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COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

technical steel research

Properties in use

Weldability of steels
Weldability of C-Mn and microalloyed
steels

Blow-up from microfiche original

1980 EUR 5866 EN


COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES

technical steel research

Properties in use

Weldability of steels
Weldability of C-Mn and microalloyed
steels

G. Bernard, F. Faure, G. Gautier


IRSID, Saint-Germain-en-Laye

Contract No 6210-93/3/304
(1.10.1973 - 13.12.1975)

FINAL REPORT

Published by the Directorate-General


Scientific and Technical Information and Information Management

1980 EUR 5866 EN


LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting
on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of
the following information
Z U S A M M E N F A S S U N G

Im Abschlussbericht v/erden die gesamten Forschungsergebnisse beschrieben,


die im Rahmen eines EGKS­Vertrags durch IRSID zwischen dem 1. Januar 1974 und dem
31. Dezember 1975 erhalten worden sind.

Für mikrolegierte C­Mn Stähle muss man einerseits die Gefahr von Kaltriss­
bildung bei einer Schweissung mit schwacher Energie und anderseits die Zähigkeit
von Schweissgut und wärmebeeinflussier Zone bei einer Schiveissung mit starker Energie,
ganz besonders achten.

Für den Fall des Schweissens mit schwacher Energie haben die Ergebnisse
früherer Arbeiten gestattet, eine allgemeine Bestimmungsmethode der Schwei s sbedin^un/Ten
einzuführen, bei welcher die Gefahren für Kaltrissbildung beseitigt werden können.
Dabei benutzt man gleichzeitig die Härte­Abkühlungsparameter­Kurve des Werkstoffes
und den vom IRSID entwickelten thermischen Abakus. Wenn diese Angaben nicht zur
Verfügung stehen, kann man sich in den meisten Fällen mit einer vereinfachten Methode
behelfen.

Der vorwiegende Einfluss der in der W.E.Z. entstandenen Gefüge (Martensit,


Zwischenstufegefüge, Ferrit­Karbid Gefüge) auf die Zähigkeit dieser Zone ist mittels
Proben mit simulierten Abkühlungsbchandlungen untersucht worden. Die niedrigsten
Uebergangstemperaturen ergeben sich für martensitische und untere Zwischenstufegefüge.
Der Vergleich der Ergebnisse von Charpy V ­ Kerbschlagbiegeversuchen und Schlagzug­
versuchen an Proben, die einerseits aus wirklichen Schweissungen entnommen sind und
anderseits mit dem Simulationsverfahren behandelt sind, bestätigt die Gültigkeit der
Ergebnissen an simultierten W.E.Z. und zeigt wie sich die praktischen Herstellungs­
schwierigkeiten von Proben in wirklichen Schweissungen auf die Zähigkeitswerten
auswirken können.

Um die gewünschten mechanischen Eigenschaften im Schx­íeissgut selbst zu


gewährleisten sind mehere Faktoren zu berücksichtigen: dnerseits die Schweissenergie
(dessen Einfluss im Falle von 20 mm dicken Blechen im Bereich von 20 bis 70 kj/cm
untersucht wurde), anderseits die Zusammensetzung des Schweissguts (die durch der
Verwendung von künstlichen legierten Schweissdrähten und von verschiedenen Schweiss­
flussen geändert wurde). Der günstige Einfluss von Schweissverfahren mit raschem
Temperaturablauf auf die Uebergangstemperatur im Charpy V ­ Kerbschlagbiegeversuch ist
nachgewiesen worden. Die Wirkung der wesentlichsten Legierungselemente, die entweder
vom Grundmetall oder von den Schweisszusatzwerkstoffen herkommen, ist unter Rücksichts­
nahme auf die entstehenden Aenderungen des Mikrogefüges der W.E.Z. untersucht worden.

Die Deutung des Einflusses der Dispersoidelementen (NB und V) auf die
Eigenschaften von Schweissgut und W.E.Z. berücksichtigt die Ausscheidungsvorgänge der
Karbonitriden während der Erwärmung und Abkühlung beim Schweissen sowie die Auswirkungen
einer Entspannungsbehandlung nach dem Schweissen.

Endlich wurden die anlassartigen Auswirkungen der Entspannungsbehandlung unter­


sucht und die metallurgischen Vorgänge im Gefüge der verschiednen Bestandteile der
Schweissnaht gekennzeichnet (Grundmetall im normalisierten oder kontrolliert gewalzten
Ausgangsζustand, W.E.Z. und Schweissgut).

Anhand dieser Ergebnisse werden praktische Folgerungen für die Schweissbarkeit


der untersuchten Stählen besprochen.
R E S U M E

Le rapport présente l'ensemble des résultats obtenus à l'IRSID, dans le


cadre d'un contrat de recherches avec la CECA, entre le 1er janvier 1974 et le
31 décembre 1975·

Pour les aciers au C-Mn et microalliés, une attention particulière a été


portée au risque de fissuration à froid dans le cas du soudage à faible énergie
et à la ténacité des structures du métal fondu et de la zone affectée par la
chaleur dans le cas du soudage à forte énergie·

Dans le cas du soudage à faible énergie, l'utilisation des résultats de


plusieurs années d'étude a permis de dégager une méthode de choix des conditions
de soudage, destinée à éviter les risques de fissuration à froid. Il est pour cela
possible d'utiliser conjointement les courbes dureté - paramètre de refroidissement
ainsi que les abaques thermiques déterminés à l'IRSID, ou quand ces informations
ne sont pas disponibles d'avoir recours, dans un grand nombre de cas, à une méthode
simplifiée.

Pour la ténacité des zones affectées par la chaleur, l'influence fonda-


mentale des microstructures formées (martensite, bainite, ferrite-carbures) en
fonction des conditions de soudage a été mise en évidence sur éprouvettes de
simulation. Les structures à base de martensite autorevenue et de bainite inférieure
donnent les températures de transition Charpy V les plus basses. La comparaison
d'essais de resilience Charpy V et de traction par choc, sur éprouvettes d'une
part prélevées dans des soudures réelles et d'autre part traitées sur simulateur
thermique, a permis de vérifier la validité des essais réalisés à partir de Z.A.C.
simulées et de montrer comment les difficultés technologiques de prélèvement
d'éprouvettes peuvent affecter les résultats obtenues sur Z.A.C. de soudures réelles.

Pour le métal fondu en soudage sous flux, plusieurs facteurs doivent être
considérés afin d'en assurer les caractéristiques mécaniques souhaitées : d'une
part l'énergie de soudage (dont l'effet a été étudié entre 20 et 70 kJ/cm sur des
toles d'épaisseurs voisines de 20 mm) et d'autre part la composition du métal fondu
(étudiée en utilisant des fils synthétiques conjointement avec divers flux de
soudage). L'effet bénéfique des cycles de refroidissement courts sur la température
de transition Charpy V du métal fondu a été mis en évidence. L'effet des principaux
éléments d'alliage provenant soit du métal de base, soit des produits d'apport, a
été examiné en liaison avec les modifications microstructurales qu'ils entraînent.

L'effet des éléments dispersoïdes (Nb et V) sur les propriétés de la Z.A.C.


et du métal fondu a été examiné en liaison avec la précipitation des carbonitrures
au cours du cycle thermique de soudage ou d'un traitement post-soudage de rela-
xation des contraintes.

Enfin, l'effet métallurgique de revenu des traitements thermiques post-


soudage sur les différents constituants du joint soudé (métal de base à l'état
normalisé ou laminé contrôlé, Z.A.C. et métal fondu) a été étudié.

Les conséquences pratiques de ces résultats sur la soudabilité des aciers


étudiés sont discutées.
OCHADLO)

WELDABILITY OF C-Mn AND MICROALLOYED STEELS

A B S T R A C T

This report presents the results obtained at IRSID in the course


of a research programme supported by ECSC, between January 1 , 1974 and
Décembre 3 1 s t , 1975.

For C-Mn and microalloyed steels, special attention must be given


to cold cracking in low energy welding and to fracture toughness of weld
metal and heat affected zone microstructures in high energy welding.

For low energy welding, it has been possible, by using data collected
over several years, to set up a method for selecting welding conditions so as
to prevent cold cracking. For that purpose, one may combine the hardness curves
and the thermal efficiency diagram establislied at IRSID or, when these infor-
mation are not available a simplified procedure, appropriate for a wide range
of steels, can be used.

Fracture toughness of heat affected zones was studied on simulated


specimens. It is mostly dependent upon the microstructures formed (martensite,
bainite, ferrite-carbides) according to the welding parameters. Auto-tempered
martensitic and lower bainitic type microstructures yield the lowest Charpy V
transition temperatures. By comparing results of Charpy V tests and impact
tensile tests on notched specimens for both real and simulated heat affected
zones, the validity of data generated from simulated HAZ was checked and the
effect of technological difficulties, associated with extracting notched speci-
mens from real weldment HAZ, on impact toughness data was clarified

When looking at weld metal mechanical properties several parameters


must be taken into account : heat input effect was studied between 20 and
70 kJ/cm ; chemical composition was studied by using sunthetic wires and
several welding -fluxes. Fast cooling cycles are beneficial for weld metal
Charpy V transition temperature. The effect of alloying elements (from either
base plate or consumables) must be related to microstrural aspects.

The effect of microalloying elements was examined in relationship


with carbonitrides precipitation during either the welding cooling cycle or
post weld heat treatment.

Last, metallurgical effects of post-weld heat treatments upon the


compoments of a welded joint (normalized or controlled rolled base plate,
HAZ, weld metal) were studied.

Practical consequences of these data on the weldability of steels


are discussed.
TABLE OF CONTENTS

I INTRODUCTION
II COLD CRACKING
II-l Statement of Problem
II-2 Cold Cracking and Microstructure
II-3 Cold Cracking and Hydrogen
II-4 Practical Application to the Usage of
Steels
III TOUGHNESS OF WELD HEAT AFFECTED ZONES OF
C-Mn AND MICROALLOYED STEELS
III-l Introduction
III-2 Statement of Problem
III-2.1 Literature Survey
III-2.2 Aims of Work and Choice of
Experimental Procedure
III-3 Steels investigated
III-4 Microstructure-toughness relationships
III-4.1 Experimental procedure
III-4.2 Effect of thermal cycles on
toughness
III-4.3 Discussion-effect of differing
structures
III-5 Application to the study of the behaviour
of HAZ in jeal welds
III-5.1 Manufacture of welds
III-5.2 Charpy V impact tests
III 5.3 Tensile tests under impact
III-6 Conclusions
IV PROPERTIES OF SUBMERGED ARC WELD METALS
IV-1 Introduction
IV-2 Literature survey
IV-3 Effect of cooling cycle on properties
and structures of weld metal
IV-3.1 Experimental conditions
IV-3.2 Results
IV-4 Effect of weld energy input
IV-5 Weld metal composition. Elements present
in parent plate
IV-6 Weld metal composition. Elements present
in weld consumables.
-2-

IV-6.1 Experimental procedure


IV-6.2 Composition of metal. Yield of
principal elements
IV-6.3 Influence of alloying elements on
the properties of metal deposited
IV-7 Discussion
IV-8 Practical conclusions. Future work.

V INFLUENCE OF POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT


VI-1 Parent metal properties
V-l.l Strain-free parent metal.

V-1.2 Strained parent metal.


V-2 Effect of stress relief on weld joint
properties
VI GENERAL CONCLUSIONS
Appendix I PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE WELDING OF
CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS FOR GENERAL
PURPOSES

Appendix II LIST OF PUBLICATIONS RELEVANT TO WORK


CARRIED OUT AS PART OF THIS STUDY
-3-

I INTRODUCTION
The search for improved safety in welded structures
leads users and manufacturers of steels to ask certain
questions regarding the weldability of materials and
to originate studies to define optimum conditions
for setting these in hand.

Earlier work, in particular that carried out in the


course of ECSC programmes concerning steel weld-
ability, have allowed the isolation of the most
important metallurgical factors characterising a
weld joint.

In the case of welding at low arc energies,


essentially manual welding with coated electrodes,
which remains the most common process, the risk of
cold cracking is important. It formed one of the
first aspects of weldability studied and is, by
now, well documented. For that reason, with the aid
of results from IRSID, it seemed of interest to us
to emphasise, in particular, in this report, the
practical application of these studies.

With the development of high energy welding processes,


particularly in combination with high-strength steels,
the mechanical properties of the welded joint have
likewise become particularly important, especially
with respect to the toughness of the heat-affected
zone and weld metal in the as-welded or stress-
relieved conditions. With regard to these points,
it seemed to us of interest to go deeply into a
metallurgical study of phenomena before drawing out
practical conclusions.
-4-

II COLD CRACKING
II-l Statement of problem
Cold cracking in welding has been the object of
numerous investigations by almost all laboratories,
in the course of three collective ECSC programmes to
date. Recalling that, in the area of mechanisms
involved, these investigations have confirmed or shown
that cold cracking must be tied to three essential
factors (1-4).
- the existence of stresses applied to the welded
joint,
the presence of hydrogen introduced into the HAZ
during welding,
- the existence in the HAZ of microstructural
constituents susceptible to embrittlement by
hydrogen.

Work åt IRSID has been essentially centred on the


factor "Microstructure". In addition, the concept
of the hardness/parameter of cooling curve, comple-
mented by the establishment of the cooling nomogram
(Figure 1), has been introduced during earlier
programmes.

This approach has been adopted in this programme


with the objective of arriving at practical and easily-
applied recommendations. We have therefore been
led to specify quantitively the effects of HAZ micro-
structures, as well as the characteristics of
cracking, as a function of the amount of hydrogen
introduced. This work was achieved by the implant
technique of which the experimental clarification at
IRSID has been made in the course of this study.

The IRSID machines are shown in Figure 2. The load


is applied by a simple system of a dead weight on a
lever. The weld is carried out with the aid of a
semi-automatic apparatus, likewise designed at
IRSID.
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FIGURE 2 - IMPLANT MACHINES AT I R S I D
The composition of the steels studied is given in
Table I.

TABLE 1 - COLD CRACKING. COMPOSITION OF STEELS


STUDIED (10-3%)

C Mn S Si Al Ni Cu Mo Nb

A 3 180 1350 350 20 35


Β 1 69 1350 16 242 14 188 34
D 1 130 1320 10 270 44 185 32
D 2 70 1100 17 300 15 940 1380 190 34

II-2 Cold cracking and microstructure


The importance of the HAZ microstructure is clearly shown
in Figure 3, where it can be seen that the critical
stress for cracking rises very rapidly with cooling
parameter.

This cracking curve looks in fact like a transition


curve, the transition zone corresponding to the change
from martensite to bainite in the HAZ.

A direct comparison between cracking curves and


continuous cooling transformation curves (Figures 4 and
5) shows moreover that the development of cracking
curves follows very closely the development of trans­
formation curves. Note that the steels shown in
Figures 4 and 5 are distinguishable by their carbon
content. The deleterious effect of this element on
cold cracking characteristics is well known, but it is
interesting to note that its effect is explained
here uniquely in terms of its effect on hardenability.
Acier E 36 Nb
A cr
N/mm 2
—400

• fissuré _
300
O non fissuré

5
°<>s A t300

ioos A t580000

FIGURE 3 - IMPLANT CRACKING CURVES FOR AN E36


STEEL (DESIGNATED A3 - SEE TABLE I)
10

STEEL·
ACIER B1

Mo v .c' %

700
At
300
e>

*
^N/mm2
H2(ÍIS)
.¿00
5.5 cc/ι Gü g
A00_ . 3υ0
β tissure
•—¿,
300.. ' ^ ο ron fissure .200
D d u r f t e f,ur
^ imp'ani
200 -.100
HV¡¡
ΔΙ700
100 _L...... 300

10 Ϊ50 100 500 (s) a,.
1
ài
500
~r~
10 50 100 (s)

FIGURE 4 - TRANSFORMATION CURVES AND IMPLANT


CRACKING BEHAVIOUR OF A LOW-CARBON
HIGH YIELD STEEL (DESIGNATED Bl -
SEE TABLE I)
AC IE FÍ D1

C Mn Si Af Nb ! Mo
130 1320 270 44 32 i ¡35
- ...._,.„i j

700.?

:3
ro
ι-
'a. 500.
E
(— til îj

400.

M
300

ΔΙ 199
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HV r; 3
ØV
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400. . 3-00
o fissine

non fissure
300 2.00

mo

ΔίΖ™
GuÛ
100. Γ"
1 10 ί>0 100 5 0 0 (p.)
At OS«

'iü 50 100 (s)

FIGURE 5 - TRANSFORMATION CURVE AND IMPLANT


CRACKING CURVE FOR A HIGH-YIELD STEEL
(DESIGNATED DI - SEE TABLE 1 )
12

We are led therefore to stress again the major


influence of hardenability, through the degree of
hardening which takes place, with respect to cold
cracking. It can be deduced, in particular, that
from the point of view of cracking, that a reduction
in carbon content of the metal is not necessarily
beneficial, if it is accompanied by an increase in
the content of other elements, as already shown
in the course of earlier work on quench and tempered
steels (2).

One can compare for instance steels Dl and D2, of


which the hardness/cooling parameter curves and
cracking curves are replotted in Figure 6. (It is
concerned with high yield steels of comparable character-
istics). The low carbon content of Steel D2, if it
leads to a beneficial effect owing to the area of
hardness under the curve, does not bring any improve-
ment in cracking characteristics (according to the
criterion of implant cracking chosen), the Cu and Ni
contents offsetting the loss of hardenability.

II-3 Cold cracking and hydrogen


Hydrogen is notorious as one essential factor in cold
cracking. Nevertheless, the importance of its role,
in terms of the microstructure present, remains as yet
poorly understood.

To clarify this role, we have, for steel Dl, already


characterised in Figure 5, plotted the complete crack-
ing curves for several hydrogen contents. In this way,
we obtained the five curves given in Figure 7.

The hydrogen contents given in Figure 7 were measured


by reduction fusion, using the ITHAK analyser (5).
The recommended IIW method of preparation of samples
was used.
13

ftciers C Mn Si Al Ni Cu Γιο Nb
D1 130 1320 27!) 44 - - 135 32
D2 70 1100 j 300 15 940 1380 130 34

Hv5
I .... . . _...
500 _

Dl
¿00 _ « ■ M l

300 _
"5Τ

200­

... lAt

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¿00 /
D . / H 2 (IIS)
300 /
5.5 ce/J00 $
/ s D2
• «/
200 / /r
t CfõO J
CCACKÇO
í / • fissuré
100 t too u4«.HAtwí9
s ι o non fissura
ta c 700
Ät
I. 300
~r_—T-
5 10 50 100 502 (s)
AfßÜO
L 0.5 1 10 50 100 (s)
' EOO

F I G U R E 6 ­ C O M P A R I S O N OF I M P L A N T C R A C K I N G C U R V E S
FOR TWO H::GH­YIELD STEELS
14

The curves given in Figure 7 correspond to the follow-


ing conditions:
Curve I: welding with very-low H„ basic electrode,
dried at 350°C for 1 Hour (H2 total = 2.5ml/100g
deposit)
Curve II: low hydrogen basic electrode of the
same mechanical properties as the previous case
and dried under the sane conditions (H2 total
5.5ml/100g deposit)
- Curve III: same electrode, used in as-received
condition (H„ total 6.5ml/100g deposit)
- Curve IV: same electrode after exposure to an
atmosphere saturated (with water vapour) at
40°C - "tropical" atmosphere (H~
l total 8.5ml/
2
100g deposit)
Curve V: cellulosic electrode without special
treatment (H„ total 30ml/100g deposit).

The cracking curves show a clear displacement as a


function of hydrogen content; the observed difference
between Curves I and II should be noticed, both being
equally likely to be used as industrial welding
conditions.

Above all, it can be seen that these curves separate


more and more from each other with increasing cooling
parameters, -and seem in fact to join, or at least become
very close, at cooling parameter values of around 5-10
sec ( A t OQO ) ; for cooling rates lower than these,
Figure 5 shows that we are then in the pure-martensite
region.

Thus, it can be seen that the importance of the role


of hydrogen depends strongly on the type of HAZ micro-
structure found. In purely martensitic structures,
the cracking tendency does not depend in practice
on the hydrogen content, but this becomes of major
importance in mixed structures.
IS

0" M /,
7
Λ f2..) cc/Hid g H ■y)
© / o
lI(5.Scc/ïQUgH2)
l
AOO-
M (6.5 ce/'WOg H2)

ß.^'fS o

300. «V* S3 f

( / KÍf 8.9 cc/'WO H2 )

200., m «?
.^^\
>­>■
* * ^ \
η
\, 'Z(± 30cc/WO Hi)
100 ç/

-r~ " Τ "

10 20 2 '5 30 35 Α* '700
Δ t
300
10 A t g o

FIGURE 7 ­ EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON THE CRACKING


BEHAVIOUR OF A HIGH YIELD STEEL (STEEL
Dl _ SEE FIGURE 5)
16

These observations reinforce interest in defining the


structure of the HAZ, for the avoidance of cracking.
In effect whilst the use of better-prepared electrodes
for the avoidance of cold cracking in a pure-marten-
site HAZ seems difficult, if not impossible, the
presence of bainite, even in small quantities, radically
changes the cracking behaviour, in so far as the
normal precautions (for electrode preparation) may be
taken.

