, energy and Power

PaPer-i (single oPtion correct tyPe)

31. A child is sliding down a slide in a playground with

a constant speed. (a)

Statement-1 : His kinetic energy is constant.

Statement-2 : His mechanical energy is constant.

(a) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true

and statement-2 is correct explanation for

statement-1. (b)

(b) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and

statement-2 is not the correct explanation for

statement 1.

(c) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false.

(d) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true. (c)

32. Statement - 1 : Force F1 required to just lift block A

of mass m in case (i) is more than that in case (ii).

Statement -2 : Less work has to be done in case (ii)

to lift the block from rest to rest by a distance h.

(d)

F1 F2

U(x) = 3x2 – 2x3, where U is in joules and x is in

h meters.

m A B m

(a) x = 0 is stable and x = 1 is unstable.

(i) (ii) (b) x = 0 is unstable and x = 1 is stable.

(a) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true (c) x = 0 is stable and x = 1 is stable.

and statement-2 is correct explanation for (d) x = 0 is unstable and x = 1 is unstable.

statement-1. 35. A boy blowing a whistle sends out air at one gram

(b) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is true and per second with a speed of 200 m s–1. Find his lung

statement-2 is not the correct explanation for power.

statement 1. (a) 20 W (b) 0.2 W (c) 2 W (d) 200 W

(c) Statement-1 is true, statement-2 is false. 36. A stone tied to a string of length 2 m is whirled in

(d) Statement-1 is false, statement-2 is true. a vertical circle with the other end of the string at

33. A particle initially at rest is displaced from x = –10 m to the centre. At a certain instant of time, the stone is

x = +10 m under the influence of force F as shown at its lowest position and has a speed 10 m s–1. The

in the figure. Now the kinetic energy vs position magnitude of the change in its velocity as it reaches

graph of the particle is a position where the string is horizontal, is

(a) 60 m s–1 (b) 40 m s–1

(c) 80 m s–1 (d) 160 m s–1

37. A ball of mass m is hung on a thread. The thread

is held taut and horizontal, and the ball is released

as shown. At what angle between the thread and

vertical will the tension in thread be equal to weight

in magnitude?

−1 2 w 2r a

(a) 30° (b) cos (a) q = (b) q = 2

3 g w

−1 1 w2 a

(c) cos (d) never (c) q = tan −1 (d) q = tan −1 2

3 w

a

38. A ball whose size is slightly smaller than width of the 41. Which of the following statements is true for a

tube of radius 2.5 m is projected from bottommost particle moving in a circle with a constant angular

point of a smooth tube fixed in a vertical plane with acceleration?

velocity of 10 m s–1. If N1 and N2 are the normal (a) The magnitude of acceleration is constant.

reactions exerted by inner side and outer side of the (b) The acceleration vector is along the tangent to

tube on the ball the circle.

(c) The velocity vector points along tangent to the

circle.

(d) The velocity and acceleration vectors are always

perpendicular to each other.

42. A 50 kg boy runs at a speed of 10 m s–1 and jumps

(a) N1> 0 for motion in ABC, N2 > 0 for motion in onto a cart as shown in the figure. The cart is initially

CDA at rest. If the speed of the cart with the boy on it is

(b) N1> 0 for motion in CDA, N2 > 0 for motion in 2.50 m s–1, what is the mass of the cart?

ABC

(c) N2> 0 for motion in ABC and part of CDA

(d) N1 is always zero.

39. A catapult on a level field tosses a 3 kg stone, a

horizontal distance of 100 m. At second time, 3 kg

stone tossed in an identical fashion breaks apart in (a) 150 kg (b) 210 kg

the air into 2 pieces, one with a mass of 1 kg and (c) 175 kg (d) 260 kg

one with a mass of 2 kg. Both of the pieces hit the

43. In a one-dimensional collision, a particle of mass

ground at the same time. If the 1 kg piece lands a

2m collides with a particle of mass m at rest. If the

distance of 180 m away from the catapult, how far particles stick together after the collision, what

away from the catapult does the 2 kg piece land? fraction of the initial kinetic energy is lost in the

Ignore air resistance. collision?

(a) 20 m (b) 100 m (a) 1/4 (b) 1/3

(c) 180 m (d) 60 m (c) 1/2 (d) none of these

40. A small particle of mass m is at rest on a horizontal 44. When the momentum of a body increases by 100%,

circular platform that is free to rotate about a its KE increases by

vertical axis through its center. The particle is (a) 400% (b) 100%

located at a radius r from the axis, as shown in the (c) 300% (d) none of these

figure below. The platform begins to rotate with 45. A spaceship of speed v0 travelling along +y axis

constant angular acceleration a. Because of friction suddenly shots out one fourth of its part with speed

between the particle and the platform, the particle 2v0 along +x-axis. xy axes are fixed with respect to

remains at rest with respect to the platform. When ground. The velocity of the remaining part is

the platform has reached angular speed w, the 2 20

angle q between the static frictional force fs and the (a) v0 (b) v

3 3 0

inward radial direction is

5 13

(c) 3 v0 (d) v

fs 3 0

46. A highly elastic ball moving at a speed of 3 m s–1

r approaches a wall moving towards it with a speed

of 3 m s–1 (figure). After the collision, the speed of

the ball will be

mass of the plank is M, then the distance that the

man moves relative to ground is

(a) 3L/4 (b) L/4

(c) 4L/5 (d) L/3

51. Block A, with a mass of 4 kg, is moving with a speed

–1 –1 of 2.0 m s–1 while block B, with a mass of 8 kg, is

(a) 3 m s (b) 6 m s

moving in the opposite direction with a speed of

(c) 9 m s–1 (d) zero

3 m s–1. The center of mass of the two block system

47. On a frictionless surface, a ball of mass M moving is moving with a velocity of

at speed v collides elastically with another ball of (a) 1.3 3 m s–1 in the same direction as A

the same mass that is initially at rest. After the (b) 1.3 3 m s–1 in the same direction as B

collision, the first ball moves at an angle q to its (c) 2.7 3 m s–1 in the same direction as A

initial direction and has a speed v/2. The second (d) 1.0 3 m s–1 in the same direction as B.

ball's speed after the collision is

PaPer-ii (one or More oPtions correct tyPe)

3 v

(a) v (b)

4 2 52. You lift a suitcase from the floor and keep it on a

3 v table. The work done by you on the suitcase does

(c) v (d) v + cos q not depend on

2 2

48. A particle of mass m is moving along the x-axis with (a) the path taken by the suitcase

speed v when it collides with a particle of mass 2m (b) the time taken by you in doing so

initially at rest. After the collision, the first particle (c) the weight of the suitcase

has come to rest, and the second particle has split (d) your weight.

into two equal mass pieces that move at equal angle 53. Figure (a) shows a frictionless roller coaster track.

q = 30° with the x-axis, as shown in the figure Figures (i), (ii), (iii) show potential energy and total

below. Which of the following statements correctly energy for a car on roller coaster. Figures (i), (ii),

describes the speeds of the two pieces? (iii) show drawing of actual roller coaster track

because gravitational potential energy is directly

proportional to height, it is also U vs x graph.

AQ-13/1, Sector - V, Salt Lake City, Kolkata - 700 091

Tel. Ph. No 2367 - 1198/1159, Toll free - 18003450050

(a) Each piece moves with speed v. NOTICE FOR WBJEEM - 2016

(b) One of the pieces moves with speed v, the other

On-line application form fill-up/registration process for West Bengal Joint

moves with speed less than v.

Entrance Examination (WBJEEM) - 2016 for admission to Engineering/

(c) One of the pieces moves with speed v/2, the

Technology/Pharmacy/Architecture/Medical and Dental under-graduate

other moves with speed greater than v/2.

courses in various institutions of West Bengal will commence from

(d) Each piece moves with speed greater than v/2.

05.01.2016 (Tuesday). Last date for on-line form fill up & registration is

49. Two objects of different mass and with same initial 29.02.2016 and uploading of documents will be allowed till 02.03.2016.

speed, moving in a horizontal plane, collide head Last date of submission of fees in any branches of Allahabad Bank

on and move together at half their initial speed after or through Debit/Credit Card is 05.03.2016. On-line application

the collision. Ratio of their masses is form fill up and registration process will be done through the

(a) 2 : 1 (b) 3 : 1 website: www.wbjeeb.nic.in.

(c) 4 : 1 (d) 5 : 1 Information Brochure with detailed information about WBJEEM-2016

50. A man of mass 3 M stands at one end of a plank of including syllabus are also available at website-www.wbjeeb.nic.in/

length L which lies at rest on a frictionless surface. www.wbjeeb.in.

The man walks to other end of the plank. If the The examinations will be conducted on 17.05.2016

unstretched spring of length L = 20 cm, and of

spring constant 16 N m–1. The mass of the spring

is negligible. At a certain moment the bodies are

given an initial speed of v0 = 0.36 m s–1, towards the

wall on the right. The body at the right collides with

U the wall totally elastically.

Etotal

(i)

x

A B C (b) After 1st collision, centre of mass comes to rest.

U (c) After 2nd collision, centre of mass moves to left

with speed v0.

(d) After all collisions are over, the system oscillates

Etotal about the centre of mass.

(ii)

D solutions

x 1. (a) : Initial vertical velocity of both bodies is same

A B C

i.e, 0.

U

u2 sin 2q u2

2. (a) : For A, R = ; for B, R =

g 8g

(iii) 1 1

Etotal Comparing; sin 2q = 1/8 ⇒ q = sin −1

D 2 8

x 2u y uy

A B C 3. (c) : T = ⇒ v yT /4 = = 40 m s −1

(a) In case (i), the car can negotiate the hill at C and g 2

reach D. ⇒ v xT / 4 = ux = 80 3 m s −1

(b) In case (ii), the motion is confined between

two turning points where the total energy and \ vT /4 = v 2xT /4 + v 2yT /4 ≈ 145 m s −1

potential energy curves intersect.

(c) In case (iii), motion of car will be confined in 2u2 sin q cos q u2 sin2 q

4. (c) : =2×

first valley between A and B. g 2g

(d) The turning points are attained where Etotal = U. 2u2

tan q = 2 ⇒ sin q = 2 / 5 \H=

54. An object of mass 3m, initially at rest on a frictionless 5g

horizontal surface, explodes breaking into two 1

5. (a) : 980 = 9.8t 2 ⇒ t = 10 2 = 14.14 s

fragments of mass m and 2m respectively. Which 2

one of the following statements after the explosion dy

is true? 6. (d) : = 4 − 4x = 0 ⇒ x = 1 ⇒ y = 2 m

dx

(a) Velocity of center of mass increases. 7. (a) : The projectile is fired vertically upwards with

(b) Speed of smaller fragment will be twice that of respect to the car. Time taken to return = 4 s.

larger fragment. For maximum height, t = 2 s.

(c) Fragments have equal magnitude of momentum \ 0 = u – 9.8 × 2, u = 19.6 m s–1.

in ground frame but different magnitude of 8. (c) : Usually maximum range corresponds to q = 45.

momentum in center of mass frame. But in this case height is more than ceiling. So q <

(d) Kinetic energy of system increases. 45°.

55. Bodies of mass 0.5 kg, resting on a horizontal u2y 28 1

= H ; u y = 40 × 19.6 ⇒ sinq = = ⇒ q = 30

frictionless tabletop, are connected with an 2g 56 2

1 18. (d) : Speed of both boats

9. (a) : 0.15 = × 10t 2 , t = 0.1 3 towards east should be same

2

\ v2 sin 30° = 10

150

⇒ v A = vH = = 500 3 m s −1 ⇒ v2 = 20 km h–1

0. 1 3 19. (b) :

10. (d) : v = −20i, v = 20 j

w

c

Here we have to look for velocity of wind with

respect to car. So,

vw /c = vw − vc = −20i − 20 j

u 1 0.5

This is in south-west direction. sin 30 = ⇒ = ⇒ v = 1 m s −1

v 2 v

11. (c) : At some time before tB, slope of B will be d

20. (c) : Time to meet the cars, t =

equal to slope of A. Acceleration of A is zero always v1 + v2

whereas that of B is not zero. Distance travelled by bird in this time

12. (c) : vr = vrw + vw v d 10 × 2000

s = v3t = 3 = = 400 m

v1 + v2 (20 + 30)

100 m

21. (b) : t = = 4 seconds

25 m s −1

1

22. (c) : h = gt 2 ...(i)

2

v h 1

⇒ = cos q = g (t − 1)2

u 2 2 ...(ii)

v 4

⇒ u= = = 8 m s −1 From equations (i) and (ii)

cos q cos 60

t =2± 2 s

13. (a) : vb = vbp + v p = (−u) + v = v − u towards right. But t cannot be 2 − 2 seconds since it is less than

d 60 1 second which is not possible.

14. (b) : t = ⇒5= ⇒ v = 13 m s −1 23. (d)

2 2 2 2

v −u v −5

24. (b) : A + B = 16 ...(i)

15. (a) : vr lies between (v1 – v2) and (v1 + v2) depending and B2 = R2 + A2 ...(ii)

upon angle between v1 and v2.

Given, R = 8 3 N

16. (b) : On solving, A = 2 N, B = 14 N

R

25. (c) : R = 10 N ⇒ = cos60°

B

d 15 1

t= ⇒ = ⇒ u = 3 km h −1

v 2 − u2 60 2

5 −u 2

17. (b) : 10 1

⇒ = ⇒ B = 20 N

B 2

26. (b, d) : Slope of A is greater than slope of B.

\ aA > aB

1

3 S = at 2 ( u = 0) \ SA > SB

sinq = ⇒ q = 60 2

2 Nothing can be said about starting positions of

Hence at an angle of 150° to the water current. bodies from velocity-time graph.

27. (b) : Since maximum height attained by B is more, 32. (c) :

so it will take more time to reach the target. Hence

it should be projected earlier so that both reach

simultaneously. For same range, sum of projection

angles is 90° if speed of projection is same, but here

speeds may be different.

28. (a, b, c, d) : For reaching the other bank

simultaneously, their velocities along y direction

should be same.

So, vA cos qA = vB cos qB , if vA > vB then cos qA < cos qB,

But work done from rest to rest is equal, because

⇒ qA > qB. Hence (a) is correct.

change in K.E. is same.

Drift: x = (v sin q + u)t

For option (a): vA sin qA > vB sin qB, hence drift of 33. (c)

A is greater than B. So (b) is correct. dU

34. (a) : = 6 x − 6 x 2 = 0 ⇒ 6 x(1 − x ) = 0 ⇒ x = 0,1

Same will be true for option (d), hence (d) is also dx

correct. d 2U

For option (c): vB cos qB > vA cos qA, so boat B = 6 − 12 x

dx 2

reaches earlier than A. Hence (c) is correct. d 2U

at x = 0, > 0 ⇒ stable equilibrium

29. (a, b) : Since acceleration is in x direction only, dx 2

velocity in y-direction will not change.

d 2U

52 = vx2 + vy2 = vx2 + 42 ⇒ vx = ± 3 m s–1 at x = 1, < 0 ⇒ unstable equilibrium

dx 2

v − ux 35. (a)

vx = ux + axt ⇒ t = x

ax

36. (d) : v = (10)2 − 2 × 10 × 2 = 60 m s–1

3−4 −3 − 4

\ t1 = = 2.5 s , t 2 = = 17.5 s –1

−0.4 0. 4 ∆v = (60) + 100 = 160 m s

2

30. (a, c) : Velocity of wind with respect to boat is 53° 37. (c) : mgl cos q = 1 mv 2 ⇒ 2mg cos q = mv

north of west. 2 l

2

Actual velocity of wind is towards north,mgl

because 1 mv

cos q a= mv ⇒ 2mg cos q =

2 ...(i) T

flag on shore flaps towards north. We have 2 l

2

vw = vw /b + vb mv

T − mg cos q = mg

l

2

mv

mg – mg cos q = = 2 mg cos q ...[using (i)]

l

1 1

cos q = ⇒ q = cos −1

3 3

38. (c)

39. (d) :

vw v 4

= tan 53° ⇒ w = ⇒ vw = 16 m s −1

vb 12 3

vb 3

= cos 53° =

vw /b 5

5 5

⇒ vw /b = vb = × 12 = 20 m s −1

3 3 2 x + 180

100 = ⇒ x = 60 m

31. (c) 3

a Ra a

40. (d) : tan q = t = 2

= tan −1 2

ar Rw w

41. (c) : Net acceleration = a2 R2 + (w2 R)2

As w increases, the net acceleration increases.

43. (b) 44. (c) 45. (b)

46. (c) : v BW = v B − vW ; v BW = 3 − (−3) = 6 m s −1

Before collision : vBW = 6 m s–1

After collision : v′BW = 6 m s–1

vB′ = v′BW + vW = 6 + 3 = 9 m s–1

nn

47. (c) : Kinetic energy is conserved,

2 solution oF January 2016 crossword

1 1 v 1

Mv 2 = M + Mv ′2

2 2 2 2

v2 3

v2 − = v ′2 ⇒ v ′ = v

4 2

48. (d) : mv = mv′ cos q + mv′cos q

v v

v′ = ⇒ v′ >

2 cos q 2

49. (b) : m1v – m2v = (m1 + m2)v/2

2m1 – 2m2 = m1 + m2

m1 = 3m2

m1 3

=

m2 1

50. (b) : 4x = L ⇒ x = L/4

51. (b) 52. (a, b, d)

53. (a, b, c, d) 54. (b, d)

55. (a, b, c) :

1. Anu Sharma (Delhi)

2. Shruti Gupta (Delhi)

3. Rohan Kashyap (Haryana)

4. Atriz Roy (WB)

Solution Senders December 2015

1. Sakchhi Kumari (Jharkhand)

2. Puneet Goel (UP)

Capacitive Circuits

In this segment, we would learn and gradually master and hence since before charging the capacitors were

solving capacitive circuit questions. uncharged, the summation of charges on these plates

To begin with, let me start asking two basic questions: has to be zero i.e.

1. What is meant by series combination? Sqjunction = 0 [Kirchhoff 's junction law]

2. What is a parallel combination? Hence the –Q appearing on right plate of C1 comes

Maximum book says that in a series combination the from the left face of C2 due to which +Q appears on

charges on all capacitors are identical. But is it really it (one gains, other loses by same amount).

so? Always? But what if the capacitors were already charged before

Let us consider a series combination of n capacitors connecting them to the battery?

connected to a battery. Then the Sqjunction ≠ 0 and hence the charges on the

V1 V2 Vn capacitors would not be equal even if they were in

series combination.

+Q –Q +Q –Q +Q –Q Just remember one line - If between any two terminals,

C2 Cn

C1 say A and B, there exists only one path which leads

–Q

from terminals A to B, the capacitors are said to be in

series but use series combination formula i.e.

1 1 1 1

V = + + ... +

Ceq C1 C2 Cn

Considering, initially all capacitors are uncharged. There

was no potential difference across the combination only if none of the capacitors are initially charged to

before closing the switch, but on connecting the battery find the charges on any capacitor.

a potential difference equal to emf of the cell has to be Supposedly now, none V1 V2

maintained across the combination which can come only of the capacitors were C 1 C2

if electric field is set up between the plates of capacitor. initially charged, what is

What the battery does is, it pulls out electrons from the potential difference +Q –Q +Q –Q

one plate of capacitor and deposits it to the other plate across each capacitor?

of the other extreme end's capacitor and thereafter by Since Q = CV

induction and conduction charges are induced on other = constant for both.

V

plates and capacitors. 1

\ V∝

Consider any intermediate capacitors, say C1 and C2. C

From left plate of C 1 C2 C1

isolated

charge –Q was pulled ⇒ V1 = V and V2 = V

–Q

C1 + C2 C1 + C2

by battery due to which

+Q appeared on it. By +Q It is interesting to note that the potential difference

C1 C2

induction –Q appears on across capacitors in series combination is not dependent

right plate of C1 but right plate of C1 and left plate of upon the value of individual capacitances but rather

C2 forms an isolated part of circuit. By saying isolated the ratio of capacitances. For example if both C1 and

we mean, they are not physically connected to others, C2 are doubled, the potential difference across both

hence the net charge on them has to remain conserved remains unchanged.

Contributed By: Bishwajit Barnwal, Aakash Institute, Kolkata

22 physics for you | february ‘16

Now let me answer the 2 nd question raised at the (c) If the charge on a capacitor is not known, the

beginning. potential difference across it would not be known,

We say two or more capacitors to be in parallel if their hence new variables would be required for it.

ends are maintained at common potential. They need 3. Count the number of variables taken, since we need

not be placed geometrically parallel to each other. to frame exactly same number of equations by using

For example, Kirchhoff 's junction law, i.e.

C1 0; if all capacitors of the junction

B

were initially uncharged.

C3 ∑ qjunction = initial charge(qi );if one or more

capacitors connected to junction were

C2

A

initially charged.

Notice that left plates of all the three capacitors are

connected to terminal A whereas their right plates to 4. Solve simultaneous equations obtained.

terminal B through connecting conducting wires and Now, let us apply whatever we learnt.

since all the points of a conductor are equipotential at

Q.1 : A capacitor of capacitance 5 mF is charged with an

electrostatic condition, we conclude that a common

initial charge of 50 mC and then connected to another

potential difference is maintained across each, hence

uncharged capacitor of 20 mF with a battery of emf

equivalent capacitance,

20 V as shown.

Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3

With these basic understanding being cleared, now let 5 F 20 F

us move to our next segment where we learn how to

solve complicated circuits involving multiple batteries +50 C –50 C

and capacitors.

Our approach will be slightly different from what is

followed by most books. 20 V

Just follow these basic steps:

1. If none of the point in the given circuit is grounded, Find the charges on both the capacitors after closing

we can choose any one arbitrary point in the circuit the switch.

to be at zero potential. Depending on the choice Soln.: After closing the switch, the potential of different

of zero potential point, the potential of all other points has been shown as below:

points will be dependent but the potential difference

between any two points would not change and for 5 F 20 F

any capacitor it is the potential difference which

(20) (0)

is important and not the potential of each of its (x)

terminals.

