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# Design of Rolled sections beams by Limit State Method as per IS 800 : 200

## Step 2 : Classfications of cross- sections : (CLAUSE 3.7)

i.e : The local buckling can be avoided before the limit state is achieved by limiting
the width to thickness ratio of each element of a cross-section subjected to
compression due to axial force, moment or shear as per Table 2.

a) Plastic sections
b) Compact sections
c) Semi-compact sections
d) Slender sections

Clause 8.4.2.1

## Step 4 : Check for maximum effective slenderness ratios

(Table 15 : Effective length for simply supported beams)

## Step 5 : Section 8 : Design of members subjected to bending

The factored design moment,M at any section, in a beam due to external actions shall
satisfy
M ≤ Md
M = Factored design moment
Md = Design bending strength of the section

## Case 1 : Laterally supported beam :

A beam may be assumed to be adequately laterally supported if restraint member
is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5 percent of the maximum
force in the compression flange of the member.

## Case 2 : Laterally unsupported beam

Case 1 : Laterally supported beam :

## when , V < 0.6Vd

V = Factored design shear force
Vd = Design shear strength of the section

Md = βbZpfy / ϒmo

## To avoid irreversible deformation under serviceability loads,

shall be less than 1.2 Ze fy / ϒmo incase of simply supported
beams.

otherwise, when
V > 0.6Vd

Md = Mdv
Mdv = Design bending strength under hogh shear as def

## Step 6 : Holes in the tension zone

The effect of holes in the tension and compression flange, in the design bending strength need
not be considered if it satisfies the criteria given in : Clause 8.2.1.4

## Step 7 : Shear lag effects

The simple theory of bending is based on the assumption that plane sections remain plane after
bending.In reality, shear strains cause the section to warp.The higher stresses are produced near
the junction of a web and lower stresses at points away from the web.This phenomenon
is known as shear lag.It results in a non-uniform stress distribution across the width of the flange.

The shear lag effects in flanges may be disregarded provided it validate Clause 8.2.1.5

## Case 2 : Laterally unsupported beam (CLAUSE 8.2.2)

Resistance to lateral torsional buckling need not to be checked seprately in the following cases :
a) Bending is about the minor axis of the section - As you are designing the section for moment about the
minor axis only.

b) Section is hollow or solid bars - These sections has high moment of resistance about both the axis.

c) In case of major axis bending, λLT (as defined in laterally unsupported beam design) is less than 0.4

## λLT = sqrt (fy / fcr,b)

As the value of λLT , is less than 0.4, it means you are overdesiging your section fo
particular force and moment and then, there is no need to chec
for lateral torsional buckling moment.

The design bending strength of laterally unsupported beam as governed by lateral torsional buckling
is given by:

Md = βbZpfbd

Step 8 : Check for deflection ( Table 6 of IS 800 defines the deflection limits)

Step 9 : Web buckling and Web crippling (As per 10.11 of Design of steel structures by N.Subramanian)
Web crippling strength of the web also called as the web bearing capacity at supports.

## when , V < 0.6Vd

V = Factored design shear force
Vd = Design shear strength of the section

Md = βbZpfy / ϒmo

otherwise, when

V > 0.6Vd
Md = Mdv
Mdv = Design bending strength under hogh shear as defined in 9.2

## Mdv = Md - β(Md - Mfd) ≤ 1.2 Ze fy / ϒmo

b) Semi-compact section :

Mdv = Ze fy / ϒmo

## Case 2 : Combined Axial force and Bending moment : (Clause 9.3)

Under combined axial force and bending moment, section strength as governed by
material failure and member strength
The Indian code (IS 800 : 2007) provisions are based on the Eurocode provisions and the code
requires the following two checks to be performed :

## a) Local capacity check

b) Overall buckling check

## i) Palstic & compact sections

Members subjected to combined axial force (compression & tension) and bending moment, the
following should be satisfied :

## (My / Mndy)α1 + ((Mz / Mndyz)α2

Conservatively,
N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz

## ii) Semi-compact sections

In the absence of high shear force, semi-compact section design is satisfactory under combined
axial force and bending, if the maximum longitudinal stress under combined axial force and bending,
fx satisfies the following criteria :

fx ≤ fy / ϒmo

## For cross-section without holes, the above criteria reduces to,

N / Nd + My / Mdy + Mz / Mdz

## b) Overall member strength : (Overall buckling check)

Members subjected to combined axial force and bending moment shall be checked for overall
buckling failure as given in this section.