I1-4 Practical application to the usage of steel


The preceding tests and observations confirm the
approach we have had already developed in earlier
programmes, of the optimisation of welding conditions
by choosing the microstructures to be obtained in the
HAZ.

The hardness/cooling parameter curves, easily determined


either in situ or by simulation with very good
agreement (Figure 8), allow welding conditions to be
chosen.

In effect, an attempt is made to achieve a position


beyond the fully-martensitic region, characterised
rather well as the upper plateau of the hardness/
cooling parameter curve, the desired value being easily
transposed, in terms of welding conditions, through the
thermal nomogram (Figure 2). In view of this, a
compendium is in course of preparation, giving hardness/
cooling parameter curves for a series of represent-
ative production high-yield steels.

We have, in another connection, by taking the same


approach, established, for the use of fabricators, a
guide to the welding of general-purpose structural
steels (NF 35-501) which is annexed to this report
(Appendix 1). In the case of these steels indeed
(grades E24, E26, E30, E36), the relative simplicity
of the normal analyses encountered (*) allows scatter

• important note - as mentioned in the Appendix, we


have only covered in this guide, for the moment, only
French structural steels.
17

c_ M n Si Ni
0.16 1,5010/20; 0,5 (i, Göl 0,02

J}±
_««». ( ? p i C vi«vtT
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^ f r ^ .
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200 RPi

100 -&Δί,700
1 2 3 5 7 1C 20 30 50 100 200 500 SGC 300

-L ■^ At 800
0.5 1 2 3 7 10 20 30 50 100 Sac
500
Temps tS» re frotáis se meni
cocuyo- T I M E S

FIGURE 8 - COMPARISON BETWEEN THE RPI (S IMULATION)


METHOD AND IN SITU TESTS
TABLE II - HAZ TOUGHNESS. COMPOSITION OF STEELS STUDIED (10_3%)

Steels C Mn S Ρ Si Al Ni Cr Cu Mo Nb V Ce N
2

Normal. L s e d Steels - 181 M5


A 1 180 1380 24 24 460 40 6
A 2 180 1440 19 23 400 32 7
A 3 180 1350 21 25 310 17 35 8
A 4 144 1220 14 24 330 21 37 6
A 5 160 1355 7 4 335 12 <5
A 6 162 1310 7 4 355 13 60
A 7 170 1390 7 4 350 12 135

C o n t r o l l e d - r o l l e d higt- i - s t r e n g t h s t e e l s

Β 1 69 1350 16 242 14 188 34


Β 2 88 1470 6 350 50 205 54 30
Β 3 114 1350 16 290 22 280 35
Β 4 160 1465 10 325 39 210 43

Β 5 119 1530 12 322 52 31

QT Steels

C 1 77 1100 9 7 280 30 820 1820 100 315


( 8 CMND8)

C 2 160 1500 15 13 350 23 840 770 225 250


( 1 6 CMND3) -·
19

bands to be drawn giving recommendations for each


group of steel qualities.

Ill TOUGHNESS OF WELD HEAT AFFECTED ZONES OF


C-Mn AND MICRO-ALLOYED STEELS
III-l
In the 'case of high heat input welding, particular
attention is paid to the risk of brittle fracture, and
ductile behaviour is now required, at the same time,
in the parent material and in various parts of the welded
joint (HAZ and weld metal).

We will examine in Chapter IV the metallurgical and


mechanical properties of weld metal. In this chapter,
we wi-11 pay attention to characterising the inter-
actions between composition, welding conditions,
microstructure and HAZ properties in the as-welded
condition, leaving the study of post-weld heat-treat-
ment to Chapter V.

III-2 Statement of problem


III-2.1 Literature survey
The heat affected zone of a weld is a region some
millimetres wide, at most, within which the structure
varies as a function of the maximum temperature
achieved, at the position under consideration, and the
cooling cycle (2,7).

It is now recognised that it is the grain-coarsened*


region near the fusion line, where the maximum
temperatures have been achieved, which is the most

* It is this grain-coarsened region which is meant,


in the text, when the term "heat-affected zone" is used
without further qualification.
20

degraded by the welding cycle (7,8). Elesewhere


numerous laboratories (8-12) have shown the unfavour-
able effect (on HAZ toughness) of raising weld heat
input in real weldable structural steels (C<0.2%).

The loss of ductility in HAZ's corresponds to a move-


ment f rom martensite/lower bainite structures towards
upper bainite/ferrite-carbide, but the exact mechanism
is rather unclear, and is attributed to one of the
following three causes:-
disappearance of martensitic phases (9,10)
development of a bainitic structure (11)
appearance of ferrite in certain cases (12) (even
though CANE and DOLBY (11) seem to attribute
a favourable role to proeutectoid ferrite).

In another connection, the influence of dispersions


of niobium and vanadium is very controversial. The
somewhat deleterious effect of these on HAZ toughness
at high heat-inputs is generally recognised (11,
13-15) when these dispersion-strengthened steels are
compared to non-dispersion strengthened steels, with
identical composition with respect to other elements.
However, it should be noted that the lowest carbon-
content dispersion-strengthened steels, at equivalent
mechanical property levels, improve in weldability,
so that overall balance is positive. On the other hand,
HANNERZ (16-17) states that niobium and vanadium, in
the amounts usually present in these steels, can raise
the
the transition
transition temperature
temperature b^
by more than 50 C, in the
HAZ of high heat input welds.

III-2.2 Objectives of the study and choice


of experimental procedure
The object of this part of the study was to bring
together mechanical properties and metallurgical
characteristics of HAZ's. One of the trickiest points
in characterising HAZ's remains the choice of method
of study. Several approaches are currently employed:
conventional placement of Charpy notches in real welds
21

(13 ), production of straight HAZ's by artificial


means (K or assymetric V weld preparations (18), control
of welding parameters to increase penetration) or use
of simulation methods. Figure 9 compares Charpy V
transition curves obtained by simulation and taken
from a double-sided sub-arc weld and a high-penetration
weld. The impact test results for specimens taken
from real welds benefit from the favourable effect,
noted by PELLINI (19), of the angle at which the HAZ
lies, with respect to the plane of fracture propagation,
which tends to be perpendicular to the plate surface.
However, this method is unsuited to a metallurgical
investigation because the Charpy V test piece will
sample a microstructural gradient.

Only simulation allows a rational study of HAZ micro-


structure. Moreover, it is a much more flexible
method than the extraction of test pieces from actual
welds.

For this reason, most of the testing was carried out


on test pieces containing a HAZ simulated, on a Gleeble
RPI machine, to typical thermal cycles for the common
welding processes (manual, automatic submerged arc,
electroslag). Actual submerged arc and consumable-
guide electroslag welds were also carried out, to
compare simulated tests with real welds.

III-3 Steels studied


In order to be able to analyse more completely, relation-
ships between composition, structure and properties,
three types of steel have been studied, the compositions
of which are given in Table II -
- normalised C-Mn microalloyed steels (designated A)
- high strength controlled-rolled C-Mn-Nb and
C-Mn-Mo-Nb steels (designated B)
- quenched and tempered steels (designated C)

Such a choice allows us, in fact, for cooling cycles


corresponding to normal welds, to obtain the full
range of structures normally encountered in HAZ's, from
22

C Μη Γ Si Ι S Ρ
A!.
.18 1.U¡ Λ I .018 .021 .032
Kv (Joutes)

π
175

100

75

SO _

25

Jft**-

-60 ■AO -20 0 20 ¿0 60 T°C

FIGURE 9 ­ COMPARISON OF CHARPY­V TRANSITION


CURVES FOR SIMULATED HAZ AND THOSE
TAKEN FROM REAL WELDS
( 700
Λ 4­ ~ inn κ χ 800 on ,
300 ­ 1 0 0 s e c ­ ^ t 5 00 e * sec)
STEEL A2
23

martensite at one extreme to ferrite/carbide at the


other, passing through differing intermediate structures
(bainites, mixed structures).

II1-4 Relation between microstructure and toughness


III-4.1 Experimental procedure
For each steel, 11mm square specimens were machined
from the centre of the test plates, parallel to thé
rolling direction in order to avoid superposing, on to
the parameters under study, specimen orientation effects
resulting from inclusion anisotropy, an example of
which can be seen in Figure 10.

A homogeneous zone of at least 2mm wide was subsequently


programmed by the Gleeble thermal simulator, under the
following conditions:
- heating to 1300 C in two seconds,
- maintained at 1300 C for less than one second,
- cooled at characteristic rates for manual sub-arc
and electroslag processes (Figure 11 shows, for
Steel B5, the change in hardness and microstructure,
with cooling rate).

Finally, the test pieces were machined to Charpy V


specimens, the notch being situated in the centre of
the heat treated zone and perpendicular to the rolling
direction.

III-4.2 Effect of thermal cycles on toughness


The 28J Charpy V transition temperatures of simulated
HAZ's in three C-Mn-Nb and C-Mn-Mo-Nb steels are
reported in Figure 12, as a function of cooling rate.
A similar variation is observed in 50% FATT. The
ductile plateau levels, indicated in Figure 13, vary
24

100 -τ- —τ- ι ""1


peecNT ne-mu
[%β«π-π.ε \
H.a.Z.
λ L : Lo*i(HToi>t«)Au.

At^-300s At|00 = 1C 3
50

Λ \τ

" I
-

[
cm 2j y
20 /

!
/
y
1 **
1
1
1
10

3,5
■ /
1
1

S
—I—
-Λ-'
τ fe)
— > .
ι ι i i .1 ι „ . ι ι I I
­60 +60

FIGURE 10 ­ INFLUENCE OF SPECIMEN ORIENTATION ON


HAZ TOUGHNESS, COMPARISON WITH PARENT
METAL (STEEL A4)
25

C Mn S Si Al Nb
119 1530 12 322 52 31

100 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 100 200 500 sec A t l°0l

800
0,5 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 100 sec At 500

FIGURE 11 - INFLUENCE OF WELD THERMAL CYCLE ON THE


STRUCTURE AND MICROHARDNESS OF THE HAZ
(STEEL B5)
26

C Μη S ει Al NI) Mo
B1 69 1350 16 242 14 34 188
ΒΛ 160 14G5 .û 325 39 43 210

ß5 119 1530 12 322 52 31 --

Tk ce)
23j

+40

'A B4
►20
B1

O B5

.20 .

.40

.60

.80 .

700 „
¿St
300°
J I I I I J 1 Ι.-1.1 ι ι J-J.J
10 20 50 100 200 500 1000

.1
10 20 50 100 200.
4t000s
500

FIGURE 12 - INFLUENCE OF THE THERMAL CYCLE ON THE


HAZ 2 8 J TRANSITION TEMPERATURE (T 28J)
OF C - M n - N b a n d C-Mn-Mo-Nb (GLEEBLE
SIMULATION)
27

C Mn S Si Al Nb Mo
B1 69 1350 16 242 14 34 183
B4 160 14 65 10 325 39 43 210
B5 119 1530 12 322 52 31 -

ND (J)
200

-A B4
150. -A A-

Δ
* 300 S
I I, I I I I ι ι ι Ι ι 111]
10 20 50 100 200 500 1000

J L.
10 20 50 100 200
ài 800,
500

FIGURE 13 - INFLUENCE OF WELD THERMAL CYCLE ON


THE UPPER CHARPY PLATEAU OF THE HAZ
OF C-Mn-Nb and C-Mn-Mo-Nb S TEELS
(GLEEBLE S IMULATION)
28

less markedly, especially for the hardest HAZ


structures: in effect, in the case of ductile fracture,
there is deformation of the specimen before fracture
and a significant part of this deformation occurs in a
softer zone outside the heat treated zone, in the area
of the anvils, in parent material, and the measured
energy is a combination of this deformation and that
of the fracture of the HAZ under the notch.

Finally, to illustrate the behaviour of more hardenable


steels, the relationship of cooling rate with T K 28J
(28J TT) and ductile plateau level is given in Figures
14 and 15, for two steels of 8CMND8 and 16 CMND3 types
(designated CI and C2).

III-4.3 Discussion - effect of differing structures


Comparison of Figure 11 with the curve for B5 on
Figure 12 shows the fundamental effect of microstructure
on HAZ toughness. It can be seen, for the full range
of steels, that transition temperature varies with
microstructure as follows:-
- a minimum corresponding to the end of the martensitic
zone, ie. in mixed martensite/bainite structures
where martensite predominates
- an upswing as bainitic structures develop,
towards upper bainite
a levelling off, possibly after a slight drop, as
ferrite-carbide structures occur.

To a first approximation, increase in hardenability


moves the curves of Τ κ ν At to the right, so long as
a rise in carbon content gives a rise in the
transition temperature, independent of the harden­
ability effect already mentioned. Nevertheless, these
general remarks are too sweeping to be generalised
without reservations, and we have been led to carry
out a detailed study of HAZ microstructure.

III-4.3.1 Martensitic structures


Starting with the fastest cooling rates, one notes that
the most strongly quenched structures (martensite) are
29

C Mn S Si Al Ni Cr Cu Mo
C1 77 1100 9 250 30 820 1320 100 315
C2 160 1500 15 350 23 84 0 7 70 225 250

Tk (t)
28J

> 50 .

.50

C1 \

700
/t
Δ s
* 300S
.100 ' ι ι ι ιι ' ι I 1111 ' l i l i l í

10 20 50 100 200 500 1000

10 20 50 100 200

At 8 ° ° s
Δ1
500

FIGURE 14 - I N F L U E N C E OF WELD THERMAL CYCLE ON


T 2 8 J FOR H A Z ' S OF QT S T E E L S
(GLEEBLE S I M U L A T I O N )
30

C Mn S Si Λ! Ni Cr Cu Mo
C1 77 1100 9 280 30 820 1320 100 315
C2 160 15C0 15 350 23 84 0 7 70 225 250

ND (J)

300.

200. C1

100.
C2 Α ­

ΛΙ 7 0 0 s
■ 300
.' I I I I I J I I I I I I J I I I I I
5 10 20 50 100 200 500 1000
». I I L J L _i
10 20 50 100 200

At
m
800
ÖUU s
SC O

FIGURE 15 ­ INFLUENC E OF WELD THERMAL C YC LE ON


UPPER C HARPY PLATEAU OF HAZ IN QT
STEELS (GLEEBLE SIMULATION)
31

the toughest. Investigations carried out at IRSID on


thin foils· (on steel B4 in this work - Figure 16a, -
as well as in low-alloy QT steels) have shown that the
martensites obtained by wedding are autotempered lath
martensites (characterisec by the presence of carbide
needles oriented followinc the < 1 1 1 > direction of
the laths), the low carbor contents causing an elevated
Mg temperature. Furthermcre, the presence of lower
bainite in predominantly martensite HAZ's is fairly
frequent.

The high toughness of HAZ structures obtained by the


highest cooling rates, therefore, approaches that of
tempered martensites and mixed martensite/bainite
structures obtained by conventional heat-treatment
(20-22).

In welded microstructures, the 28J transition temper­


ature Τ ORT» °^ these "optimal" structures (martensite/
bainite) can be correlated with the C content -
Figure 17 shows in addition to the IRSID results, those
of Japanese workers (91,12,23). It must, however,
be noted that the cooling rate corresponding to the
lower Τ pgj, which depends on the hardenability of
the steel, is at the limit of the cold cracking domain
(2).

It is therefore ; not necessarily an optimum until the


overall "weldability" has been considered.

Ill - 4.3.2 Bainitic Structures


An abrupt rise in the transition temperature is
observed as bainitic structures develop. As this often
coincides with either the disappearance of martensite
or the appearance of ferrite plates, its importance
is not always appreciated. In order to show the
morphology of the carbides in bainitic structures, we
have examined the HAZ of a 16 CMND 3 steel by
scanning electron microscopy (Figure 1 8 ) . The exam-

Work carried out by Μ. Β Michaut, Engineer, Physical


Metallurgy Group
32

(a) AUTOTEMPERED MARTENSITE


STEEL B4

At 700
= IOS
300
At 800
500 4S

χ 9000

(b) LOWER BAINITE STEEL B5

At 700
300 = 50S

At 800
500 = 15S

χ 700O

(°) UPPER BAINITE STEEL B5

At 700
300 = 100S

At 800
500 30S

χ 7500

FIGURE 16 - EXAMPLES OF MARTENSITIC AND BAINITIC


MICROSTRUCTURES IN SIMULATED HAZ's
(THIN FOIL ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY)
Tk
2BJ ro
0 .

-q
H
O
C
PO
Π

-50
I
S O 1-3 H
> -q po 2
ρσ > -d
■-a o z r
n O t n C
2 Η Η Π
ω Η Η ζ
Η s Η η .A'A ¿^ résultats IRSID
Η C Ο Π £ INAGAKI et al. ! 1 2 )
π 2 Ζ
ο .100 . O SUZUKI et TAMURA (9^
> π 9 KUNITAKE et OHTANÏ '
Ν 2 η
- TD >
r m po
o (Λ PO CD
;·: — > o
m > Η ζ
PO c c:
CO Η ?α η
> οπο
Η Ζ
Η Π ^ β 0.05 0.10 0,15 0,20
Ζ 2 Η Π %C
Η W Ζ
Η Π Η
π po rv>
^­nco ο
&£^S$P* (a) STEEL 16 CMND3

At 800
^ 70S
500

LOWER BAINITE

x 4 000

(b) STEEL 16 CMND3

At 800 c 0
¿UUb
500

UPPER BAINITE

4000

FIGURE 18 - EXAMPLES OF BAINITIC HAZ STRUCTURES


(SIMULATED) FROM SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROSCOPY
35

ination has been repeated on steels B4 and B5, using


thin-foil transmission microscopy (Figures 16b and c ) .

Our observations agree with those of KUNITAKE et al (23)


regarding the importance of modifications to the bain-
itic structure: the abrupt rise in transition
temperature corresponds to the development from lower
bainite (carbides dispersed in the ferrite) towards
upper bainite (carbides in laths). Some microfracto-
graphic examinations in the scanning electron
microscope have been carried out on these bainitic
structures.

Figure 19 shows the appearance of two test pieces, of


steel B5, broken at -196 C, after having been given
thermal cycles resulting in the bainitic structures
shown in Figures 16b and 16c.

The characteristic cleavage facets of bainitic struct-


ures (21, 24) are easily observed: those corresponding
to lower bainite are more distorted, whilst upper
bainite shows more flat facets. These differences,
which can be due to the distribution of carbides, to
the height of laths or the height of assemblies of
laths, account for the abrupt fall in toughness observed
on passing from lower to upper bainite.

Moreover, an examination of secondary cracks in


Charpy test pieces, broken at low temperatures, shows
clearly an ihtragranular propagation path. In upper
bainite the propagation is practically rectilinear
(perpendicular to the Charpy notch), whilst in lower
bainite changes in direction occur either at grain
boundaries or at the edge of assemblies of bainite
laths.
36

χ 400 χ 1000
al ­ Bainite inférieure a2 ­ Bainite inférieure
UOW£R ôfllM ITC

UPPéft efliMITf χ 400 χ 1000


bl Bainite supérieure b2 ­ Bainite supérieure

FIGURE 1 9 ­ FRAC TURE F A C E S , AT ­ 1 9 6 C , OF B A I N I T I C


STRUCTURES I N SIMULATED H A Z ' s ( S T E E L B 5 )

a) LOWER B A I N I T E ( Δ ,700 n /vt800 _ 15 s )


ût
300 ­ ' 500 "
b) UPPER BAINITE (.,700
A t 300 100s, A t800
° ^ = 30s)
37

III - 4.3.3 Development of ferrite/carbide structures


at high weld heat inputs
This area is of particular importance, because it
corresponds to typical cooling rates for high heat-
input processes (sub-arc, electroslag) for C-Mn, C-Mn-
Nb and C-Mn-Mo-Nb.

Depending on the steel under study, ferrite growth in


the HAZ can be observed in plates or acicular form or
at grain boundaries (proeutectoid ferrite), at the
slowest cooling rates.

The occurrence of cooling rates beyond those at which


upper bainite appears does not result in further
decreases in toughness, and it can even, in certain
cases, cause a more or less detectable lowering of the
transition temperature at the slowest cooling rates.
This has often been connected with the appearance of
proeutectoid ferrite (8,12). It does not seem that
this observation can be generalised: such a stabilisation
of transition temperatures in the ferrite/carbide
region is likewise observed for structures not con­
taining proeutectoid ferrite (molybdenum containing
steels).