I prefer taking zero volt to be at the lower potential

terminal of the largest e.m.f 's cell connected. This (20) (0)

simplifies calculation. 20 V

2. Distribute the potential of all points (junctions) in

the circuit, either in terms of known or unknown ∑ qx = −50 mC

variables, by using the fact that - (initial charge on isolated part marked)

(a) All points of conducting wire are at same potential.

⇒ 5(x – 20) + 20(x – 0) = –50

(b) The potential difference across the cell is equal

⇒ x=2V

to its emf (at electrostatic condition).

\ Charge on 5 mF, q5 = 5(20 – 2) = 90 mC

For example,

Charge on 20 mF, q20 = 20(2 – 0) = 40 mC

(x + 10) (x) Note that the charges are different on both.

10 V

Q.2 : The shown network V1 From the diagram,

is a small segment of 9e

= e − 40 = x

a large circuit and the C1 13

potential of the three 4e

⇒ = 40 ⇒ e = 130 V

terminals are marked. 13

Find the potential \ Potential of points x and y are

of junction. V2 C2 C3 V3 x = 130 – 40 = 90 V

Soln.: Here, since the 2 1

V1 y = e = × 130 V

potential of certain points 6 3

are already marked, the C1 130 140

\ x − y = 90 − = V

choice of zero potential 3 3

is not our own. (x) Q.4 : Find the charge on 4 mF capacitor.

Let the junction be at C2 C3 10 V 2 F

x V then V V3

2

S qx = 0 6 F

4 F

⇒ C1(x – V1) + C2(x – V2) + C3(x – V3) = 0

C V + C2V2 + C3V3

⇒ x= 1 1 3 F 20 V

C1 + C2 + C3

Sol.: Clearly 6 mF and 3 mF are in series, hence we

Q.3 : In the given circuit, after steady state, charge on 6×3

can replace them with = 2 mF and distribute the

3 mF is found to be 120 mC then find 6+3

(i) emf of cell potential of all points as below:

(ii) potential difference between points x and y. 10 V 2 F

(x + 10) (x) (20)

2 F 4 F

(y) 4 F

2 F 2 F

3 F 4 F (20)

(0) (0)

(x) 20 V

Now apply, Sqx = 0.

4 F Remember that when we apply this we need to take the

sum of charges of all the plates of the capacitor which

can give/take charge from the considered junction.

Soln.: Since q3 = 120 mC on 3 mF \ 2(x – 20) + 4(x – 0) + 2(x + 10) = 0

\ Potential difference across it ⇒ x = 2.5 V

120 \ q4 = 4(x – 0) = 4 × 2.5 = 10 mC

∆V3 = = 40 V

3

This is also the potential difference across a parallel Q.5 : Find the charge on 2 mF capacitor.

combination of 2 mF, 3 mF and 4 mF. Hence, 4 F 20 V

2 F (y) 4 F

2 20 V 4 F

() (0)

2+4

4 F

9 F (x) 4 F

40 V 9 2 F

9+4

10 V

Soln.: So alternatively, the charge could have been found

4 F (x) 20 V (x – 20)

(20) out imagining a single capacitor and single cell in the

loop.

20 V 4 F \ q3 = q6 = Cloop eloop

4 F 3×6

= × (20 − 10) = 20 mC

(0) (x – 20) 3 + 6

(0)

Hence, the higher potential terminal of both the

2 F capacitors will have +20 mC while the other has

(x – 20) –20 mC charge.

(x – 10) 10 V

3 F (20) 20 V

40

S qx = 0 3 –20 C +20 C

(0)

90

⇒ x= V +20 C –20 C

7 40 (0)

90 3 10 6 F

\ q2 = 2(x – 10 – 0) = 2 − 10 10 V

7 3

=2× = mC

7 7 3 F 20 V

(20)

Q.6 : Find (i) charge flown through the switch, (30) (0)

(ii) work done by both the batteries after closing the +30 C –30 C

switch in the circuit below.

3 F 20 V

+120 C –120 C

(30) (0)

(20) 6 F

10 V

10 V 6 F 10 V and 20 V respectively now.

Soln.: Before closing the switch: \ q3 = 3 × 10 = 30 mC

3 F 20 V q6 = 6 × 20 = 120 mC

(0) The right plate of 6 mF capacitor initially had –20 mC

(20)

but now has –120 mC, hence 100 mC charge flows

(x)

through the wire connected to it and hence through

(x – 10)

(0) 20 V battery also.

6 F

10 V \ Work done by 20 V battery = qflown × emf

= 100 × 20 = 2000 mJ = 2 mJ

Sqx = 0 ⇒ 3(x – 20) + 6(x – 10 – 0) = 0 Similarly, charge flown through 10 V battery = 50 mC

40 \ Work done by 10 V battery = 50 × 10

⇒ x= V

3 = 500 mJ = 0.5 mJ

40 For charge flown through switch, consider the upper

\ q3 = 3 20 − = 20 mC

3 junction.

40 3 C 50 C 20 V

q6 = 6(x − 10 − 0) = 6 − 10 = 20 mC 100 C

3

The result shows both the capacitors have identical q = 50 + 100 = 150 C

charge and that should have been since they are in

series. nn

ParagraPh based questions class-Xii

Paragraph-1 mv qB

In a certain region of space, there exists a uniform (b) − 1 + cos t

qB m

and constant electric field of magnitude E along the

positive y-axis of a co-ordinate system. A charged mv qB

particle of mass m and charge –q (q > 0) is projected (c) − 1 − cos t

qB m

from the origin with speed 2v at an angle of 60° with

the positive x-axis in x–y plane. When the x-coordinate

mv qB

of particle becomes 3mv 2 /qE , a uniform and constant (d) 1+ cos t

qB m

magnetic field of strength B is also switched on along

positive y-axis. Paragraph-2

1. Velocity of the particle just before the magnetic There is a uniformly charged

field is switched on is ring having radius R. An

3v ˆ infinite line charge (charge per

(a) vî (b) viˆ + j

2 unit length l) is placed along a

diameter of the ring (in gravity

3v ˆ 3v ˆ free space). Total charge on the

(c) viˆ − j (d) 2viˆ − j

2 2 ring Q = 4 2lR. An electron

2. x-coordinate of the particle as a function of time of mass m is released from

after the magnetic field is switched on is rest on the axis of the ring at

3mv 2 mv qB a distance x = 3R from the

(a) − sin t

qE qB m centre.

3mv 2 mv qB 4. Magnitude of initial acceleration of the electron is

(b) + sin t

qE qB m

el 3 − 2 2

3mv 2 mv qB (a) (b) el 3 + 2 2

(c) − cos t πe0 mR 4 6 πe0 mR 4 6

qE qB m

3mv 2 mv qB (c) el 3 + 2 2 (d) none of these

(d) + cos t

qE qB m πe0 mR 4 3

3. z-coordinate of the particle as a function of time 5. The distance from centre of ring on the axis where

after the magnetic field is switched on is the net force on the electron is zero, is

mv qB (a) 2R (b) 2R

(a) 1 − cos t

qB m (c) R (d) none of these

Physics for you | February ‘16 27

6. Potential difference between points A(x = 3R) Paragraph-4

and B(x = R) i.e., (VA – VB) is In a photoelectric setup, a point source of light of power

3.2 × 10–3 W emits monoenergetic photons of energy 5.0

l 1 ln 3 eV. The source is located at a distance of 0.8 m from the

(a) − 1 − −

πe0 2 4 center of a stationary metallic sphere of work function

3.0 eV and of radius 8.0 × 10 –3 m. The efficiency of

l 1 ln 3 photoelectron emission is 1 for every 106 incident photons.

(b) 1 − − Assume that the sphere is isolated and initially neutral

πe0 2 4

and that photoelectrons are instantaneously swept away

l 1 ln 3 after emission.

(c) − 1 + −

πe0 2 4 10. Calculate the number of photoelectrons emited per

second.

(d) none of these

(a) 103 (b) 104

Paragraph-3 (c) 5 × 10 4

(d) 105

Pulfrich refractometer is used to 11. It is observed that photoelectron emission stops at

measure the refractive index a certain time t after the light source is switched on.

of solids and liquid. It consists It is due to the retarding potential developed in the

of right angled prism A having metallic sphere due to left over positive charges. The

its two faces perfectly plane. stopping potential (V) can be represented as

One of the face is horizontal (a) 2(KEmax/e) (b) (KEmax/e)

and the other is vertical as (c) (KEmax/3e) (d) (KEmax/2e)

shown in figure. The solid B whose refractive index 12. Evaluate time t, mentioned in question 11.

is to be determined is taken having two faces cut (a) 1.85 min (b) 2.36 min

perpendicular to one another. Light is incident in a (c) 2.75 min (d) 0.78 min

direction parallel to the horizontal surface so that the Paragraph-5

light entering the prism A is at critical angle C. Finally, it

In figure shown, the rod has a resistance R, the horizontal

emerges from the prism at an angle i. Let the refractive

rails have negligible friction. A battery of e.m.f e and

index of the solid be m and that of the prism A be m0 negligible internal resistance is connected between points

(which is known). Here m0 > m and by measuring i, m a and b. The rod is initially at rest.

can be determined.

7. Refractive index of the solid (m) in terms of m0 and i is

(a) m 20 + sin2 i (b) m0 + sin2i

prism, refractive index m of the solid will be 13. The velocity of the rod as a function of time t

(a) 1.21 (b) 2 (c) 1 (d) 3 / 2 (where t = mR/B2l2) is

e e

9. A ray of light is incident normally (a) (1− e −t /t ) (b) (1+ e −t /t )

on the horizontal face of the slab Bl Bl

and just fails to emerge from the 2 e e

diagonal face of the prism. If prism

(c) (1 + e −t /t ) (d) (1 − e −t /t )

3 Bl 2 Bl

angle is 30°, refractive index of the

prism can be 14. After some time, the rod will approach a terminal

speed. The expression for it, is

(a) 2 (b) 3 3 e e e 2e

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(c) slightly greater than 2 (d) slightly less than 2 2 Bl 2Bl Bl Bl

28 Physics for you | February ‘16

15. The net current through the circuit when the rod 4. (a) : Electric field at distance x,

attains its terminal speed is l Q x

E=– +

2e e 3e 2 πe0 x 4 πe0 (R + x 2 )3/2

2

(a) (b) (c) (d) zero

R R 2R (considering right direction as positive)

solutions l 1 x 4 2 lR

=− +

2 πe0 x 4 πe0 (R2 + x 2 )3/2

1. (a) : At first, particle will travel along parabolic path

−qE l 1 2 2 xR

OA. Let time taken from O to A is t 0 .a y = = − + 2

m 2 πe0 x (R + x 2 )3/2

Initially x = 3R

l 1 2 2 3

\ E= − +

2 πe0 R 3 8

l −2 2 + 3 l 3 − 2 2

= =

2 πe0 R 3 (2 2 ) 2 πe0 R 2 6

(−e)(E ) el 3 − 2 2

\ Acceleration, a = =−

m πe0 mR 4 6

3mv 2 3mv

x0 = = (2v cos 60°)t 0 ⇒ t 0 = 5. (c) : Force on electron is zero at point where E = 0

qE qE

⇒x=R

qE 3mv 6. (b) : Potential difference between two points

v y = u y + a y t 0 = 2v sin 60° − =0

m qE DV = – E dx

Hence at point A, velocity will be purely along Potential difference due to line charge between

x-axis and it will be 2vcos60° = v. x = R and x = 3 R

2. (b) : Now magnetic field is switched on along y-axis. 3R ldx l ln 3

Now its path will be helical as shown below with VB − VA = − ∫ − =

R 2 πe0 x πe0 4

increasing pitch towards negative y-axis.

Potential difference due to ring between x = 3 R

and x = R

1 4 2 lR 4 2 lR l 1 − 1

VA − VB = − =

4 πe0 2 R 2R πe0 2

l 1 ln 3

VA − VB = 1− −

πe0 2 4

m m

mv 7. (d) : sin C = ⇒ sin[90° − r ] = [Q C + r = 90°]

r= m0 m0

qB

m

mv ⇒ cos r = ... (i)

x = x0 + r sin q = (2v cos 60°)t 0 + sin ωt m0

qB sin i sin i

Also, m0 = ⇒ sin r = ... (ii)

mv 2 mv qB sin r m0

= 3 + sin t 2 2

qE qB m m sini

From (i) and (ii), + =1

mv qB m0 m0

3. (c) : z = – (r – r cos q) = – 1− cos t

qB m ⇒ m = m20 − sin2 i

8. (c) : If ray just fails to emerge, i = 90°

4 πe0 2R 2 × 8 × 10 −3

N= = = 1.11 × 107

Given, m 0 = 2 e 9 × 10 9

× 1 . 6 × 10 −19

\ m = ( 2 )2 − sin2 90° = 1 1.11 × 107 electrons have been emitted.

The time taken by it to emit 1.11 × 107 electrons,

9. (c) : Here 30° > C 1.11 × 107

t= = 111s = 1.85 min

⇒ sin 30° > sin C 105

1 1 13. (a) : The current due to the battery at any instant, I = e/R.

⇒ > ⇒ m0 > 2

2 m0 The magnetic force due to this current

eBl

10. (d) : If P is the power of point source of light, the FB = IBl =

R

P This magnetic force will accelerate the rod from its

intensity at a distance r is I =

4 πr 2 position of rest. The motional e.m.f. developed in

The energy intercepted per unit time by the metallic the rod is Blv.

sphere is Blv

The induced current, I induced =

P R

E = Intensity × projected area of sphere = 2

× πR2 The magnetic force due to the induced current

4 πr

B2l 2v

Finduced =

R

From Fleming’s left hand rule, force FB is to the

R

S r right and Finduced is to the left.

Net force on the rod = FB – Finduced.

From Newton’s second law,

dv eBl B 2 l 2 v dv

FB − Finduced = m , − =m

If E is the energy of the single photon and h the dt R R dt

efficiency of the photon to liberate an electron, the On separating variables and integrating speed from

number of ejected electrons is 0 to v and time from 0 to t, we have

PR2 (10−6 )(3.2 × 10−3 )(8 × 10−3 )2 dv Bl v dv Bl t

dt , ∫0

(e − Bvl ) mR ∫0

n=h = = = dt

4r 2 E 4 × (0.8)2 × (5 × 1.6 × 10−19 ) e − Bvl mR

= 105 electron s–1

22

e − Bvl B2 l 2 e − Bvl − B l t

ln =− t, = e mR

11. (b) : The emission of electrons from a metallic sphere e mR e

leaves it positively charged. As the potential of the

e mR

charged sphere begins to rise, it attracts emitted \ v= (1 − e −t /t ) where t =

electrons. The emission of electrons will stop when Bl ( Bl )2

the kinetic energy of the electrons is neutralised by 14. (c) : The rod will attain a terminal velocity at t → ∞

the retarding potential of the sphere. So, we have i.e., when e–t/t = 0, the velocity is independent of time.

KE e

eV = KEmax or V = max vT =

e Bl

12. (a) : From Einstein’s photoelectric equation, 15. (d) : The induced current Iinduced = Blv/R. When the

KEmax = hu – f = (5 – 3) = 2 eV rod has attained terminal speed,

The potential of a charged sphere is Bl e

I induced = × = e/R

1 q 1 Ne R Bl

V= =

4 πe0 R 4 πe0 R

The current due to battery and the induced current

1 Ne are of same magnitude, hence net current through

\ =2 the circuit is zero.

4 πe0 R

8 Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation | Atoms and Nuclei

dual nature of matter and radiation By increasing the intensity of light of given wavelength,

The wave nature of light was established by Maxwell’s there is only an increase in the number of photons per

equations of electromagnetism and Hertz experiment second crossing a given area, with each photon having

during the generation and detection of electromagnetic the same energy. Thus, photon energy is independent

waves. of intensity of radiation.

The discoveries of photoelectric effect by Hertz, Photons are electrically neutral. Hence, they are not

Compton effect by Compton, Stark effect by Stark were deflected by electric and magnetic fields.

explained by Planck’s quantum theory of light. According In a photon-particle collision such as photon-electron

to which, the light consists of the packets of energy collision, the total energy and total momentum are

which travel in straight line, with the speed of light. conserved. However, the number of photons may not be

Each packet of energy is called photon or quantum of light. conserved in a collision. The photon may be absorbed

Energy of each photon is E = hu = hc/l where h is Planck’s or a new photon may be created.

constant, u is the frequency of light, c is the velocity of Number of photons emitted per second of frequency u

light and l is the wavelength of light. This, established from a lamp of power P is

the particle nature of light. As some phenomena of P Pl

light were explained by wave theory of light and some n= =

by particle nature of light, hence it was concluded that hu hc

light is of dual nature. electron emission

It is the phenomenon of emission of electrons from the

Photons surface of a metal.

A photon is massless i.e., zero rest mass and moves with The electron emission can be obtained from the

the velocity of light in vacuum i.e., c = 3 × 108 m s–1.

following physical processes :

It can never be brought to rest.

• Thermionic emission : It is the phenomenon of

Photons also carry momentum p. emission of electrons from the metal surface when

E hu h heated suitably.

p= = =

c c l • Photoelectric emission : It is the phenomenon of

Intensity of photons is defined as amount of energy carried emission of electrons from the surface of metal

per unit area per unit time or power carried per unit area. when light radiations of suitable frequency fall on it.

E P • Field emission or cold cathode emission : It is the

I= =

A×t A phenomenon of emission of electrons from the

surface of a metal under the application of a strong For a given metal, there exits a certain minimum

electric field. frequency of light radiation below which no photoelectric

• Secondary emission : It is the phenomenon of emission takes place. This minimum frequency of

emission of electrons from the surface of metal in radiation is known as threshold frequency (u0).

large number when fast moving electrons called The minimum energy of incident radiation needed to

primary electrons strike the metal surface. eject the electrons from metal surface is known as work

KEY POINT function (f0) of that surface. Work function is related to

threshold frequency as

• Photons are not deflected by electric and magnetic hc

fields, which shows that they are neutral and do f0 = hu0 =

l0

not carry any charge.

• The energy of photon depends upon the frequency where l0 is threshold wavelength and c is the velocity

of radiation but is independent of the intensity of of light.

radiation. In electron volt units,

• When a particle exhibits wave nature, it is hc 12400

f0 (eV) = =

associated with a wave packet, rather than a el0 l(Å)

wave. According to Einstein’s photoelectric equation,

Photoelectric effect hu = f0 + Kmax

It is the phenomenon in which electrons are emitted 1 2

where K max = mvmax = maximum kinetic energy of

from a metal surface when radiation of sufficient energy 2

falls on it. ejected photoelectron and u is the frequency of incident

light photon.

hertz’s observations

As f0 = hu0, hence Einstein’s equation may be written as

The phenomenon of photoelectric emission was

discovered in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz during his 1 2

h(u − u0 ) = K max = mvmax

electromagnetic wave experiment. Hertz found that 2

high voltage sparks across detector loop were enhanced If in a photoelectric tube we apply a negative potential,

when an emitter plate was illuminated by ultraviolet then for a certain minimum negative potential the

light from an arc lamp. When the emitter plate was photoelectric current becomes zero. This negative

illuminated by ultraviolet light, some electrons near the potential is known as stopping potential (V0). It is, thus, a

surface of the metallic emitter plate absorb energy from measure of maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons,

the ultraviolet rays. This enables them to overcome the i.e., 1 2

force of attraction due to positive ions in the material of eV0 = K max = mvmax

2

the emitter and finally escape from the emitter surface Variation of stopping potential V0 with frequency u of

into the surrounding space, hence enhancing the high incident radiation is as shown in figure.

voltage sparks across the detector.

eV0 = h(u – u0) = hu – f0

hallwachs’ and lenard’s observations

h f

When ultraviolet radiation was allowed to fall on the V0 = u − 0

emitter plate of an evacuated glass tube enclosing two e e

electrodes, current flowed in the circuit. Thus, V0-u graph is a straight line whose slope

After the discovery of electrons, it became evident that h f

the incident light causes electrons to be emitted from is and intercept is − 0 . The graph meets the u-axis

e e

the emitter plate. It was also observed that no electrons at u0.

were emitted at all when the frequency of the incident

light was smaller than a certain minimum value. This Photoelectric cell

minimum frequency is known as threshold frequency It is a device which converts light energy into electrical

and depends on the nature of the material of the emitter energy. Photoelectric cells are of three types :

plate. Substances which emit electrons when illuminated • Photoemissive cell

by light are known as photosensitive substances and the • Photovoltaic cell

emitted electrons are known as photoelectrons. • Photoconductive cell

Wave nature of matter desired velocity by applying suitable voltage across

Radiation has dual nature, wave and particle nature. the gun.

The nature of experiment determines whether a wave • A fine beam of electrons is made to fall on the surface

or a particle description is best suited for understanding of nickel crystal. The electrons are scattered in all

the experimental result. Reasoning that radiation and directions by the atoms of the crystal. The intensity

matter should be symmetrical in nature, Louis Victor of the electron beam, scattered in a given direction,

de Broglie attributed a wave-like character to matter. is measured by the electron detector, which can be

The waves associated with the moving material particles rotated, on a circular scale.

are called matter waves or de Broglie waves.

de Broglie wavelength

h h

l= =

p 2Km Electron

gun

where p is the momentum of the particle and K is the Detector

kinetic energy of the particle and m is mass of the Incident

beam

particle.

• de Broglie wavelength is independent of the charge

ed

and nature of the material particle. tter

Sca eam

• If the rest mass of a particle is m0, its de Broglie b

wavelength is given by

1/2

v2 Ni-crystal

h 1 − 2 Experimental set up

c

l= • For different values of scattering angles, intensity

m0 v of scattered beam of electrons is measured.