## P / Pdy + 0.6 Ky Cmy My/Mdy+ KZ Mz / Mdz ≤

Important Points :

1) For design purpose, the platform beams shall be designed as a laterally unsupported beam.
As there is no slab over these beams (except roof paltform), there exists an unsupported length
Ly , of certain dimensions between two connecting beams which will act as lateral restraint to the
main beam which has to be designed.Laterall bending of main beam will take palce between this
unsupported length Ly.So, the beam will act as a laterally unsupported Beam.

2) When a member is capable of resisting a lateral force not less than 2.5percent of the maximum force
in the compression flange of the member, the member will as a full lateral restraint to the compression
flange of the main beam.
hod as per IS 800 : 2007 :

ved by limiting

## ernal actions shall

n moment
strength of the section

## pported if restraint member

percent of the maximum
n shear force
rength of the section

Md
case of simply supported

## sections remain plane after

r stresses are produced near
b.This phenomenon
cross the width of the flange.

## ately in the following cases :

g the section for moment about the

## ou are overdesiging your section for a

and then, there is no need to check it

## rned by lateral torsional buckling

uctures by N.Subramanian)
pacity at supports.

## ction 9 of IS 800 2007)

ar as defined in 9.2

2 Ze fy / ϒmo

as governed by

≤ 1

≤ 1

## satisfactory under combined

mbined axial force and bending,
≤ 1

## ally unsupported beam.

xists an unsupported length
act as lateral restraint to the
will take palce between this

## 2.5percent of the maximum force

ateral restraint to the compression
Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam
Lateral status of the beam = Unsupported
Mz = 11739 kN-m L/C = 3 My =
Vz = 300 kN Member no. = 8 Vh =
v,act = 44.31 mm h,act =

## fyf = 240 Mpa Axial force, Fa =

fyw = 240 Mpa
E = 2.0E+05 Mpa Section used =
At = 7.4E+04 mm² 2-flange = (400mm x
Izz = 5.21E+10 mm 4
1-web = (2100mm
y x
Iyy = 4.28E+08 mm4
Zzz = 4.78E+07 mm3 400mm
Zyy = 2.14E+06 mm3
rzz = 839.43 mm
ryy = 76.06 mm
Lz = 24.3 m 2180mm
Ly = 2.509 m z
c = 1.5 m
c/d = 0.71 tw = 20mm
εflange = 1.02
εweb = 1.02
Flange classification = Plastic section
Web classification = Compact section
Section classification = Compact section 400mm
y
z-z axis = b Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause
Buckling class about Condition : When only transverse stiffene
y-y axis = c Case 1: when 3d ≥ c ≥ d ,d/tw
Depth of neutral axis from Case 2: when 0.74d ≤ c < d ,c/tw
top flange about z-z axis = 1090 mm Case 3: when c < 0.74d ,d/tw
Depth of neutral axis about Case 4: when c > 3d Web shall be considere
y-y axis = 200 mm Governing case : = c < 0.74d
C.G. of the compression section from the ,d/tw ≤ 270 εw
neutral axis about z-z axis 760.68 mm 105 ≤ 275.4
C.G. of the compression section from the Web satisfies the Serviceability crite
neutral axis about y-y axis 46.08 mm Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme
clause 8.6.1.2(b) :
z-z axis, (Zpzz) = 5.63E+07 mm
3
Condition : When transverse stiffeners
Plastic modulus of section about Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into
y-y axis, (Zpyy) = 3.41E+06 mm
3
Case 1: when c ≥ 1.5d ,d/tw
KLz = 24.3 m Case 2: when c < 1.5d ,d/tw
KLy = 2.51 m Governing case : = c < 1.5d
KLz /rzz = 28.95 ,d/tw ≤ 345 εf
KLy / ryy = 33 105 ≤ 351.9
Member is within Slenderless limit Compression flange buckling requirement is
Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)
d/tw = 105
67εw = 68.34 Shear buckling analysis is required