A tendency can be noticed towards higher Τ 28J values


with drop in carbon content and the favourable effect
of refinement of structure. It may be that the
carbide content and distribution in typical structures
caused by high heat input welding plays a part, but
the exact parameters exerting influence on toughness
are still little understood.

Ill - 4.3.4 Effect of dispersion strengthening


elements on toughness
The dispersion-strengthening elements, taken into
solution during weld thermal cycles, can be reprecipi-
tated during cooling or post-weld heat-treatment.
38

According to certain authors (16,17) this precipitation


can cause significant elevation of the transition
temperature.

However, we have not observed particularly brittle


behaviour in the high-yield steels studied, ie. C-Mn-
Nb and C-Mn-Mo-Nb with 0.03-0.055% Nb. Our results
agree with those obtained by SAWHILL (25) in C-Mn-Mo-
Nb steels of the same Nb content, and comparable with
those obtained on 0.18%C steels: in the as-welded
condition, the presence of dispersion-strengthening
elements (Nb 4 0.05%, V έ 0.15%) cause only a slight
drop in HAZ toughness for the slowest cooling rates,
corresponding to sub-arc or electroslag welding
(Figure 20). On the other hand, stress relaxation
treatment can, in certain cases, modify the transition
behaviour, due to dispersion-strengthening during
tempering, as will be seen in Chapter V.

Ill - 5 Application to the study of heat-affected


zones in real welds
The results given in the preceding chapter, obtained
by simulation, have shown the brittle fracture
behaviour of HAZ metallurgical structures. We now
propose to demonstrate HAZ behaviour in real welds.

Ill - 5.1 Production of welds


In the case of a single-pass per side industrial weld,
it is not entirely possible to position the Charpy-V
notch in the grain-coarsened region of the HAZ, as
already stated (Figure 21). For this reason, we had
to adopt a procedure (Figure 22) giving "high pene­
tration" (case II, Figure 9), in order to be able to
extract, more easily, toughness test pieces.

The weld chamfer is symmetrical, as in practical


welding, but the wire enters the weld pool at about
5 -10 to the vertical (in the transverse weld plane).
The current is slightly higher and the arc voltage
39

T K 23J
+50
» STCffLS A3 <t AH- 0O3g%Nb
O SWeLS A I ■» A l 0%Nfa

-50.
10 100 300 1000 Δί700
300
-9>
ΊΓ
5 10 100 At™
a
500

T K 28J h
* -1-50

STSû. fir 0-13 ff % v

0- o sríti-Ab oobo°/íV
STÉéL. Aff 0 %V

100 300 1000 At 700


300
20 100 At
m
800
500

FIGURE 20 - EFFECT OF DISPERSION-STRENGTHENING


ELEMENTS ON HAZ TRANSITION TEMPERATURES
IN 18 M5 STEELS
Λ
Ην. V entaille
Charpy

(rAAM-CoAesCNCD Ζο« »« Γ
KJot"t.lo

250- zone à gros grains grains fins


¡Γι»»«· o e « i > J i
(a) simulation
Al?00 = 3O0 s
300
At300 = po s
500
200

At?°° - 20O s
300
A.800 ,„
H Δ · . 5 0 Ο = 6o s

zone à gros grains grains fins


W&-0 M€THi. zzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzj (c) viKricnu
métal fondu CO pj S U M Ó L E
íG-uiOis

200 700
At 300 içr s
Λ. 800 1.5- „ s
Δί500 = °

150
0 1 2 3 4 5 distance ( m m )

FIGURE 21 - COMPARISON OF HARDNESS TRAVERSES ACROSS


ONE SIMULATED AND TWO REAL HAZ's.
COMPARISON OF CHARPY NOTCH DIMENSIONS
AND THE SIZE OF GRAIN-COARSENED REGIONS
(18 M5 Nb STEELS)
41

WkUDKsICr Η £ Α 0

uJêuOcJO- uiiftt

<*6° »yHMëTOicHt-

iysTiTH

A) W f L Q f J C i - C Or-lDiTioi~»S
fiiJToMPmc., jMOéa
I « · β ο ο - « s o ft
ftiuvéfiiseo Fui>X
ι Ί-<> k T / c m
υ =· η ν j. e"» t v
V τι Î 0 C Mk^tHln

νΛΛιΐ : 0-o<\ %C / 0<f %C1» / θ · 6 % Μ β

PLOK : aS^oSiû,. / 2 6 % C O / Ι ^ Υ ο Α ί ^ / (I <>ΌΗ}θ/

IS) KOUG-H MACHlMlNtCi»


of 10· \ « « QLAMkS

c
"71 ) têTcM wrrw io% NITAU

T>) C O C A T I O I S ) ¡>F C H A S I ^ fk»TcH

fi) piMAL. MQCHtMlOO

FIGURE 22 - PROCEDURE ADOPTED FOR THE STUDY OF


HAZ's IN REAL WELDS
42

reduced, by comparison with normal levels. This gives


increased penetration at a given weld energy, but the
thermal cooling cycle is not altered. The Charpy
notch position is selected after a Nital etch on rough-
machined transverse specimen blanks. This is the most
critical part of the whole procedure, as any error in
positioning leads to scatter in the results.

Ill - 5.2 Charpy-V toughness tests


Figure 23 compares simulated HAZ transition temperatures
with those for straight HAZ's in real welds, for 18 M5
steels (designated Al and A2), for differing
cooling rates. A similar trend in transition temp-
erature can be seen, those for real HAZ's lying below
the simulated results, except for the slowest cooling
rates. A difference of the same order is observed
between real and simulated HAZ's in steel B5 (Figure 24).

According to certain authors (26), the observed


differences in transition temperatures between real
and simulated HAZ's results from a grain-size difference,
tied up with the time of exposure to high temperature.
Nevertheless, recent work at IRSID and other lab-
oratories has shown that within the limits of normal
welding, this parameter is secondary to the maximum
temperature achieved in the thermal cycle.

The geoemetrical difference between real and simulated


HAZ's appears much more important. As in the case of
a straight HAZ (case II, Figure 9), it appears that
the Charpy-V notch can not lie totally within the
coarse-grained region of a real HAZ, except at the
slowest cooling rates (Figure 21).

Ill - 5.3 Tensile tests under impact


In order to confirm our hypotheses regarding the effect
of geometrical factors, on the results of brittle
43

T|<28J

+50

simulation
-50- □ soudage forte épaisseur

-R>J

10 100 1000 Ar70C


300
-£>
—r~ Λ * 800
10 100 a
500

FIGURE 23 - COMPARISON OF CHARPY-V TRANSITION


CURVES OF REAL AND SIMULATED HAZ's
IN 18 M5 STEEL FOR VARIOUS THERMAL
CYCLES
44

C Μη J S Si A l | Nb j
ß5 119 1530 12 322 52 j 31 j

Tic ,CC)
28J

simulation

' Τ ~ _ί Γ^?
soudage
Wbt-OlMCr

.50 .

700
M 300
m s
ι ι ι ι ι ι J 1 I I I I 1 I I ' I ' I I. I I I I
10 20 50 100 200 500 1000

J 1 L ' I l_
10 20 50 100 200

* I2os
FIGURE 24 - COMPARISON OF Τ 28J TRANSITION
TEMPERATURES OF REAL AND SIMULATED
HAZ's (STEEL B5)
45

fracture tests on real HAZ's, impact tension tests


on notched test pieces, following a method developed
at IRSID (28), have also been·carried out. The
positioning, extraction and machining of test pieces
for real and simulated HAZ's have been set out in
Figure 25, with, in both cases, the HAZ under the
notch, and a polished section of the specimen lying
in the parent metal. It is more critical than the
procedure for Charpy test pieces, but the area under
2 2
the notch is only 20mm , compared with 80mm in the
Charpy test piece. There is, therefore, much more
chance of placing the notch in a homogeneous structure.
Above a certain temperature, ductile fracture will
occur in the polished section (parent metal), whereas
at lower temperatures a brittle fracture will occur
in the HAZ under the notch. In this way, a transition
temperature can be defined in the case of these com-
bined test pieces depending simultaneously on the
structure under the notch (HAZ) and in the polished
section (parent metal).

It can be seen in Figure 26, for steel B5 that:-

1) the variation, with microstructure, of the impact


tension transition temperature is similar to those
for the Charpy transition temperatures in
Figure 24 (in satisfactory agreement with the
correlation obtained by GRUMBACH and SANZ (28))

2) the impact test transition temperatures for real


and simulated HAZ's are in very good agreement
(divergence less than 10 for the cooling rates
corresponding to high heat-input welds), whilst
there is a variation of about 30 in the corres-
ponding Charpy-V transition temperatures.

The important technological problems associated with


the extraction of test pieces from real welds can
therefore result in interpretational difficulties, and
are responsible for the apparent differences between
test results in simulation and in full thickness.
46

PfiCCMT l i t T f l L HAZ

a)

1cm

GleebleØIO TE5

FIGURE 25 - EXTRACTION OF ACCELERATED TENSILE TEST


SPECIMEN, TE5:-

A) IN A REAL WELD

B) IN A GLEEBLE SIMULATION BAR (NOTCH


IN HAZ AND POLISHED SECTION IN PARENT
METAL)
47

C '■'iri~T S j Si j A l i NbJ
C5 119 SSO"j" 12 [ 322 | 52 [ 31__

co
.10C.

siir.ulaticn
/

/ í¿3

„„•.¡dage
.150
/
/
β>

G—-'

.20 0 M
700,
300
JL_i._L_L.J_l_ ._._J__.0_U
5 10 2υ 50 100 200 300 -¡000

______ ¡0 20 100 200

E 0C
û_tt s
„C O

COMPARISON OF IMPACT TENSILE TRANSITION CURVES OF SIMULATED


AND REAL WELD HAZ's (STEEL B5)

FIGURE 26
48

III - 6 Conclusions
The technological difficulties of studying the HAZ's
of real welds have been discussed. They can be res-
ponsible, of themselves, for observed differences in
toughness between real and simulated HAZ's, independent
of a possible effect of grain size. The extraction
of certain types of test pieces from real welds is
more adapted to the study of the risk of brittle
fracture caused by the HAZ, but thermal simulation on
the Gleeble machine affords a rat ional method of study
of metallurgical structures characteristic of welding
cycles.

From the three groups of steels studied, the toughest


structures corresponded to mixed autotempered
martensite and lower bainite (with carbides within
the ferrite laths), whereas the appearance of upper
bainite (with carbide laths) raises the transition
temperature considerably). Toughness is generally
observed to level out, for slow cooling rates leading
to ferrite/carbide structures.

The HAZ microstructure depends on a combination of


the thermal cycle imposed and the chemical composition
(hardenability). Carbon appears to play a fundamental
role in defining the transition temperatures of
differing structures. In the as-welded condition,
no significant embrittling effect can be attributed
to the dispersion-strengthening elements present
within the composition limits studied (Nb ¿ 0.055%,
V ^ 0.15%). On the other hand, after stress relief
treatment, precipitation can wholly offset the bene-
fits of tempering.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the HAZ toughness


on the overall safety of welded joints can only be
usefully defined from tests carried out on other
types of test piece allowing study of the interaction
between the constituent parts of a weld joint.
49

Such tests allow the calculation of the minimum HAZ


toughness reguired to ensure safety without penalising
the steels used.

IV PROPERTIES OF SUBMERGED ARC WELD METAL


IV - 1 Introduction
Study of the different stages of weld metal formation
and final structure (29-30) reveals its chemical
homogeneity and excellent mechanical isotropy, in spite
of the directional character of the structures obtained.

We will tend most particularly in this section to


concentrate on research on factors affecting weld-metal
mechanical properties. We will be concerned with the
case of single-pass-per-side two-run submerged-arc
welds in 10-30mm thick plates..

In practice, this type of weld joint is most often


used in the as-welded condition, and the effects of
possible post-weld heat-treatment are postponed until
Chapter V.

IV - 2 Literature Survey
To begin with, it is useful to recall that the
properties which the weld metal must meet for a
particular standard are, above all:
- a transition temperature on the basis of the
Charpy-V test (or a level of toughness at low
temperature)
- yield strength and the yield/ultimate ratio. In
general, these must be below certain values
depending on the specification.
The achievement of these properties, especially trans-
ition temperatures sufficiently low, is the main theme
of work on weld metal reported. Whilst a good deal
of work has been published, it is difficult to draw
clear conclusions from it. In fact, depending
on the author, the weld procedure used may be diff-
erent, the welds may be single or multi-pass, the
consumables may be incompletely defined, the parent
steel may be of an experimental type: in short,the
50

variety of conditions examined explains the diversity


of conclusions reported by differing authors.

We will, therefore, restrict ourselves to reviewing


the main trends which can be drawn from a survey of
published work:-

The oxygen content of the weld metal (31-36). This


is often considered responsible for poor weld-metal
transition behaviour. Although this embrittlement
may be considered as parallel to the more well-known
effect of impurities such as S, Ρ or Ν, most authors
recognise that no-one has a satisfactory explanation
for this effect of oxygen. The numerous inclusions
present, the effect of which on the upper plateau of
toughness is recognised by many workers (36-38), does
not explain the embrittling effect of oxygen, and
certain authors suggest a mechanism involving precip­
itation of oxygen in super-saturation in the solid
state (36,39). It is important to notice that whilst,
in most cases, modification of the oxygen content
of weld metal is only achieved after altering the
composition of weld consumables: wire (32), solid or
gaseous flux (32,40,36,38), when at the same time the
weld metal composition is altered (particularly Mn
and Si level). We think, therefore, that if an
embrittling effect of oxygen is not to be definitely
excluded, much of the reported work is not truly
conclusive.

- The alloying elements present in the weld metal,


originating either from the parent metal or the
consumables. In the Anglo-saxon literature, the
Mn-Si ratio is considered to have an important bearing
on the transition temperature (36,37), and an
optimum ra„io of about 2 is sometimes put foward.
The explanation for the importance of this ratio is
derived from SEKIGUCHI (41), who applies, to gas-
shielded welding, conclusions obtained from steel
51

ingots, in which high Mn-Si ratios favour the coalescence


and flotation of inclusions. Again, this explanation,
therefore, invokes an effect of inclusion morphology.
It can be seen that the researchers mentioned
previously obtained their results on multipass welds
and also note a significant effect of Mn (which depresses
the Ar- temperature) on the width of the zones
reaustenitised during successive passes. Egually, the
achievement of "favourable" Mn-Si ratios can often be
considered, like a low oxygen content, to be the reason
for the better toughness levels achieved with high-
basicity fluxes (40, 42, 4 4 ) .

More systematic research, into the effect of alloying


elements on the low temperature toughness of weld
toughness, has been undertaken by certain authors.

DORSCHU and STOUT (45) have studied, in single-pass


submerged-arc welds in C-Mn steels, the effect of
elements added to the weld pool in the form of powder.
V, C, Mo, Cr, Si have an overall deleterious effect.
Ni and Mn were considered by the authors to play a
favourable role, but the results indicate a maximum
shift, in the 15 ft-lb transition temperature, of -5 C
for 1.4%Mn and -8°C for 1.6%Ni, which can not be
considered significant. For higher contents these
elements also become deleterious.

LEWIS et al (34) studied the effect of Ni, Cr and Mo


on the transition temperature of multi-pass sub-arc
welds in HY80 steel. These elements had an unfavourable
effect on transition behaviour. In another study on
the same theme, these authors attributed a favourable
effect to aluminium in the wire up to 0.15%.

HEUSCHKEL (32) in a very detailed study of the effects


of alloying elements on the toughness of multipass gas-
shielded welds, made with synthetic wires, attributed
52

rather unfavourable effects to C, Mn, P, Si, Cu, Cr,


Mo, V, W, Al, Nb, Ti, Zr, N and 0 ; but attributed a
favourable effect to Ni and Co. No explication for
these effects was given.

It may be necessary again, amongst the numerous


published papers, to mention the special effect of
titanium (from the wire or flux). DORSCHU and
LESNEWICH (47), for multipass gas-shielded welds in
low-alloy steels, attributed to this element, in con-
cenetrations of about 0.01% in the wire and in the weld
metal, a very beneficial effect on toughness at all
temperatures. An embrittling effect was apparent at
higher contents. BONISZEWSKI (48) for C 0 2 welds
carried out in moulds (Translator's note - from
original paper - refers to wide-gap low-dilution butt
welds on a backing piece, as per BS639:1964) starting
with C-Mn wires found a similar effect. An optimum
Ti content was proposed (about 0.01% in the wire or
0.005% in weld metal) giving an improvement of about
50 C in Charpy-V transition temperature. An
embrittling effect appeared with higher Ti contents.
The author explained the results on the basis of a
change in microstructure due to titanium (refinement)
and a possible deoxidation effect. LEWIS et al (46)
(multipass sub-arc welds in HY80) also reported a
beneficial effect of small additions of Ti0~ to the
flux.

It is noticeable that, in all these papers, changes in


weld metal composition are achieved through additions
to the consumables. Few cases exist where changes in
parent plate composition, within the same grade, have
been studied. An exception must be made, though, for
Swedish work (49, 5 0 ) . We will return to the work by
HANNERZ et al (48) which showed a very embrittling
effect for niobium in sub-arc weld metals, which was
attributed to carbonitride precipitation during
cooling.
53

The microstructure of the weld metal, is without any


doubt, dependant on its chemical composition, (as well
as its cooling rate) and it is somewhat astonishing to
note that,in most work cited, structural examination
was only rarely carried out.

The authors who have carried out examination come,


nevertheless, to the same conclusions (36, 46, 51, 52,
53): the best toughness levels correspond to the finest
structures, which are characterised by the presence,
at the original austenite boundaries, of fine and
well-defined networks of ferrite, and, within the
grains, of a bainitic structure comprised of very fine
ferrite grains.

These observations-seem to us to be very interesting


and, amongst the papers examined, only that of
SUZUKI et al (52) uses them, correctly and with success,
to explain the beneficial effect of certain elements
(particularly Ti and B) on weld metal properties.

Independent of the effect of such parameters as weld-


metal oxygen content or inclusion morphology, of
which we do not deny the a priori importance, we think
that this effect on structure ought to be borne in
mind from the outset.

In steels, the austenite structure and the micro-


structure have the greatest effect on the achievement
of mechanical properties, and the characteristics
obtained vary widely depending on the heat treatment
and the chemical composition. Similarly, the final
structure of a weld depends on the speed of cooling
and the weld-metal composition, which determines the
hardenability. Cooling rates and composition must,
therefore, be examined in conjunction with each other.
54

IV-3 EFFECT OF COOLING RATE ON WELD-METAL


STRUCTURES AND PROPERTIES (SERIES I)
The rate of cooling of a weldment can be altered either
by changing the plate thickness or, weld heat input, or
by applying preheat. In the case of weld metal, if there
is to be no effect on weld metal dilution or time of
exposure to high temperature,it would appear that
isolation of the effect of cooling rate can only be
achieved by altering the plate thickness.

The tests to be described have been carried out on


Steel Al (see Table III) with an initial thickness of
60mm. Four thicknesses of 20,30,40 and 60mm were chosen.
Moreoever, welding on a test plate 18mm thick, cooled by
a water spray on the underside, allowed a significant
increase in cooling rate. The dimensions and preparation
of test plates are detailed in Figure 27.

A commercial wire-flux combination, wire Fl and flux ç61


(Tables IV and V) was used. Identical cooling rates
were used for all the welds;and are given in Table VI
(Series I); they correspond to a nominal heat input of
50kJ/cm.

The thermal cycle, as the signal derived from the cycle,


was determined by immersing a W-5%Re/W-25%Re thermo-
couple 15mm behind the arc.