• If a particle of charge q is accelerated through a

44 V 48 V

potential difference V, its de Broglie wavelength is P

given by

I

h

l=

2mqV (a) (b)

1/2

150

For an electron, l = Å 54 V 64 V

V 50°

• For a gas molecule of mass m at temperature I

T kelvin, the de Broglie wavelength is given by

h

l= , where k is the Boltzmann constant. (c) (d)

3mkT

• When the graphs are drawn showing the variation

KEY POINT

of the intensity I of the scattered electrons with

• As the accelerating voltage is increased, the angles of scattering f at different accelerating

de-Broglie wavelength of electron decreases. voltages. It is found that intensity is different for

different angles of scattering. Further, the maximum

davisson and Germer experiment

• Davisson and Germer experiment proves the intensity is obtained due to constructive interference

concept of wave nature of matter particles. In a of electrons scattered from different layers of

crystal lattice, the interatomic distance between the regularly spaced atoms of the crystals.

layers and de-Broglie wavelengths of an electron It is found that angle q between the scattered beam

are nearly of same order. So, diffraction of electron of electrons with the plane of atoms of crystal, when

beam can be observed through crystals. This scattering angle f = 50° is

experiment uses an electron gun to produce fine q + f + q = 180°

beam of electrons which can be accelerated to any 2q = 180° – 50° or q = 65°

Now using Bragg’s law, 2d sin q = nl (a) P - (ii), Q - (i), R - (iii)

but for first order diffraction, l = 2d sin q (b) P - (iv), Q - (iii), R - (ii)

where d = 0.91 Å is distance between two successive (c) P - (i), Q - (iv), R - (iii)

layers of atoms in Ni crystal (d) P - (ii), Q - (iv), R - (iii) (JEE Main 2015)

or l = 2 × 0.91 sin 65° or l = 1.66 Å

This is the value of wavelength of electron as measured 2. de-Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated

by Davission and Germer experiment. However, the by a voltage of 50 V is close to (|e| = 1.6 × 10–19 C,

de-Broglie wavelength of an electron accelerated me = 9.1 × 10–31 kg, h = 6.6 × 10–34 Js)

through potential difference V = 54 volts is (a) 0.5 Å (b) 1.2 Å

12.27 12.27 (c) 1.7 Å (d) 2.4 Å

l= = or l = 1.65 Å

V 54 (JEE Main 2015)

As the two results are same, so this experiment 3. The anode voltage of a photocell is kept fixed. The

proves the wave nature of electron and hence of a wavelength l of the light falling on the cathode

particle in general. is gradually changed. The plate current I of the

electron microscope photocell varies as follows

The wave nature of electrons affords us the possibility of I I

having probes of very short wavelength. Electrons speed

up to high energies, using an accelerating voltage of, say, (a) (b)

50 kV have a de Broglie wavelength of 0.0055 nm, This

is about 105 times smaller than that of visible light. O O

An electron microscope is a device that exploits the I I

wave nature of electrons. Theoretically, the resolving (c) (d)

limit of the electron microscope, using electrons of

50 keV, would be 0.0055 nm.

O O

However, in practice, the electron beam needs to be

focussed using electric and magnetic fields as lenses (JEE Main 2013)

(much like a beam of light is focussed using optical lenses).

atoms and nuclei

These limit the resolution to about 0.2 nm, which is still

1000 times better than that of the optical microscopes. alpha-particle scattering experiment

The electron microscope, with its high magnifying and At the suggestions of Rutherford in 1911 Geiger and

resolving powers, is one of the most indispensable and Marsden performed a-particle scattering experiment.

powerful tools for research in science, medicine and industry.

SELF CHECK

1. Match List I (Fundamental Experiment) with List-II Gold foil

(its conclusion) and select the correct option from

the choices given below the list :

Screen

List-I List-II

P. Franck-Hertz (i) Particle nature Geiger-Marsden scattering experiment.

e entire apparatus is placed

Experiment. of light Source of -particles in a vacuum chamber

Q. Photo-electric (ii) Discrete energy

They directed a beam of 5.5 MeV a-particles emitted

experiment. levels of atom

from a 21483 Bi radioactive source at a thin metal foil

R. Davison-Germer (iii) Wave nature of

made of gold. The beam was allowed to fall on a thin

Experiment. electron

foil of gold of thickness 2.1 × 10–7 m. Alpha particles

(iv) Structure of emitted by radioactive source were collimated into a

atom narrow beam by passing through lead bricks.

The scattered a-particles were received by a rotatable • The trajectory traced by an alpha particle depends

detector with zinc sulphide screen and a microscope. on its impact parameter b. Rutherford had

Distribution of the number of scattered particles was analytically calculated the relation between the

studied as a function of angle of scattering by flashes impact parameter b and the scattering angle q,

or scintillations produced by striking a-particles on the given by

zinc sulphide screen. Ze 2 cot q / 2

Schematic arrangement of the Geiger-Marsden b=

4 pe0 K a

experiment

Lead bricks Small angle

where Ka is the kinetic energy of the incident alpha

in gold foil

scattering particle.

of most

Beam of

particles • If b = 0, then by above relation cot q/2 = 0 or

Source of

-particles q/2 = 90° or q = 180° i.e., in case of head on collision,

-particles the impact parameter is zero and the alpha-particle

ZnS screen rebounds back.

Large angle • If b = ∞, then by above relation cot q/2 = ∞ or

scattering of some q/2 = 0° or q = 0° i.e., the alpha particle goes nearly

Backward scattering particles

of a very small fraction Detector undeviated for a large impact parameter.

Nucleus

distance of closest approach : estimation

of nuclear size

Incident + • Suppose an a-particle of mass m and initial velocity

-particles

v moves directly towards the centre of the nucleus

of an atom. As it approaches the positive nucleus,

it experiences Coulombic repulsion and its kinetic

observations and results were as follows:

energy gets progressively converted into electrostatic

• Most of the a-particles pass through the gold foil potential energy. At a certain distance r0 from the

without any deflection. This shows that most of the nucleus, the a-particle stops for a moment and then

space in an atom is empty. begin to retrace its path. The distance r0 is called the

• Few a-particles got scattered, deflecting at various distance of closest approach.

angles from 0 to p. This shows that atom has a small

positively charged core called nucleus at centre of -particle +

+ + Nucleus

atom, which deflects the positively charged a-particles + +

+

at different angles depending on their distance from

centre of nucleus.

• Very-very few a-particles N() r0

(1 in 8000) suffers

Distance of closest

deflection of 180°. This approach

shows that size of nucleus 1

• Let, initial kinetic energy of a-particle, K a = mv 2 .

is very small, nearly 1/8000 2

times the size of atom. 0° = 180° Electrostatic potential energy of a-particle and

This graph shows nucleus at distance r0,

deflection of number of particles with angle of qq 2e.Ze 1

deflection q. U= 1 2 =

4 pe0r0 r0 4 pe0

• Impact parameter b is the distance of the initial

At the distance r0, Ka = U

velocity vector of the alpha-particle from the centre

of the nucleus. 1 2e.Ze 1

or mv 2 =

2 r0 4 pe0

2

Ze

b r0 =

nucleus pe0mv 2

Hence radius of nucleus must be smaller than r0.

models for structure of an atom • The distance of closest approach is given by

thomson’s model of atom 1 2 Ze 2 1 2 Ze 2

r0 = × =

• The atom as a whole is electrically neutral because 4 pe0 1 2 4 pe0 K

mv0

the positive charge present on the atom (sphere) is 2

equal to the negative charge of electrons present in where K is kinetic energy of a-particle.

the sphere. Atom is positively charged sphere of Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom

radius 10–10 m in which electrons are embedded in An electron in an atom moves in a circular orbit about

between. The positive charge and the whole mass of the nucleus under the influence of Coulomb’s force of

the atom is uniformly distributed throughout the attraction between the electron and nucleus. As the

sphere. atom as a whole is stable, the Coulombian force of

shortcomings of thomson model attraction provides necessary centripetal force

• The spectrum of atoms cannot be explained with e2 mv 2

= ...(i)

the help of this model. 4pe0r 2 r

• Scattering of a-particles cannot be explained with Only those orbits are possible for which the orbital

the help of this model. angular momentum of the electron is equal to an

rutherford model of atom h

integral multiple of .

• On the basis of his study of the scattering of 2p

nh

a-particles, Rutherford postulated the following i.e., mvr = ...(ii)

model of the atom. 2p

• Atom is a sphere of diameter about 10–10 m whole radii of orbits

of its positive charge and most of its mass is From (i) and (ii)

concentrated in the central part called the nucleus. n2 h2 e0

• The diameter of the nucleus is of the order of rn = ...(iii)

10–14 m. pme 2

• The space around the nucleus is virtually Equation (iii) shows that the radii of the permitted orbits

empty with electrons revolving around the nucleus vary as the square of n, called the principal quantum

in the same way as the planets revolve around the number. For the smallest orbit n = 1, substituting the

sun. values of h, e0, m and e we have radius of first orbit

• The electrostatic attraction of the nucleus provides r1 = 0.529 × 10–10 m = 0.529 Å

centripetal force to the orbiting electrons. This calculation shows that the atom is about 10–10 m

• Total positive charge in nucleus is equal to the total in diameter.

negative charge of the orbiting electrons. Velocity of revolving electron

rutherford scattering formula To obtain the velocity of the revolving electron, we

• The number of a-particles scattered at an angle q substitute the value of r from equation (iii) in (ii), we get

by a target are given by e2 ...(iv)

v=

N 0nt (2 Ze 2 )2 1 2nhe0

N (q) = ×

2 2

4(4 pe0 ) r (mv02 )2 q orbital frequency of electron

sin 4 • The orbital frequency of electron is given by,

2

where, N0 = number of a-particles that strike the me 4

unit area of the scatter u= 2 3 3 ...(v)

4e0n h

n = number of target atoms per unit volume This expression shows that the orbital frequency of an

t = thickness of target electron is inversely proportional to the cube of n.

Ze = charge on target nucleus

electron energy

2e = charge on a-particle

r = distance of the screen from target me 4 me 4

• K.E. = ; P.E. = −

v0 = velocity of a-particles 8n2h2e20 4n2h2e20

Orbital energy spectral series of hydrogen atom

En = K.E. + P.E. The wavelength of different lines of series can be found

me 4 me 4 me 4 from the following relation

= 2 2 2 − 2 2 2 =− 2 2 2

8n h e0 4n h e0 8n h e0 1 1 1

u = = R 2 − 2

l n1 n2

SELF CHECK

This relation explains the complete spectrum of

4. The de-Broglie wavelength associated with the hydrogen. A detailed account of the important series is

electron in the n = 4 level is listed below.

(a) two times the de-Broglie wavelength of the

electron in the ground state

lyman series

(b) four times the de-Broglie wavelength of the This series consists of wavelength which are emitted when

electron in the ground state electron jumps from an outer orbit to the first orbit i.e., the

(c) half of the de-Broglie wavelength of the electron electron jumping to K orbit gives rise to Lyman series.

in the ground state Here, n1 = 1 and n2 = 2, 3, 4 ...... ∞

(d) 1/4th of the de-Broglie wavelength of the The wavelength of different lines of Lyman series are

electron in the ground state. First line : In this case n1 = 1 and n2 = 2

(JEE Main 2015) 1 1 1 3R

∴ = R 2 − 2 =

5. As an electron makes a transition from an excited state l 1 2 4

to the ground state of a hydrogen -like atom/ion 4

(a) kinetic energy decreases, potential energy or l= 6

= 1215 × 10−10 m

3 × 10.97 × 10

increases but total energy remains same

(b) kinetic energy and total energy decrease but = 1215 Å

potential energy increases Second line : In this case n1 = 1 and n2 = 3

(c) its kinetic energy increases but potential energy 1 1 1 8R

∴ = R 2 − 2 =

and total energy decrease l 1 3 9

(d) kinetic energy, potential energy and total energy

9 9

decrease. l= = = 1026 × 10−10 m

(JEE Main 2015) 8R 8 × 10.97 × 106

mass m and charge q moving in a plane under the Similarly the wavelength of the other lines can be

influence of a magnetic field B, the energy of the calculated.

charged particle in the nth level will be Series limit : In this case, n1 = 1 and n2 = ∞

hqB hqB 1

(a) n (b) n 1 1

2pm 4pm = R 2 − 2 = R

l 1 ∞

hqB hqB 1

(c) n (d) n l=

8pm pm R

1

(JEE Main 2015) or l = 6

= 912 × 10−10 m

10.97 × 10

7. In a hydrogen like atom electron makes transition

= 912 Å

from an energy level with quantum number n to

another with quantum number (n – 1). If n > > 1, This series lies in ultraviolet region.

the frequency of radiation emitted is proportional to Balmer series

1 1 This series consists of all wavelengths which are emitted

(a) (b)

n 3 n when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to the

1 1 second orbit i.e., the electron jumping to L orbit gives

(c) 2

(d) 3/2 rise to Balmer series.

n n

(JEE Main 2013) Here, n1 = 2 and n2 = 3, 4, 5 ...... ∞.

The wavelength of different lines of Balmer series are Pfund series

First line : In this case n1 = 2 and n2 = 3, The different wavelengths of this series can be obtained

1 1 1 5R from the formula

∴ = R 2 − 2 = 1 1 1

l 2 3 36 = R 2 − 2

36 l (5) n2

l=

5R where, n2 = 6, 7, 8 ..... ∞

36 This series lies in far infrared region.

or l = = 6563 × 10−10 m

5 × 10.97 × 106

= 6563 Å ionisation and excitation energy

Second line : In this case n1 = 2 and n2 = 4 Ionisation energy of an atom is defined as the energy

1 1 1 3R required to ionise it i.e., to make the electron jump from its

∴ = R 2 − 2 = present orbit to infinite orbit.

l 2 4 16

16 16 Thus, ionisation energy of hydrogen atom in the ground

l= = = 4861 × 10−10 m state = E∞ – E1 = 0 –(– 13.6 eV) = + 13.6 eV

3R 3 × 10.97 × 106

The potential through which an electron is to be

= 4861 Å

accelerated so that it acquires energy equal to the

Series limit : In this case n1 = 2 and n2 = ∞.

ionization energy is called the ionisation potential.

1 1 1 R Therefore, ionisation potential of hydrogen atom in its

∴ = R 2 − =

l 2 ∞ 4 ground state is 13.6 V.

4 Excitation energy is the energy required to excite an

or l = = 3646 Å

R electron from a lower energy level to a higher energy level.

This series lies in visible region.

Thus, first excitation energy of hydrogen atom

Paschen series = E2 – E1 = – 3.4 – (– 13.6) eV = 10.2 eV

This series consists of all wavelengths which are emitted Similarly second excitation energy of hydrogen

when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to the third = E3 – E1 = – 1.51 – (– 13.6) = 12.09 eV

orbit i.e., the electron jumping to M orbit gives rise to

Paschen series. KEY POINT

Here, n1 = 3 and n2 = 4, 5, 6 ........∞. • The word ionisation is used for the reason that

The different wavelengths of this series can be obtained when the electron is knocked out of the atom, the

from the formula residual atom is a positive ion.

1 1 1

= R 2 − 2 SELF CHECK

l 3 n2

where n2 = 4, 5, 6 ....... ∞ 8. Hydrogen (1H1), Deuterium (1H2), singly ionised

For the first line, the wavelength is 18750 Å. This series Helium (2He4)+ and doubly ionised lithium (3Li6)++

lies in infra-red region. all have one electron around the nucleus. Consider

Brackett series an electron transition from n = 2 to n = 1. If the

This series consists of all wavelengths which are emitted wavelengths of emitted radiation are l1, l2, l3 and

when an electron jumps from an outer orbit to the l4 respectively then approximately which one of the

fourth orbit i.e., the electron jumping to N orbit gives following is correct?

rise to Brackett series. (a) l1 = 2l2 = 3l3 = 4l4

Here, n1 = 4 and n2 = 5, 6, 7 ..... ∞. (b) 4l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4

The different wavelengths of this series can be obtained (c) l1 = 2l2 = 2l3 = l4

from the formula (d) l1 = l2 = 4l3 = 9l4 (JEE Main 2014)

1 1 1 9. The radiation corresponding to 3 → 2 transition of

= R 2 − 2

l 4 n2 hydrogen atom falls on a metal surface to produce

where, n2 = 5, 6, 7 .... ∞. photoelectrons. These electrons are made to enter

This series lies in far infrared region. a magnetic field of 3 × 10–4 T. If the radius of the

largest circular path followed by these electrons is • Nature

10.0 mm, the work function of the metal is close to ▶ Attractive : If distance is about 1 fermi (fm) or

(a) 1.6 eV (b) 1.8 eV above.

(c) 1.1 eV (d) 0.8 eV ▶ Repulsive : If distance is less than 0.5 fm.

(JEE Main 2014)

nuclear radius

nucleus The radius of a nucleus depends only on its mass

In every atom, the positive charge is concentrated at the number A according to the relation r = r0A1/3, where r0

centre of the atom forming its nucleus. The order of size is a constant having a value of 1.2 fermi.

of nucleus is 10–15 m or fermi.

isotopes, isobars and isotones

The order of size of atom is 10–10 m or Å. Only protons Isotopes : Isotopes of an element are nuclides having

and neutrons can exist inside the nucleus. Electrons same atomic number Z but different mass number A (or

orbit around the nucleus in certain orbits and are called different neutron number N). Isotopes of an element

atomic electrons. have identical electronic configuration and hence,

In describing the atomic nucleus, we must use the identical chemical properties.

following quantities : 1 2 3 11 12 14 etc are isotopes.

1 H, 1 H, 1 H and 6 C, 6 C, 6 C

• Neutrons and protons are called nucleons.

• Number of protons in a nucleus is its atomic Isobars : Nuclides having same mass number A but

number (Z). different atomic number Z are called isobars.Isobars

• Number of nucleons in a nucleus is its mass have different chemical properties. In isobars, number

number (A). of protons Z as well as neutrons N are different but

total nucleon (or mass) number A = N + Z is the same.

A particular nucleus is represented as 3 3 14 14

2 He and 2 H, 6 C, 7 N

are isobars.

A A

ZX or ZX

Isotones : Nuclides with different atomic number Z and

Three forces are interacting between nucleons

different mass number A but same neutron number are

• Gravitational force which is negligible.

called isotones. Thus, for isotones N = (A – Z) is same.

• Repulsive electrostatic (Coulomb) force between

kq1q2

3 4 198 197

1 H, 2 He and 80 Hg, 79 Au

are examples of isotones.

proton-proton Fe = . Due to small distance

r2 mass defect and Binding energy

between protons this force is very strong. Due to Mass defect : The difference in mass of a nucleus and its

this strong force on a very small particle, the proton constituents is called the mass defect of that nucleus.

would have been fly out from the nucleus. Thus, mass defect, DM = Zmp + (A – Z)mn – M

• But there is another stronger force, called strong nuclear where M is the mass of given nucleus.

force (Fn) which is more strong than electrostatic force Packing fraction : Packing fraction of an atom is the

that acts and holds nucleons (p – p, p – n, n – n) closely. difference between mass of nucleus and its mass number

nuclear force divided by the mass number.

M−A

It is the most strong force in the universe and it acts Packing fraction =

only between the nucleons. A

The properties of nuclear force are as follows: Binding energy : The energy equivalent of the mass defect

• Very short range : Only upto size of nucleus 1-3

of a nucleus is called its binding energy.

or 4 fermi. More than this distance, nuclear force is Thus, binding energy

almost zero. DEb = DMc2 = [Zmp + (A – Z) mn – M]c2

• Very much depends upon distance : Small variation If masses are expressed in atomic mass units, then

in distance may cause large change in nuclear force DEb = DM × 931.5 MeV

while electrostatic force remains almost unaffected. = [Zmp + (A – Z)mn – M] × 931.5 MeV

• Independent of charge : Interacts between n – n as Binding energy per nucleon (DEbn) is the average

well as between p – p and also between n – p. energy needed to separate a nucleus into its individual

• Spin dependent : It is stronger between nucleons nucleons. Then

having same sense of spin than between p nucleons DE

DEbn = b

having opposite sense of spin. A

Physics for you | FEBRUARY ‘16 39

Binding energy curve

It is the curve drawn between binding energy per nucleon and mass number as shown in the figure.

The main features of the curve as follows :

10 56Fe

32S

Binding energy per nucleon (MeV)

16 100

O Mo 127I

184W

8 12C

197

4He 18O An

238U

14N

6

6Li

4

3H

2

2

H

0

0 50 100 150 200 250

Mass number (A)

constant, i.e. practically independent of the

atomic number for nuclei of middle mass number rutherford’s experiment

(30 < A < 170). The curve has a maximum of about • Rutherford put a sample of radioctive substance

8.75 MeV for A = 56 and has a value of 7.6 MeV in a lead box and allow the emission of radiations

for A = 238. through a small hole only. When the radiation

• The binding energy per nucleon is lower for both enter into the external electric field, they split

light nuclei (A < 30) and heavy nuclei (A > 170). into three parts.

KEY POINT

• According to the mass-energy relation, the mass

of a body is measure of its energy content.

• Nuclei with high binding energies are very

stable as it takes a lot of energy to split them.

• Nuclei with lower binding energies are easier to

split.

radioactivity

Spontaneous emission of radiations from the

nucleus is known as radioactivity and substances • Radiations which deflect towards negative

showing this property are called radioactive plate are called a-rays as shown in figure.

substances. These rays are stream of positive charged

Only unstable nuclei exhibit this property. A particular particles.

nuclide (element) can emit only a particular type of • Radiations which deflect towards positive plate are

radiations at a time, according to its requirement of called b-rays as shown in figure. These are stream

stability. of negative charged particles.

Radioactivity was discovered by Becquerel therefore the • Radiations which remain undeflected are called

radiation also called Becquerel radiations. g-rays as shown in figure. These are electromagnetic

Later on Marie Curie and Pierre Curie discovered many wave or photons (electrically neutral) alike light

other radioactive substances. rays.