## Check for resistance to shear buckling : (As per clause 8.4.2)

d / tw = 105.00
Kv = 14.61 web with stiffeners
67εw Sqrt(Kv/5.35)= 112.93

## Shear Buckling design methods :

a) Simple post-critical method : Check for shear (at support)

## Poissons ratio, µ = 0.3 Factored maximum shear force

=
k v 2
E = 239.54 Mpa Shear carrying capacity
 cr ,e  2
12 1   2
 d  =
 t w 

λw =sqrt(240/(sqrt(3)x239.54)) = 0.76
τb = 138.56 Mpa
Nominal shear strength, Vn =Vcr = Av x τb

## Shear area abt. major axis , Avz = 42000sqmm

therefore, Vn = Vcr = 5819.52 kN
Vdz = Vn / ϒmo = 5290.47 kN
Section is safe in shear
Section is in low shear

## Shear area abt. minor axis , Avy = 32000sqmm

Therefore, Vn = Vcr = 4433.92 kN
Vdy = Vn / ϒmo = 4030.84 kN
Section is safe in shear
Section is in low shear

## Classification of the section based on shear capacity :

About major axis z-z = Section is in low shear
About minor axis y-y = Section is in low shear
Check for design capacity of the section :
Simply supported beam Md = βb . Zp . fbd where, βb = 1
fbd = χLT fy / ϒmo ,
χLT = 1 / {ФLT+ [ Ф LT -λ LT] } ≤
2 2 0.5
1 , ФLT = 0.5[1 + αLT + (
λLT = sqrt( βb Z pfy / Mcr) ≤ sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr) otherwise, λLT =
Mcr = (2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5 , LLT = 3012 mm
fcr,b = (1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)
2 2
[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ] 2 0.5
, αLT = 0.49
Mcr = 1.01E+11N-mm , fcr,b = 1.40E+03N-mm
λLT = 0.37 ≤ 0.37 or λLT = 0.41
Therefore, λLT = 0.37 Member may be designed as laterally suppo
For laterally supported beam :
Mdzz = 12281.52 kN-m ≤ 12524.8kNm Mdyy = 744.0kNm ≤
Mdzz = 12281.52 kN-m Mdyy = 560.38 kN-m
Mdzz > Mz Safe in bending Mdyy > My
Mz/Mdzz = 11739/12282 = 0.956
0.956 < 1
Section is safe

## Check for Deflection :

Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M = 7826.00kNm
v,act = 44.31 mm
max,per.= Lz
/ 325 = 74.77 mm
Safe in Deflection

Symbols:
Mz = Factored moment about major axis z-z.
My = Factored moment about minor axis y-y.
Vz = Maximum shear stress in the transverse direction paralel to y-y axis.
Vh = Maximum shear stress in the lateral direction paralel to z-z axis.
δv,act. = Actual deflection in the transverse direction parallel to y-y axis.
δh,act. = Actual deflection in the lateral direction parallel to z-z axis.
fy = Yield strength of steel.
E = Youngs modulus of steel.
At = Total cross-section area.
Izz = Moment of inertia of the section about z-z axis.
Iyy = Moment of inertia of the section about y-y axis.
Zzz = Elastic modulus of the section about z-z axis.
Zyy = Elastic modulus of the section about y-y axis.
Lz = Span of the beam about z-z axis.
Ly = Unsupported length of the compression flange.
KLz = Effective length about z-z axis.
KLy = Effective length about y-y axis.
d = Depth of web.
tw = Thickness of web.
ϒmo = Partial safety factor.
Vn = Vp = Plastic shear resistance under pure shear.
Avz = Shear area about z-z axis.
h = Overall depth of the section.
tf = Thickness of flange.
bf = Width of flange.
Avy = Shear area about y-y axis.
Md = Design moment of the whole section disregarding high shear force effect.