The machining layout is given in Figure 28. From each


weldment, the following were machined:- three TB5
weld-metal tensile test pieces (5mm diam, 25mm gauge length),
twelve to fifteen Charpy test pieces,and samples for
analysis and micrographie examination. The chemical
analyses and cooling rates are given in Table VII.
Weld-metal dilutions are practically identical, the
conditions under which the weld metal was produced not
having been altered.
TABLE III - WELD METAL STUDY - COMPOSITIONS OF
STEELS USED

Steels Thickness
Aciers C Μη Si S Ρ Cu Cr Mo Al Nb ép. (mm)

A 1 0,185 1,31 0,50 0,006 0,015 ND ND - 0,029 - 60


A 2 0,19 1,37 0,36 0,016 0,027 - - - 0,029 - 20
IM
A 3 0,18 1,35 0,31 0,021 0,014 - - - 0,017 0,035 20 ( o u 18 mm)
A 4 0,09 1,30 0,28 0,018 0,023 0,175 0,185 0,030 18
A 5 0,09 1,30 0,28 0,018 0,023 0,175 0,185 0,065 18
i
A 6 0,09 1,25 0,28 0,018 0,023 0,175 0,185 0,105 18
E 0,148 1,30 0,28 0,016 0,026 - - - 0,042 0,027 18
Β 2 0,088 1,47 0,35 0,006 0,018 - - 0,19 0,060 0,054 18
56

Steel£ C Hn SI s Ρ Al Cr Cu Mo Ti diamëtéf
F 1 0,14 1,93 0,06 0,020 0,017 0,003 ­ 0,05 0,007 0,015 5 mm

F 2 0,10 1,99 0,08 0,024 0,017 0,005 ­ 0,04 ­ 0,023 4 mm

F 3 0,12 1,95 0,05 0,02tf 0,020 0,004 ­ 0,032 ­ 0,023 4 mm

F 4 0,14 1,85 0,05 0,016 0,026 0,030 ­ 0,04 ­ 0,002 4 mm

G1 0,09 0,84 0,04 0,014 0,014 0,020 ­ ­ 0,610 ­ 4 mm

TABLE IV ­ WELD METALS ­ COMMERCIAL WIRES USED

Composition approximative
Refer­ C
i s
haracter­
tics ** **
ence Fe t o t . Si02 CaO CaF
2 A1
2°3
Ti02 MgO P
2°5
HnO

Φ1 Cast 2,5 35 26 6 14 1 12 0,06 8


Φ2 Cast .·. 1,2 39 21 10 2,5 2,7 3,6 0,1 20
Φ3 Agglomerated 2,1 16 1 7 41 8,6 3,6 0,1 16
Φ4
Calcined 1,5 13 10 25 18 0,7 31 0,1 0,3

TABLE V ­ WELD METALS ­ CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUX USED


TD
H
Π
η
π
en
c

π
α
n
45°ο // \ -JSL /
o
LO
Η
c
α
κ 11 mm
>-3
I 2 0 mn
π 4 0 mm
π 6 0 mm
-J
η
H
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1-3

Π
120
•χ,
>
r
η
κ
η
r
πs
ΤΙ "—
Η Μ
Ο Π
c ρσ
3D Η
π π
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58

Echantillon micrographique

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Resiliences Resiliences Chute


\ J . . . j 11 TòO<b-fMfcSS
échantillon ! -JXSCARO
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TESTPIECE CUTTING DIAGRAM

FIGURE 28
59

IV-3.2 Results
The thermal cooling cycles of differing welds (Figure
29) are eguivalent at high temperatures and only begin
to separate below about 1300 C. Weld-metal solidification
conditions, to the extent which an effect might be
suspected, has taken place under the same thermal
conditions and is, therefore, the same in all cases.
With respect to microstructure, moreover, we have confirmed
that the forms of the curves are identical. Changes, in
the structures and/or mechanical properties obtained,
will only, therefore, result from the characteristics
of solid-state transformation.

With respect to microstructure, accelerating the cooling


rate results in (Figure 30):-
a significant reduction in prior-austenite grain-
boundary ferrite, the ferrite network formed at the fast-
est cooling rates being better defined, finer and less
acicular.
- a refinement of the intragranular structure. In
both cases illustrated in Figure 30 acicular structures
are found, of course, but the probainitic ferrite,
formed on accelerated cooling, is much finer (Figure 30c
and 30b), the non-ferritic areas developing, as already
described in the first part, towards faster-cooled
structures.

In association, a significant trend in mechanical properties


can be observed (Table VIII - Series I ) : -
- an increase in tensile properties, a foreseeable
consequence of accelerated cooling. Between the two
extremes, for instance, yield strength rises from 480
to 580 N/mm2.
a fall in the Charpy upper plateau level and a drop in
ductility due to the development of more-bainitic
structures.
■η
π Temp. 2 C
η
1-3
Ο
•Π
1-3

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PO
2
>
r
π
·<
η

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Π
70
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Π "fßeMSFo«nAT(o*J lOrecvoi
LO Uomaine de transformation ON
O
(approximatif)

(ep. en mm)
S
Tu<cK»siess C·-·"-)

> 500-
c
33
Π
LO

S3
Π
Ο
ο
70
^1 α
H π
Ω D Temps
C
PO
m
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61

x 100 1 00
a)* refroidissement le plus lent b) refroidissement le plus rapide
PAyrcST coo <-< »νΐο-

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c) r e f r o i d i s s e m e n t le plus lent d) r e f r o i d i s s e m e n t le plus rapide
SLOUéST C O O U NC r rASTiïST CûoLiMCr

EFFECT OF COOLING RATE ON STRUCTURES FORMED


FIGURE 30
62

- an improvement in both 28J and 50%-brittle trans-


ition temperatures.

This variation is, gualitatively, similar to the effect


of grain refinement in ferrite-pearlite steels, and it
might be thought that the mechanisms involved in both
cases were similar. The variations observed, therefore,
ought logically to correlate guantitatively with
microstructure. It does not yet seem possible, however,
to determine in the types of structures peculiar to weld
metal, a parameter such as austenitic or ferritic grain
size. Variations in transition temperature and yield
strength can, on the other hand, be related through an
IRVINE-type eguation. Our results, given in Figure 31,
2
show that a gain of 100 N/mm in yield strength is
Q
accompanied by an improvement of about 40 C in the
transition temperature.

Quantitatively, therefore, this variation is of a very


different order to that observed in ferrite-pearlite
structures, where grain refinement gives a very
significant improvement in transition temperature, viz.
-12 C/10 N/mm rise in yield (55). It must not be
forgotten, nevertheless, that these figures are
valid chiefly for polygonal ferrites, not for acicular
ferrites nor, in particular, for weld metals. The high
yield strengths generally observed in weld metals,
together with modest Charpy upper plateau levels (80-120J)
prohibit, moreover, as we have already seen, the comparison
of these structures with those, for example, of non-
overheated ferrite/pearlites.

IV-4 EFFECT OF WELD ENERGY (SERIES II)


Alteration of the weld heat input is another means,
without doubt more representative of current operating
practices, for altering the cooling rate. In this
case, on the other hand, the development of the weld
metal is often altered, and it is only of interest
to examine the results so obtained in the light of
the preceding conclusions.
63

PLflTiï THicKMes>

30 40 60 1 8 eau
« I i -*-
Epaisseur
Plaque en
mm

> E (Kg/mmì

VARIATION OF TRANSITION TEMPERATURE WITH YIELD STRENGTH


(SERIES I)

FIGURE 31
64

The tests to be discussed were carried out on two


steels, an E36 type (designated A2) and steel A3 of
comparable analysis, but containing 0.035%Nb (Table
III). All test plates were 20mm thick and three
levels of energy were used, 30,50 and 70kJ/cm. Flux
çzíl was used for all tests and, although, for
experimental reasons, the same wire could not be used
in all tests, the reels were chosen such that differ-
ences in analysis were minimised (Wires F2 and F3,
Table IV, weld-metal analyses, Table VII). We will
see that this involved us in certain precautions in
interpreting the results, but it must be emphasised
that, for each level of heat input, the welds on both
steels were carried out using the same batch of
consumables.

The operating conditions are given in Table VI and


the cooling conditions and analyses of the welds
obtained, in Table VII. The weld dilutions are
comparable in all cases, as are the weld metal
compositions.

At the structural level, for the two steels, the


observations agree with those made previously. Lower
heat inputs result in (Figure 32):-

significant reduction in proeutectoid ferrite


present,

- refinement of the intragranular structure.

It seems, moreover, that, contrary to what was seen


previously, there has been austenite grain-refine-
ment at the lowest heat input. This is not unexpected,
when it is known that altering the cooling rate by
means of the weld energy is indicated, contrary to
the previous case, by an increase in the cooling rate
at all temperatures, including that of fr -grain
formation, which may be the S-^ transformation
temperature. Whatever it may be, this observation
65
Α»βε « τ Men»«- u / £ i - o . « o . COMO m o ws w £ * r r ~ i ^ i * 3
°í- THI<.K»4KSS .ropar".
X&$T Ma. J o u d a ¿re
M¿t=tl dö h a s e PCPTH-
H 3 oi­aai Fil
EraiG3t3ur Pro ¡ » k.)/ce I/-m

SERIES I ­ EFFEC T OF THERMAL C YC LE ­ VARIABLE THIC KNESS


UB A1 20 mm F1 Φ! •0" 8:5 29 .5 '0 /.e 50
180 Al 20 mm P1 Φ1 id 810 * ■ ) . ' . 30 47 50
117 M ;o -« id id id id 620 29.5 30 4b 50
116 Λ1 40 inni id id id id 810 SO.? 30 49 50
115 A1 60 mn id id id id S 10 50 30.5 50
43
119* A1 18 sm id id id id 810 30 30.5 50
f, j f r o i d ! a u )

SERÍES I I ­ EFFEC T OF THERMAL C YC LE, ENERGY VARIABLE, WITH


AND WITHOUT Nb
112 A2 20 noi F3 φ1 JO" 1 10 32 45 30 30
'13 A3 20 mi P3 id ;o° 1 ;o 32 45 y .30
84 A2 20 nra F2 id id 45° soo 30 30 48 50
63 A3 20 zun id id id id soo 31 30 50 50
es Λ2 20 a n id id id id 730 j'y 30 40 50
65 A; 20 ¡Ea id id id id 730 35 Ία 30
IOS A2 20 mj F1 id id 60° 933 /.t 70 7-
107 A3 20 am F1 id id 60° 940 34 7C 70

S E R I E S I I I ­ VARIATION I N Nb C ONTENT
141 A4 18 mm F1 ΦΙ b '.-ι 90° 34" 33 50 50.5 30
139 AS IS Him id id id id 835 30 50 30 50
140 Λ6 18 mm id id id ■ id 827 30 30 30
143 A4 18 mm G1 Φ2 id id 033 31 3 1 ·3 30
144 A5 18 mm id id id id 825 3C..­1 30 30
142 i.6 18 mm id id id id 220 31 48 5'.3 30

165 AJ 18 .1111 Fl Φ1 645 3 0.5 .-.0.9 30


C o m p a r e ^ à e a s a i η ' 141

C TV 1 EXP z, RIMENTAL \
ι. a r c tfmdem
T64+ K 18 mm * Φ2 11 am 100 39 40
Γ85+ U 1S ma * Φ3 id : 950 100 39 40
TICO:· K 10 sm * Φ4 id 850 34 45 30 5 Λΰ
1Ί14 + '12 18 Em * Φ4 id S5O 34 45 58 5 40

( * ) ­ ' l i a .­yv: ^n­j l i a a o í i ­ v o i r t a b l e a u IX


— Sy»rrH<£Tie_ u i ? t — i * e ΤΛΙΙ_ΙΓ E

TABLE VI - STUDY OF WELD METAL - TEST CONDITIONS


66

ΚΟΛΤ •JPyT
'KíMitAi­ C ompositie·;: c':==>i.:;3e pp. pc­<
­resrrOo. noii naie l i i l l l t i ' j : : Λ Ι (5)
bOO IOC'
Λ Ι (S) Μη ■ Si S Al I C r I C u
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■4- ..1_L
ι
1
SER::ES I ­ EF 'ECT O F C O O L Í N G ' C Y C ¿ E ' V A R I A B L E T H C
I K N E S

110 ':.0 fi5 S 75 209 0.13 1.55 0.5 0.0O7 0.U10 0,01? I'D 0.20 90 soo
ιω '.■ id 73 200
ην id Τ? 145
■¿o 70
v.;·. id
1V. td 24 50
1:5 ' id 65 Sí 12 21 0.155 1.52 0.5 0.CO9 0.017 KO 0.20 90 ■>κ>
(re·, i i i v**7G.<î
<·,,.;) l o o c i T O

S E R Í E S I : : ­ E F F EC T O F C O O L I N G C YC L E ­ V A R I A B L E H E A T I N P U T S

G? % 29 ■'&.
0.140 1.« 0,46 0.013 .. 0.014 „ NO NO 631 G
ii:·, G5 SC 2' 0 . 140 1.52 0.375 0.016 - 0.015 - HD KD 634 0,025
ε: ?2 J, 72 200
50 62 ï 77 ^00
Γ
BH 50 6', Si 76 230 0.135 1.30 0,44 G. 022 ;0.029) G.C15 .. HD 90 -3**
tn 50 63 ï 71 2:0 0.137 1.50 0.41 0,017 C O 15 0.011 - NO 91 531 ..C21
100 VJ M ;: («O) 0 . 1 :V7 1.46 0.39 0.C19 0.024 0.014 - MO NO
i 07 70 6 1 Sí (400) 0.137 1.44 0.35 0.022 0.019 0.011 10 KO 541 0.C24

SER ES III ­ STEELS WITH VARIABLE Nb


141 30 Co % 114 . COSE 1.5 0.35 0,018 0.027 0.023 0.13 0.14 KO 0.01S
V.¡ ld 6 7 SC 109 0.ÛB2 1.4E 0,3-6 0.020 0.024 0.031 0.13 0.14 KD' 0.C44
i 40 id GG % 114 0.05*. 1.43 0.35 o.r-iü 0.028 0.030 0.137 0.135 f." C.C2
143 id 65 ί 122 0,074 ¡.20 0,34 O.C 17 C.C20 O.Cr.õ C. 125 0.145 •ζ 0. C', 3
G9 ï
141
Κ'
id
id 71 Sä
113
124
0.074
0.071
1.25
1.27
0.34
0.30
C.017
0.015
0.021
0.01b
0.02 ΐ-
0 . 02 '¿
0.125
0.125
0.145
0.125
!3
NO
COIÓ
C. 053
μ5
¡3.17

SERIES IV EFFECT OF C ARBON


ι
165 ¿0 I 65 J5 35 103 0.140 Í1.5) (0.46) (O.OIC) (0,014) 0.050 ι;ο i.O
Co;,,i:-.rcr a csí-.-i n ' .41
CöMP fi8j£ ΰο Τ £ 5 Γ ι ·* I

TABLE VII ­ THERMAL PARAMETERS AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION


OF WELD METAL
67

SF ''^^3*^#Si ^ È : "fi' ^%>¿ "Tr^-

^ E ^ tff^gtfeyy^fj»j y -ffitj··*

3$

ÉwS
;
W ^ ^ í v K

•Vl^T^3,^âLí^3t
A ÆlSsss ^ Λ ΐ ^ ^ τ Ν β Κ ^ !

^^w'ß^jisfj

a) 70 kJ/cm 200

EFFECT OF HEAT INPUT ON


WELD METAL STRUCTURE
(STEEL A2)

b) 30 kJ/ci
FIGURE 32
Οδ

deserves the fullest examination and we have not, as


yet, sufficient data to discuss the consequences.

Structural refinement (proeutectoid ferrite, intra-


granular structure) occurs as seen in the previous
series of tests, and the following effects on mechanical
properties are seen again:

elevation of tensile properties


slight reduction in ductility and the Charpy upper
plateau (though rather modest)
improvement in the transition temperature. Figure 33
shows, as an example, transition curves for Steel A3
at heat inputs of 30 and 70 kJ/cm.

Figure 34 shows the correlation between yield strength


and 50% FATT. For Steel A2,without Nb, the variation
observed is the same as in the series of test on the
influence of thickness, since a gain of 43 C in
2
transition temperature is obtained per 100 N/mm on
yield, compared with the -40°C/100 N/mm obtained
previously. Moreoever, all the points fall on the same
line. It appears, therefore, from these results, that
altering the weld heat input shows itself, above all,
by an effect on the transformation conditions of the
weld metal.

In the case of the steel with niobium, the variation


seems more significant (about -55 C/100 N/mm ) and it can
be seen that, with identical welding conditions (lines
I, II, III), niobium gives an increase in tensile
strength without degrading toughness, an effect which
it will be interesting to examine in depth.

IV-5 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL -


ELEMENTS CONTAINED IN THE PARENT METAL
The preceding results, which demonstrate the important
influence of weld-metal s t r u c t u r e on mechanical
properties, indicate that possible modifications of
weld-metal composition ought to be studied, paying
particular attention, simultaneously,to the thermal
π % S(2<-rru£
•η
Τι / © %cris. IB %cris.
ο 70 k J/cm | 30kJ/cm
1-3 \ © E. abs. ( Ψ E. abs.
ο

Kv(J
>
i-i
Η
Τ3
C
Η£

Ο
2

S
π
r
D
2 Cf.

r
Ό
PO
O
Ό

PO
1-9
Η
Π
CO

00
H
Π
π
■ òO .40 „20 0 20 40 60 80 Temp. 2C
r
>
OJ
Η
Ο
C
Χ
Π
ω
0J
70

5o% FflTT ® Acier A2


60..
@ Acier A 3 ( A 2 + N b )

I 70 Kj /cm

40..

20.,

55
E kg/m m
Vie U D ST£eNo--rH

VARIATION OF TRANSITION TEMPERATURE WITH HEAT INPUT (SERIES II)

FIGURE 34
71

conditions of the tests ard the effect of alloying


elements on the weld metal hardenability. It was
necessary, moreover, to distinguish between elements
present in the parent metal, which inevitably find their
way into the weld metal,and alloying elements origin-
ating in the weld consumables.

We will look first at the case of niobium, to which the


microstructural conclusions of the preceding sections
apply directly. Moreover, it is important in practice,
the presence of niobium in weld metal being inevitable
when microalloyed steels containing Nb are welded. Also,
it seems that, at least for the experimental conditions
studied, niobium does not take part in slag/metal
reactions, and is found in weld metal in concentrations
equal to those which can be calculated, taking parent
metal dilution into account (Figure 35).

IV-5.1 Niobium
In the course of tests previously described: welds carried
out, under identical conditions, on two steels of similar
composition, except for niobium, the results given in
Figure 34 show that the presence of about 0.02%Nb in the
weld metal causes (Figure 34, Table VII):-
2
- a rise in tensile properties of about 60-80 N/mm
- a slight change in transition temperature, ie an
improvement, in the presence of niobium, apparently
more perceptible at low heat inputs

The alteration of tensile properties by niobium is


certainly not a surprise. Results obtained, especially
at IRSID (56), concerning the effects of niobium in
steels, have in fact shown that, during continuous
cooling, a strengthening precipitate of carbonitrides
is to be expected when transformation happens, at
least partially, in the ferritic phase, which is certainly
the case in welds(*). (see over)
Mb mesure
σ­ 10" 3 %
ο
ο
ζ
1-3
Π
ζ

r
α
2
Π
>
r
>
r
r
to
η
o
ζ
α
Η
Η3
Η
ο
οο

c^i-«.>juRre!> _3
-q Nb calcule(lO"%)
H
Ω
C
70
Π
00
on
73

TttST No. o;OE Cu.


Métal do Hv 5 Ζ •rk ?>5 C T k sew ;;D
base <?ATIQ|

SERIE, I ­ EFFECT OF COOLING CYCLE ­ VARIABLE THICKNESS


206 43 64 28 64 0.75 ­ 10 30 12C
48 66 27 50 0.75 ­ 5 30 104
r
.2.0 c­7 ;o 3ν D.75 ­ JO 10 112
Λ1 54.2 63.7 27 57.5 0.7'? - Ï-:· 5 104
Γ
A1 55*3 70.3 23..· :■(■ 0.73 - ;o 95
11·; • 58.2 76. S 23 51 0.74 ­ '·5 so 8G
(refroidi eau)

SERIEÍ II ­ EFFECT OF COOLING CYCLE ­ VARIABLE HEAT INPUT


209 c, ' r,
65.5 37 61 Ο . vi - 20 104

A3 230 5ci .6 7 C7. 2;ϊ .ó £0.5 O.F} - 55 72


04 A2 195 -ί ι ·^ 6': .7 27.2 63 0.76 - 10 + 50 (56)
f.5 A3 2 lo 53.2 ób. 9 ί3·5 ~2 0.6 3 - 20 + '5 10 (96)
03 ; 2 194 46.2 61.1 27.5 63 0.76 - 10 15 96
ι"!) A3 PIS .3.2 66.3 25.6 6G 0.33 - '5 0 60
lió A2 183 42.3 53.6 se.7 -5 C.72 , IG + 3O i ir
47.3 65.ί ?.; 6 Τ­ 0.73 :- + 30 80
107

III STEELS WITH VARIABLE Nb


SERIES
141 ΑΛ 55 64 1-1 .'π 0.C-Z .. 6e 30 1}6
A5 225 57 65.2 ¿4 67 π ?. ¿ ­ 50 123
«6 251 53.7 63.3 25 64 0.66 ­ 6C 112
A4 211 50.ε 62.6 22.5 64 ο.ε' ­ 30 10) 96
225 56 óG ,ύ 2J.6 64 0.34 ·■ 40 20 o 104
226 57 6'Λ , ς 21.5: 6i Γ.ε: ­ 50 30 20 (56)

SERIES IV ­ EFFECT OF CARBON


iti- A3 55.5 7 ■ .2 24 s' Ο.ύ-i I - 2 96

COMPAHC T o TEST I
ODJ.­arer avec
Κο,ν­r­.no de 10 mem·.:: ce
MtA« ü r 10 ßelO<_1

TABLE VIII - MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF WELD METALS


74

(·) The rise in the yield/ultimate ratio can be attrib-


uted to the presence of Nb (Table VIII )# since the effect
of this precipitation will, above all, will be felt on
the tensile properties. Nevertheless, it should be
pointed out that complementary tests in the tempered
condition lead us to believe that,in the as-welded
state, precipitation is not complete.