Comparison of a, b and g rays

a-particle/ray b-particle/ray g-ray

Charge and Mass 2 unit (+ve); 4 unit mass 1 unit (–ve); equal to mass of an no mass

electron

4

Nature 2He or He++ Fast moving –1e0 0g

0

th

Velocity, Path 1/10 of light, straight line 33% to 99% of light. Same as light waves

Electric field Deflected towards the Deflected towards the anode Not deflected

cathode

Penetrating power Small or (0.01 mm of Al foil) 100 times of a-particle 100 times of b-particle

Relative ionizing Very high, nearly 100 times Small, nearly 100 times of Very small

power of a-rays g-rays

Effect on ZnS They cause luminescence Very little effect Very little effect

plates

Nature of product Product obtained by the loss Product obtained by the loss There is no change in

of one a-particle has atomic of one b-particle has atomic atomic number as well as

number less by 2 units and number more by 1 unit, without mass number.

mass number by 4 units. any change in mass number.

law of radioactive decay alpha, Beta and Gamma decay

dN

= − lN (t ) or N (t ) = N 0 e − lt alpha decay

dt A nucleus that decays spontaneously by emitting an

where l is the decay constant and N(t) is the number of

alpha particle (a helium nucleus 42 He ) is said to undergo

radioactive nuclei present at time t.

alpha decay. The alpha decay is represented by

Half-life of a radioactive substance is given by

A A− 4

ln 2 0.693 ZX → Z −2 Y + 24 He + Q

T1/2 = =

l l where ZA X is the parent nucleus and ZA−−24 Y is the daughter

Mean-life or average life of a radioactive substance is nucleus and Q is the energy released in the decay.

given by In a alpha decay disintegration energy Q is given by

1 T Q = (mX – mY – mHe)c2

τ = = 1/2 = 1.44T1/2

l 0.693 Kinetic energy of alpha particles is given by

Activity : The number of disintegrations occurring A−4

KEa = Q

in a radioactive substance per second and it is given A

by where A is the mass number of parent nucleus.

dN Beta decay

R=−

dt A nucleus that decays spontaneously by emitting an

The S.I. unit of activity is becquerel. electron or a positron is said to undergo beta decay.

1 becquerel = 1 Bq = 1 decay/sec. In beta minus decay (b–), a neutron is transformed into

The traditional unit of activity is the curie. a proton and an electron and antineutrino is emitted.

1 curie = 1 Ci = 3.70 × 1010 decays s–1 = 37 GBq. n → p + e− + ν

The other unit of radioactivity is rutherford. where n is the neutron, p is the proton, e– is the electron

1 rutherford = 106 decays/s. and ν is the antineutrino.

Activity law : R(t) = R0e–lt The beta minus decay is represented by

where R0 = lN0 is the decay rate at t = 0 and R = Nl.

A

ZX → A

Z+1 Y + e− + ν

In beta minus decay, disintegration energy Q is given by • Both are energised particles.

Q = [mX – mY]c2.

• Have spin quantum number ± 1 and spin angular

In beta plus decay (b+), a proton is transformed into 2

neutron and positron and neutrino is emitted. momentum ± h similar to electron.

2p

p → n + e+ + ν

• These are suggested by Pauli to explain the problems

where e+ is the positron and ν is the neutrino.

of energy conservation, linear momentum

The beta plus decay is represented by

conservation, spin conservation and spin angular

A

ZX → A

Z −1 Y + e+ + ν

momentum conservation in b-decay.

In beta plus decay, the disintegration energy is given by

Q = [mX – mY – 2me]c2 Gamma decay

where me is the mass of the electron. • When a nucleus in an excited state makes a

transition to state of lower energy, electromagnetic

KEY POINT radiation of very short wavelength is emitted.

• The kinetic energy of an electron or a positron in • The gamma decay is represented by

the beta decay vary continuously from zero to a A

ZX * → A

ZX +g

certain maximum value K.E.max. The maximum * denotes the excited nuclear state.

kinetic energy K.E.max of an electron or positron

must equal to the disintegration energy Q. KEY POINT

Properties of neutrino/antineutrino • The energy of g rays emitted by a radioactive

• Both are neutral. substance can have unique and discrete values.

• Have almost zero rest mass.

Neutron reproduction factor (K)

SELF CHECK

rate of production of neutrons

10. Let Nb be the number of b particles emitted by =

rate of loss of neutrons

1 gram of Na24 radioactive nuclei (half life = 15 hrs) Uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction is the basis of an

in 7.5 hours, Nb is close to atom bomb. Controlled nuclear chain reaction is the

(Avogadro number = 6.023 × 1023/g mole) basis of a nuclear reactor.

(a) 6.2 × 1021 (b) 7.5×1021 Nuclear reactor : It is based on the phenomenon of

(c) 1.25 × 1022 (d) 1.75 × 1022 controlled nuclear chain reaction. Moderators like

(JEE Main 2015) heavy water, graphite, paraffin and deuterium slow

down neutrons. Rods of cadmium or boron serve as

nuclear reaction control rods. Ordinary water and heavy water serve as

A nuclear reaction is represented by coolants.

A+a→B+b+Q KEY POINT

where A is the target nucleus, a is the impinging particle, B • The energy released in a fission reaction comes

and b the products, Q is the energy released in the process. from the difference between the mass of the

The nuclear reaction is represented by notation A(a, b)B. original nucleus and the combined mass of the

Q value of nuclear reaction, fission fragments.

Q = (mA + ma – mB – mb)c2

nuclear fusion

If Q is positive, the reaction is exothermic and if Q is It is the phenomenon of fusing two or more lighter

negative, the reaction is endothermic. nuclei to form a single heavy nucleus. The nuclear

nuclear fission fusion reaction of two deutrons is represented as

2 2 4

It is the phenomenon of splitting a heavy nucleus into 1H + 1H → 2He + 24 MeV

two or more smaller nuclei. Temperature ≈ 107 K are required for fusion to take

The nuclear fission of 92U235 is represented as place. Nuclear fusion is a basis of hydrogen bomb.

235

+ 0n1 → 56Ba141 + 36Kr92 + 3 0n1 + Q Stellar energy: It is the energy obtained from the sun

92U

and stars. The source of stellar energy is nuclear fusion.

The value of the Q is 200 MeV per fission reaction.

Nuclear chain reaction : Under suitable conditions, the ansWer keys (self check)

three secondary neutrons may cause further fission of 1. (a) 2. (c) 3. (a) 4. (b) 5. (c)

U235 nuclei and start what is known as nuclear chain

6. (b) 7. (a) 8. (d) 9. (c) 10. (b)

reaction. The nuclear chain reaction is controlled by

nn

medical application of radioactivity

The Physics of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

G amma Knife radiosurgery is becoming a very promising medical procedure for treating

certain problems of the brain, including benign and cancerous tumors, as well as blood

vessel malformations. The procedure, which involves no knife at all, uses powerful, highly

focused beams of g-rays aimed at the tumor or malformation. They (g-rays) are emitted by a Gamma

radioactive cobalt-60 source. As figure illustrates, the patient wears a protective metal helmet rays

that is perforated with many small holes. The holes focus the g-rays to a single tiny target within

the brain. The target tissue thus receives a very intense dose of radiation and is destroyed, while Target

the surrounding healthy tissue is undamaged. Gamma Knife surgery is non-invasive, painless,

and bloodless procedure that is often performed under local anesthesia. Hospital stays are

70-90% shorter than with conventional surgery, and patients often return to work within a Helmet

few days.

1. An a-particle moves in a circular path of radius 5. Rest mass energy of an electron is 0.7 MeV. If the

0.83 cm in the presence of a magnetic field of velocity of the electron is 0.51c, then kinetic

0.25 Wb m–2. The de Broglie wavelength associated energy of the electron is nearly

with the particle will be (a) 0.36 MeV (b) 0.25 MeV

(a) 1 Å (b) 0.1 Å (c) 0.51 MeV (d) 0.49 MeV

(c) 10 Å (d) 0.01 Å

6. Find the ratio of de Broglie wavelength of molecules

2. Photoelectric effect experiments are performed of hydrogen and helium which are at temperatures

using three different metal plates p, q and r having 27°C and 127°C, respectively.

work functions fp = 2.0 eV, fq = 2.5 eV and (a) 8 : 3 (b) 6 : 1

fr = 3.0 eV, respectively. A light beam containing

wavelengths of 550 nm, 450 nm and 350 nm with (c) 2 : 3 (d) 1 : 1

equal intensities illuminates each of the plates. The –3

7. 10 W of 500 Å light is directed on a photoelectric

correct I-V graph for the experiment is cell. If the current in the cell is 0.16 mA, the percentage

of incident photons which produce photoelectrons,

I I

p is

q

(a) r (b) (a) 40% (b) 0.04%

pq

V r V

(c) 20% (d) 0.01%

8. In a series of photoelectric emission experiments

I I on a certain metal surface, possible relationships

r

q

(c) p (d) between the following quantities were investigated:

r qp threshold frequency u0, frequency of incident

V V

light u, light intensity P, photocurrent I, maximum

3. A photon collides with a stationary hydrogen atom kinetic energy of photoelectrons Tmax. Two of these

in ground state in elastically. Energy of the colliding quantities, when plotted as a graph of y against x,

photon is 10.2 eV. After a time interval of the order give a straight line through the origin.

of microsecond, another photon collides with same

Which of the following correctly identifies x and y

hydrogen atom in elastically with an energy of

with the photoelectric quantities?

15 eV. What will be observed by the detector?

x y

(a) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and an electron

(a) I u0

of energy 1.4 eV.

(b) Two photons of energy 1.4 eV. (b) u u0

(c) Two photons of energy 10.2 eV. (c) P I

(d) One photon of energy 10.2 eV and another (d) P Tmax

photon of 1.4 eV. 9. Light of wavelength l from a small 0.5 mW He-Ne

4. A radioactive material decays by simultaneous laser source, used in the school laboratory, shines

emission of two particles with respective half-lives from a spacecraft of mass 1000 kg. Estimate the

1620 and 810 years. The time, (in years), after which time needed for the spacecraft to reach a velocity of

one-fourth of the material remains is 1.0 km s–1 from rest.

(a) 1080 (b) 2430 (a) 9 × 1018 (b) 3 × 1017

(c) 3240 (d) 4860 (c) 6 × 1017 (d) 2 × 1015

10. A hydrogen atom in the ground state absorbs sun is 1.4 kW m–2. The average earth sun distance is

10.2 eV of energy. The orbital angular momentum 1.5 × 1011 metres. The mass lost by the sun per day is

of the electron is increased by (a) 4.4 × 109 kg (b) 7.6 × 1014 kg

(a) 1.05 × 10–34 J s (b) 2.11 × 10–34 J s (c) 3.8 × 1012 kg (d) 3.8 × 1014 kg

–34

(c) 3.16 × 10 J s (d) 4.22 × 10–34 J s 15. A nucleus with mass number 220 initially at rest

11. The potential energy of a particle of mass m is given by emits an a-particle. If the Q value of the reaction is 5.5

E0 ; 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 MeV, the kinetic energy of the a-particle will be

U (x ) = (a) 4.4 MeV (b) 5.4 MeV

0; x > 1 (c) 5.6 MeV (d) 6.5 MeV

l1 and l2 are the de-Broglie wavelengths of the

particle, when 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and x > 1 respectively. If the 16. A proton, a neutron, an electron and an a-particle

l have same energy. Then their de-Broglie wavelengths

total energy of particle is 2E0, the ratio 1 will be compare as

l2

(a) 2 (b) 1 (a) lp = ln > le > la (b) la < lp = ln < le

1 (c) le = lp > ln > la (d) le = lp > la > ln

(c) 2 (d) 17. A neutron beam of energy E scatters from atoms

2

12. In the diagram a graph between the intensity of X-rays on a surface with a spacing d = 0.1 nm. The first

emitted by a molybdenum target and the wavelength maximum of intensity in the reflected beam occurs

is shown, when electrons of 30 keV are incident on at q = 30°. The kinetic energy E of the beam is

the target. In the graph one peak is of Ka line and the (a) 10.2 eV (b) 5.02 eV

other peak is of Kb line. (c) 0.21 eV (d) 0.08 eV

18. An electron of mass m and charge e initially at

rest gets accelerated by a constant electric field E.

The rate of change of de-Broglie wavelength of the

electron at time t (ignoring relativistic effect) is

−h −eEt

(a) 2

(b)

eEt E

(c) −mh (d) −h

(a) First peak is of Ka line at 0.6 Å. eEt 2 eE

(b) Highest peak is of Ka line at 0.7 Å. 19. Which of the following statements are true regarding

(c) If the energy of incident particles is increased, Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom?

then the peaks will shift towards left. I Orbiting speed of an electron decreases as it

(d) If the energy of incident particles is increased, falls to discrete orbits away from the nucleus.

then the peaks will shift towards right. II. Radii of allowed orbits of electrons are

proportional to the principal quantum number.

13. Two radioactive nuclei P and Q, in a given sample

III. Frequency with which electrons orbit around the

decay into a stable nucleus R. At time t = 0, number

nucleus in discrete orbits is inversely proportional

of P species are 4 N0 and that of Q are N0. Half-life

to the cube of principal quantum number.

of P (for conversion to R) is 1 minute whereas that of IV. Binding force with which the electron is bound

Q is 2 minutes. Initially there are no nuclei of to the nucleus increases as it shifts to outer

R present in the sample. When number of nuclei of orbits.

P and Q are equal, the number of nuclei of R present (a) I and III (b) II and IV

in the sample would be (c) I, II and III (d) II, III and IV

5N 0

(a) (b) 2N0 20. A beam of 13.0 eV electrons is used to bombard

2

9N 0 gaseous hydrogen. The series obtained in emission

(c) 3N0 (d) spectra is/are

2

14. The sun radiates energy in all directions. The average (a) Lyman series (b) Balmer series

radiations received on the earth surface from the (c) Paschen series (d) All of these

21. In the Bohr model of a p-mesic atom, a p-meson 27. In accordance with the Bohr’s model, the quantum

of mass mp and of the same charge as the electron number that characterises the earth’s revolution

is in a circular orbit of radius r about the nucleus around the sun in an orbit of radius 1.5 × 1011 m

with an orbital angular momentum h/2p. If the with orbital speed 3 × 104 m s–1, belongs to (Mass

radius of a nucleus of atomic number Z is given by of earth = 6.0 × 1024 kg)

R = 1.6 × 10–15 Z1/3m, then the limit on Z for which (a) Balmer series (b) Lyman series

p-mesic atoms might exist is (c) Paschen series (d) None of these

(Given e0h2/pme e2 = 0.53 Å and mp/me = 264) 28. The normal activity of living carbon containing

(a) < 105 (b) > 105 matter is found to be about 15 decays per

(c) < 37 (d) > 37 minute for every gram of carbon. This activity

22. 90% of a radioactive sample is left undecayed after arises from the small proportion of radioactive

time t has elapsed. What percentage of the initial 14 12

6 C present with stable carbon isotope 6 C.

sample will decay in a total time 2t ? When the organism is dead, its interaction with

(a) 20% (b) 19% the atmosphere (which maintains the above

(c) 40% (d) 38% equilibrium activity) ceases and its activity begins

23. A sample of radioactive material decays to drop. From the known half-life (5730 yr) of

simultaneously by two processes A and B with half- 14 and the measured activity, the age of the

6C

1 1 specimen can be approximately estimated. This is

lives h and h, respectively. For the first half hour

2 4 the principle of 146 C dating used in archaeology.

it decays with the process A, next one hour with the Suppose a specimen from Mohenjodaro gives an

process B, and for further half an hour with both activity of 9 decays per minute per gram of carbon.

A and B. If, originally, there were N0 nuclei, the Estimate the approximate age of the Indus-Valley

number of nuclei left after 2 h of such decay will be civilization.

N0 N0 (a) 5224 yr (b) 4224 yr

(a) (b)

(2)8 (2)4 (c) 8264 yr (d) 6268 yr

N0 N0 29. What amount of energy is associated with a g-ray

(c) 6

(d)

(2) (2)5 photon which materializes into a proton anti-proton

238

24. Stationary nucleus U decays by a emission pair each having energy of 20 MeV ? (Take mass of

generating a total kinetic energy T . proton = 1.007276 amu).

238 234

Th + 24 a (a) 2733.25 MeV (b) 1575.55 MeV

92 U → 90

(c) 2763.35 MeV (d) 1915.55 MeV

What is the kinetic energy of the a-particle?

(a) T/2 30. Match the column I with column II for an nth

(b) Slightly less than T/2 stationary Bohr orbit.

(c) Slightly less than T Column I Column II

(d) Slightly greater than T P. Radius of orbit (r) 1. varies as 1/n

25. Which sample contains greater number of nuclei : Q. Velocity of electron in 2. varies as 1/n2

a 5.00 mCi sample of 240Pu (half-life 6560 y) or a

orbit (v)

4.45 mCi sample of 243Am (half-life 7370 y)?

(a) 240Pu (b) 243Am R. To t a l e n e r g y o f 3. Varies as 1/n3

(c) Equal in both (d) Can’t say electron in orbit (E)

26. The work function for the surface of Al is 4.2 eV. S. Frequency of revolution 4. varies as n2

How much potential difference will be required to of electron (u)

just stop the emission of maximum energy electrons (a) P - 4, Q - 2, R - 3, S - 1

emitted by light of 2000 Å? (b) P - 2, Q - 3, R - 1, S - 4

(a) 1.51 eV (b) 1.99 V (c) P - 2, Q - 3, R - 4, S - 1

(c) 2.99 eV (d) None of these (d) P - 4, Q - 1, R - 2, S - 3

SolutionS 6. (a) : de Broglie wavelength is given by l = h/mv.

Root mean square velocity of a gas particle at the

1. (d) : As l = h and R = mv , \ l = h given temperature (T) is given as,

mv Bq qBR

1 2 3

mv = kT

6.63 × 10−34 2 2

l=

2(1.6 × 10−19 )(0.25)(0.83 × 10−2 ) 3kT

\ v=

≈ 10–12 m = 10–2 Å = 0.01 Å m

1240 eVnm where k = Boltzmann’s constant, m = mass of the

2. (a) : E550 nm = = 2.25 eV.

550 nm gas particle, and T = temperature of the gas in K.

\ mv = 3mkT

Similarly, E450 nm = 2.75 eV and

h h

E350 nm = 3.54 eV l= =

For p(fp = 2.0 eV), all radiations cause photoelectric mv 3mkT

emission. lH mHeTHe (4)(273 + 127) 8

For q(fq = 2.5 eV), only two radiations (450 nm and = = =

l He mHTH (2)(273 + 27) 3

350 nm) cause photoelectric emission.

For r(fr = 3.0 eV), only one radiation (350 nm) 7. (b) : Number of photons falling per second,

causes photoelectric emission. P P 10−3

Np = = = = 2.5 × 1015

Photoelectric current will be highest for p and E hc 6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108

lowest for r. l 5000 × 10−10

Hence, (a) is correct graph.

Let Ne is the number of photoelectrons emitted per

3. (a) : The photon of energy 10.2 eV excites the second.

hydrogen from n = 1 to n = 2 as E2 – E1 = – 3.4

q N e I 0.16 × 10−6

eV – (–13.6 eV) = 10.2 eV. \ I = = e ⇒ Ne = = = 1012

t 1 e 1.6 × 10−19

The atom returns to the ground state in less than

1 ms and releases a photon of energy 10.2 eV. As the Percentage of photons producing photoelectrons

ionisation energy is 13.6 eV, the second photon of N 1012

= e × 100 = × 100% = 0.04%

15 eV energy ionises the atom by ejecting an electron Np 2.5 × 1015

and the balance of energy (15 eV – 13.6 eV = 1.4 eV)

is retained by the ejected electron. 8. (c) : Photocurrent I

N0

4. (a) : N = N 0 e −( l1 + l2 )t or = N 0 e −( l1 + l2 )t

4 υ th

>

υ

or e( l1 + l2 )t = 4 or (l1 + l2 )t = ln 4 = 2 ln 2

O Light intensity P

2 ln 2 2 ln 2 2

or t = = = The rate of emission of photoelectrons (i.e.,

l1 + l2 ln 2 ln 2 1 1

+ + photocurrent) depends linearly on the light intensity.

1620 810 1620 810

9. (c) : Photons have momentum (p = h/l) which they

2

= = 1080 years carry away; the spacecraft will acquire momentum

1 / 540

in the opposite direction according to law of

m0 m0 conservation of momentum.

5. (b) : As m = = ,

1 − 0.51c 2 / c 2 0.7 Number of photons per second from leaser = n

Then, from energy considerations,

1m

\ E = 0 (0.51c 2 ) c

0.5 × 10−3 = nh

2 0.7 l

= 0.36 m0c2 = 0.36(0.7 MeV) = 0.25 MeV n = (0.5 × 10–3)l/(ch)

Rate of change of momentum of spacecraft 14. (d) : Energy radiated = 1.4 kW m–2

h l h 0.5 × 10−3 1.4 kJ 1.4 × 86400 kJ

= np = n = (0.5 × 10−3 ) = = 1.4 kJ s −1 m −2 = =

l ch l c 1

day m 2 day m2

86400

From Newton’s second law, nh = ma

l \ Total energy radiated per day

−3

\ 1000a =

0.5 × 10 1

= × 10−11 4 p × (1.5 × 1011 )2 × 1.4 × 86400

8

E= kJ

3 × 10 6 1

E

As v = at E = mc 2 \ Mass lost by the sun per day, m = 2

v 1000 c

\ t= = s = 6 × 1017 s 4 p(1.5 × 1011 )2 × 1.4 × 86400 3 14

a 1 1 −11 = × 10 = 3.8 × 10 kg.

× × 10 (3 × 108 )2

1000 6

10. (a) : –13.6 + 10.2 = –3.4 eV K1 K2

15. (b) :

\ − 13.6 = −3.4 or n2 = 13.6 = 4 p1 p2

n2 3.4 M = 220 m1 = 216 m2 = 4

or n = 2 Q-value of the reaction is 5.5 MeV

2h h h i.e., K1 + K2 = 5.5 MeV ...(i)

Increase in angular momentum = − =

2p 2p 2p By conservation of linear momentum

⇒ K2 = 54 K1 ...(ii)

6.6 × 10−34

= J s = 1.05 × 10–34 J s On solving equation (i) and (ii), we get K2 = 5.4 MeV.

2 × 3.14

16. (b) : Kinetic energy of particle

11. (c) : K.E. = 2E0 – E0 = E0 (for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1)

1

⇒ l1 =

h K = mv 2 or mv = 2mK

2

2mE0 h h

de-Broglie wavelength, l = =

h mv 2mK

K.E. = 2E0 (for x > 1) ⇒ l2 =

4mE0

l For the given value of K, l ∝ 1 .