Mdzz = Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about
Mdyy = Design moment capacity of the section disregarding high shear force effect about
Mdv = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear.
Mdvzz = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about z-z axis.
Mdvyy = Design moment capacity of the section under high shear about y-y axis.
Mfd = Plastic design strength of the area of the cross-section excluding the shear area.
fcd = Design compreesive stress of axially loaded compression members.
Ae = Effective sectional area
χ = Stress reduction factor for different buckling class,slenderness ratio and yield stre
α = Imperfection factor
KL/r = Effective slenderness ratio
Ag = Gross area of cross-section
Mdz = Design moment capacity of the section about z-z.
Mdy = Design moment capacity of the section about y-y.
Mndy , Mndz = Design reduced flexural strength under combined axial force and the respective
uniaxial moment acting alone.
α1 , α2 = Constants
Cmy , Cmz = Equivalent uniform momemt factor.
Pdy , Pdz = Design strength under axial compression as governed bu buckling about minor(y)
major(z) xais respectively.
ny , nz = ratio of actual applied axial force to the design axial strength for buckling about th
& z axis respectively.
CmLT = Equivalent uniform momemt factor lateral torsional buckling.
) : Beam B1

0 kN-m
0 kN
0.00 mm

0 kN

ed =
For E250
40mm)
STEEL
20mm)

40mm

2100mm
z =d

40mm=tf

=b

## s per clause 8.6.1.1(b)

se stiffeners are provided
≤ 200 εw
≤ 200 εw
≤ 270 εw
be considered as unstiffened

bility criteria
requirement : (As per

## stiffeners are provided

uckling into the web.
≤ 345 εf2
≤ 345 εf
uirement is satisfied

1554 kN

5290 kN
Hence safe

, ϒmo = 1.1
[1 + αLT + ( λLT - 0.2) + λLT 2]
sqrt( fy/fcr,b)
,hf = 2140mm

3N-mm
ally supported beam
560.4kNm

Safe in bending
ffect.

shear area.

respective

## out minor(y) &

Design of Plate girders as per IS 800 : 2007 (Limit state method) : Beam
Lateral status of the beam = Unsupported
Mz = 381 kN-m L/C = 3 My =
Vz = 77 kN Member no. = 54 Vh =
v,act = 13.89 mm h,act =

## fyf = 250 Mpa Axial force, Fa =

fyw = 250 Mpa
E = 2.0E+05 Mpa Section used =
At = 1.5E+04 mm² 2-flange = (300mm x
Izz = 6.57E+08 mm 4
1-web = (465mm
y x
Iyy = 7.21E+07 mm4
Zzz = 2.65E+06 mm3 300mm
Zyy = 4.80E+05 mm3
rzz = 208.11 mm
ryy = 68.9 mm
Lz = 8.48 m 497mm
Ly = 2.7 m z
c = 1.35 m
c/d = 2.9 tw = 12mm
εflange = 1
εweb = 1
Flange classification = Compact section
Web classification = Plastic section
Section classification = Plastic section 300mm
y
z-z axis = b Check for minimum web thickness : (As per clause
Buckling class about Condition : When only transverse stiffene
y-y axis = c Case 1: when 3d ≥ c ≥ d ,d/tw
Depth of neutral axis from Case 2: when 0.74d ≤ c < d ,c/tw
top flange about z-z axis = 248.5 mm Case 3: when c < 0.74d ,d/tw
Depth of neutral axis about Case 4: when c > 3d Web shall be considere
y-y axis = 150 mm Governing case : = 3d ≥ c ≥ d
C.G. of the compression section from the ,d/tw ≤ 200 εw
neutral axis about z-z axis 194.83 mm 38.75 ≤ 200
C.G. of the compression section from the Web satisfies the Serviceability crite
neutral axis about y-y axis 48.53 mm Check for compressiom flange buckling requireme
clause 8.6.1.2(b) :
z-z axis, (Zpzz) = 2.96E+06 mm
3
Condition : When transverse stiffeners
Plastic modulus of section about Checked to prevent the comp. flange from buckling into
y-y axis, (Zpyy) = 7.37E+05 mm
3
Case 1: when c ≥ 1.5d ,d/tw
KLz = 8.48 m Case 2: when c < 1.5d ,d/tw
KLy = 2.7 m Governing case : = c ≥ 1.5d
KLz /rzz = 40.75 ,d/tw ≤ 345 εf2
KLy / ryy = 39.19 38.75 ≤ 345
Member is within Slenderless limit Compression flange buckling requirement is
Check for shear buckling before yielding : (As per clause 8.2.1.1)
d/tw = 38.75
67εw = 67 Shear buckling analysis is not required