This precipitation, however, must cause (57,58) an


embrittlement, resulting in a rise of about 3 -5 C in
2
transition temperature,for 10 N/mm rise in yield
strength. It should be remembered, nevertheless, that
this effect is opposed or even outweighed by the grain
refining effect of niobium during either normalisation
or rolling.

It can be seen clearly, from the results given (Figure


34), that the presence of niobium in weld metal does not
cause any embrittlement and seems, even, to give an
improvement in transition temperaturejparticularly at
low heat inputs. As in the case of rolled products,
the explanation for these results must be sought in
structural terms.

Figures 36 and 37 show, effectively and in distinct


fashion, even at low magnifications, a remarkable effect
of niobium on the weld metal structure,(it is, moreoever,
particularly interesting to compare Figures 30 and 36)
caused by a reduction and refinement of the pro-eutect-
oid ferrite -network and refinement of the intragranular
structure. These alterations result from the effect
of Nb in solution, on hardenability, noted by other
authors (57,60). In this work, we observe a pronounced
effect of niobium on the ferrite morphology, noted by
MANDRY (61), to a lesser extent (the work of GRAY (60)
might also be pointed out, which showed that this
hardenability effect of Nb resulted from a displacement
of the ferritic domain towards longer times).
75

a c i e r A2 Nb = O
&T¿£1-

a c i e r A3
ÍT££L:

E F F E C T OF Nb CONTENT ON WELD METAL STRUCTURE (STEELS A2 AND A 3 ,


70kJ/cm)

FIGURE 36
76

%4

acier A 2 Nb = O χ 500

røm
¡M
suffli

acier A 3 Nb = 24 10"37o χ 500

EFFECT OF Nb CONTENT ON WELD METAL STRUC TURE (STEELS A2 AND A3,


70kJ/cm)

FIGURE 37
77

For whatever reason, the observed changes in structure,


which cause, according to the results previously given,
an improvement in transition temperature, show that the
observed strengthening, of which a minor part may also
be due to the hardenability effect, does not cause
weld-metal embrittlement. It is, then, normal that,
as we have said, an improvement in transition temperature
appears at low heat inputs (fast cooling), the effective
hardenability outweighing precipitation. At the
slowest cooling rates, (70kJ/cm) on the other hand,
precipitation can be thought to be complete and
sufficient to overcome the beneficial effect of the
increase in hardenability.

These results throw new light on the work of HANNERZ


et al (49) on the effect of Nb on weld metal toughness.
These authors showed, in fact, an extremely strong
embrittling effect of niobium corresponding to a shift
of 4 C in transition temperature for every 1x10 %Nb
present in weld metal. We should, therefore, see
under our experimental conditions, a shift of 80 C,
which is evidently not the case. On looking more closely
at the tests carried out by these authors, it can be
seen, however, that in the single series of tests
(Series D) in which an embrittling effect of niobium
can be seen conclusively, the weld metal yield strength
2
is 300 N/mm for the steel without niobium, and scarcely
reaches 460 N/mm with 0.051%Nb in the weld metal. The
parent metal of 20M5 grade, and the consumables are,
however, near to those we have used. Values of this
order (chiefly concerning the first) do not seem to us
representative of current operating practices,and
indicate in our view, either abnormal welding
conditions (undersized test plates, for example), or
possible heat treatment after welding.
78

In parallel, EASTERLING and SPILLING (50) explain HANNERZ'


observations by the significant increase in dislocation
density caused in the presence of Nb in the weld metal.
This increase is, in our view, simply due to the drop in
transformation temperature, and does not necessarily
denote embrittlement, as shown by PICKERING (62) for
bainites. It reflects a hardenability increase due to
niobium and, rather, will parallel the lowering of the
upper plateau which we proved, in the presence of that
element (Table VIII).

We have also studied the influence of niobium in more


significant contents, in three low carbon steels
(0.08%C), designated A4, A5 and A6, containing
respectively 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11%C Nb (Table III).
Welds were carried out at 30kJ/cm with wire Fl and
flux φ\.

The welding conditions and weld properties obtained


are given in Tables VI­VIII (Series III). The toughness
results are shown in Figure 38. Although the behaviour
of steel A4 (0.035%Nb) appears slightly better in
transition behaviour, on the basis of energy absorbed,
the crystallinity curves can be seen to be intermingled
at all temperatures. These results confirm, however,
that even for high levels of Nb, embrittlement due to
that element ought not necessarily to be expected (*).
We have, moreover, confirmed these conclusions, when
the same steels A4 and A6 were welded with wire G
and flux çó2,' currently used in naval and boiler construct­
ion (Figure 39).

(*) Our findings are certainly valid for the as­welded


state. After heat­treatment, secondary precipitation of Nb
can cause a certain degree of embrittlement. We will
return to this in Chapter V.
79

Kv(J) irs» |°ΛβΟΐΤ MCTflu 3


Nb dans le metal de basedO" % )

X=35 1 = 70 1=111
120

80

40·

~*>

ifírm-ζ

100

.60 .40 .20 O τ20 40 60 80 100


•flEMP. , °C

EFFECT OF Nb ON WELD METAL TOUGHNESS (WIRE Fl, FLUX 01)


(SERIES III)
FIGURE 38
80

Kv(.J) Hb dans le metal de base (10" % )

1-35 E=70 Ί£=111


120

80<

40

MgBiriMáJ<t*»H—I^OTiim

ßßiTn.t%

Λ~·~~. -J..
.60 .40 .20 0 20 40 60 Λ 80
re­MP. t ö c

EFFECT OF Nb ON WELD METAL TOUGHNESS (WIRE GI, FLUX 02)


(SERIES III)
FIGURE 39
81

IV-5.2 Carbon
The effect of carbon on the properties of weld metal are,
curiously, almost never mentioned in the literature.
This element is neverthless particularly important,
above all if account is taken of the fact that the
carbon contents of constructional steels are continually
being reduced, for reasons motivated by other aspects
of their weldability.

In submerged arc welding, weld metal carbon content


depends chiefly on that of the parent metal.

Welding wires, in fact, have a carbon content limited,


in general, to 0.14%; transport across the arc is
normally accompanied by an additional loss and, finally,
only 20-30% of the consumable wire is melted into the
weld pool. (Translater's Note: ie. welding wire only
provides 20-30% of the metal in the weld pool).

To attempt to show the effect of this element, we have


compared two weld runs, made under the same conditions
and with the same flux-wire combination (Fl-(zSl), on
steels A3 and A4 (tests 141 and 166, see tables). These
two steels are, in fact, totally comparable,with the
exception of carbon content. The Cr and Cu contents of
steel A4, above all in concentrations which we find in
weld metal (Table VII), can be considered simply as
residuals, a hypothesis which we will justify later.
The test plate thicknesses were identical (18mm) and the
welds were carried out at a nominal heat input of
30kJ/cm, giving a penetration of about 12-13mm.

Weld metal analysis showed, effectively, a significant


difference in carbon content, which ranged from 0.09%
to about 0.15% in the run carried out on the higher
carbon steel (Table VII).

At the structural level, the difference between the two


welds is not very marked, in spite of this variation in
C content. Figure 40 shows, above all, a better
definition of ferrite grains, in the weld richest in C,
82

C = 0.145 (M. fondu) χ 500


W£(_0 ΜιΕΤ<η

» "JFtm
f äMBL · i
itBsSBSiåsP*;
S K x N ^ v -^-V»i
j Q m A S g g ã ^ ^ ^ ^ ^aSJìBjjjKSSg^^

^ ■ ^ β ÍÃ/^tí, & « K A T . /^-a^J^

β** '~wå?> '*&&*'*ψΙ


E&r¡R? ^5?oK¡P?S3rSs

■¡¡RSi
' * * (SSúáKwyj^stss

rfjfflf'rrî » < CTR»lailt/ ^pnBy¿3PtfJLt."ifeyVj


£*yçJL· · ¿¿Zak BBpii-MSS^raWvii^

C ­ 0.09 (M. fondu) χ 500

EFFECT OF CARBON ON WELD METAL STRUC TURE


FIGURE 40
83

and a light network of proeutectoid ferrite; overall,


neverthless, the structures formed are very comparable
(Figure 4 0 ) . (The effect of C content on hardenability,
normally important, does not appear, therefore, in a
very clear fashion).

With respect to mechanical properties, on the other


hand, we see very different behaviour between the two
steels:-

- a very clear improvement in Charpy V transition


curve at all temperatures for the low-C weld metal
(Figure 4 1 ) . On this^occasion, contrary to a number
of cases we have examined, the reduction in transition
temperature is accompanied by a simultaneous rise in
the upper shelf.

- In parallel, the tensile properties of the lower C


2
weld are reduced, yield strength by 50 N/mm and UTS
2
by 70 N/mm . This drop . in tensile properties and
improvement in toughness show that the mechanisms
involved are different to those previously pointed out,
and, in passing, it will be noted that the effects of
the Cr and Cu contents of steel A4 on weld metal harden-
ability can not, therefore, be responsible for the
variation observed.

IV-6 COMPOSITION OF WELD METAL -


ELEMENTS CONTAINED IN THE
WELDING CONSUMABLES
Previous experience allows us to reach certain conclusions
in well-controlled experimental cases. It is not the
same, however, if one tries, all other parameters being
egual, to examine the effect of consumable composition.
It, in fact, appears to us that with a given flux,
identical welding conditions and parent metal, the use
of a wire of the same diameter and of the same kind (that
is to say, sold as the same composition) leads to
unacceptable differences, in particular in toughness,
even to the extent shown in Figure 42. The consumables
E.abs.* . _ 'JE. SÒS.W.

Acter A 4 * % se-TTut Α?.Ί


\ % cris.©__ I-joO ^ v %^ns.
¡70
SITO»
-q
π
η
Kv(J)
ο
τι
η
>
70
CO
Ο
Ζ
ο
ζ
ε
m
r
α
ob

>
n
o
c
o
ζ
ω

τι
!em
ocΗ .80 .40 .20 0 20 40 60 80 100 P-^
χ
π
£>
85

Kv
daj /cm2

Cris.%
6R|-nL<2

100

60 -40 -30 -20 0 20 40 80


TempsC

EFFECT OF CHOICE OF WELDING WIRE ON WELD METAL


PROPERTIES (50kJ/cm)

FIGURE 42
86

used here are flux φ\ and wires F2 and F4, from the
same manufacturer. On the other hand, making the same
welds with the same batches of consumables has always
given us identical results, and the differences observed
in Figure 42 can not be attributed to variations in
manufacture and testing. We have, therefore,
attributed it to variations in wire composition. It
is, moreover, possible that the differences in analysis
(see Table IV) are insufficient to account for the
phenomenon, the residual elements (Ti,B, etc.) not usually
analysed possibly being capable of playing a more
important role than those elements which one is reguired
to check. The control of consumables presents, there­
fore, an undeniable problem and it would be desirable,
in our view, to control better or, at least, understand
better, the divergence of analysis of welding wires at
all stages from development to utilisation.

In order to define the influence, on weld metal


mechanical properties, of the principal alloying
elements usually contained in welding wires, we have
undertaken a programme starting with synthetic experi­
mental wires. Below are given the preliminary results
obtained in the course of this contract.

IV-6.1 Experimental Procedure


The synthetic wires were made according to the following
procedure:
1) Manufacture of 18Kg casts in an HF furnace
(3-5 grades/cast)
2) Rolling of ingots to 12mm rounds
3) Trimming of the round bars
4) Drawing to 4mm diameter wires, with interpass
anneals for the highest alloyed grades
5) Acid pickling and copper coating in a sulphate bath.

The intended compositions spanned current commercial


compositions and some specific additions (Τί,Β,ΑΙ) were
also tried.
87

Product analyses are summarised in Table IX. The welds


were carried out on an E400-type steel (18M5Nb, controlled
rolled, for which the composition is designated reference
E in Table III) using three types of commercial flux
(References çz52, 03, (ZÍ4) of which the characteristics
are given in Table IV.

A series of welds has also been carried out on an X65


steel (C-Mn-Mo-Nb, reference B2 in Table III) with basic
flux 04.

The base plates were 18mm thick and the welding parameters
(Table VI) were chosen so as to obtain a mean energy of
40kJ/cm, which corresponds to a At 700c*150s and At 800~50s.
300 500
The welds were carried out with a tandem arc, using fluxes
02 and 03, but had to be welded with d.c. with 04,
because of the high CaF„content in this flux.

IV-6.2 Composition of Weld Metal


Recovery of Principal Elements
Welding parameters were chosen such that the weld metal
contained about 70% parent metal and 30% from the
consumable wire. Weld metal analyses are given in
Table X.

However, as one might expect, the recovery of additions


contained in the wire depends very strongly on:

- their nature,
- the flux utilised.

The recovery of manganese (Figure 43), greater than or


egual to 1 at low contents, becomes less than 1 at
higher contents. As a general rule, it will be noted
that it is lower with flux (zS4, containing no MnO.

The recovery of molybdenum (Figure 44) is nearly 1 at


all contents with fluxes 02 and 03, but seems to depend
on content with flux 04.
88

Nuance C Μη Mo Si Ti Al B Elément
G­ßAtxZ" IO"3 % IO ­3 4 (ppm) examinait

1 0,096 ­ ­ réaid. ­ 20 ­
2 0,072 0,51 ­ idem ­ 21 ­
3* 0,090 1,18 ­ ­ ­ 21 ­ Μη
4 0,072 1,95 ­ ­ ­ 13 ­
5 0,064 3,85 ­ ­ ­ 15 ­
6 0,081 0,98 0,260 ­ ­ 20 ­
7 0,060 0,92 0,520 ­ ­ 23 ­ Mo
8 0,048 0,93 1,030 ­ ­ 26 ­
9 0,078 1,0 ­ ­ 24 18 I
10 0,07 0,955 56 22 ! Ti
11 0,06 0,970 110 33 I
12 0,070 0,917 1,04 70 25 TÍ + y.o
13 0,050 0,950 110 27 52 Ti + Β
14 0,050 0,940 110 42 50 Ti + Β + Al

Référence.

TABLE I X ­ C OMPOSITION OF GRADES OF SYNTHETIC WIRE


89

%Μπ mesure

2-

13

see ι ·-&
symbole série de
soudures

Δ T64+
O T83+
T100+
T114+

(voir tableau Χ,'

Τ" 1^ C»
1,5 2 % Μη calcul:

RECOVERY OF MANGANESE

FIGURE 43
90

% Mo mesuré
MCAsoecD

(mêmes symboles que sur


la figure 43)

—r -τ— %Mo calcu lé


0,3
0,1 0,2

RECOVERY OF MOLYBDENUM

FIGURE 44
­ 91 ­

Lastly, the recovery of titanium (Figure 45) merits


particular attention: with fluxes 02 and 04 containing
only very small amounts of titanium it is of the order
of 40, whereas with flux 03, containing the equivalent
òf about 9%TiO„, the recovery is clearly higher than
1, and shows significant transfer of Ti from the flux
to the weld metal.

The boron contents (of the order of 50ppm in the wire


and lOppm in the weld metal) are too low to "allow a
valid"recovery" to be calculated.

Finally, it must be noted that the less oxidising nature


of flux 04 gives an oxygen level of the order of 0.03%,
compared with 0.07% in the welds made with fluxes 02 and
03.

IV­6.3 Influence of Alloying Elements on


Weld Metal Properties
IV­6.3.1 Manganese
Manganese exerts a considerable influence on the tensile
properties of deposited weld metal, both UTS and yield
strength, (Figure 46). Data on the yield strength are
nevertheless difficult to present in a synthetic manner
due to the disappearance of the yield drop in the tensile
curve at high manganese contents.

The variation of toughness with manganese content is very


complex, as the effect can be favourable or unfavourable.
The phenomenon can be explained, however, if two types
of microstructural effects of manganese are noted:
­ refinement of ferrite structure (Figure 47) which
simultaneously improves tensile properties (yield and
UTS) and transition temperature,
­ increase in hardenability and the formation of "carbon­
rich" phases, which raise the tensile strength but degrade
toughness.

For the tandem arc welds, Figure 48 shows a linear


variation of Τ 28J, predictable from the ferrite­grain
refinement and the PETCH law, so long as the Mn content
is below a certain value. For the DC welds with flux 04,
92

%T¡ mesuré
rt CA i u a a J )

0030

0,020-

0,010

0.010 0,020 0,030


%T¡ calcule
cAi-toi.fl-rcí>

RECOVERY OF TITANIUM

FIGURE 45
93

N/mm'
750-

700-

650'

600.

• Re 0,2
°*% PS

550-

1,5 %Mn

EFFECT OF Mn ON WELD METAL TENSILE PROPERTIES


(WELD S E R I E S T 8 3 + )

FIGURE 46
94

OPTICAL MICROGRAPH
X200

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X800

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X3500

EFFECT ON MANGANESE ON WELD METAL MICROSTRUCTURE


a) Mn = 1.1%, Weld T83
FIGURE 47
95

OPTICAL MICROGRAPH
X200

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X800

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X3500

EFFECT OF MANGANESE ON WELD-METAL MICROSTRUCTURE


b) Mn = 1.3%, Weld T85
FIGURE 47
9b

OPTICAL MICROGRAPH
X200

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X800

SCANNING ELECTRON
MICROGRAPH X3500

EFFECT OF MANGANESE ON WELD METAL MICROSTRUCTURE


c) Mn = 2%, Weld T87

FIGURE 47
97

Tk28J(*C)

•20-

-r
2 %Μη
V

EFFECT OF Μη ON THE PROPERTIES OF TANDEM-ARC


WELD METALS (WELD SERIES T83-) , SEE TABLE X)

FIGURE 48
98

there was no apparent effect of weld metal Mn contents,


below 1.5%, on the transition temperature, (Figure 49).

At about 2%Mn, there is observed either an end to the


improvement in transition temperatures (for tandem-arc
welds) (Figure 48) or a significant deterioration (d.c
welds) (Figure 49). In both cases, there is, likewise,
a disappearance of the yield point, ie. a change in the
weld metal structures.

We have sought to define more precisely this effect in


several weld runs. However, we have, to date, run into
interpretational difficulties with these complex bainitic
structures, containing martensite, residual austenite,
carbide laths, pearlite, etc.

IV-6.3.2 Molybdenum
Molybdenum also has a marked effect on microstructure
(ferrite grain refinement, disappearance of ferrite networks,
Figure 50), accompanied by an improvement in tensile
2
properties of about 20 N/mm per 0.1%Mo. The effect of
microstructural changes on transition temperature is less
clear. With fluxes 02 and 04, the effect is slight and
seems chiefly to be shown as a drop of about 20 C when the
weld metal Mo content reaches about 0.1-0.15%. On the other
hand, with flux 03, molybdenum noticeably improves Charpy
V transition temperatures (Figure 51). It should be recalled
that this flux causes a transfer of Ti into the weld metal,
and we will return to the combined effect of Mo and Ti in
the following paragraph.

IV-6.3.3 Titanium
The variation in Ti content of the melts studied (Table IX),
does not appear to have any effect on weld metal mechanical
properties, in the absence of molybdenum. Moreover, hard-
ness test results on tempered test pieces from welds of
differing Ti contents, in the absence of Mo, show no
hardening effects. Ion micro-probe examination of a Ti-B
99

Tk28J
CC)

■20-

-40

-ι— —ι— %Μη


1.5 2 2,5

EFFECT OF Mn ON THE PROPERTIES OF SINGLE-ARC


WELD METALS (FLUX 0 4 ) (W ELD S E R I E S T 1 1 4 + ,
SEE TABLE X)

FIGURE 49
100

WELD T85
Mn = 1.3%
Mo = 0
X200

WELD T90
Mn = 1.3%
Mo = 0.35%
X200

EFFECT OF MOLYBDENUM ON WELD METAL MICROSTRUCTURE

FIGURE 50
101

TkCc )

♦ 20­

%Mo

EFFECT OF Mo ON WELD METAL C HARPY V TRANSITION


TEMPERATURES, IN THE PRESENC E OF Ti (0.015%­
WELD SERIES T83+)

FIGURE 51
102

weld made with flux 03 - series T83 + (with 0.07%0 ? ),


has shown that the titanium present was contained within
complex inclusions of the manganese silico-aluminate type(*)
whence the absence of any effect on mechanical properties.