⇒ 1 = 2. m

l2 1 1 1 1

\ l p : ln : l e : l a = : : :

12. (b) : Peak of Ka is greater than peak of Kb line. mp mn me ma

13. (d) : Initially P = 4N0 and Q = N0 Since mp ≅ mn, hence lp ≅ ln

Half life, TP = 1 min; TQ = 2 min As ma > mp, therefore la < lp,

Let after time t, number of nuclei of P and Q be equal, As me < mn, therefore le > ln,

4N N Hence, la < lp = ln < le

i.e., t /10 = t /02

2 2 17. (d) : As, 2d sinq = l

4 \ l = 2 × 10–10 × sin30° = 10–10 m

or t /2

= 1 or t = 4 min

2 h 6.6 × 10−34

\ p= = = 6.6 × 10−24 kg m s −1

N 1 1/2

t /T

N 2 p2

O Hence, E = (6.6 × 10−24 )2

=

(4 N 0 ) N 0 2 m 2 × (1.7 × 10−27 ) × 1.6 × 10−19

Np = 4/1 =

2 4 = 0.08 eV

N0 N0

NQ = 4/2 = eE

4 18. (a) : Here, u = 0, a = ,

2 m

... Number of nuclei of eE

N N 9N 0 \ v = u + at = 0 + t (from equation of motion)

R = 4N 0 − 0 + N 0 − 0 = m

4 4 2 de-Broglie wavelength,

h h h After time 2t,

l= = =

mv m(eEt / m) eEt 1 10

− ln 2t

− l(2t )

Rate of change of de-Broglie wavelength, N = N 0e = N0 e t 9

d l h 1 −h 10

2

= − = − ln 2

dt eE t 2 eEt 2 N = N 0e 9 9

= N 0 = 81% of N 0

10

19. (a) : In case of Bohr’s model of hydrogen atom, \ 19% sample will decay in time 2t.

Frequency = v 23. (a) : After first half hour,

2pr

1

1 N = N0

Here, v ∝ and r ∝ n2 2

n

1 1

1 For t = h to t = 1 h,

\ Frequency ∝ 3 2 2

n

1 h = four half-lives for process B.

20. (d) : As the electron beam is having energy of 13 eV, 4 5

it can excite the atom to the state whose energy is 1 1 1

Hence, N = N 0 = N 0

2 2 2

less than or equal to 0.6 eV (13.6 – 13). E5 = 0.544 eV

and E4 = 0.85 eV. So, the electron beam can excite 1

For t = 1 h to t = 2 h

the hydrogen gas maximum to 4th energy state, 2

hence the electron can come back to ground state 1 1 1 1

from either of three excited states, thus emitting for both A and B, = + = 2 + 4 = 6 ⇒ T = h

T t1/2 t1/ 4 6

Lyman, Balmer and Paschen series.

1

nh ⇒ h = Three half–lives for processes A and B.

21. (c) : Angular momentum, mvr = ...(i) 2 5 3 8

2p 1 1 1

\ N = N0 = N0

2 2 2

mv 2 Ze 2

Centripetal force, = ...(ii)

r 4 pe0 r 2 24. (c) : Let the kinetic energy of the a-particle be

Ea and that of the thorium (Th) be Eth. The ratio

From eqns (i) and (ii) of kinetic energies is

1

e0n2h2 e0h2 me 1 Ea ma va2 m v 2

r= = = 2 = a a ...(i)

pmp e 2 Z pme e 2 mp Z Eth 1 m v 2 mth v th

2 th th

0.53 × 10−10 200 × 10−15 mp By conservation of momentum, the momentum of

= = = 264

264 Z Z me a-particle and that of the recoiling thorium must

be equal. Thus,

Since r cannot be less than nuclear radius,

1

mava = mthvth

r > 1. 6 Z 3 × 10−15 m va mth

or = ...(ii)

−15 1 v th ma

200 × 10 −15 3

or > 1.6 × 10 Z Substituting eq. (ii) in eq. (i), we have

Z

3 2

Ea ma mth m 234

⇒ Z<

200 4

≈ 37 = = th = = 58.5

1.6 Eth mth ma ma 4

22. (b) : 90% of the sample is left undecayed after time t. Thus, the kinetic energy of the a-particle expressed

9 as the fraction of the total kinetic energy T is given by

\ N = N 0e − lt

10 0 58.5 58.5

Ea = T= T = 0.98T

1 10 1 + 58.5 59.5

l = ln which is slightly less than T.

t 9

T1/2 lt = 0.5108

25. (c) : The activity − dN = lN ⇒ N = − dN

dt dt ln 2 0.5108 × T1/2 0.693

t=

0.693 l = T

Taking the ratio of this expression for 240Pu to this 1/2

same expression for 243Am, 0.5108 × 5730

= ≅ 4224 yr

dN Pu 0.693

N Pu − dt (T1/2 )Pu (5 m Ci) × (6560 y ) Thus, the approximate age of Indus-Valley civilization

= = =1

N Am dN Am (4.45m Ci) × (7370 y ) is 4224 yr.

− dt (T1/2 )Am

29. (d) : Mass of a proton and anti-proton

i.e. the two samples contain equal number of nuclei. m = 2 × 1.007276 amu = 2.014552 amu

Energy equivalent of this mass

26. (b) : As, Ek = hu − W0 = hc − W0 = 2.014552 × 931 MeV = 1875.55 MeV

l

Energy of proton and anti-proton

W0 = 4.2 eV = 4.2 × 1.6 × 10–19 = 6.72 × 10–19 J

= 20 × 2 MeV = 40 MeV

6.6 × 10−34 × 3 × 108 Hence, energy of g-ray photon

⇒ Ek = − 6.72 × 10−19

2000 × 10−10 = (1875.55 + 40) MeV = 1915.55 MeV

⇒ Ek = 9.90 × 10–19 – 6.72 × 10–19 30. (d) : From the knowledge of Bohr’s theory,

⇒ Ek = 3.18 × 10–19 J

1 1

Hence, stopping potential r ∝ n2 ; v ∝ ; E ∝ 2

n n

E 3.18 × 10−19 1

V0 = k = = 1.99 V and u ∝ 3 .

e 1.6 × 10−19 n

27. (d) : Given, radius of orbit, r = 1.5 × 1011 m nn

Mass of earth, M = 6 × 1024 kg

nh

Angular momentum, mvr =

2pvrm 2p

or n =

h

Here, n is the quantum number of the orbit

4 11 24

... n = 2 × 3.14 × 3 × 10 × 1.5 × 10 × 6 × 10

6.63 × 10−34

= 2.56 × 1074

Thus, the quantum number is 2.56 × 1074 which is

too large.

So, this does not belong to any spectral series.

28. (b) : Given, normal activity, R0 = 15 decay min–1

Present activity, R = 9 decay min–1

T1/2 = 5730 yr

R

= e −lt

R0

9

= e − lt

15

or 3 = e − lt or e lt = 5

5 3

Taking ln on both sides, we get

lt lne = ln 5 – ln 3

Physics for you | february ‘16 53

BRAIN Niels Henrik David Bohr

Niels Bohr was born in Coponhagen, Denmark, on 7th October, 1885. Bohr was a physicist who made

foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory for which he

received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922. Bohr developed Bohr model of atom in which he proposed

that energy level of electrons are discrete and that the electrons revolve in stable orbit around the

nucleus. In September 1943 he joined the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons project. After the war he

involved in establishment of CERN and became first chairman of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical

Physics in 1957.

(1885-1962)

Gold foil l The beam of a-particles is allowed to fall on a thin gold foil Alpha particle's Impact

trajectory parameter

and gets scattered in different directions which are observed q

with a microscope.

Alpha particles Source l Most of a-particles pass straight through foil and few suffer b

deflection through small angle and one of them gets rebound Nucleus

on same path by 180° deflection.

Detector Lead

l Shape of trajectory of scattered a-particle depends on impact BOHR’S ATOMIC MODEL

parameter b as Ø Bohr’s postulates

LINE SPECTRA OF HYDROGEN ATOM (i) An electron in an atom could revolve in certain

l While transition between different atomic levels when K.E. of a-particles. stable orbits without the emission of radiant

light is radiated in various discrete frequencies energy.

are called spectral series of hydrogen atom. Distance of closest approach (ii) Electron revolves around the nucleus only in

l Rydberg formula : those orbits for which the angular momentum is

Ø Conclusion : An atom consists of a small and massive central some integral multiple of (h/2p) when

Wave number

core in which entire positive charge and whole mass of atom are

concentrated is called nucleus and electrons revolve around it. where h = Planck’s constant.

when R = Rydberg's constant = 1.097 × 107 m–1

Ø Limitation : The electron revolving around the nucleus (iii) An electron making a transition from its

and nf and ni; are final and initial states.

continuously loses its energy due to centripetal acceleration and specified orbit to a lower energy orbit, a photon

l Spectral series of hydrogen atom

following a spiral path, finally it should collapse into the nucleus. is emitted having energy equal to the difference

(a) Lyman series : nf = 1 and ni = 2, 3, 4 ...

(b) Balmer series : nf = 2 and ni = 3, 4, 5 ... between its initial and final state.

n=3 Increasing energy

(c) Paschen series :nf = 3 and ni = 4, 5, 6 ... of orbits hu = Ei – Ef

n=2

(d) Brackett series: nf = 4 and ni = 5, 6, 7 ... n=1 Ø Electron orbits and their energy

l Radius of permitted orbits

(e) Pfund series : nf = 5 and ni = 6, 7, 8 ...

A photon is

emitted with

energy E = hu

RADIOACTIVITY

Ø The spontaneous disintegration of the l Velocity of electron in nth orbit

nucleus of an atom with emission of

radiations is called radioactivity

Ø Law of Radioactive decay : The rate of

disintegration of nuclei at any instant is

directly proportional to number of

ATOMS l Energy of electron in nth orbit

N0 = initial number

of nuclei at t = 0

& where the symbols have their usual meanings.

N = number of

undecayed nuclei left

l = decay constant

N U CLE I NUCLEAR REACTIONS

A Nuclear fission : A heavy nucleus (A > 230) when excited

splits into two smaller nuclei of nearly comparable masses

along with the emission of 3 neutrons

Ø Half life and Mean life

Half life : The half life T 1/2 of a

radionuclide is the time in which N has Ø Application

COMPOSITION AND SIZE OF NUCLEUS

been reduced to one-half of its initial value Ø Nucleus of an atom consists of protons and neutrons l Uncontrolled chain reaction ® Principle of atomic bombs.

Mean life : The mean life t is the time at collectively called nucleons and the total number of l Controlled chain reaction ® Principle of nuclear reactors

which N has been reduced to e–1 of its initial nucleons is called mass number (A)

value Ø Mass number or atomic mass is measured in amu

l Switchyard

CONTAINMENT

t/T1/2 = n = Ø Radius of a nucleus is proportional to its mass number as STRUCTURE Cooling

number of half R = R0 A1/3 Control rods tower

Generator

lives spent in Steam

Ø Nuclear forces are the strongest force in nature and they chamber

l time t Pump

are short range forces which acts only upto (2-3 fm). Reactor Turbine

l a-Decay CONCEPT OF BINDING ENERGY Cooling water

Water

Ø The binding energy is defined as the surplus energy which

the nucleons give up by virtue of their attractions when

where Q = energy released they become bound together to form a nucleus B Nuclear fusion : Two light nuclei combine to form a

single heavier nucleus is called nuclear fusion

l b-Decay Ø Necessary condition : It can occur only under extremely

high pressure and high temperature

Ø Energy available per nucleon is large about 6.75 MeV

Ø Binding energy per nucleon : The ratio of binding energy Ø Nuclear fusion is the source of energy in sun and stars

l g-Decay Eb of a nucleus to the mass number A It occurs via two different cycles

l Proton-proton cycle.

l Carbon-nitrogen cycle.

Exam on

5th March

Time Allowed : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 70

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

(i) All questions are compulsory. There are 26 questions in all.

(ii) This question paper has five sections: Section A, Section B, Section C, Section D and Section E.

(iii) Section A contains five questions of one mark each, Section B contains five questions of two marks each, Section C

contains twelve questions of three marks each, Section D contains one value based question of four marks and Section E

contains three questions of five marks each.

(iv) There is no overall choice. However, an internal choice has been provided in one question of two marks, one question

of three marks and all the three questions of five marks weightage. You have to attempt only one of the choices in such

questions.

section-A section-b

1. Force of attraction between two point charges placed 6. How many photons of wavelength 660 nm should

at a distance d is F. What distance apart should they strike on a perfectly reflecting surface in 1 s, so that

be kept in the same medium so that force between it may exert a force of 10 N?

F 7. A diode is connected to 220 V (rms) ac in series

them is ?

3 with a capacitor as shown in figure. What is the

2. A coil develops heat of 800 cal s –1

when 20 V is voltage V across the capacitor?

applied across its ends. Find the resistance of the

coil (1 cal = 4.2 J).

220 V a.c. V

3. An object is placed in front of a convex mirror of

focal length 30 cm. If the image formed is a quarter

of the size of the object, find the position of the

8. Why are neutrons better particles than protons for

image.

bombarding atomic nuclei?

4. Why do we need a higher bandwidth for transmission OR

of music compared to that for commercial telephone

You are given two nuclides 3X7 and 3Y4.

communication?

(i) Are they the isotopes of the same element?

5. Will an induced current be always produced Why?

whenever there is a change in magnetic flux linked (ii) Which one of the two is likely to be more stable?

with a coil? Give reasons.

9. Diameter of human eye lens is 2 mm. What will 15. In the figure, a long uniform potentiometer wire

be the minimum distance between two points to AB is having a constant potential gradient along

resolve them, which are situated at a distance of 50 m its length. The null points for the two primary cells

from eye? The wavelength of light is 5,000 Å. of emfs e1 and e2 connected in the manner shown

10. Two metallic wires A and B of the same material are obtained at a distance of 120 cm and 300 cm

have the same length but cross-sectional area is in from the end A. Find (i) e1/e2 and (ii) position of

the ratio 1: 2. They are connected (i) in series and (ii) null point for the cell e1. How is the sensitivity of a

in parallel. Compare the drift velocities of electrons potentiometer increased?

in the two wires in both the cases (i) and (ii).

section-c

11. A domain in ferromagnetic iron is in the form of a

cube of side length 10 – 4 m. Estimate the number

of iron atoms in the domain and the maximum

possible dipole moment and magnetisation

of the domain. The molecular mass of iron is

55 g mole–1 and its density is 7.9 g cm–3. Assume

that each iron atom has a dipole moment of 16. Four capacitors of values 6 mF, 6 mF, 6 mF and

9.27 × 10–24 A m2. 2 mF, are connected to a 6 V battery as shown in the

figure. Determine the

12. A metallic square loop ABCD of side 15 cm and

(i) equivalent capacitance

resistance 1.0 W is moved at a uniform velocity of

v m s–1, in a uniform magnetic field of 2 telsa, the of the network.

field lines being normal to the plane of the paper. (ii) the charge on each

The loop is connected to an electrical network of capacitor.

resistors, each of resistance 2 W. Calculate the speed OR

of the loop, for which 2 mA current flows in the Calculate the equivalent capacitance between the

loop. points A and B of the circuit given below. If a battery

of emf 10 V is connected between the points A and

B, calculate the total charge in the circuit.

are illuminated by two different lamps emitting 17. An amplitude modulated wave is as shown in figure.

light of the same wavelength. Will you observe the Calculate (i) the percentage modulation, (ii) peak

interference pattern? Justify your answer. carrier voltage and, (iii) peak value of information

(b) In Young’s double slit experiment using voltage.

monochromatic light of wavelength l, the intensity

V 20 V

of light at a point on the screen where path difference

is l, is K units. Find out the intensity of light at a 100 V

t

point where path difference is l/3.

14. (a) Using Bohr’s second postulate of quantization

of orbital angular momentum show that the

18. Suppose a n-type wafer is created by doping Si

circumference of the electron in the nth orbital

crystal having 5 × 1028 atoms m–3 with 1ppm

state in hydrogen atom is n times the de Broglie

wavelength associated with it. concentration of As. On the surface 200 ppm Boron

is added to create p region in this wafer. Considering

(b) The electron in hydrogen atom is initially in the

third excited state. What is the maximum number ni = 1.5 × 1016 m–3, (i) Calculate the densities of the

of spectral lines which can be emitted when it finally charge carriers in the n and p regions. (ii) Comment

moves to the ground state? which charge carriers would contribute largely for

the reverse saturation current when diode is reverse section-D

biased.

23. Amrita switched on the radio set to listen to her

19. A convex lens made up of glass of refractive index favourite music but found the reception was not

1.5 is dipped, in turn, in : clear. Also there was overlapping of signals. So she

(i) medium A of refractive index 1.65 adjusted the tuner in the set till she heard the music

(ii) medium B of refractive index 1.33. clear.

Explain, giving reasons, whether it will behave as a Answer the following questions.

converging lens or a diverging lens in each of these

(i) What must have changed, when Amrita

two media.

adjusted the tuner?

20. Output characteristics of an n-p-n transistor in CE (ii) Name the phenomenon involved here?

configuration is shown in the figure. Determine: (iii) What value can be associated with this?

(i) dynamic output resistance

(ii) dc current gain and section-e

(iii) ac current gain at an operating point 24. Derive an expression for the total work done in

Vce = 10 V, when Ib = 30 mA. rotating an electric dipole through an angle q in a

uniform electric field. State the physical significance

of dipoles.

OR

Find an expression for the electric field strength at

a distant point situated (i) on the axis and (ii) along

the equatorial line of an electric dipole.

25. Explain the principle and working of a cyclotron

with the help of a neat diagram. Write the expression

for cyclotron frequency.

OR

A long straight wire of uniform cross section

21. The work function of caesium metal is 2.14 eV. of radius a is carrying a steady current I. Use

When light of frequency 6 × 1014 Hz is incident Ampere’s circuital law to obtain a relation showing

on the metal surface, photoemission of electrons the variation of the magnetic field (B) inside

occurs. What is the and outside the wire with distance r, (r < a) and

(a) maximum kinetic energy of the emitted (r > a) at the field point from the centre of its cross

electrons, section. Plot a graph showing the nature of this

(b) stopping potential, and variation.

(c) maximum speed of the emitted photo- 26. What are coherent source of light? State two

electrons? conditions for two light sources to be coherent.

22. An infinitely long thin wire carrying a uniform linear Derive a mathematical expression for the width of

interference fringes obtained in Young’s double slit

static charge density l is placed along the z-axis as experiment with the help of a suitable diagram .

shown in figure. The wire is set into motion along OR

its length with a uniform velocity v = vk . Calculate Draw a labelled diagram of a compound microscope

1 when the image is formed at infinity. Deduce the

the poynting vector S = (E × B) .

m0 expression for its magnifying power. How can the

magnifying power be increased?

solutions

1. For a given pair of point charges in a medium

1

F∝ 2 .

d F

v For the force to become , the separation d must

3

become 3d.

Physics for you | February ‘16 57

2. Here, H = 800 cal s–1, V = 20 V OR

V 2 V 2 7 4

(i) Yes, 3X and 3Y are isotopes of the same

R= H =

HJ RJ elements. It is because, an element is characterised

( 20 )2 by its atomic number. Since both X and Y have

= = 0.12 Ω atomic number 3, they represent the same element

800 × 4.2 i.e., Li.

3. Here, f = + 30 cm (convex mirror); m = 1/4 (ii) 3X7 (or 3Li7) is more stable than 3Y4 (or 3Li4).

It is because, the greater number of neutrons in

f −v 1 +30 − v 7

Now, m = \ = 3Li results in greater attractive force between the

f 4 +30 nucleons so as to win over the Coulomb's repulsive

or 30 = 120 – 4 v or v = 90/4 = +22.5 cm force between the protons.