## Factored design shear force,Vz = 77.00kN Factored design shear force,Vy

Design strength,Vdz (abt. major axis)= Vn / ϒmo Design strength, Vdy (about minor axis) =
ϒmo = 1.1 ϒmo = 1.1
Vn = Vp = Avzfyw/sqrt(3) = (d.tw.fyw)/sqrt(3) Vn = Vp = Avy fyw/sqrt(3) =
Vp = 805.40kN Vp =
Vdz = 732.18kN Vdy =
Section is safe in shear
Section is in low shear Section is in low shear

## Classification of the section based on shear capacity :

About major axis z-z = Section is in low shear
About minor axis y-y = Section is in low shear
Check for design capacity of the section :
Simply supported beam Md = βb . Zp . fbd where, βb = 1
fbd = χLT fy / ϒmo ,
χLT = 1 / {ФLT+ [ Ф LT -λ LT] } ≤
2 2 0.5
1 , ФLT = 0.5[1 + αLT + (
λLT = sqrt( βb Z pfy / Mcr) ≤ sqrt(1.2 Zefy/Mcr) otherwise, λLT =
Mcr = (2EIy hf)/(2L2LT) [1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)}2]0.5 , LLT = 3240 mm
fcr,b = (1.1 E)/(LLT/ry)
2 2
[1+ (1/20){(LLT/ry)/(hf/tf)} ]
2 0.5
, αLT = 0.49
Mcr =
3.45E+09N-mm , fcr,b = 1.04E+03N-mm
λLT = 0.46 ≤ 0.48 or λLT = 0.49
Therefore, λLT = 0.46 Member shall be designed as laterally unsupp

## For laterally unsupported beam :

ФLT = 0.67 , χLT = 0.87 , fbd = 197.73
Mdzz = 584.79 kN-m > 381.00kNm Mdyy = 131.03 kN-m
Mdzz > Mz Safe in bending Mdyy > My
Mz/Mdzz = 381/585 = 0.652 Check for shear (at support)
0.652 < 1
Section is safe Factored maximum shear force
=
Check for Deflection : Shear carrying capacity
Unfactored moment abt z-z axis, M = 254.00kNm =
v,act = 13.89 mm
max,per.= Lz / 325 = 26.09 mm
Safe in Deflection
) : Beam B3

0 kN-m
0 kN
0.00 mm

0 kN

ed =
For E250
16mm)
STEEL
12mm)

16mm

465mm
z =d

16mm=tf

=b

## s per clause 8.6.1.1(b)

se stiffeners are provided
≤ 200 εw
≤ 200 εw
≤ 270 εw
be considered as unstiffened
≥ d

bility criteria
requirement : (As per

## stiffeners are provided

uckling into the web.
≤ 345 εf2
≤ 345 εf
uirement is satisfied

= 0.00kN
xis) = Vn / ϒmo

(2b.tf.fyw)/sqrt(3)
1385.64kN
1259.67kN
Section is safe in shear

, ϒmo = 1.1
[1 + αLT + ( λLT - 0.2) + λLT 2]
sqrt( fy/fcr,b)
,hf = 481mm

3N-mm

## ally unsupported beam

Mpa
> 0kNm
Safe in Bending

201 kN

732 kN
Hence safe
unit wt L nos
300 16 125.6 8.38 2 631.5168
465 12 94.2 8.38 1 367.0691

## 200 20 157 8.38 2 526.264

457 16 125.6 8.38 1 481.0053

497
998.5859 0.651

8.683356
1007.269 0.835