On the other hand, Figure 52 shows that titanium introduced


from the wire produces a clear improvement in Charpy V
transition behaviour for welds made with a Mo-bearing
steel (welds with flux 04, Series T114+).

The lowest oxygen contents (*0.03%) are observed in these


welds, due to the use of flux 04, but the contribution
of Ti from the wire, in the case of welds of series T100+
(same flux, Mo-free plate), does not result in any improve-
ment in weld metal mechanical properties. Oxygen content
cannot, therefore, be responsible exclusively for the
degree of effectiveness of titanium.

It must be admitted, certainly, that titanium only has an


influence in the presence of molybdenum, and the observation
reported in this paragraph agrees with the beneficial effect
of Mo in the presence of Ti, pointed out in the preceding
paragraph.

However, note that, somewhat curiously, the contribution


of Ti and Mo, simultaneously by the wire:

on one hand, gives a lower recovery of Ti than occurs


in the absence of Mo, for welds with flux 03 containing
titanium, and

on the other hand, does not give a significant improvement


in mechanical properties, compared with Mo-bearing welds
free of Ti.

(*) Work carried out by MM MAITREPIERRE and NAMDAR IRANI


of the Physical Metallurgy Group.
103

TkCC)

* Tk 50%Cr
ςο% FATT

■20

-40-

■60- Tk28J

■80-

—Γ­
3
ΙΟ 20 10r *-η.

EFFECT OF Ti ON WELD METAL CHARPY V TRANSITION


TEMPERATURES, FOR WELDS ON PLATES WITH Mo
(SERIES T114+)

FIGURE 52
104

The mechanism of transfer of these two elements into the


weld metal, therefore has a fundamental effect on their
metallurgical effect within it.

IV-6.3.4 Boron
We have not observed any obvious effect of boron on the
mechanical properties of the welds carried out in this
test programme. As with titanium, ion microprobe examin-
ation(*) has shown that, in the weld examined, boron was
found associated, with oxygen, which explains the lack of
any influence on mechanical properties.

It will be necessary to achieve a distinctly lower oxygen


content, to hope to observe a beneficial effect of boron.

IV-6.4 Conclusions
The effects of differing alloying elements in weld metal
cannot be considered individually and in terms, exclusively
of the composition, by weight, of the welding wire. Weld
metal flux transfer must, equally, be taken into account,
along with changes in microstructure and the form in which
the alloying elements are introduced.

Finally, the fundamental effect of the flux used must be


stressed, arising from its basicity, the level of its
oxydising nature, and its ability to supply certain elements
to the weld metal. An improved understanding of the
mechanical properties of submerged arc weld metals will
certainly involve a detailed study of these phenomena.

IV-7 DISCUSSION
In this second part, we have studied some of the factors
controlling the mechanical quality of weld metals, mainly
in steels of the 18 M5 type. All the welds were automatic
submerged arc welds, with heat inputs between 30 and 70 kJ/cm.
Commercial and experimental consumables were used.

(·) See Reference in Section IV-6.3.3


105

Above all, we have examined microstructural factors.


Clearly, they are not the only ones having an effect, but
it was important that, before trying to deal with the
effects of variables, difficult to control, such as
weld-metal oxygen content, the structure property
relationships should be investigated first.

We have seen from the outset that the fineness of the


weld metal structure, controlled largely by its thermal
history and chemical composition, plays a significant
role, and may be compared with that of grain size in
ferrite-pearlite steels, at least in respect of the
mechanisms involved, fracture energy being raised by the
action of grain boundaries as barriers to fracture
propagation. Quantitatively, we have seen that yield
strength/transition temperature relationships were,
however, different to those in the structures formed,
and it is to be hoped that the current interest being
shown in acicular ferrites (56,63,64) during research on
high strength micro-alloyed steels, will give a greater
understanding of their mechanical characteristics. In the
particular case of weld metal, it is not impossible either,
as our tests seem to show, that proeutectoid ferrite plays
a special role, perhaps in providing a preferential fracture
path.

The effect of alloying elements in weld metal can, in


the main, be explained, also, in terms of their effect on
the structure produced. We have seen, in particular, the
case of niobium, which strengthens the weld metal
significantly without causing a significant deterioration
in toughness properties. Once again, our results can be
seen here to be in opposition to some papers currently
used as references.

The behaviour of carbon appears to be very interesting.


In ferrite-pearlite structures, the deleterious effect
of carbon, which occurs in the COTTRELL-PETCH expression
as a result of the pearlite fraction and the proportion
of ferrite boundaries having cementite films (56), is
106

Welds where Mo and Ti are both present in the active


form give the best transition temperatures. For this to
occur, the two elements must arise from two separate
sources. In contrast, the influence of each of these elements
taken individually is slight. The metallurgical aspects
of this effect remain to be investigated.

Boron had no effect in the steels studied, since the


oxygen contents were too high.

These few practical conclusions, certain of which are


known empirically to many fabricators, have therefore been
justified metallurgically in this work. The problem of
weld metals and their properties remains, however, largely
unsolved. These observations still remain to be explained,
in the current state of this study. Such explanation
will require a microstructural study taking account at the
same time,of interactions between elements in the weld
metal. Finally, note that the metallurgical role played
by the flux is also very little understood and, to the
extent that its study lends itself to laboratory
investigation, very interesting research work will
be possible.

To finish, it seems to us desirable, as specifications


for welded fabrications bring in, more and more frequently
the local properties of welded joints (in the HAZ as much
as in the weld metal), that the study of these properties
be carefully' considered at the time of the development
of new steels.

V- THE INFLUENCE OF POST-WELD HEAT-TREATMENT


For certain types of structure, it is usual to carry out
stress-relief heat-treatment, principally in order to reduce
the risk of brittle fracture, by, at the same time, reducing
residual stresses, tempering the most potentially-dangerous
structures, and, possibly, restoring the properties of
strain-aged zones.
107

well established, and it might be thought that a similar


mechanism is responsible for the effect of carbon on
weld metal toughness. In the case of welds, the possible
effect of carbon in supersaturation in ferrite cannot be
ignored, either, particularly with respect to proeutectoid
ferrite formed at high temperature and rapidly cooled.

Be that as it may, lowering the carbon content of a welded


steel has a doubly-beneficial action on the properties
of the weld metal, improving the toughness whilst lowering
tensile properties, which are often too high.

IV-8 PRACTICAL CONCLUSIONS


FUTURE WORK
The tests carried out allow us to draw a number of practical
conclusions, with regard to the use of the steels and weld
consumables studied.

For 18 M5 steels, toughness can be improved, for a given


consumable, by using a lower weld-energy. This observation
argues in favour of fast welding procedures, which we have
seen (54) permit, at a constant deposition rate, a reduction
in effective heat input. This improvement in toughness is
denoted at the same time by an increase in tensile properties.

Niobium contents around 0.035% in 18 M5 steels, or up to


around 0.11% in certain low-carbon steels (line pipe
steels, particularly) where such contents may be necessary,
have no significant deleterious effect on weld metal
toughness, at least in the cases studied.

Reduction of carbon content in structural steels has a


beneficial effect on weld metal properties. The reduction
of carbon in weldable steels is thereby given additional
and significant justification.

A weld metal manganese content of around 1.2% allows a


beneficial structural refinement, whilst preventing
excessive formation of carbides adversely affecting
toughness, in the cases studied.
108

The second aspect, tempering, we have chosen to examine


from the point of view of its consequences on the properties
of the parent metal and the welded joint.

V-l Characteristics of the parent metal


Our earlier ECSC work, as well as numerous papers published
elsewhere (65-67), has already shown the diverse effects
of tempering treatments on C-Mn and microalloyed steels
in the normalised condition. As well as a drop of 20-30
N/mm in yield strength, between the as-received and 600 C
heat-treated conditions, there was a rise, limited
however to about 10 C, in the transition temperature.

These observations have been sufficiently confirmed in the


papers cited earlier to consider them well established.
It seemed to us useful, however, to investigate more
closely the behaviour of more modern controlled-rolled
qualities. In fact, we can expect a slightly different
behaviour, in such grades, bearing in mind that the
principle of controlled-rolling relies on the production of
very fine ferritic grain-sizes, by controlling austenite
recrystallisation in the presence of elements such as
niobium. The improvement finally obtained in yield
strength results both from the fine ferritic grain-size
and from precipitation, albeit often incomplete, of disper-
sion strengthening elements, during cooling. Moreover,
it might be considered that, so far as the conditions of
solution of dispersion elements and interstitials are
concerned, these products are nearer the "classical"
as-welded state than the normalised condition, which may
be important when considering elevated temperature·
behaviour (ageing, flow, properties after tempering).

We have chosen, for examination, two commercial controlled


rolled steels, designated E and B2 earlier. Table XI
recalls the compositions and mechanical properties of
the two steels.
109

Steel E is a ferrite-pearlite C-Mn-Nb grade. Steel B2


is a Mo-bearing grade with an "acicular ferrite" structure
containing microstructural components of bainitic and,
here and there, martensitic types. One of the points of
interest of a steel of this type, developed for tubulars,
it will be recalled, is the low yield strain (0.6%), due
precisely to the particular microstructure.

It seemed to us equally interesting to compare the controlled


rolled condition in Steel E (E-LC) with the normalised
condition (E-N), normalisation at 930°C for \ hour having
allowed the achievement of similar properties to those
from controlled rolling (Table XI). The same comparability
was not possible in Steel B2, where, because of the presence
of Mo, normalisation gives purely bainitic structures.

Figure 53 shows optical micrographs of the two steels after


differing heat treatments.

V-l.l Unstrained Parent Metal


Stress relief heat treatments were carried out on steels
E-LC, Ε-N and B2,in a furnace, under the following conditions:
heat to temperature at 80 C/hr, maintain at 500 , 550 or
600 C for 1 hour, and cool at 80 C/hour.

The variations in tensile and toughness behaviour are


detailed in Table XII and plotted in Figures 54-56.

If Steel E is first considered, in its two conditions, it


can be noted, from Figure 54, that there is a drop of about
2
30 N/mm in the yield strength of the normalised steel,
between the initial state and that after tempering at
600°C, a different behaviour to that in the controlled
rolled condition, in which there is no drop in yield
strength after 600°C, and even a slight increase after
tempering at 550°C. No comparable variation can be
detected in respect of fracture resistance.
Acier C Μη Si S Ρ Al Mo Nb
STCUL.

> E 0,148 1,300 0,280 0,016 0,026 0,042 0,027


2
Β2 0,088 1,470 0,350 0,006 0,018 0,060 0,190 0,054
>
κ
Ui

70
O COND­ LYSp UYS ρ YIELD CHARPY
STEEL UTS _ El RofA Τ 50%
ITION (N/mm ) (N/mm ) S T R A I N K28J PLATEAU
Π (N/mm ) (%) (%) FATT
70
Η
(%) (°C) (J)
Η
Π Ε LC 400 407 1,7 549 31 72 -50 -50 140

Ε Ν 375 395 2,6 530 34 74 -60 -30 '180
Ο
Β2 LC 402 0,6 580 28 66 -100 -95 200
ω
Β2 Ν 300 * 0 570 34 73 -30 + 10 270
Π
Π
r
ω
C

D
* 0 . 2 % PS

>
r
<
>
PO
H
>
H YIELD RofA Τ 50% FATT CHARPY
MAX. LYS ρ UYS 2 UTS ρ El K28J
H STEEL STRAIN PLATEAU
O TEMP. (N/mm ) (N/mm ) (N/mm ) (%) (%)
(°C)
(J)
2 (%) (J)
C H
2 2 20 400 407 1,7 549 31 72 -50 -50 140
CO 500 410 467 2 553 31 72 -55 -55 140
H TD E-LC
PO PO 550 412 4 62 2 547 30 69 -55 -55 140
> o 600 401 419 548 30 69 -50 -50 130
H Tl 1,8
2 m
Π ?0 20 375 3 95 2,6 530 34 74 . -60 -30 180
α n
H 500 381 420 2,6 536 33 75 -55 -50 160
E-N
ω . 550 366 417 2,6 518 35 74 -55 -45 175
600 351 380 2,4 507 37 75 -60 -45 170
20 402 'v, 0 , 6 580 28 66 -100 -95 200
π 500 457
PJ 502 2,5 566 31 70 -100 -95 215
B2-LC
550 462 480 2,5 578 30 68 -100 -95 240 l-i

600 459 482 2,6 572 31 71 -95 -90 225


>

H
PO
Π
>

>
ro
r
en
113

N/mm 2

550 LC - ι

(·)

'"m urs

N J
500-

450-

400

350
550 ¿00 Température

VARIATION OF TENSILE PROPERTIES OF STEEL E


(IN CONTROLLED ROLLED, LC, AND NORMALISED,
N, CONDITIONS) AFTER TEMPERING

FIGURE 54
114

N/mm2

550-

500

450- * ÍS
/
/
t

- * ■ *
ΠΓΜΡιΞΙ?!^
400 ι ,
500
ι
550 600 Température de revenu (°C)

VARIATION OF TENSILE PROPERTIES OF STEEL


B2 (LC) AFTER TEMPERING

FIGURE 55
115

The behaviour of Steel B2 appears similar. Above all,


Table XII reveals a significant change in the form of the
tensile curve in that the length of the yield plateau,
lower than 1% at ambient temperatures, becomes 2.5% when
the tempering temperature reaches 500 C. This reappearance
of the yield point, which is connected with the effect of
tempering on the acicular structures, accentuates the
impression of increase in the yield strength between the
initial and tempered conditions.

For the two grades in the controlled- rolled condition, no


drop in tensile properties is observed after stress
relaxation. Without talking about secondary hardening,
it is clearly possible to attribute this behaviour on temper-
ing to a residual precipitation of dispersion-strengthening
elements, not precipitated during cooling after rolling.
The controlled rolled condition in Nb steels will be,
therefore, more stable during tempering than the normalised
condition.

With respect to toughness parameters (Figure 56), no


significant variation due to tempering can be observed in
either the controlled rolled or normalised conditions.
Earlier work on differing normalised grades has shown that
this variation is, in general, limited to around 10 C,
between the initial condition and that after a 600 C temper.

V-1.2 Strained parent materials


If, as regards interstitial elements, con trolled-rolled
products are to draw nearer to "classical" as-rolled products,
different ageing behaviour is to be expected from that of
normalised products (68).

Ageing tests involving interrupted loading, ( Ä / P criterion),


have therefore been carried out on the two steels, in both
the controlled rolled and the normalised conditions. An
initial 8% strain was imposed, and ageing was carried out for
116

TkMJ A

0-

■80 JÎI-LC

^ε-Ν

B2'LC
-100

àio Ho" •όο * TCc).ih

VARIATION OF TRANSITION TEMPERATURES OF STEELS E


(LC AND N) AND B2 (LC) AFTER TEMPERING

FIGURE 56
• 117·

-J- hour at differing temperatures. The results given in


Figures 57 and 58 effectively show a significant difference
between the normalised and controlled rolled conditions, but
less important than that determined for classical as-
rolled products.

Toughness tests after 3% compressive straining and ageing


at 250 C (H> hour) (Figure 59) confirm the slightly more
significant sensitivity to ageing in the controlled rolled
condition. The shift in transition temperature observed,
compared with the normalised condition, however, does not
exceed 15 C, in the poorer case (E-LC). Recovery by heat
treatment is practically complete at 600 C.

This difference in behaviour can be attributed to the state


of solution of the interstitial elements, C and N, as has
been proposed. Note that the presence of Nb helps to
limit this difference (68), and in the experimental cases
studied, the effect of strain ageing can be said to be
limited.

V-2 Effect of Stress-Relief Treatment


on the Properties of the Welded Joint
The effects of heat treatment on weld joint properties are,
foreseeably, restricted to the type of microstructure
considered.

In fact, tempering treatments are known to have a weak or


slightly unfavourable effect on ferrite-pearlite structures,
and their influence on more-quenched structures depends
strongly on steel composition (69).

In C-Mn qualities, free of alloying elements susceptible


to secondary hardening, tempering is usually beneficial
to toughness characteristics, and moreso if the structure
is more quenched. In steels where an embrittling
118

A». "/.
IO

CoMDiTiorO LC
« t a t LC

I
200
too
T»C

AGEING CHARACTERISTICS, IN TENSION, OF STEEL


IN CONTROLLED-ROLLED (LC) AND NORMALISED (N)
CONDITIONS

FIGURE 57
119

»tat LC

état N

TCO
300

AGEING CHARACTERISTICS, IN TENSION, OF STEEL B2


IN CONTROLLED ROLLED (LC) AND NORMALISED (N)
CONDITIONS

FIGURE 58
120

Tk28Ji ;

0-

E.LC
50- etat non écroul
état non écroui
E.N
E N écroul 3%
ST»Ai»JeO

B2 écroul 3%

•100- B2 état non écroui


Srerti«)- FKiiC C OMD<TIO>J

4- —ι—
Γ250* 1/2 h "I 500 TCO.ni
[état vlellllj eoo
ACrCD <.o»OÎ>tTIO<vJ

TRANSITION TEMPERATURES OF STEELS E (LC AND N)


AND B2 (L C ) AFTER STRAIN AGEING AND HEAT TREATMENT

FIGURE 59
121

precipitation is likely to occur during heat treatment,


there will be competition between the effects of tempering
and precipitation, and the end result on toughness character-
istics may be beneficial or not.

If the case of HAZ's and weld metals, in which quenched


products are nearly always present, is considered, it
will be seen, therefore, that a distinction must be made
between steels with and without dispersion strengthening
elements.

In the latter case, welding allows these elements to be


taken into solution in the HAZ (and a fortiori in the weld
metal) "which is confirmed by the presence of secondary
hardening during tempering (Figure 60).

Since cooling following welding always produces more-or-less


acicular structures, precipitation of these elements is
incomplete and a specific behaviour during tempering can be
expected.

Figure 61 shows the variation of transition temperatures


in HAZ's on initial cooling and after tempering (1 hour
at 600 C), as a function of cooling rate, for two steels of
comparable composition, except for Nb. These tests were
carried out on GLEEBLE simulation specimens.

For the steel without Nb, tempering can be seen to be always


beneficial, 'and also that the tempering parameter is weaker
(ie. the structure is more quenched), in the case of the
Nb-bearing steel. Tempering is beneficial in the most
highly quenched structures, and slightly unfavourable
in the softest structures.

These results are, therefore, in agreement with the


arguments developed above, and the difference in tempering
behaviour between the Nb steel and the reference steel can be
attributed to the precipitation of carbonitrides during
heat treatment.
122

Hv
400 "* * Brut de soudage
-*
AS- υ ε ΐ - Ώ έ Ο
V = 15 cm/mn
E = 9 kJ'/cm

300.

+ Nb=35.W-3%
• Nb=0
200 _
-1— -1— -τ—
AOO 500 600 700 T°C

VARIATION WITH TEMPERING OF UNDER-BEAD HARDNESS


FOR STEELS WITH AND WITHOUT Nb (BASE ANALYSIS
C 0.16, Mn 1.35, Si 0.35, Al 0.03)

FIGURE 60
123

T K 28J
+ 50J

AS- u c u s a i
brut
0_

revenu
TeMPCîeD
• ^ ·
-50
Nb: O

+50

0_

N b : 0,035%

-50 _

20 100 300 1000 Λ .700


300
1^
5 10 100 Am t 8 0 0
500

EFFECT OF TEMPERING (600 C, 1 hour) ON THE


TRANSITION TEMPERATURES OF SIMULATED HAZ's
IN 18 M5 STEELS WITH AND WITHOUT Nb (BASE
ANALYSIS C 0.16, Mn 1.35, Si 0.35, Al 0.03)

FIGURE 61
124

Kv J
100_

75

50 _

C d h)

ut de soudage
25
020» Revenu 600° (1 h)

τ - —ι—
■60 -AO -20 20 40 60 80 100 120 TCC)

EFFECT OF POST­WELD HEAT­TREATMENT ON CHARPY­V


TRANSITION CURVES OF WELD METALS WITH AND
WITHOUT Nb

FIGURE 62
125

V-3 Conclusions
If the effects of stress relief treatment on the properties
of welded plates are considered, the following conclusions
can be drawn'-i-

- In the parent plate, in the normalised condition, stress


relief is found to be deleterious to both tensile and
toughness properties. This behaviour cannot, however, be
extended to controlled rolled steels. In spite of the
limited sample considered, it can be said that metallurgical
phenomena can occur during tempering in these grades which
can cancel out or limit the lowering of properties due to
tempering.