As v is positive, a virtual and erect image will be 9. Here, diameter of the human eye,

formed on the other side of the object i.e., behind D = 2 mm = 2 × 10–3 m

the mirror. Distance of the two points from the eye, y = 50 m

4. As compared to speech signals in telephone Wavelength of light used = 5,000 Å = 5 × 10–7 m

communication, the music signals are more complex The angular diameter of the two points at the eye,

and correspond to higher frequency range. d

dq =

5. With change in magnetic flux, induced emf is y

must, but induced current will appear only when Now, resolving power of the eye,

the circuit is closed. 1 D

=

6. A photon of wavelength l possesses momentum dq 1.22 l

h/l. Therefore, when the photon is reflected, change y D

or =

in its momentum, d 1.22 l

Dp = h/l – (–h/l) = 2 h/l 1.22 l 1.22 × 5 × 10−7

or d= ×y= × 50

If n photons strike the surface in 1 s, the force D 2 × 10−3

exerted by the photons, = 1.525 × 10–2 m = 1.525 cm

F = n × Dp = n × 2 h/l = 2 n h/l

A1 1 and l1 = 1

F l 10 × 660 × 10−9 10. Given, =

or n= = = 5 × 1027 A2 2 l2

2 h 2 × 6.6 × 10−34

(i) When two wires are connected in series, the

7. A junction diode conducts during alternate half current in both wires A and B will be same.

cycles of ac input supply. During a half cycle of IA = IB

conduction, the capacitor will charge itself to peak or ne A1vd1 = ne A2vd2 ( I = nAevd )

value of the supply voltage. Therefore, voltage across vd A 2

the capacitor, \ 1

= 2=

vd A1 1

V = E0 = Erms × 2 = 220 × 2 = 311.1 V 2

(ii) When two wires are connected in parallel, then

8. If we use positively charged particles such as the potential difference across the wires A and B

proton, deutron or a-particle, they experience large will be same.

repulsion due to atomic nuclei. On the other hand, VA = VB

the negatively charged particles such as electron or neρl1vd1 = neρl2vd2 ( V = neρlvd )

will be repelled by the electron cloud around the

vd1 l2

nucleus. \ = =1

However, neutrons having no charge can penetrate vd2 l1

the target without being repelled by the atomic –4

11. Here, length of cubic domain, l = 10 m

nucleus or the electron cloud. The neutron increases

the neutron to proton ratio of the nucleus and tends Volume of domain, V = (10 ) = 10 m3

–4 3 –12

reaction. Mass of domain = Volume × density = 10–6 × 7.9 g

It is given that 55 g of iron contain 6.023 × 1023 iron 2p l 2p

atoms (Avogadro’s number) f′ = × =

l 3 3

\ Number of atoms in the domain 2p

23 −6 Intensity, I ′ = 4 I0 cos2

6.023 × 10 × 7.9 × 10 6

= = 8.65 × 1016 atoms K

55 = (Using (i))

Maximum possible dipole moment is achieved 4

14. (a) According to Bohr’s second postulate of

when all the atomic dipole moments are perfectly quantization of angular momentum

aligned (which of course is unrealistic) h

\ Mmax = (8.65 × 1016) × (9.27 × 10–24) = 8.0 × 10–7 A m2 mvnrn = n

2p

Maximum intensity of magnetisation

nh

Mmax 8.0 × 10 −7 or rn = ...(i)

I max = = 2pmvn

Volume of domain 10 −12

where h is the Planck’s constant

= 8 × 105 A m–1

Circumference of the electron in the nth orbital state

12. Here emf induced in the loop e = Blv in hydrogen atom,

e Blv nh

Current in the loop, I = = ...(i) 2 prn = 2 p (Using (i))

R R 2 pmvn

Resistance, R = resistance of the loop + resistance of

h

the network =n ...(ii)

= 1.0 + 2 = 3 Ω mvn

(Network is balanced Wheatstone bridge) But de Broglie wavelength of the electron

From equation (i), we get h

l= ...(iii)

IR mvn

v=

Bl From (ii) and (iii), we get

2prn = nl

Here, B = 2 T, l = 15 × 10–2 m,

(b) Number of spectral lines obtained due to

I = 2 × 10–3 A, R = 3 Ω

transition of electron from n = 4 to n = 1 is

2 × 10−3 × 3 (4)(4 − 1)

\ v= N= =6

2 × 15 × 10−2 2

v = 2 × 10–2 m s–1

13. (a) Two different lamps emit light waves which

are not coherent, as they are not in same phase or

not have stable phase difference. Due to this, no

sustained interference pattern can be obtained on 15. (i) Let f V cm–1 be potential gradient of the wire.

screen. Applying Kirchhoff ’s

2 f

(b) Intensity at a point, I = 4 I0 cos loop rule to the

2

2p closed loop ACA,

Phase difference = × Path difference

we get

l

At path difference l, f(120) = e1 – e2 ...(i)

2p Again, applying

Phase difference, f = × l = 2p Kirchhoff ’s loop

l rule to the closed

2p

\ Intensity, K = 4 I0 cos2 loop ADA, we get

2 f(300) = e1 + e2 ...(ii)

[ Given I = K at path difference l] Divide (i) by (ii), we get

K = 4I0 ...(i) e1 − e2 120 2

= =

l e1 + e2 300 5

At path difference

3 5e1 – 5e2 = 2e1 + 2e2 or 3e1 = 7e2

e1 7 Capacitors C1 and C2 are in series, their equivalent

= ...(iii) capacitance is

e2 3

CC 10 × 20 × 10−12 20 20

(ii) Let the position of null point for the cell e1 is l3. C′ = 1 2 = = × 10−6 F = mF

\ e1 = fl3 ...(iv) C1 + C2 (10 + 20) × 10−6 3 3

Divide (i) by (iv), we get Capacitors C3 and C4 are in series, their equivalent

e1 − e2 120 e2 120 capacitance is

= or 1 − =

e1 l3 e1 l3 CC 5 × 10 × 10−12 10 10

C′′ = 3 4 = −6

= × 10−6 F = mF

C3 + C4 (5 + 10) × 10 3 3

3 120

1− = (Using (iii)) The equivalent capacitance of the circuit is

7 l3

20 10

4 120 Ceq = C′ + C′′ = + mF =10 mF

= or l3 = 210 cm 3 3

7 l3

The total charge in the circuit is

Sensitivity of a potentiometer is increased by Q = CeqV = (10 × 10–6) × 10 = 10–4 C

increasing the length of the potentiometer wire.

17. According to diagram,

16. (i) Let C1 = 6 mF, C2 = 6 mF, C3 = 6 mF and

100 20

C4 = 2 m F Vmax = = 50 V , Vmin = = 10 V

Since C1, C2 and C3 are in series combination 2 2

V

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 20 V

\ = + + = + + = = 100 V

CS C1 C2 C3 6 6 6 6 2 t

\ CS = 2 mF

Now CS and C4 are in parallel combination

(i) Percentage modulation,

\ Equivalent capacitance C is

C = CS + C4 = 2 + 2 = 4 mF Vmax − Vmin

m= × 100%

(ii) Total voltage = 6 V Vmax + Vmin

Total charge, q = CV

50 − 10 2

= 4 × 10–6 × 6 = 24 × 10–6 C = 24 mC = × 100% = × 100% = 66.7%

\ Charge on C4 capacitor = 12 mC and charge on 50 + 10 3

(ii) Peak carrier voltage,

capacitors C1, C2 and C3 = 12 mC each.

V + Vmin 50 + 10

OR Vc = max = = 30 V

2 2

(iii) Peak information voltage,

2

Vm = mVc = × 30 = 20 V.

3

18. (i) For n-type region,

1

ne = ND = 6 × 5 × 1028 = 5 × 1022 m–3

C1 C3 10 5 10

As = ; = 1

C2 C4 20 10 1 ppm = 6

10

Points C and D are at same potential and no charge As nenh = ni2,

flows through the capacitor C5. Hence, the capacitor

ni2 (1.5 × 1016 m −3 )2

C5 becomes ineffective. nh = = = 0.45 × 1010 m–3

The equivalent circuit is as shown in figure. ne 5 × 1022 m −3

For p-type region,

200 25 –3

nh = NA = 6 × 5 × 1028 = 1 × 10 m

10

ni2 (1.5 × 1016 m −3 )

Now, ne = = 25 −3

= 2.25 × 107 m–3

nh 1 × 10 m

Physics for you | February ‘16 61

(ii) The minority carrier holes of n-region wafer 1 2

(nh = 0.45 × 1010 m–3) would contribute more to (c) K max = mvmax = 0.34 eV

2

reverse saturation current than minority carrier = 0.34 × 1.6 × 10–19 J

electrons of p–region wafer (ne = 2.25 × 107 m–3) 2 2 × 0.34 × 1.6 × 10−19

when p – n junction is reverse biased. or vmax =

m

19. (i) A convex lens made up of glass of refractive

index 1.5 is dipped in medium A of refractive index 2 × 0.34 × 1.6 × 10−19

= = 119560.4 × 106

1.65, then it will behave as a diverging lens because 9.1 × 10 −31

1 1 1 1. 5 1 1 vmax = 345.8 × 103 m s–1 = 345.8 km s–1.

= ( Am g − 1) − = − 1 − or

fA R1 R2 1.65 R1 R2

22. We know that

As Amg < 1, fA < 0 (diverging). m0 Iiˆ

B=

m lv ^ l j

(ii) When convex lens of refractive index 1.5 is = 0 i; E=

2pa 2p a 2 pe0 a

dipped in medium B of refractive index 1.33 it will

1

behave as a converging lens because S = [E × B]

1 1 1 1. 5 1 1 m0

= ( B m g − 1) − = − 1 −

fB R1 R2 1.33 R1 R2 1 l ^ m0 ^

S= j× lv i

As B

mg > 1, fB > 0 (converging). m0 2 pe0 a 2 pa

20. (i) Dynamic output resistance is the slope of l2 v ^ ^ −l2 v ^

= ( j × i) = k.

Vce – Ic graph 2

4 p e0 a 2

4 p2 e0 a 2

DV 12 − 8

Ro = ce = 23. (i) By adjusting the tuner, she would have changed

DI c (3.6 − 3.4) × 10−3

Ib constant the capacitance value and adjusted the frequency.

4 (ii) The phenomena involved here is resonance.

= = 20 kΩ

0.2 × 10−3 If a system is driven by an energy source, whose

Ic 3.5 mA 3.5 × 10−3 frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the

(ii) βdc = = = system, the amplitude of oscillations becomes large

Ib 30 mA 30 × 10−6

and resonance is said to occur.

350 (iii) Harmony. By being in harmony with nature,

= = 116.67

3 life would be beautiful and easy for the future

dc current gain is the ratio of output current i.e. Ic generation.

and input current Ib.

24. Refer point 1.4 (5, 6, 7) page no.6, 7 (MTG Excel in

DI (4.7 − 3.5) mA 1.2 × 10−3 Physics).

(iii) βac = c = = = 120

DIb (40 − 30) mA 10 × 10−6 OR

ac current gain is the ratio of change in output Refer point 1.4 (3,4) page no. 6 (MTG Excel in

current i.e. Ic and change in input current i.e. Ib. Physics).

14 25. Refer point 3.3(5) page no. 173 (MTG Excel in

21. Here W0 = 2.14 eV, u = 6 × 10 Hz

(a) Kmax = hu – W0 Physics).

= 6.63 × 10–34 × 6 × 1014 J – 2.14 eV

OR

Refer point 3.2 (5, 6) page no. 171, 172 (MTG Excel

6.63 × 6 × 10−20 in Physics).

= eV − 2.14 eV

1.6 × 10−19 26. Refer point 6.13 page no. 446 (MTG Excel in

Physics).

= 2.48 – 2.14 = 0.34 eV.

OR

(b) As eV0 = Kmax = 0.34 eV Refer point 6.9 (1(iv)) page no. 381 (MTG Excel in

\ Stopping potential, Physics).

V0 = 0.34 V. nn

Exam

on

1st May

Practice PaPer 2016

1. In a watch glass, water is taken and it is kept in a 6. A pan pizza cools from 91°C to 79°C in 2 minutes,

non-uniform magnetic field. Water moves from on a summer day, when the room temperature

strong field to weak field. The magnetic effect is 25°C. How long will the pan pizza take to cool

observed is from 91°C to 79°C, on a winter day, when the room

(a) antiferromagnetic (b) ferromagnetic temperature is 5°C?

(c) diamagnetic (d) paramagnetic 3

(a) minutes (b) 1 minute

2. If force (F), work (W) and velocity (v) are taken as 2

the fundamental quantities, then the dimensions of 1 1

(c) minute (d) minute

time are 2 4

(a) [WFv] (b) [WFv–1] 7. A body of mass m has its position x at time t

–1 –1

(c) [W F v] (d) [WF–1v–1] 1

expressed by the equation x = 3 t 3/2 + 2t + . The

2

3. When a body is projected vertically up from the

instantaneous force F on the body is proportional to

ground, its potential energy and kinetic energy at

a point P are in the ratio 2 : 3. If the same body is (a) t3/2 (b) t (c) t0 (d) t–1/2

projected with double the previous velocity, then at

8. Four parallel conductors, carrying equal currents,

the same point P, the ratio of its potential energy

pass vertically through the four corners of a square

and kinetic energy would be

WXYZ. In two conductors, the current is flowing

(a) 9 : 1 (b) 1 : 9

into the page, and in the other two out of the page.

(c) 1 : 1 (d) 4 : 9

In what directions must the currents flow to produce

4. In the figure, what is the refractive a resultant magnetic field in the direction shown at

index of material of the prism O, the centre of the square?

with respect to air, when the angle Into the page Out of

of deviation is 30°? the page

(a) W and Y X and Z

3 (b) X and Z W and Y

(a) 3 (b)

2 (c) W and Z X and Y

4 (d) W and X Y and Z

(c) 2 (d)

3

^ 9. Number of nuclei of a radioactive substance are

5. If A = 3 i − 2 j + 4 k and B = −5 ^i + 2 ^j − k^, then what

^ ^

1000 and 900 at times t = 0 and time t = 2 s. Then,

is the value of ( A + B) ⋅ ( A × 4 B)? number of nuclei at time t = 4 s will be

(a) 96 (b) 48 (a) 800 (b) 810

(c) 24 (d) 0 (c) 790 (d) 700

10. What is the path difference between the waves 15. If the linear momentum of a body is increased by

2 px 2 px 50%, then the kinetic energy of that body increases by

y1 = a sin wt − and y2 = a cos wt − ?

l

l (a) 100% (b) 125%

(c) 225% (d) 25%

l l

(a) l (b) (c) (d) 2l

2 4 16. A conducting wire frame is placed in a magnetic

11. 12 wires, each having resistance R are joined to field which is directed into the plane of the paper.

form a skeleton cube as shown in the figure. The magnetic field is increasing at a constant rate.

The directions of induced currents in wires AB and

CD are × × × ×C ×

(a) B to A and D to C × A× × × ×

(b) A to B and C to D × × × × ×

(c) A to B and D to C ×B × × × ×

× × × ×D ×

(d) B to A and C to D

The current through wire BE is 17. A galvanometer has a coil of resistance 100 W and

I I1 gives a full scale deflection for 30 mA current. If it is

(a) zero (b) (c) I – I1 (d) to work as a voltmeter of 30 V range, the resistance

3 2

required to be added will be

12. Three point masses m1, m2, m3 are located at the (a) 900 W (b) 1800 W

vertices of an equilateral triangle of length a. The (c) 500 W (d) 1000 W

moment of inertia of the system about an axis along

the altitude of the triangle passing through m1 is 18. The electric flux through a closed surface is zero. It

2 means that

a

(a) (m2 + m3 ) (b) (m1 + m2 + m3 )a2 (a) no electric field lines either leave or enter the

4 surface.

2

(b) there are no positive charges present inside the

(c) (m1 + m2 ) a (d) (m2 + m3)a2

2 closed surface.

(c) the algebraic sum of all the charges present

13. Two particles P and Q describe simple harmonic

inside the surface is zero.

motion of same amplitude A and frequency u along

(d) the enclosed surface is a region of uniform

the same straight line. The maximum distance

electric field.

between two particles is 3A. The initial phase

difference between the particles is 19. An object moves at a constant speed along a circular

path in a horizontal XY plane, with the centre at the

2p p p p

(a) (b) (c) (d) origin. When the object is at x = –2 m, its velocity is

3 6 3 2 ^

–(4 m s–1) j . What is the object’s acceleration when

14. Eight capacitors, each of capacity C are connected it is at y = 2 m ?

as shown in figure. The equivalent capacitance (a) –(8 m s–2) j

^

(b) – (8 m s–2) i

^

between X and Y is ^

(c) – (4 m s–2) j (d) (4 m s–2) i

^

20. A large open tank has two holes in its wall. One

is a square hole of side a at a depth of x from the

top and the other is a circular hole of radius r at

depth 4x from the top. When the tank is completely

filled with water, the quantities of water flowing out

per second from both holes are the same. Then r is

C C

(a) (b) equal to

6 5 (a) 2pa (b) a

5C 6C a a

(c) (d) (c) (d)

6 5 2p 2p

21. A person covers one-third of the distance with

10 km h–1, the second one-third distance with

20 km h–1 and the rest one-third distance with

60 km h–1. What is the average speed?

(a) 12 km h–1 (b) 18 km h–1

–1

(c) 24 km h (d) 30 km h–1

22. When two spheres of equal masses undergo q2 q2

(a) (−4 + 2 ) (b) (−4 + 2 )

glancing elastic collision with one of them at rest, a 2a

after collision they will move 2 2

(a) opposite to one another (c) 4q (d) −4 2q

a a

(b) in the same direction

(c) together 29. An ideal gas has an initial pressure of 3 pressure

(d) at right angle to each other units and an initial volume of 4 volume units. The

table gives the final pressure and volume of the

23. A source of frequency 500 Hz emits waves of gas (in those same units) in four processes. Which

wavelength 0.2 m. How long does it take the wave process starts and ends on the same isotherm?

to travel 300 m? (a) A A B C D

(a) 70 s (b) 60 s (c) 12 s (d) 3 s (b) B P 5 4 12 6

24. The total torque about pivot A provided by the (c) C V 7 6 1 3

forces shown in the figure, for L = 3 m, is (d) D

30. A planet moves round the sun in a circular orbit.

The angular velocity of planet will be proportional

to

(a) velocity of planet

(b) square of velocity of planet

(c) cube of velocity of planet

(a) 210 N m (b) 140 N m (d) none of these

(c) 95 N m (d) 75 N m

31. The volume thermal expansion coefficient of an

25. A motorboat covers the distance between the two ideal gas at constant pressure is

spots on the river in 8 h and 12 h downstream and (a) T (b) T–2 (c) T–1 (d) T2

upstream respectively. The time taken by motorboat

32. The frequency of a tuning fork A is 2% more than the

to cover this distance in still water is

frequency of a standard tuning fork. The frequency

(a) 7.6 h (b) 8.6 h (c) 9.6 h (d) 10.6 h

of a tuning fork B is 3% less than the frequency of

26. In a hydrogen atom, the electron is in nth excited the same standard tuning fork. When the tuning

state. It comes down to the first excited state by forks A and B are sounded together, 6 beats/second

emitting 10 different wavelengths. The value of n is are heard. The frequency of the standard tuning

(a) 6 (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 9 fork is

27. If the normal reaction is halved, the coefficient of (a) 120 Hz (b) 124 Hz

friction will be (c) 118 Hz (d) 130 Hz

(a) unchanged (b) halved 33. Two identical metal plates show photoelectric effect.

(c) doubled (d) cannot be predicted Light of wavelength lA falls on plate A and lB falls

28. There are four point charges +q, –q, +q and –q on plate B, lA = 2 lB. The maximum kinetic energy

placed at the corners A, B, C and D respectively of a of the photoelectrons are KA and KB respectively.

square of side a. The potential energy of the system Which one of the following is true?

1 (a) 2KA = KB (b) KA = 2KB

is times KB

4 pe0 (c) KA < (d) KA > 2KB

2

34. If emf e = 4cos 1000t volt is applied to an L-R 40. A ball is dropped from a high rise platform at t = 0

circuit of inductance 3 mH and resistance 4 W, the starting from rest. After 6 seconds another ball is

amplitude of current in the circuit is thrown downwards from the same platform with a

speed v. The two ball meet at t = 18 s.

(a) 4 A (b) 1.0 A

7 What is the value of v ?

(a) 75 m s–1 (b) 55 m s–1

(c) 4 A (d) 0.8 A (c) 40 m s–1 (d) 60 m s–1

7

35. If x and y are the distances of an object and its image 41. A stone thrown at an angle q to the horizontal

from the focus of a spherical mirror of focal length reaches a maximum height h. The time of flight of

(xy ) the stone is

f, then what is 2 equal to ?

f 2h sin q 2h sin q

(a) (b) 2

(a) 1 (b) 1.5 (c) 2 (d) 4 g g

36. One end of a uniform wire of length L and of weight 2h 2h

W is attached rigidly to a point in the roof and a (c) 2 (d)

g g

weight W1 is suspended from its lower end. If A is

the area of cross-section of the wire, the stress in the 42. In a common emitter configuration of a transistor,

wire at a height 3L/4 from its lower end is the voltage drop across a 500 W resistor in the

W W + (W/ 4) collector circuit is 0.5 V when the collector supply

(a) 1 (b) 1

A A voltage is 5 V. If the current gain in the common

W +W base mode is 0.96, the base current is

W + (3W/ 4)

(c) 1 (d) 1 1 1

A A (a) mA (b) mA

20 5

37. A particle executes simple harmonic motion of type

1 1

A (c) mA (d) mA

x = Asinwt. It takes time t1 from x = 0 to x = and 20 24

2

A 43. If the distance between the first maxima and fifth

t2 from x = to x = A. The ratio t1 : t2 will be

2 minima of a double slit pattern is 7 mm and slits are

(a) 1 : 1 (b) 1 : 2 separated by 0.15 mm with the screen 50 cm away

(c) 1 : 3 (d) 2 : 1 from the slits, then the wavelength of light used is

38. The intensity of a plane electromagnetic wave is (a) 600 nm (b) 525 nm

5 W m–2. It is incident normally on a perfectly (c) 467 nm (d) 420 nm

reflecting surface. The radiation pressure is 44. The potential difference across the 3 W resistor

(a) 3.33 × 10–6 N m–2 shown in figure is

(b) 3.33 × 10–7 N m–2

(c) 3.33 × 10–8 N m–2

(d) 3.33 × 10–9 N m–2

combination of gates?

(a) zero (b) 1 V

(c) 3.5 V (d) 7 V

45. A 1 kg stone at the end of 1 m long string is whirled

in a vertical circle at constant speed of 4 m s–1. The

tension in the string is 6 N, when the stone is at

(Take g = 10 m s–2)

(a) OR (b) AND (a) top of the circle (b) bottom of the circle

(c) NAND (d) NOR (c) half way down (d) none of these

SolutionS 1 1

= m(2u)2 = 4 mu2

1. (c) : When a diamagnetic substance is placed in a 2 2

non-uniform magnetic field, it tends to move from

5

strong field to weak field. As water moves from strong = 4 mgh = 10mgh (using (i))

2

field to weak field, hence the magnetic effect observed

is diamagnetic. From the law of conservation of energy,

Total energy at P = 10mgh

2. (d) : Let T ∝ F aWbvc

But total energy at P

or T = kF aW bvc ...(i)

= kinetic energy at P + potential energy at P

where k is a dimensionless constant and a, b and c

\ Kinetic energy at P

are exponents.

= total energy at P – potential energy at P

Writing the dimensions of various quantities on

= 10mgh – mgh = 9mgh

both sides, we get

Thus,

[M0L0T1] = [MLT –2]a[ML2T–2]b[LT –1]c

Potential energy at P mgh 1

= [Ma+bLa+2b+cT–2a–2b–c] = =

Applying the principle of homogeneity of Kinetic energy at P 9mgh 9

dimensions, we get

a+b=0 ...(ii) 4. (c) :

a + 2b + c = 0 ...(iii)

– 2a – 2b – c = 1 ...(iv)

On solving eqns. (i), (ii) and (iii), we get

a = –1, b = 1 and c = –1

From eqn. (i), In the given figure,

T = kF–1W1v–1 Angle of incidence = angle of emergence

Thus the dimensions of time are [WF –1v–1]. i.e., i = e = 45°

\ This is the minimum deviation condition.

3. (b) : Let h be the height of point P above the At the minimum deviation,

ground.

A + δm

In both cases, potential energy of body at P = mgh. i= or A = 2i – δm

In the first case, 2

As the ratio of potential energy and kinetic energy where A is the angle of prism and δm is the angle of

at P is 2 : 3, minimum deviation condition.