In the welded joint, the behaviour of weld metals and


HAZ's depends on the type of steel considered. In non-
microalloyed C-Mn steels, tempering generally has a beneficial
effect. In the presence of dispersion strengthening elements,
secondary precipitation during tempering can result in a
significant drop in toughness.

We would point out, however, that we have only examined


here stress-relief treatments. In practical terms, such
heat treatments are intended to reduce residual stress
levels, and to assure their homogenisation in the body of
assemblies, and variation of local properties of these
assemblies should not be considered independently of these
phenomena, when one is interested in the overall safety
of a construction.

VI- Resume and Conclusion


The work carried out in the course of this programme of
research has allowed us to demonstrate and to analyse the
principal metallurgical factors influencing the mechanical
properties of differing zones of the welded joint, in C-Mn
and microalloyed steels, and to draw practical conclusions
for their employment in welded structures.
126

When the properties of the heat affected zone are studied,


hardenability plays an equally fundamental role with respect
to cold cracking susceptibility and to toughness, through the
intermediary of the microstructures formed. We have also
been able to suggest a method for choosing welding conditions
such that the risks of cracking may be eliminated; this
method is based on the combined use of hardness/cooling
parameter curves and thermal nomograms determined at IRSID
and reduced to a simplified procedure for a large number of
French weldable steels, in the standard A35-501.

The toughness characteristics of HAZ's have been studied


by means of Charpy V tests on simulated microstructures.
We have shown that structures based on auto-tempered
martensite and lower bainite give the best transition
temperatures, and that 'there is a relation between these
and steel carbon content (between 0.05 and 0.22%). Impact
tensile tests have demonstrated comparability between real
and simulated microstructures. The differences recorded
during classical Charpy V testing, between these two types
of structure seem, first of all, to originate from
technological difficulties involved in the extraction of
specimens and notch positioning in real welds. It will be
desirable, however, to pursue these investigations by using
specimens with more acute notches, to confirm this point,
and to consider possible secondary effects (presence of sub-
critical HAZ's, straining in the HAZ during thermal cycles).
At the same time, tests on large specimens will allow the
evaluation of the effect of the presence of HAZ's on the
overall safety of welded joints.

With respect to submerged arC'Weld metals, the toughness can


be improved, for a given consumable, through the use of lower
weld energies, studied in this work, for plates about 20mm
thick, between 20 and 70kJ/cm. As in heat affected zones,
reducing the carbon content in weld metals has a beneficial
effect on toughness. The role of other elements, which may
originate in the parent metal, the welding wire, or, even } flux,
127

is very complex, and must be considered in conjunction with


the microstructural changes they cause. We have, in fact,
obtained in this study only the preliminary results on this
last aspect, but two significant practical consequences
have emerged: firstly, the combined effect of Mo and Ti
gives the best transition temperatures, on condition that
they are in the active form, which depends on the method by
which they fed into the weld metal: secondly, the nature of
the flux plays a fundamental role in the transport of alloy-
ing elements. The latter point is still little understood,
and the study of the metallurgical role of the flux, in
conjunction with that of the alloying elements, will give
rise to very interesting research, so that the weld metal
structures produced may be better understood, which, from
the practical point of view, will allow the optimum choice
of welding consumables to be made.

The effect of microalloys (Nb ¿0.055%, V40.15%) on HAZ and


weld metal properties have been studied in conjunction with
the precipitation of carbonitrides during a welding cycle
or during stress-relief heat treatment. In'the as-welded
condition, no significant embrittling effect can be
attributed to the microalloying elements, within the
composition limits studied. On the other hand, after thermal
stress-relief, precipitation can cancel out the beneficial
effect of tempering on toughness, in some cases even causing
a drop in toughness.

The metallurgical effect of tempering during post-weld heat-


treatment has been studied in not only the weld metal and
HAZ, but also the parent metal, for two steels in the
normalised and controlled rolled conditions. We have, however,
limited the study to localised metallurgical phenomena
which must be considered in conjunction with the effect for
which the post-weld heat treatment was carried out, ie. the
relaxation of stresses.
128

To recapitulate the principal directions in which this


research can be pursued:

the detailed study of metallurgical phenomena


influencing the toughness of differing regions of"
the weld joint (HAZ and weld metal)

- the study of the effect of the toughness of these


separate zones on the overall safety of welded
joints.
129

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1) M LAFRANCE, M PRUDHOMME, G MURRY, A CONSTANT
Prediction of underbead hardness of A52 steels from
a study of austenite transformation as a function of
manual welding conditions (In Fr.)
Rev. Met. vol. 65, no. 6, p.417­425 (1968).

2) G BERNARD, G GAUTHIER, M PRUDHOMME


Cold cracking of steels in relation to their trans­
formation characteristics (In Fr)
Métaux Corrosion Industrie, vol. 49, no. 589,
p.321, (1974).

3) H GRANJON
Cold cracking during the welding of steels (in Fr.)
Doc. IIS/IIW­IX­748­71.

4) J BRISSON, Ph. MAYNIER, J DOLLET


Study of under­bead hardness of carbon and low
alloy steels (In Fr.)
Rev. Met. vol. 68, no. 12, p.791­808 (1971).

5) Ρ BOILLOT, M HANIN
Fast determination of hydrogen in steels and non
ferrous metals
IRSID report RE 184, (December 1973).

6) IIW Doc 315­68


Welding in the World, Vol. 7, p.16­27 (1969).

7) G MURRY, M PRUDHOMME, A CONSTANT


Study of heat­affected zone transformations during
welding ( I n F r > )
Rev. Met (June 1967), 65 (6) 559.

8) IIS/IIW
Japanese report of brittle fracture in weld heat
affected zone Doc. IX­73­833.
130

9) H SUZUKI and H TAMURA


Evaluation of notch toughness of weld heat affected
zone in high strength steels using a synthetic
apparatus for weld thermal cycles.
Trans. Nat. Res. Inst, for Metals (Japan) (1963)
_5 (3) 19.

10) R E DOLBY and J F KNOTT


Toughness of martensitic and martensitic-bainitic
microstructures with particular reference to heat
affected zone in welded low alloy steels
JISI (November 1972), p.857,

11) W F CANE and R E DOLBY


Metallurgical factors controlling the HAZ fracture
toughness of submerged arc welded C-Mn steels
Welding Research International (1975) 4_ (3) 51.

12) M INAGAKI, K NAKAHARA, K HARADA, Y MITANI


The effect of microstructure on the toughness in weld
heat affected zone near bond of high strength steels
Trans. Nat. Res. Inst, for Metals (Japan) (1964)
6. (6) 73.

13) J M SAWHILL, Jr and Τ WADA


Properties of welds in low carbon Mn-Mo-Cb line pipe
steels.
Climax Molybdenum Co. Doc. L 176-136 (July 1974).

14) J Ν CORDEA
Niobium and Vanadium containing steels for pressure
vessel' service
WRC bulletin 203 (February 1975).

15) M LAMBERIGTS et Τ GREDAY


Structural steels containing dispersion alloying
elements (In Fr.)
CRM report (January 1975)

16) N E HANNERZ and Β M JOHNSSON - HOLMQUIST


Influence of vanadium on the heat affected zone
properties of mild steel
Metal Science (1974) _8, 228.
131

17) NE HANNERZ
Effect of Cb on HAZ ductility in constructional HT
steels
Welding Research Supplement (May 1975), p.162s.

18) IIS/IIW
Recommendation for the use of the Charpy impact
test as a complementary information test on the
embrittlement of steel HAZ's (In Fr.)
Doc. IIS/IIW 475-75.

19) W S PELLINI
Principles of fracture safe design.
Welding Research Supplement (April 1971) _50_ (3) 147s.

20) DER-HUNG HUANG and G THOMAS


Structure and mechanical properties of tempered
martensite and lower bainite in Fe-Ni-Mn-C steels
Met. Trans. (June 1971) 2, 1587.

21) Y OHMORI, H OHTANI and Τ KUNITAKE


Tempering of the bainite and the bainite/martensite
duplex structure in a low-carbon low-alloy steel
Metal Science (1974) 8, 357.

22) F A HEISER and R S DE FRIES


Temper emebrittlement in steel for thick walled gun
tubes
J. of Metals (January 1975), p.8.

23) Τ KUNITAKE et H OHTANI


Metallographie observations of weld HAZ of high
strength steel
Sumimoto Search (May 1970), No. 3, p.9.

24) Y ITO, M IKEDA, M NAKANISHI, A KOHYAMA


The effects of alloying elements on Charpy impact
properties of welded bonds
Doc. IIS/IIW IX-842-73.

25) J M SAWHILL Jr.


Effect of composition and weld thermal cycle on the
heat affected zone toughness of molybdenum alloyed
HSLA steels
Climax Molybdenum Co. Report L176 - 123 (May 1975).
132

26) RE DOLBY
Fracture toughness comparison of the weld HAZ and
thermally simulated microstructures
Met. Const, and Brit. Weld J, 4 (2) 59 (February 1972).

27) C F BERKHOUT
A comparison of the microstructures in the simulated
and weld HAZ in : "Weld Thermal Simulators for Research
Application Seminar, London (April 1972).

28) M GRUMBACH et G SANZ


Impact tension embrittlement tests (In. Fr.)
Rev. de Met. (February 1972), p.145.

29) IRSID
The solidification of the sub-arc weld pool and its
importance with respect to weld metal structures
and properties
Final Report, Convention DGRST No. 7270355 (Dec. 1974).

30) G BERNARD et F CHEVET


Metallurgical aspects of sub-arc weld metals (In Fr. )
Soudage et Techniques Connexes, _30_ (1-2), p.5
(Jan. Feb. 1976).

31) J HEUSCHKEL
Weld metal composition control
Welding Journal, Vol. 48, No. 8, res. suppl. 328s-347s
(1969).

32) J HEUSCHKEL
Weld metal property selection and control
Welding Journal, Vol. 52, No. 1, res. suppl.,
p.ls-25s (1973).

33) R A KUBLI, W Β SHARAV


Advancements in submerged arc welding of high impact
steels
Welding Journal, Vol. 40, no. 11, res. suppl.
497s-502s.
133

34) W J LEWIS, G E FAULNER, D C MARTIN, Ρ J RIEPPEL


Submerged arc welding HY 80 steel
Welding Journal, Vol. 39, No. 6, res. suppl.,
266s-272s (1960).

35) Τ OHWA
Statistical investigation on the effect of alloying
elements on the notch toughness of weld metals
Doc. IIS-IIW, II 221-62.

36) S S TULIANI, N F EATON, Τ BONISZEWSKI


Notch toughness of commercial submerged arc welds
Welding and metal fabrication, (August 1969)
p.325-339

37) P C HUGHES
The effect of flux composition and deoxidation
practice on the notch toughness of submerged arc
weld metal
Australian Welding Journal (August 1968), p.29-34.

38) S S TULIANI, Τ BONISZEWSKI, Ν F EATON


Carbonate fluxes for submerged arc welding of mild
steel
Welding and metal fabrication (July 1972), p.249-259.

39) H J PALM
How fluxes determine the metallurgical properties
of submerged arc welds
Welding Journal, Vol. 47, No. 7, welding res. supp.,
p.358sr360s (1972).

40) H MAKAMURA, T NAIKI, I OTA, Η YAMADA, Τ MURAYAMA


A study of variables influencing the toughness of
weld metal.
Doc. IIS/IIW, XII 530-571.

41) Η SEKIGUCHI
Theory and proposal on steel fusion welding and their
application
Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun Limited (1964).
134

42) Ρ COLVIN
Basic submerged arc welding fluxes
Metallurgia (February 1970) p.45-50.

43) Ρ COLVIN, A BUSH


Multipass submerged arc welding of high yield
strength. Notch ductile ferritic steels.
Iron and Steel (December 1969) p.361-365.

44) S DITTRICH
Sub arc, high basic fluxes weld high strength
steels.
Welding Engineer (March 1970) p.50-56.

45) Κ E DORSCHU, R STOUT


Some factors affecting the notch toughness of weld
metals
Welding Journal Vol. 40, No. 3, res. supp.,
p.97s-105s.

46) W J LEWIS, G E FAULKNER, Ρ J RIEPPEL


Flux and filler wire developments for submerged arc
welding of HY80.
Welding Journal Vol. 40, No. 6, res. suppl.
p.337-345s (1961).

47) Κ E DORSCHU, A LESNEWICH


Development of a filler metal for a high toughness
alloy plate steel with a minimum yield strength
of 140ksi.
Welding Journal, Vol. 43, No. 12, p.564-576s (1965)
Metals Engineering Quarterly, ASM (Feb. 1965),p.20,

48) Τ BONISZEWSKI
Titanium in steel wire for C0p welding
Met. Constr. Brit. Weld. J. Vol. 1, No. 5,
p.225-229 (1969).

49) NE HANNERZ, G VALLAND, Κ EASTERLING


Influence of niobium on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of submerged arc weld metals
for C-Mn steels
Doc. IIS/IIW, IX 798-72.
135

50) KE EASTERLING, Ρ H SPILLING


The precipitation of Nb-C in submerged arc welds.
Scand. J. Metallurgy, No. 1, (1972), p.179-183.

51) D J WIDGERY
The influence of microstructure on fracture
initiation in mild steel weld metal
Weld. Res. Int., Vol. 2, No. 3, p.1-20 (1973).

52) H SUZUKI, S SEKINO, N MORI, H HONMA, Τ TANIGAKI,


I SUGIOKA,
Development of CaFp-Ti-B type submerged arc tubular
wire with high notch toughness
Doc. IIS/IIW, IX 750-71.

53) W COLE, Ρ COLVIN,


Metal Construction and Brit. Weld. J, Vol.3, No. 4,
p.131-135 (1971).

54) G BERNARD, M PRUDHOMME


Further studies on thermal phenomena in weld joints
(In Fr. )
Rev. Met. (July-August 1972), p.483-493.

55) J D BAIRD, R R PRESTON


Relationship between processing, structure and
properties in low carbon steels
Proceedings "Processing and properties of low carbon
steels". The Metallurgical Soc. of AIME (1973), p.1-45.

56) H FREDRIKSSON
The solidification sequence of an 18-8 stainless
steel investigated by directional solidification.
Meta. Trans. 3_> ( H ) , p.2989-2987 (November 1972).

57) A CONSTANT, M BRUMBACH, C LESCOFFIT, G SANZ


Solution and precipitation in microalloyed steels (In Fr.)
ECSC Information Journal Luxembourg, 14 June 1971
IRSID Report Ρ 107 (May 1971),
CDS Technical Information Circular No. 3 (1972) p643.
136

58) KJ IRVINE
Strong structural steels.
Symp. low alloy high strength steels, Nuremberg 1970,
Proceedings p.1-7.

59) J H GROSS
Transformation characteristics of low carbon Cb
containing steels.
Symp. low alloy high strength steels, Nuremberg 1970,
Proceedings p.35-41.

60) J M GRAY
Metallurgy of high strength low alloy pipeline steels.
Present and future possibilities.
Molycorp report, No. 7201, (1972).

61) Ρ MANDRY
Role of Nb in improving the mechanical properties
of weldable structural steels (In Fr)
Applied Science Thesis, Orsay, 1967.

62) F Β PICKERING
Structure and properties of bainites in steel
Symposium on transformation and hardenability in steels.
Climax Molybdenum, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1967).

63) I KOZASU, Τ OSUKA


Processing conditions and properties of control rolled
steel plates
Proceedings "Processing and properties of low carbon
steels".
The Metallurgical Society of AIME (1973), p.47-67.

64) J H WOODHEAD, J A WHITEMAN


Structure and properties of apolygonal ferrites.
Proceedings "Processing and properties of low carbon
steels".
The Metallurgical Society of AIME, (1973), p.145-162.

65) C ULFF
The effect of stress relieving heat treatment on the
mechanical properties of pressure vessel steels
Jernk. Ann., Vol. 154, (1970), p.54-64.
137

66) T F GULVIN, D SCOTT, D M HADDRILL, J GLEN


The effect of modern fabrication techniques on the
properties of steel.
J. of the West Scotland I and S Institute, Vol. 80
(1972-1973), p.144-171.

67) A MOLARONI, W NICODEMI


Effect of stress-relaxation heat-treatment on
mechanical properties of pearlite steels for low
temperature containers (In Italian)
La Metallurgia Italiana, No„ 7 (1970), p.275-381.

68) M GRUMBACH, G SANΖ


Strain ageing of steels (In Fr.)
CDS Technical Information Circular No. 5
p.1285-1341.

69) Doc IIS-X-707-73


Stress-relaxation treatments for residual stresses
due to welding, and their influence on mechanical
properties (In Fr . ) .
139

APPENDIX I

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE WELDING OF


CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES

Published as part of "Bases for the Choice of Steels


for Metallic Construction"
Published by the Technical Office for the Utilisation
of Steel, Paris.
140

PRACTICAL GUIDE TO THE WELDING OF


CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELS FOR GENERAL PURPOSES

G BERNARD*, F FAURE*, J LIEGEOIS**

SYNOPSIS

This document is intended as a welding guide for users


of general purpose constructional steels (NF A 35-501).

After a brief review of the welding techniques currently


most-common, the cracking problems which can occur during
welding are examined, ie. hot and cold cracking, and
lamellar tearing.

With respect to cold cracking, some quantitative infor­


mation is given on the choice of electrodes and welding
conditions. Nomograms relevant to different steel grades
are presented and explained.

Some examples of the usage of the information are given


in an appendix.

IRSID Group ΡΑ-I Weldability


USINOR-DUNKIRK, Metallurgical Services
141

FOREWORD
This practical guide for steel users was produced during
the revision of the OTUA handbook "Bases for the choice
of steels for metallic construction".

It is based on welding metallurgy research carried out


at IRSID and on the practical experience of steel
metallurgists. It is intended to give users of general-
purpose structura steels (NF A35-501) a number of practical
and quantitative recommendations for the welding of
these materials.

I-DEFINITIONS
ISO Recommendation R 185/1967 defines weldability as
follows:
"A metallic material is considered weldable to a given degree,
for a given process and type of application, when it results
in|having taken the appropriate precautions for that degree,
a connection between elements, of which it is possible to
guarantee the metallurgical continuity, by the formation of
welded joints, which by their local properties and the
overall consequence of their presence, comply with the
specified properties".

The weldability of a steel is, therefore, a qualitative


property, the criteria of which will differ depending on the
intended applications and the corresponding steel qualities.
This document is restricted to the most important factors
controlling weldability in the classes of steel covered in
the French specification NF A35-501.

II-PRODUCTION OF WELDED ASSEMBLIES


Currently, the most common welding processes include:
- manual metallic-arc process, still the most frequently used,
Electrodes, defined in Standards NF A81-302 (1975) and
A 81-309 (1975), can be of differing types and are available
from many producers.
SYM^ÜLISATION C ODE, NF A 8 1 ­ 3 0 9 (19/­.)

STRENGTH % ELONGATIOIs Τ Τ
LEVEL (MIN.) Κ Κ RECOVERY WELDING POSITION
28J 47J
ON 5D
430 / 0 ­ ­ 0 ­ 105% 1 ALL POSITIONS
1 20/18 + 20 1 + 20 11C 105­114 ALL POSITIONS
2 22/20 0 2 0 EXCEPT VERTIC AL­
120 115­124 2
DOWN
3 24/22 ­20 3 ­20
130 125­134 DOWNHAND IN GROOVE
4 ­30 3 DOWNHAND IN ANGLE
4 24/22 ­30
/ etc etc. 4 DOWNHAND IN GROOVE
51 / 510 5 24/22 ­40 5 ­40
1
I U "T 5 VERTICAL­DOWN

to
GENERAL SYMBOL, E

ELECTRICAL SUPPLY DIFFUSIBLE HYD­


( ACC TO
ROGEN (A
D.C. A.C. NF Ά81-305)
ELECTRODE POL­ O/C VOLTÅGE­MIN
" ARITY " H 5-lOcc/lOOg
TYPE OF C OATING 0
+
A ACID (IRON OXIDE) 1 UNSPECIFIED 50 BH 5cc/100g,
0 OXIDISING 2 ­ 50
AR ACID (RUTILE) 3 + 50
R RUTILE 4 UNSPECIFIED 70
RR RUTILE
5 ­ 70
Β BASIC
C CELLULOSIC 6 + 70
S OTHERS 7 UNSPECIFIED 90
8 ­ 90
9 + 90
143

We will see subsequently that particular attention must be


given to the type of coating of these electrodes (basic,
rutile, etc.).