\ Kinetic energy at P Here, i = 45°, δm = δ = 30°

3 \ A = 2(45°) –30°

= potential energy at P = 90° – 30° = 60°

2

3 Let m be the refractive index of material of the prism

= mgh with respect to air. Then by prism formula

2

3 5 A + δm 60° + 30°

and total energy at P = mgh + mgh = mgh sin sin

2 2 2 2 sin 45°

m= = =

If the body is projected vertically upwards from the A 60° sin 30°

sin sin

ground with velocity u, then its kinetic energy at the 2 2

point of projection 1

1

= mu2 2

2 = 2 = = 2

1 2

By law of conservation of energy

2

1 2 5

mu = mgh ...(i) ^

2 2 5. (d) : Here, A = 3 i^ − 2 ^j + 4 k ,

^ ^ ^

In the second case, B = −5 i + 2 j − k

When the same body is projected with double the ^ ^ ^ ^

\ A + B = (3 ^i − 2 ^j + 4 k) + (−5 ^i + 2 ^j − k ) = (−2 i + 3 k)

previous velocity (i.e. 2u), then its kinetic energy at

the point of projection and A × 4 B = 4( A × B)

^ ^ ^ 10. (c) : Given :

i j k

2 px

= 4 3 −2 4 y1 = a sin wt − and

l

−5 2 −1

2 px p 2 px

^ y2 = a cos wt − = a sin + wt −

l

^ ^

= 4[i (2 − 8) + j(−20 + 3) + k(6 − 10)] 2 l

^ ^ ^

= −24 i − 68 j − 16 k The phase of the first wave is

\ ( A + B) ⋅ ( A × 4 B) 2 px

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ f1 = wt −

= (−2 i + 3 k ) ⋅ (−24 i − 68 j − 16 k ) l

and that of the second wave is

= 48 + 0 – 48 = 0

p 2 px

6. (a) : According to Newton’s law of cooling f 2 = + wt −

T1 − T2 T +T 2 l

= K 1 2 − Ts The phase difference between the waves is

t 2 Df = f2 – f1

where Ts is the surrounding temperature.

p 2 px 2 px p

For the first case, = + wt − − wt − =

2 l l 2

T1 = 91°C, T2 = 79°C, Ts = 25°C, t = 2 min

91°C − 79°C The corresponding path difference between the

91°C + 79°C

\ =K − 25°C waves is

2 min 2

l l p l

12 °C Dx = Df = =

or = K(60°C) ...(i) 2p 2 p 2 4

2 min

For the second case, 11. (a) : According to Kirchhoff ’s junction law, the

T1 = 91°C, T2 = 79°C, Ts = 5°C, t = ? current distribution is shown in the figure.

91°C − 79°C 91°C + 79°C

\ =K − 5°C

t 2

or 12 °C

= K(80°C) ...(ii)

t

Dividing eqn. (i) by eqn. (ii), we get

t 60°C 3 3

= or t = (2 min) = min

2 min 80°C 4 2 From the figure it is clear that no current flows in

1 BE. Hence the current through wire BE is zero.

7. (d) : As x = 3t 3/2 + 2t +

2 12. (a) : The situation is shownin figure.

dx d 3/2 1 3 Perpendicular

9 /2 distance

\ Velocity, v = = 3t + 2t + = 3 t 1/2 + 2 + 0of=m t1and +m2 from altitude

dt dt 2 2 22 3

a

dx d 3/2 1 3 1/2 9 1/2 of triangle = acos60° =

city, v = = 3t + 2t + = 3 t + 2 + 0 = t + 2 2

dt dt 2 2 2 \ Moment of inertia of

and acceleration,

dv d 9 1/2 9 1 −1/2 9 the system about the given axis is

a= = t + 2 = t + 0 = t −1/2 2 2

dt dt 2 2 2 4 a a a2

I = m1 (0)2 + m2 + m3 = (m2 + m3 )

By Newton’s second law 2 2 4

9 −1/2 –1/2 13. (a) : Let f be the initial phase difference between

F = ma = m t or F ∝ t

4 the particles. Then

8. (d) : To get resultant magnetic field in shown x1 = Asinwt and x2 = Asin(wt + f)

direction, current in W should be in and that in Y The distance between them is

should be out; current in X should be in and that in Dx = x2 – x1 = Asin(wt + f) – Asinwt

Z should be out.

wt + f + wt wt + f − wt

9. (b) : In 2 s only 90% nuclei are left behind. Thus, in = 2 A cos sin

2 2

next 2 s 90% of 900 or 810 nuclei will be left.

A+B A−B 50 3

sin A − sin B = 2 cos 2 sin 2 But p ′ = p + p= p

100 2

2

f f K′ 3 9

= 2 A cos wt + sin \ = =

2 2 K 2 4

f K′ − K

For the maximum value, cos wt + = 1 % increase in the kinetic energy = × 100%

2 K

f K′ 9

\ Dxmax = 2 A sin = − 1 × 100% = − 1 × 100% = 125%

2 K 4

But Dxmax = 3 A (given) 16. (a) : M a g n e t i c f i e l d i n ⊗ C

f direction is increasing. A

\ 3 A = 2 Asin

2 Therefore, induced current

f 3 p f p 2p will produce magnetic field

or sin = = sin or = or f =

2 2 3 2 3 3 in . direction. Thus, current B

in both the loops should be

14. (c) : The equivalent circuits of the given circuit are D

anticlockwise.

drawn in figures (a) to (d).

But as the area of the loop on the right side is more,

induced emf in this side will be more compared to

the left side loop.

Therefore, net current in the complete loop will be

in a direction shown in figure.

17. (a) : Here,

Resistance of the galvanometer, G = 100 W

Current for full scale deflection, Ig = 30 mA

= 30 × 10–3 A

In order to work this galvanometer as a voltmeter

of range 30 V (i.e. V = 30 V), let resistance R be

added in series with it. It is given by

V 30 V

R = −G = − 100 W

Ig 30 × 10−3 A

= 1000 W – 100 W = 900 W

18. (c)

19. (a) : Here,

\ The equivalent capacitance between X and Y is Radius of circular path, R = 2 m

5C 5C Speed of the object, v = 4 m s–1

×

C XY = 3 3 = 5C

5C 5C 6

+

3 3

15. (b) : The kinetic energy of the body is

p2

K=

2m

where p is the linear momentum and m is the mass

of the body.

Since mass remains constant, so

2

K ′ p′

K ∝ p2 \ =

K p

The magnitude of acceleration is Time taken by the wave to travel 300 m is

v 2 (4 m s )

−1 2 300 m

a= = = 8 m s −2 t= =3s

R 2m 100 m s −1

The acceleration is directed towards the centre. 24. (d) : Resolve the 90 N, 80 N and 70 N forces into

Therefore, when the object is at y = 2 m, its x and y components. The line of action of 90 N,

acceleration is −8 j m s −2 . 50 N and x components of the 80 N and 70 N forces

^

20. (d) : Speed of the water coming out from the hole is pass through the pivot point A, therefore they cause

no rotation.

v = 2 gh

\ The total torque about point A is

where h denotes depth of the hole from the free L L

surface of the water in the tank. τA = (80 sin 30°) − 60 + (70 cos 60°)(L)

2 2

The quantities of water flowing out per second from But L = 3 m (given)

both holes are given to be same, therefore

13 3 1

A1v1= A2v2 \ τ A = (80) − (60) + (70) (3)

where A1 and A2 are the areas of cross-section 22 2 2

of hole 1 (i.e. square hole) and hole 2 (i.e. circular = 60 – 90 + 105 N m = 75 N m

hole) respectively and v1 and v2 are the speeds of 25. (c) : Let vb and v w be the velocity of motorboat in

water coming out from these holes. still water and velocity of water flow in the river

\ a2 2 gx = pr 2 2 g 4 x respectively. If x is the distance between the two

a2 a spots, then

2 x

or a2 = 2pr2 or r = or r = vb + vw = (for downstream) ...(i)

2p 2p 8

21. (b) : Let s be the total distance covered by the x

vb − vw = (for upstream) ...(ii)

person. 12

If t1, t2 and t3 are times taken by the person to cover On adding eqns. (i) and (ii), we get

first one-third distance with 10 km h–1, second one- x x 20

2vb = + = x

third with 20 km h–1 and the rest one-third with 60 8 12 96

km h–1 respectively, then 10 x

s /3 s s /3 s or vb =

t1 = = , t2 = = and 96

10 30 20 60 Time taken by motorboat to cover the distance x in

s /3 s still water is

t3 = =

60 180 x x 96

The average speed is t= = = = 9. 6 h

vb 10 x 10

Total distance covered 96

vav =

Total time taken 26. (a) : Numb er of p ossible emission lines are

s s n(n – 1)/2 when an electron jumps from nth state to

= =

t1 + t2 + t3 s s s ground state. In this question, this value should be

+ +

30 60 180 (n – 1)(n – 2)/2.

s 1 (n − 1)(n − 2)

= = Hence, 10 =

s 1 1 1 6 + 3 +1 2

1+ +

30 2 6 30 6 On solving this, we get n = 6

180 27. (a) : The coefficient of friction depends only on the

= = 18 km h −1

10 nature of the surfaces in contact.

22. (d)

28. (a) : Given :

23. (d) : Here, AB = BC = CD = AD = a

Frequency, u = 500 Hz

Wavelength, l = 0.2 m \ AC = BD = a2 + a2 = a 2

The velocity of the wave is The total potential energy of

v = ul = (500 Hz)(0.2 m) = 100 m s–1 the system is

1 (q)(−q) (q)(q) (q)(−q) 3 97

U= + + and u B = u − u= u

4 pe0 AB AC AD 100 100

(−q)(q) (−q)(−q) (q)(−q) When tuning forks A and B are sounded together,

+ + + 6 beats are heard per second.

BC BD CD

\ uA – uB = 6

1 q2 q2 q2 q2 q2 q2 102 97 6 × 100

= − + − − + − or u− u = 6 or u = = 120 Hz

4 pe0 a a 2 a a a 2 a 100 100 5

1 4q2 2q2 1 q2 33. (c) : According to Einstein’s photo ele c t r ic

= − + = [−4 + 2 ]

4 pe0 a a 2 4 pe0 a equation,

KA = − f0 and KB = − f0

PiVi = P fVf lA lB

where subscripts i and f refer to initial and final. But lA = 2lB (given)

Among the given four processes, only C satisfy this hc

\ KA = − f 0 = 1 [K + f ] − f

condition. 2l B 2 B 0 0

30. (c) : The velocity of planet is KB f0 KB

GM or KA = − \ KA <

v= 2 2 2

r 34. (d) : Here, L = 3 mH = 3 × 10–3 H, R = 4 W

where M is the mass of the sun and r is the radius

On comparing e = 4 cos1000t with e = e0 coswt,

of the orbit.

we get

Squaring both sides, we get

e0 = 4 V and w = 1000 rad s–1

GM GM

v2 = or r = 2 ...(i) The amplitude of current in the circuit is

r v e e0

I0 = 0 = e0

The angular velocity of planet is =

Z 2

R + XL 2

R + (wL)2

2

v v v3

w= = = (using (i)) 4 4

r GM / v 2 GM = = = 0. 8 A

2 −3 2

4 + (1000 × 3 × 10 ) 5

Thus, w ∝ v3

31. (c) : According to an ideal gas equation 35. (a) : According to mirror formula

PV = nRT ...(i) 1 1 1

+ =

At constant pressure u v f

PdV = nRdT ...(ii) Here, u = f + x, v = f + y, f = f

Dividing eqn. (ii) by eqn. (i), we get 1 1 1

\ + =

dV dT f +x f + y f

=

V T f + y+ f +x 1

V or =

or dV = dT ...(iii) ( f + x )( f + y ) f

T

If g represents volume thermal expansion coefficient or f 2 + fy + f 2 + fx = f 2 + fy + fx + xy

of an ideal gas, then or 2f 2 = f 2 + xy or f 2 = xy

dV = gVdT ...(iv) xy

Thus, =1

Equating eqns. (iii) and (iv), we get f2

V 1

gVdT = dT or g = = T −1 36. (c) : Total force at height 3L/4 from its lower end

T T = Weight suspended + Weight of 3/4 of the wire

32. (a) : Let the frequency of standard fork be u. Then

= W1 + (3W/4)

as per question

W + (3W/ 4 )

2 102 Hence stress = 1

uA = u + u= u A

100 100

Physics for you | february ‘16 71

37. (b) : Here, x = Asinwt 41. (c) : Let the stone be thrown with velocity u at an

At t = t1, x = A angle q to the horizontal. Then

2 u2 sin2 q

A 1 Maximum height h =

\ = A sin wt1 or sin wt1 = 2g

2 2 or 2gh = u sin q ...(i)

p p

or wt1 = or t1 = ...(i) The time of flight of the stone is

6 6w

At t = t1 + t2, x = A \ A = Asinw(t1 + t2) 2u sin q 2 2h

T= = 2 gh = 2 (using (i))

or sinw(t1 + t2) = 1 g g g

p p

or w(t1 + t2 ) = or t1 + t2 = 42. (d) : Here, RC = 500 W, ICRC = 0.5 V,

2 2w

p p p 2p VCC = 5 V, a = 0.96

or t2 = −t = − = (using (i)) As ICRC = 0.5 V

2w 1 2w 6w 6w

0. 5 V 0. 5 V

t 1 \ IC = = = 1 × 10−3 A = 1 mA

Thus, 1 = RC 500 W

t2 2

The current gains a and b are related as

38. (c) : The radiation pressure on a perfectly reflecting a 0.96

surface is b= = = 24

1 − a 1 − 0.96

2I The base current is

P=

c I 1 mA 1

Here, I = 5 W m–2, c = 3 × 108 m s–1 IB = C = = mA

2(5 W m −2 ) b 24 24

\ P= = 3.33 × 10–8 N m–2 43. (a) : Here,

8 −1

3 × 10 m s Distance between the slits, d = 0.15 mm = 0.15 × 10–3 m

39. (a) : Distance of screen from the slits, D = 50 cm

= 50 × 10–2 m

Since there are three and a half fringes contained within

7 mm (i.e. from first maxima to fifth minima),

The Boolean expression for output Y is 7

\ b = 7 mm (where b is the fringe width)

Y = A⋅ B (by de Morgan’s theorem) 2

14 mm

or b = = 2 mm

= A+B =A+B 7

which is Boolean expression for OR gate. Thus the lD

As b =

combination represents OR gate. d

−3 −3

bd (2 × 10 m)(0.15 × 10 m)

40. (a) : For first ball, \ l= =

u = 0, a = g = 10 m s–2, t = 18 s D (50 × 10−2 m)

1 = 6 × 10–7 m = 600 × 10–9 m

As s = ut + at 2

2 = 600 nm ( 1 nm = 10−9 m)

1 44. (a)

\ s1 = 0 + (10 m s −2 )(18 s)2 = 1620 m

2 45. (a) : Here, m = 1 kg, r = 1 m, v = 4 m s–1, T = 6 N

For second ball, Let the string make an angle q with the vertical. Then

u = v, a = g = 10 m s–2, t = 18 s – 6 s = 12 s

mv 2

1 2 T − mg cos q =

\ s2 = ut + at r

2 (1 kg )(4 m s −1 )2

1 mv 2

= v(12 s) + (10 m s −2 )(12 s)2 or mg cos q = T − =6N−

2 r 1m

= v(12 s) + 720 m = –10 N

At the time of meeting, s2 = s1 −10 N −10 N

or cos q = = = −1 or q = 180°

\ v(12 s) + 720 m = 1620 m mg (1 kg )(10 m s −2 )

1620 m − 720 m

or v = = 75 m s −1 It means the stone is at the top of the vertical circle.

12 s nn

125 V

3. (a) : R = = 10 W

12.5 A

Solution Set-30 V 125

X L = wL = 2 puL = = = 12.5

1. (b) : As batteries are connected in series, so I 10

12.5 12.5

e +e or 2 pL = = = 0.25

I= 1 2 u 50

r1 + r2 + R

\ X′L = 2pL × u′ = 0.25 × 40 = 10 W

When resistor R is connected to battery of emf e1,

e Impedance of the circuit

I1 = 1

r1 + R Z = R2 + X L′2 = 10 2 W

When resistor R is connected to battery of emf e2, 100

\ Current = = 10 / 2 A

E 10 2

I2 = 2

r2 + R 4. (c): Taking torque about C,

For required condition to be fulfilled F × OCcos q = N × OCsin q

I < I1 and I < I2 or F = ma = mgtan q (... N = mg)

e1 + e2 e or a = gtan q

\ < 1

r1 + r2 + R r1 + R

C = centre of mass

e1 + e2 e

and < 2

r1 + r2 + R r2 + R

C

e2 r e r +R N

⇒ < 2 and 2 > 2

e1 r1 + R e1 r1 mg

Thus option (b) is correct. O F

mv0 v x 3 5. (b) : At the centre, the intensity is effectively due

2. (c): r = = 0 , \ = = sin q

B0q B0a r 2 to one charge and the potential is due to (n – 1)

charges.

⇒ q = 60°

T 1 2p p kQ k (n − 1) Q

t0 A = = × = \ E= and V =

6 6 B0a 3B0a r2 r

( ) 2

y Hence, V = k n − 1 Q × r = (n − 1) r

E r kQ

6. The magnetic field at point P is

X

v0

A

I

Z

z dz

x

O

x Y

B

Therefore, x-coordinate of particle at any time

p

P

t> will be Z

3B0a z dz

y

3 v0 p

x= + v0 t − cos 60

2 B0a 3B0a I

3 v0 v0 p

= + t −

2 B0a 2 3B0a Y

µ0 I 1

B= \ – 50 = 5t + × (–10)t2

2p 2

y +z 2 2

The magnetic flux through the shaded strip in 1 ± 41

or, t= s or, t = –2.7 s or 3.7 s.

figure is 2

µ I

dφ = (W dz ) 0 sin q Negative t has no significance in this problem. The

2p y 2 + z 2 stone reaches the ground at t = 3.7 s. During this

z time, the balloon has moved uniformly up. The

where sinq =

distance covered by it is

y + z2

2

5 m s–1 × 3.7 s = 18.5 m.

\ Total magnetic flux through rectangular loop is

L

Hence, the height of the balloon when the stone

µ0 I0 sin wtWzdz reaches the ground is 50 m + 18.5 m = 68.5 m.

φ=∫

0

2p y2 + z2 9. At poles, the apparent weight is same as the true

µ y 2 + L2 weight.

= 0 W ln I0 sin wt Thus, 98 N = mg = m(9.8 m s–2) or m = 10 kg

4p y2

At the equator, the apparent weight is

\ Induced emf in the loop is mg′ = mg – mw2R

dφ µ0 L2 + y 2 The radius of the earth is 6400 km and the angular

e= = I0W w cos wt ln

dt 4 p y2 speed is

2 p rad

7. The net torque acting on the sphere is w= = 7.27 × 10−5 rad s −1

24 × 60 × 60 s

Thus, mg′

= 98 N – (10 kg) (7.27 × 10–5 rad s–1)2 (6400 × 103 m)

m

= 97.66 N

10. Suppose the deceleration of the block is a. The linear

B deceleration of the rim of the wheel is also a. The

I y

angular deceleration of the wheel is a = a/r. If the

tension in the string is T, the equations of motion

x

are as follows:

( )

τ = µ × B = NIAj × ( Bi) = − NIABk Mg sinq – T = Ma and Tr = Ia = Ia/r.

Eliminating T from these equations,

or τ = −N pR2 IBk (... A = pR2)

... The sphere is free to rotate, it must rotate about a Mg r 2 sinq

Mg sinq – I 2 = Ma or a =

the centroidal axis r I + Mr 2

The initial velocity of the block up the incline is

τ − N pR2 IB 2 2 v = wr. Thus, the distance moved by the block

\ a= = k Ic = mR

Ic 2 5 before stopping is

mR2

5

5N pIB v 2 w2r 2 ( I + Mr 2 ) ( I + Mr 2 ) w2

a= k x= = =

2m 2a 2 Mgr 2 sin q 2 Mg sin q

nn

8. At t = 0, the stone was going up with a velocity

of 5.0 m s–1. After that it moved as a freely falling Solution Sender of Physics Musing

particle with downward acceleration g. Take vertically Set-30

upward as the positive X-axis. If it reaches the 1. Harsh Sharma (uP) 2. Samrat Gupta (Wb)

ground at time t,

3. Pradnesh amod Patil (Maharashtra)

x = – 50 m, u = 5 m s–1, a = – 10 m s–2.

Set-29

1

As x = ut + at 2 1. Subrata Dutta (Wb) 2. anoop Verma (Delhi)

2

chapterwise McQs for practice

Useful for All National and State Level Medical/Engg. Entrance Exams

ElEctric chargEs and fiElds 5. Two equal and opposite charges 4 × 10–8 C are placed

1. Which of the following figures cannot possibly 2 × 10–2 cm away, form a dipole. If this dipole is

represent electrostatic field lines? placed in an external electric field of 4 × 108 N C–1,

the value of maximum torque and the work done in

+

+ rotating it through 180° will be

(a) + (b) (a) 64 × 10–4 N m and 64 × 10–4 J

+ (b) 32 × 10–4 N m and 32 × 10–4 J

+ (c) 64 × 10–4 N m and 32 × 10–4 J

(d) 32 × 10–4 N m and 64 × 10–4 J

(c) (d) + 6. A charged ball B hangs from a

silk thread S, which makes an

P

2. A metallic spherical shell has angle q with a large charged S

an inner radius R1 and outer conducting sheet P as shown in

radius R2. A charge is placed figure. The surface charge density

B

at the centre of the spherical of the sheet is proportional to

cavity. The surface charge (a) cos q (b) cot q

density on the inner surface is (c) sin q (d) tan q

(a) (b) charge q distributed uniformly over it. The net

4 π R12 4 π R12

electric field E at the centre O is

q2 q

j

(c) (d)

4π R22 4 π R22

3. An electric dipole of moment p is placed normal

to the lines of force of electric intensity E , then the

work done in deflecting it through an angle of 180° is i

(a) pE (b) +2pE O

q j q j

(c) –pE (d) zero (a) (b)

2π2 e 0 r2 4 π2 e 0r

2

(c) − (d) − j

in space by placing it in a downward direction of 4 π2 e r2 2π2 e 2

0 0r

electric field of 6 × 104 N C–1. Then, the magnitude

of charge is 8. Two positive ions, each carrying a charge q are

(a) 5 × 104 C (b) 5 × 10–10 C separated by a distance d. If F is the force of

(c) 5 × 10–6 C (d) 5 × 10–9 C repulsion between the ions, the number of electrons

missing from each ion will be (e being the charge of 13. Two spherical conductors A and B of radii 1 mm

an electron) and 2 mm are separated by a distance of 5 cm and

4 πe0 Fd 2 4 πe0 Fd 2 are uniformly charged. If the spheres are connected

(a) (b) by a conducting wire then, in equilibrium position,

e2 q2

the ratio of the magnitude of electric fields at the

4 πe0 Fd 2 4 πe0 Fd 2 surface of the spheres A and B is

(c) (d)

e2 q2 (a) 1 : 4 (b) 4 : 1 (c) 1 : 2 (d) 2 : 1

9. A point charge +10 µC is at a distance 5 cm directly 14. The tracks of three charged particles in a uniform

above the centre of a square of side 10 cm as shown electrostatic field is shown in the figure. Which

in figure. What is the magnitude of the electric flux particle has the highest charge to mass ratio?

through the square?

+q

5 cm

cm

10

10 cm

(a) A (b) B

(c) C (d) A and B

(a) 1.80 × 105 N m2 C–1

(b) 2 × 105 N m2 C–1 15. If there were only one type of charge in the universe,

(c) 1.92 × 105 N m2 C–1 then

(d) 1.88 × 105 N m2 C–1 (a) ∫ S ⋅ dS ≠ 0 on any surface

E

10. In a hydrogen atom, the distance between the

electron and proton is 2.5 × 10–11 m. The electrical (b) ∫ S ⋅ dS = 0 if the charge is outside the surface

E

force of attraction between them will be q

(a) 2.8 × 10–7 N (b) 6.2 × 10–7 N

(c) ∫ S ⋅ dS ≠ e0 if charge of magnitude q were

E

–7

(c) 3.7 × 10 N (d) 9.1 × 10–7 N inside the surface

11. Two small charged spheres A and B have charges (d) both (b) and (c) are correct.

10 µC and 40 µC respectively, and are held at a ElEctrostatic PotEntial and caPacitancE

separation of 90 cm from each other. At what 16. The equivalent capacitance for the network shown

distance from A, electric intensity would be zero? in the figure is

(a) 22.5 cm (b) 18 cm 1200

(c) 36 cm (d) 30 cm (a) pF

7

12. Four charges are arranged at the corners of a square 1000

as shown in the figure. The direction of electric field (b) pF

4

at the centre of the square is along

1800

(c) pF

+3q D +4q 7

1300

(d) pF

3

A B 17. A cube of side x has a charge q at each of its vertices.

The potential due to this charge array at the centre

of the cube is

+2q C +q 4q 4q

(a) (b)

3πeo x 3πeo x

(a) DC (b) BC

3q 2q

(c) AB (d) AD (c) (d)

4 πeo x 3πeo x

18. A charge +q is placed at the y 22. A charged oil drop of mass 2.5 × 10–7 kg is in space

origin O of x-y axes as B(0, b) between the two plates, each of area 2 × 10–2 m2

shown in the figure. The of a parallel plate capacitor. When the upper plate

work done in taking a has a charge of 5 × 10–7 C and the lower plate has

charge Q from A to B along O

x an equal negative charge, the oil remains stationary.

A(a, 0)

the straight line AB is The charge of the oil drop is (Take g = 10 m s–2)

qQ a − b qQ b −a (a) 9 × 10–1 C (b) 9 × 10–6 C

(a) (b)

4 πe0 ab 4 πe 0 ab (c) 8.85 × 10–13 C (d) 1.8 × 10–14 C

23. Three charges, each + q, are placed at the corners

(c) qQ b 1 (d) qQ a 1

− − of an isosceles triangle ABC of sides BC and

4 πe0 a2 b 4 πe0 b2 b AC = 2a. D and E are the mid points of BC and

19. Two charges q1 and q2 are placed 30 cm apart, as CA, as shown in figure. The work done in taking a

shown in the figure. A third charge q3 is moved charge Q from D to E is

A

along the arc of a circle of radius 40 cm from C to D.

B C

D

qQ qQ

(a) (b)

8πe0 a 4 πe0 a

q 3qQ

The change in the potential energy is 3 k , where (c) zero (d)

k is 4πe0 4 πe0a

(a) 8q1 (b) 6q1 24. Three concentric spherical shells have radii a, b and

(c) 8q2 (d) 6q2. c (a < b < c) and have surface charge densities + s,

20. Two materials of dielectric constants k1 and k2 are – s, + s respectively. If VA, VB and VC denote the

filled between two parallel plates of a capacitor as potentials of the three shells, then for c = a + b, we

shown in figure. have

(a) VC = VB = VA (b) VC = VA ≠ VB

(c) VC = VB ≠ VA (d) VC ≠ VB ≠ VA

25. If a charged spherical conductor of radius 10 cm has

k1 k2 d

potential V at a point distant 5 cm from its centre,

then the potential at a point distant 15 cm from the

centre will be

The capacitance of the capacitor is 3

(a) 3 V (b) V

2

Ae0 (k1 + k2 ) Ae0 k1 + k2

(a) (b) 2 1

2d 2d k1k2 (c) V (d) V

3 3

Ae0 k1k2 2 Ae0 k1k2 26. A parallel plate air capacitor is charged to a

(c) k +k (d) k +k potential difference of V. After disconnecting the

d 1 2 d 1 2

battery, distance between the plates of the capacitor

21. Work done in placing a charge of 8 × 10–18C on a is increased using an insulating handle. As a result

condenser of capacity 100 µF is the potential difference between the plates

(a) 16 × 10–32 J (b) 31 × 10–26 J (a) decreases (b) increases

–10

(c) 4 × 10 J (d) 32 × 10–32 J (c) becomes zero (d) does not change

27. The velocity v acquired by an electron starting from 2. (b) : When a charge +q is placed at the centre of

rest and moving through potential difference V is spherical cavity as shown in figure,

shown by which of the following graphs ?

v v

(a) (b)

V V

v v

(c) (d)

V V

Charge induced on the inner surface of shell

=–q

28. In the circuit shown in figure, C = 6 µF. The charge

Charge induced on the outer surface of shell

stored in the capacitor of capacity C is

=+q

\ Surface charge density on the inner surface

C 2C 10 V −q

=

4 πR12

(a) zero (b) 90 µC 3. (d) : Here, q1 = 90°

(c) 40 µC (d) 60 µC q2 = 90° + 180° = 270°

29. A ball of mass 1 g and charge 10–8 C moves from

a point A, where potential is 600 V to the point B

where potential is zero. Velocity of the ball at the

point B is 20 cm s–1. The velocity of the ball at the

point A will be

(a) 22.8 cm s–1 (b) 228 cm s–1

(c) 16.8 m s –1

(d) 168 m s–1

30. The potential at a point distant x (measured in µm) q2 =270°

due to some charges situated on the x-axis is given

20

\ Work done = ∫ pE sin q dq

by V (x ) = 2 V. q1 =90°

x −4 270°

= [− pE cos q]90 ° =0

The electric field at x = 4 µm is given by

5 4. (b) : We know that, qE = mg

(a) V µm–1 and in positive x direction

3 mg

\ q=

10 E

(b) V µm–1 and in negative x direction

9 3 × 10−6 × 10 30 × 10−10

10 = =

(c) V µm–1 and in positive x direction 6 × 104 6

9

= 5 × 10–10C

5

(d) V µm–1 and in negative x direction. 5. (d) : Maximum torque is given by

3

τ max = pE (... sin q = 1)

solutions

= (q2a) E ( p = q × 2a)

1. (b) : Positive charge tends to move normally away

= (4 × 10–8 × 2 × 10–4) × 4 × 108

from the conductor i.e starts or ends only at 90° to

= 32 × 10–4 N m

the surface of the conductor. Thus, the lines of force

If q = 180°, then

are parallel and normal to the surface of conductor.

W = pE(1 – cos 180°) = pE[1 –(–1)] = 2pE

So curve (b) cannot represent electrostatic field

= 2 × 32 × 10–4 = 64 × 10–4 J

lines.

6. (d) : Symmetry of six faces of a cube about its centre

T T cos ensures that the flux fS through each square face is

S same when the charge q is placed at the centre.

P \ Total flux,

q

F = qE q

B f E = 6 × fS =

T sin

e0

q 1

or fS = = × 10 × 10−6 × 4 π × 9 × 109

mg 6e 0 6

= 1.88 × 105 N m2 C–1.

According to diagram,

T sin q = qE = q(s/e0) = qs/e0 10. (c) : F = 1 q1q2

⋅

and T cos q = mg 4 πe0 r 2

qs 1.6 × 10 −19 × 1.6 × 10 −19

Hence, tan q = = 9 × 109 × = 3.7 × 10 −7 N.

e0mg (2.5 × 10 −11 )2

e mg 11. (d) : EB EA

or s= 0 tan q or s ∝ tan q 10 C 40 C

q

π A P B

7. (d) : E = dE sin q

∫ x 0.90 – x

π

0 At point P, EA = EB

dq

⇒ E = ∫ k 2 sin q or 1 10 × 10−6 1 40 × 10−6

r ⋅ 2

= ⋅

0

π

4 πe0 x 4 πe0 (0.90 − x )2

k qdq qdq

1 4

= 2 ∫

r 0 π

sin q as dq = π or =

x 2 (0.90 − x )2

π π or 0.90 – x = 2x or x = 0.30 m = 30 cm.

kq q as ∫ sin q d q = 2

πr 2 ∫0

= sin q dq = 2 2 12. (a) : The resultant fields due to the diagonally

2 π e0 r 0 opposite charges will act as shown in the figure.

q j Here, the resultant electric field at the centre of the

or E=− (as E is directed along –Y-axis)

2π2 e 0 r2 square is along DC.

8. (c) : According to Coulomb’s law, +3q D +4q

qq

F= 1 22

4πe0 d

As, q1 = q2 = ne A B

(ne)(ne)

\ F=

4 πe0 d 2

4 πe0 Fd 2 +2q C +q

n= .

e2 13. (d) : When joined by a wire, the two spheres attain

9. (d) : We can imagine the square as face of a cube with common potential V.

edge 10 cm with the charge of +10 µC placed at its 1 qA V

centre, as shown in figure (ii). \ Electric field, E A = =

4 πe0 RA2 RA

V E A RB 2

Similarly, EB = \ = =

RB E B RA 1

14. (c) : Particles A and B have negative charges because

they are being deflected towards the positive plate of the

electrostatic field. Particle C has positive charge because

(i) (ii) it is being deflected towards the negative plate.

\ Deflection of charged particle in time t in 1 8q 4q

\ V= =

y-direction 4 πeo x 3 3πeo x

1 1 qE 2

h = 0 × t + at 2 = t (... ma = qE ) 2

2 2 m

i.e. h ∝ q/m 18. (a) : Potential at point A is

1 q

As the particle C suffers maximum deflection in VA =

y-direction, so it has highest charge to mass q/m 4 πe0 a

ratio. Potential at point B is

1 q

15 (d) : According to Gauss’s theorem in electrostatics VB =

q 4 πe0 b

∫ E ⋅ dS = e0 Work done in taking a charge Q from A to B is

Here q is charge enclosed by the surface. Qq 1 1 Qq a − b

W = Q(VB − VA ) = − =

If the charge is outside the surface, then qinside = 0 4 πe0 b a 4 πe0 ab

Also, ∫ E ⋅ dS = 0 . 19. (c) : q3

C

So, both (b) and (c) are correct.

16 (a) :

q1 q2

A B D

The potential energy when q3 is at point C

1 q1q3 q2 q3

U1 = +

4 πe0 0.40 (0.40)2 + (0.30)2

The potential energy when q3 is at point D

C1 = C4 = 100 pF, C2 = C3 = 400 pF 1 q1q3 q2 q3

U2 = +

Supply voltage, V = 400 V 4 πe0 0.40 0.10

Capacitors C2 and C3 are connected in series, Thus change in potential energy is

Equivalent capacitance DU = U2 – U1

1 1 1 2 q3 1 q1q3 q2 q3 q1q3 q2 q3

= + = or C ′ = 200 pF ⇒ k = + − −

C ′ 400 400 400 4πe0 4 πe0 0.40 0.10 0.40 0.50

Capacitors C1 and C′ are in parallel 5q − q 4q

Their equivalent capacitance ⇒ k = 2 2 = 2 = 8q2 .

0.50 0.50

C ′′ = C ′ + C1 = 200 + 100 = 300 pF 20. (a) : The arrangement is equivalent to a parallel

Capacitors C ′′ and C4 are connected in series combination of two capacitors, each with plate area

1 1 1 1 1 A/2 and separation d. Total capacitance is

Equivalent capacitance, = + = +

1 7

Ceq C ′′ C4 300 400

C = C1 + C2 =

( )

e0 A k1 e0 A k2

2 +

( ) 2

= 1200 d d

Ceq 1200 \ Ceq = pF Ae (k + k )

7 = 0 1 2

17. (b) : The length of diagonal of the cube of each side 2d

21. (d) : Here, q = 8 × 10–18C, C = 100 µF = 10–4 F

x is 3x 2 = x 3

\ Distance between centre of cube and each vertex, q 8 × 10 −18

V= = = 8 × 10 −14 V

x 3 C 10 −4

r=

2 1 q 1

Now, potential, V = Work done = qV

4πeo r 2

1

Since cube has 8 vertices and 8 charges each of value q = × 8 × 10−18 × 8 × 10−14 = 32 × 10–32 J

2

22. (c) : We know that s (a + b) s2a

qE = mg VC = (a − b + a + b) =

e0 c e0

qQ e0 Amg

= mg , q = We found that, VA = VC ≠ VB

e0 A Q Choice (b) is correct.

8.85 × 10 × 2 × 10 × 2.5 × 10−7 × 10

−12 −2

25. (c) : The potential at any point inside a charged

=

5 × 10−7 conductor is same as on its surface,

= 8.85 × 10–13 C q q

V= = ( r = 10 cm)

4 πeo r 4 πe0 × 10

23. (c) : According to figure, AC = BC.

q

C ⇒ = 10V … (i)

q 4 πe0

At r = 15 cm

D E q 10 V 2

V′ = \ V′ = = V (using (i))

4 πeo × 15 15 3

q q

A B 26. (b) : Potential on parallel plate capacitor

Potential at D = potential at E Q

V=

1 q 1 q C

i.e. VD = VE = 2 × + Also, capacity of parallel plate capacitor is given by

4 πe0 a 4 πe0 DB

e A Qd

2q q 1 C= 0 \ V=

= + × d e0 A

4 πe0 a 4 πe0 2a sin 60°

⇒ V∝d

q 1 1 q 2 + 1 So, on increasing the distance between plates of

= 2+ =

4 πe0a 2 × 3 / 2 4 πe0 a 3 capacitor, the potential difference between plates

also increases.

\ Work done in taking charge Q from D to E

= QVE – QVD = Q (VE – VD) = Q × 0 = 0 27. (b) : K.E. gained by the electron,

1 2

24. (b) : It is clear from figure that mv = eV \ v2 ∝ V

2

Thus, the graph between v and V must be a

parabola. Only option (b) is correct.

VC 28. (c) : Two capacitors as shown in figure are in series.

VB VA a

Therefore, charge on each capacitor is same.

1 1 1 1 1 3 2C

b = + = + = , Cs =

Cs C1 C2 C 2C 2C 3

c 2C 2×6

q = Cs × V = V= × 10 = 40µC.

sa sb sc s 3 3

VA = − + = (a − b + c) 1

e0 e0 e0 e0 29. (a) : By using, m(v12 − v22 ) = QV

2

As c = a + b

1

s × 10−3[v12 − (0.2)2 ] = 10−8 (600 − 0)

\ VA = (2a) 2

e0

v1 = 22.8 cm s–1

s 2 s 2

VB = a − b + c = a − b + a + b

e0 b e 0 b 20

30. (c) : Here, V (x ) = = 20(x 2 − 4)−1 .

x2 − 4

s a2 sa (a + b) s0ac 40 x

VB = + a = = dV

e0 b e0 b e 0b E=− = −20(−1)(x 2 − 4)−2 (2 x ) = 2

(x − 4)2

dx

s a 2 b2 sa a2 − b2 + c 2 At x = 4 µm, E = 40 × 4 = 160 = 10 Vµm −1

VC = − + c = e

e0 c c 0 c (42 − 4)2 144 9

s (a + b)(a − b) + (a + b)2 E is along the positive x-direction.

=

e0 c nn

Y U ASK sources of sound can be identical in all respects and

can produce coherent waves. On the contrary, light

is not a bulk property of matter, it is a property of

WE ANSWER

each individual atom. As the individual atoms emit

light randomly and independently, therefore two

independent sources of light cannot be coherent.

Do you have a question that you just can’t get Coherent sources can be obtained by splitting a light

answered? beam from source into two. This can be done in two

ways :

Use the vast expertise of our mtg team to get to the (a) Division of wavefront,

bottom of the question. From the serious to the silly, (b) Division of amplitude.

the controversial to the trivial, the team will tackle the

Q3. What is the reason behind Earth’s magnetism?

questions, easy and tough. –Bidhan Banerjee, West Bengal

The best questions and their solutions will be printed in Ans. The actual process by which the magnetic field is

this column each month. produced in this environment is extremely complex.

However, for magnetic field generation to occur

Q1. (a) Why does every celestial object rotate on its several conditions must be met

axis? - there must be a conducting fluid.

(b) Why almost every object in this space has a - there must be enough energy to cause the fluid to

spherical shape? move with sufficient speed and with appropriate

–Ruqaiyah Rahman, Madhya Pradesh flow pattern.

Ans. (a) In general, almost every celestial object has a spin - there must be a seed magnetic field.

motion around its axis. The major reason behind All these conditions meet in the outer core. Molten

this, is conservation of their angular momentum. As iron is a good conductor. There is sufficient energy to

gravity is the central force in the universe because drive convection and the convection motion, coupled

it is only one which has a significant pull over large with the Earth’s rotation, produce the appropriate

distances. When things collapse under their own flow pattern. Even before the Earth’s magnetic field

gravity in space i.e., clouds of gas and dust, any small was first formed, magnetic fields were present in the

amount of asymmetry in the collapse will be enough form of the Sun’s magnetic field. Once the process

to start it spinning. Even if it spins by a tiny amount, is going, the existing field acts as the seed field. As

as it collapses, angular momentum conservation a stream of molten iron passes through the existing

will make it spin more and more quickly-just like magnetic field, an electric current is generated

an spinning ice-skater pulling his arms close to his through a process called magnetic induction. The

body and hence spinning more quickly. This means newly created electric field will in turn create a

that all coherent masses are spinning, e.g. asteroids, magnetic field. The generated magnetic field can

neutron stars, galaxies, quasars. reinforce the initial magnetic field. As long as there is

(b) As we know that stars, planets, moon and other sufficient fluid motion in the outer core the process

celestial bodies are made up of gases, rocks, ice and will continue.

water. We assume a planet like earth having larger Q4. Why rain drops or water droplets are spherical in

part covered by water. The water molecules on the shape?

north pole are pulling towards south pole. The ones –Nayan Sengupta, West Bengal

on the left are pulling towards right. Gravity and

Ans. The reason why a water droplet takes spherical

surface tension pull it in and molecular forces are

shape is the surface tension of the water that tends

pushing it outward. Due to inward pulling towards

to minimize the surface area of the drop as this

centre of mass, it gets roughly a spherical shape.

minimizes the potential energy. For larger amount

Q2. What is coherent source? of water surface tension is however, too weak to

–Archisman Das, West Bengal overcome the force of gravity, that tends to distribute

Ans. Two sources are said to be coherent if they produce water as flat as possible on the surface as this

waves of same frequency with a constant phase minimizes the potential energy.

difference. Unlike sound waves, two independent Same thing happens in case of rain drops also.

sources of light cannot be coherent. Since sound is a Although, as the raindrops fall down, they start

bulk property of matter, therefore two independent losing the rounded shape due to their speed.

nn

82 Physics for you | february ‘16

Courtesy - The Times of India

Readers can send their responses at editor@mtg.in or post us with complete address by 25th of every month to win exciting prizes.

Winners' name with their valuable feedback will be published in next issue.

1 2

2. A shallow crater with a complex, scalloped edge. (6)

3 4 5

3. Droplets formed by condensation of water vapour 6 7

on surfaces. (3) 8 9 10

5. A prefix denoting 10–15. (5) 11 12 13

telescope. (6) 17

23 24

13. A radar like technique employing pulsed or A

25

continuous wave laser beams for remote sensing.

26

(5)

27

17. Process of forming ions from molecules. (10)

19. The shortened version of linear accelerator. (5) 6. The outer edge or border of a planet or other

20. A unit of heat and internal energy. (7) celestial body. (4)

22. Subatomic particles composed of three quarks. (6) 7. A giant star whose surface temperature is relatively

24. The idea of creating a place or object that is free low, so that it glows with a red colour. (3, 5)

from the force of gravity. (4, 7) 8. An electric line that conveys electric power from

25. A gauge boson with no electric charge. (1, 5) a generating station to a point of a distributing

26. A hypothetical scalar field that could drive the network. (6)

period of inflation that took place in the early 11. Term refers to any one of four mesons with

universe. (8) nonzero strangeness. (4)

27. A metric system unit of volume, usually used for 14. Two or more sounds that when together sound

liquids. (5) unpleasant. (10)

15. The superpartner of graviton. (9)

down

16. Area of the sun’s surface that are cooler than

1. The shortest path between two points in curved surrounding areas. (7)

space. (8)

18. A film that transmits only polarized light. (8)

2. Icy region of planet, specifically the north and

21. An active galaxy with very active and highly

south poles. (5, 3)

variable radio, electromagnetic and optical

4. An extraneous low pitched droning noise heard in emissions. (6)

sound reproduction systems. (3)

23. Label that distinguish one type of measurable

5. Long zirconium alloy tubes containing fissionable quantity from other types. (4)

material used in a nuclear reactor. (4, 3)

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