- gas-shielded processes such as MIG (inert gas), MAG (active


gas) or TIG (inert gas). The first two processes, involve a
consumable wire electrode. In TIG, on the other hand, the
arc is struck between the work-piece and a tungsten electrode,
the welding wire, if any, being introduced laterally into the
arc, as in gas-welding.

automatic submerged-arc welding.


In this process, the welding wire is melted by the arc under
the protection of a fusible powdered flux. Two types of
flux are used, currently: fused fluxes, which are mixtures
of oxides, prefused, and agglomerated fluxes, which are
fritted mixtures containing certain alloying elements which
are later found in the weld metal.

It must be pointed out that, except for electrodes, the


standardisation of weld consumables is still a long way from
complete. For electrodes, however, standard NF A81-309 (1975)
can be consulted, but no relevant French standards are yet
available for consumable wires and fluxes (*).

For electrodes, chosen on the basis of the A 81-302 and


A 81-309 standards, attention must be drawn to the fact that
the guaranteed tensile and impact properties are relevant
to all-weld deposits carried out to the AFNOR standard
procedure, and that their application to real welds must
be made with caution.

(*) However, there is a document IIW/IIS 385-71 "Classification


and Symbols for electrode wires and fluxes for submerged arc
welding of constructional steels" as well as DIN standard
8557 largely based on this document.
144

A later chapter deals with the choice of electrodes.

Ill- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED IN WELDING STEELS


From the earlier definition, weldability presents the
problem of the integrity of a welded structure, and the
maintenance of that integrity. In the cases to be
considered, the gravest danger is that of partial or
complete fracture of the structure. In fact, welding
can increase such a risk due to:

on one hand, the possibility that the weld can


provide a source of defects which may be geometrical
defects (sharp undercut, lack of penetration)
metallurgical defects (cracks) or may aggravate some
latent defect, such as laminations or groups of large
inclusions, or

on the other hand, the metallic continuity, brought


about by welding the differing parts of a structure
together, allowing a possible crack to propagate
over greater distances.

As regards the latter point, it should be recalled that


such fractures as tend to initiate at welds generally
propagate, not in the weld, but in the parent metal.
The choice of the steel quality is, therefore, of
fundamental importance in a welded construction. In
particular, if the possibility of even a partial brittle
fracture is to be totally avoided, the use of Class 1
steels (E24-1, E26-1) is not recommended.

For Classes 2, 3 and 4, a choice can be made on the


basis of the guidance given later.

The problem remains, however, of the presence of defects


in the weld region. Of these, geometrical defects relate
to the operating practice and what is usually called the
code of good practice. These "practical" considerations
are often of such importance that their metallurgical
reasons cannot be separated. Amongst "metallurgical"
defects we will identify and comment upon:
145

"hot" cracking
"cold" cracking
lamellar tearing

Note that the recommendations given later are based on


normal French steelworks' products, according to standard
NF A35­501.

IV­ HOT CRACKING


Hot cracking is not normally encountered in the steels
under consideration. If it does occur, it is indicated by
the presence of cracks, usually in the weld metal, due to
the presence of significant stresses whilst the metal is
still very hot (very severe restraint).

The weld metal composition is important, ie. that of the


welding consumable, that of the parent plate, because of the
effect on the composition of the joint. In particular,
attention to S, Ρ and C contents is necessary.

As regards weld metal composition (in MMA), it is desirable


that S<£ 0.04%, Ρ ¿0.04%, C4 0.13% + Mn/s>20, as is nearly
always the case, in fact.

In submerged arc welding, dilution must definitely be


taken into account in the above limitations. Also, in this
process, hot cracking can be aggravated by a poor weld
shape. In particular, a sufficiently high width/depth
ratio (~0.7) ; for the bead, must be maintained.

V­ COLD CRACKING
Cold cracking is, by far, the most feared type of defect
in the welding of steels, even to the point that the concept
of weldability is often confused with susceptibility to this
type of defect. The desire to avoid this defect is the
source of most criteria mentioned in connection with
146

the welding of steels:- carbon equivalenti*), under-bead


hardness, etc.... which are not always completely valid.

V-l Morphology and Causes


It must be said, at the outset, that with the steels
examined, cold cracking only occurred, in general, with
MMA welding. It occurred much more rarely in gas-shielded
welding (at least with solid wire) and practically never
with submerged arc welding. For this reason, the following
recommendations mainly concentrate on MMA welding.

Cold cracks can appear in different forms, as illustrated


below:- 1) root crack, 2) toe crack, 3) under-bead
crack. They are, in general, parallel to the fusion
boundary.

(*) Carbon equivalent - generally defined as


CEV = C + Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Cu + Ni
6 5 15
The contents of these elements being expressed in %.
is often used in the context of cold cracking, where an
upper limit is often imposed.
147

Cold cracks are often associated with the first weld run,
(root run). Above all, therefore, all precautions must be
taken for this run, and the advice given later with
respect to the choice of welding conditions applies to the
carrying out of this first pass.

The causes of cold cracking are essentially three in number:


- quenching(*) of the metal next to the fusion line
the introduction of hydrogen into the weld bead, during
welding
- the existence of significant stresses in the region of
the weld.

Without going into the separate effects of these factors,


we will restrict ourselves to a certain number of practical
recommendations. We consider, moreover, that E 24-1 and
E 26-1 grades should not be used where a brittle fracture
could have serious consequences and have, therefore, limited
our recommendations to the other steels in the 35-501 standard.
We emphasise again that the following recommendations are
based on our experience with normal supply, under this
standard, from French steelworks.

V-2 Stresses
The stresses imposed on weld beads result from the prevention
of shrinkage and/or from stresses acting unfavourably on
the welded elements immediately after welding. These
stresses depend clearly on the nature of the element
considered and play a very significant role. In many cases,
consideration of the design of a structure and the welding
sequence can give a significant reduction in the risk of
high stresses occurring.

Since it is impossible to define, as yet, distinct levels


of stress as a function of the type of structure, the

(*) By quenching, in this context, we mean a cooling of


the HAZ, sufficiently rapid to cause the formation
of a wholly or partially martensitic structure.
148

following recommendations exclude situations of abnormally


high stress (repair of gouged craters or gaps, for
example).

V-3 Hydrogen
The precautions to be taken here are, above all, in relation
to:

- choice and preparation of electrodes,


joint quality, cleanliness of parts, and the conditions
under which the weld is carried out,
choice of welding parameters.

V-3.1 Choice and preparation of electrodes


Except in particular situations, rods with cellulosic
coatings should not be used. Rutile (symbols Exxx Rxxx)
or iron powder electrodes can be utilised in certain cases,
but basic electrodes are always preferable. Table 1 shows,
as a function of the steels employed, recommended electrodes,
within standard A 81-309, as well as recommendations for the
preparation of these electrodes. It must be stressed that
for grades E 30-4, E 36-2,3,4, the use of suitably dried
basic electrodes is imperative.

V-3.2 Joint Quality, Cleanliness of Parts


and Conditions of Welding
A certain number of elementary precautions must be taken.
Welding must clearly not be carried out on moist or dirty
work pieces, and traces of lubricant, which may arise from
handling or welding equipment, must be eliminated from weld
preparations.- Welding operations must be carried out under
shelter from bad weather and during shop-welding, the
temperature of the work-piece must be above ambient, to avoid
condensation.

V-4 Choice of Welding Parameters


The choice of welding parameters is important if quenching
effects in the neighbourhood of the fusion line are to be
avoided. In general, rapid cooling rates are unfavourable,
and the cooling conditions are affected significantly by the
heat input and preheat level chosen. Research on welding
conditions supports the following recommendations:-
149

V-4.1 Weld Energy


We make use of two concepts: nominal energy and equivalent
energy.
Nominal energy
Nominal energy is essentially that which is used to accomplish
welding, ie. that supplied by the arc, expressed in kJ per cm
of weld run deposited, as follows:-

E (kJ/cm) = 60 U (volts) χ I (amps) ...


n
V (cm/min) ^i;

where U and I are, respectively, the welding voltage and


current, and V the welding speed (not the rate of consumption
of the electrode).

This nominal energy must be known. Where the above formula


can not be used, Tables II and III allow an estimate to be
made, based on electrode diameter and the bead run-out length
per 10cm of electrode burn-off. So that, for a 2.5mm dia.
electrode, giving a 4cm run per 10cm of electrode, the
nominal energy is 8kJ/cm (Table I ) .

Equivalent Energy
This arises from a correction of the nominal energy to
account for weld-joint geometry, as follows:

Ε = Κ χ E (nominal) (2)
eq
The value of the multiplication factor Κ is given in
Table IV for the most common weld configurations.

V-4.2 Allowable welding region


Once the equivalent energy is known, it is plotted as in
Figure 2a (Steels E 24-2,3,4), 2b (E 26-2,3,4) and 2c (E36-
2,3,4). For steel E30, refer to Figure 2b for thicknesses
<20mm and Figure 2c for e >20mm. On the basis of weld thick­
ness (for Τ welds, use the flange thickness), the energy
conditions can be determined and the forbidden zones can
be avoided. Some practical examples of the calculation
of welding conditions are given in the appendix.
150

TABLE I - RECOMMENDED ELECTRODE TYPES


(EXAMPLES)

STEEL TYPE OF
QUALITY ELECTRODE COMMENTS

E24-1 E43 All classes

E24-2 E431 All classes


E26-2

E24-3 E432B Good condition (1)


E26-3 E432R )
(3)
E432RR )

E24-4 E433B Good condition (1)


E26-4 E433R )
E433RR ) (3)

E511B Dried (2)


E30-2 E511R )
(3)
E511RR )

E30-3 E512B Dried (2)


E36-2

E30-4 E512aB Dried (2)


E36-3

E36-4 E513B(...)BH Dried (2)


only

1) Good Condition: Opened boxes must be kept in an


enclosure heated to at least 10 C above ambient and
protected from humidity. Rusty electrodes are totally
forbidden.

2) Dried: Electrodes, (assumed to have been previously


kept in'good condition) must be dried at 350-400 C
for one hour, and subsequently protected from
humidity, preferably at around 100 C. It must be
verified that this does not conflict with the
manufacturer's instructions.

3) Stored according to the manufacturer's instructions,


151

TABLE II - Bead run-out length corresponding to 10cm


electrode burn-off, as a function of
electrode diameter and nominal welding
energy (normal recovery 100-115%)

2,5 3,2 4 5 6,3


E {kJ/cm) -^^^

6 5,4 8.7 13,4 21,2

8 4 6,6 10,1 16 23

10 3,2 ii,2 8 12,7 18,3

12 2,7 4,4 6,7 10,6 16,8

14 2,3 :,7 5,7 9,0 14,4

16 - 3,3 5,0 7,9 12,7

18 - 2,9 - 4,5 7,1 11,2


ro
ε
u
20 - 2,6 4,0 6,3 10,1 o
c
25 - 2,1 3,2 5,0 8,0 · O
QJ
30 - - 2.6 4,3 6,7 en
C
ro
cc
40 - - 2,0 3,2 5,0

50 - - - 2,6 4,0
152

TABLE III ­ Bead run­out length corresponding to 10cm


electrode burn­off, as a function of
electrode diameter and nominal welding
energy.
( I r o n powder e l e c t r o d e s ­ r e c o v e r y 150­175$

^ ^ ™ mm 2,5 3,2 4 5 6,3


E (kJ/cra) ^ ^ ­ ^

6 8,1 13,1 20,1 31,8

8 6 10,0 15,2 24,0 34,5

10 4,8 7,8 12,0 19,1 27,5

12 4,1 6,6 10,1 15,9 25,2

14 3,5 5,6 8,6 13,5 21,6

Λ
16 ­ 5,0 7,5 11,9 19,1

18 ­ 4,4 ■ 6,8 10,7 16,8 (D

3
20 ­ 3,9 6,0 9,5 15,2
ro
> E
25 ­ 3,2 4,8 7,5 12,0
o
c
30 ­ ­ 3,9 6,5 10,1
O
QJ
40 ­ ­ 3,0 4,8 7,5 en
c
ro
cc
50 ­ ­ ­ 3,9 6,0
153

V-4.3 Preheating situations, suitable conditions


Preheating is not normally necessary for E24 and E26 steels.
It may, however, be sometimes necessary for E36 steels, as
indicated in Figure 2c. In this case, welding conditions
should lie to the right of the line corresponding to the
preheat temperature chosen.

In addition, attention must be paid to the conditions of


preheating. It results from a global or local application
of heat, and must involve,on both sides of the joint, a width
of at least five times the work-piece thickness. The preheat
temperature can be considered to be achieved when checked
by thermo-crayons on the opposite side to that heated.

In multipass welding, the interpass temperature must not fall


below the preheat temperature. Moreoever, during a multipass
weld, work should not be interrupted for extended periods,
especially before completion of the third pass.

V-5 Control Procedures - Underbead Hardness


For E36 steels (and sometimes E30 steels), control of
underbead hardness may be necessary. It will be recalled
that this is defined as the hardness value in the so-called
'•heat-affected" zone, ie. the base metal immediately adjacent
to the fusion line. Under bead hardness should be measured
taking the following precautions:-
- a weld must be carried out under the same conditions as
the joint in question, limited to the first weld run.
- a transverse section will be carried out mechanically
and polished with a 000 paper.
hardness measurement will be carried out on a Vickers
machine, with a 5kg load, according to current procedures
accepted by classification authorities.

Where the maximum underbead hardness is used to select the


welding conditions, its value should be such that:-

HV5 < 230 + 900%C


calculated on the basis of an effective carbon content
corresponding to the mean analysis through the material
thickness.
154

Coefficient K for determination of equivalent


energy

Κ χ E nominal
equiv.

BEAD-ON-PLATE and FILLET WELDS

.
S ·>
9 BEAD-ON-PLATE ks1

«
a 0 0,25 0,5 075 1
«a s

I
k 1 0,88 0,80 0,72 0,67
s
• •
I

WELDS IN CHAMFERS

Type v c< 30 s 45 s 60s 75* 90* 105« 130*


of Chamfer

-γ- 055 057 0.60 0,63 0,67 0.70 0,V5

Y-Prep. .

1,20 133 1,50 172 238

V-Prep.

C.60 0.67 O75 0,85 1,20 1,50

Double V-Pre )
155

THICKNESS
e (mm)

50

UO
FORBIDDEN WELDING ALLOWED,
ZONE BASIC ONLY
30-

25·

20-

15

WELDING ALLOWED,
10-j BASIC & RUTILE

equivalent
1—MII—
(kJ/cm)
10 15 2030 50

FIGURE 2a - Allowable welding conditions,


Steels E24-2/3/4
156

THICKNESS
e (mm)

80
70
50·

50- FORBIDDEN WELDING


ZONE ALLOWED,
BASIC ONLY
40

30
25-1

20

15

WELDING
ALLOWED,
io H BASIC AND
RUTILE

5 -
equivalent
ι ι ι—ι ι ι ι 1 1 1
(kJ/cm)
5 10 1520 30 50

FIGURE 2b - Allowable welding conditions,


Steels E26-2/3/4, E30-2/3/4 e<20mm
157

THICKNESS,
e (mm) PREHEAT

80
70
60
50
FORBIDDEN
40 ·\ ZONE

30
25

20

15
WELDING
ALLOWED, WITH­
OUT PREHEAT
10

τ—ι—r­i— ­ï 1 — EQUIVALENT
(kJ/cm)
10 15 20 30 50

FIGURE 2c ­ Allowable welding conditions


Steels E36­2/3/4, E30­2/3/4 e^20mm
Dried basic electrodes only
158

VI - LAMELLAR TEARING
VI - 1 Definition
Lamellar tearing consists of cracking, parallel to the
surface of a rolled product, under the influence of welding
stresses acting in the through thickness direction. This
type of defect can arise particularly in the types of weld
joint shown in Figure 3, below:-

VI-2 Prevention
The application of a code of good practice generally allows
the prevention of such cracks.

Principally, therefore, attention should be paid to:

the design of joints, of which we give in Figure 4 some


possible modifications. The intention is the avoidance, by
judicious choice of weld preparations. Stresses acting
perpendicular to the plate surfaces.
159

CAN BE
REPLACED BY

} 1
CAN BE
REPLACED BY
—Λ I

FIGURE 4 - Design modification to reduce risk of lamellar


tearing.
- Choice of consumables
In each case, electrodes, having a yield strength above the
effective strength of the plate, must be avoided. Electrodes
of the E5 type, for instance, would not be advisable
for E24 and E26 steels.

To the extent that other aspects of construction allow, a


weld metal with a lower yield strength than that of the plate
should be chosen. This is a particularly effective measure
and can, moreover, be limited to the weld beads immediately
in contact with the surface of the plate concerned.
160

Welding sequence as shown in Figure 5

FIGURE 5 - Modification of weld sequence to reduce


the risk of lamellar tearing.

joint restraint
With respect to the choice of steels, it must be pointed out
that improvement in resistance to lamellar tearing is not
associated with quality level in standard 35-501. Steels
having guaranteed through-thickness ductility levels (z-steels),
and, therefore, less susceptible to lamellar tearing are
defined in standard A 36-202.

Where a through-thickness tensile test is desirable, it


can be carried out to the procedure given in NF A 36-202.
Such tests can provide interesting additional information
on a material. Only steels according to A 36-202, however,
carry guaranteed levels of this property.

NOTE
This work depends, particularly, on IRSID investigations
in the field of welding metallurgy, conducted partially
with ECSC funding.
161

APPENDIX I - PRACTICAL EXAMPLES OF WELD ENERGY CALCULATION


In the examples below, it is clearly the intention that the
welding conditions calculated relate uniquely to the first
pass (root pass). Subsequent passes may be carried out
according to current procedures.

Example 1
A butt-weld between two elements, by multipass welding

3 ο · ~ ~>

e-zfe-4·

E26-4
Figure 2b shows a dried basic electrode will be used with:

E V 10 kJ/cm
eq '
For this type of weld (Table III) k 1.72
hence,
L
Enom
— 'r
>, 10 ~ 6kJ/cm
1.72

which can easily be obtained with a 2.5mm diameter electrode


or any larger size.

Example 2
162

Some material as before, but with a 90 double-Vee prep.


As before, we must have

Eeq V'ι 10 kJ/cm

For this weld type, k = 1


so Enom = Eeq >/ 10 kJ/cm

A dried basic electrode, 3.2mm diameter, must therefore


be used for the first pass.

Example 3 - Fillet Weld

12 mm

I S "»"·»

Steel E 36-2 for both pieces.


From Figure 2c we see that we must have:

E > 16 kJ/cm
eq '
Table III gives, for a. 0.5
s
K = 0.8

Therefore
S 16
J-D = 20 kJ/cm
n0m >, __

For welding without preheat a dried basic electrode of


6.3mm diameter must be used for this fillet.
163

Example 4 Corner Joint

E 26­3
¿o.
or
E 36­2

This configuration is not covered by


the text. However, simple reasoning
shows that it is thermally equivalent
to the configuration below:­
ΐ,ο*^**

E 26-3
or
E 36-2

Therefore ­ 1 (Table III)

In the case of a weld in 20mm thick E26­3, Figure 2b shows


that for the root pass alone a dried basic electrode can
be used,, and that the minimum equivalent energy should be
9kJ/cm

J
eq so that Κ
nom eq

A nominal energy of 9kJ/cm can be obtained under good


conditions with a 3.2mm electrode.

For a structure involving E36­2 steel, the same reasoning


I see, this time, Figure 2c) suggests an energy around 15kJ/cm
without preheat (4mm electrodes) or, with 100 C preheat,
10kJ/cm (3.2mm electrode).
164

APPENDIX II ­ LIST OF RELEVANT PUBLICATIONS AND


COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE WORK CARRIED OUT
AS PART OF THIS STUDY

G BERNARD
A view­point on the weldability of C­Mn and microalloyed
structural steels. Symposium ­ Microalloying 75
1­3 October 1975, Washington DC, USA.
IRSID Report p.245.

G BERNARD and Ρ CHEVET


Metallurgical aspects of submerged arc weld metal (In. Fr.)
Communication to Soc. of Welding Engrs. Paris 23­10 (1975)
Soudage Techniques Commexes, _30_, (1­2), p. 5 (January­
February 1976).

G BERNARD, F FAURE and G GAUTHIER


Metallurgy and mechanical properties of submerged arc welds
in C­Mn and microalloyed steels. (In Fr.)
Journées d'Automne de la Société Française de Metallurgie
Paris, Oct. 1976.

G BERNARD and F FAURE


Properties of weldments in submerged arc welding
ASM/AIM Conf. on Weldability of HSLA Steels, Rome, Nov. 1976

G BERNARD, F FAURE, J LIEGEOIS


Practical guide to the welding of general purpose structural
steels, to appear in "Basis of the choice of structural steels"
published by OTUA (Technical Office for the Utilisation of
Steels) Paris (see Appendix I ) .

Imp. CPS Pari»


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