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ANSI/AGMA 2000--A88

March 1988
(Errata 1992)

(Partial Revision of AGMA 390.03)


-- CAUTION--
While this document is the current published
AGMA Standard on this subject, it has been more than
5 years since it was revised or reaffirmed. This Stan-
dard is intended for use by the experienced gear de-
signer/engineer who has specific current knowledge of
recent technology and is capable of exercising ap-
propriate judgment in its application. It is not intended
for use by the “engineering public at large.”

AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD


GEAR CLASSIFICATION AND INSPECTION
HANDBOOK
Tolerances And Measuring Methods For Unassembled
Spur And Helical Gears (Including Metric Equivalents)
GEAR CLASSIFICATION AND INSPECTION HANDBOOK
Tolerances And Measuring Methods For Unassembled Spur And Helical Gears (Including
Metric Equivalents)
AGMA 2000---A88
(Partial Revision of AGMA 390.03)

[Tables or other self---supporting sections may be quoted or extracted in their entirety. Credit line should
read: Extracted from AGMA Standard 2000---A88, Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook, Tolerances
and Measuring Methods for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears (Including Metric Equivalents), with the
permission of the publisher, American Gear Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201,
Alexandria, Virginia 22314.]
AGMA standards are subject to constant improvement, revision or withdrawal as dictated by experience.
Any person who refers to an AGMA technical publication should be sure that the publication is the latest
available from the Association on the subject.

ABSTRACT

This Standard, for spur and helical gearing, correlates gear quality levels with gear tooth tolerances. It
provides information on manufacturing practices as well as gear measuring methods and practices. Appendix
material provides guidance on specifying a quality level and information on additional methods of gear
inspection.

Copyright 1988

American Gear Manufacturers Association


1500 King Street, Suite 201
Alexandria, Virginia 22314

March, 1988
Second Printing September 1988
Third Printing July 1990 (with Errata A and B)
Fourth Printing March 1991

ISBN: 1---55589---495---X

AGMA ii 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

ERRATA A January, 1989


The following editorial corrections have been made to ANSI/AGMA 2000--- A88, Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook,
(originally printed March 1988 and September 1988). These changes, discovered after publication, have been made in this
printing, as shown below:
PAGE ITEM CHANGE
29 Eq 5.10 The first term following the equal sign should read 5.0337, with the full
equation reading,
Y = 5.0337 log P  − 0.5153
10 nd
32 Eq 5.2M The last term should read (1.42)(8 ---Q). The full equation should read,
0.177 0.401
 VpA = 7.289z i
8−Q
m n (1.42)
33 Eq 5.10M The second term following the equal sign should read 5.0337, with the
full equation reading,
Y = 6.5562 − 5.0337 log m n
10
33 Eq 5.12M The first term following the equal sign should read 36.83; the second
term should read 0.03937, with the parentheses moved to include it.
The full equation should read,

V cqT = 36.83 0.03937 z i m n 
0.1477mn 
0.15


 

× (1.16)
10−Y
(1.4)
8−Q

58 Table 6---3 The missing values for line 5.0 Diametral Pitch, Quality 7 thru 15 are:
A = 0.0075, B = 0.0037 and C= 0.0019.
60 through 81 symbols The second symbol in the table heading, for module, should read mn
(lower case m) in all metric tables.
102 Fig 9---10 The y---axis of the figure,“INDEX READING”, should read “INDICATOR
READINGS” as in Fig 9---12.
103 Fig 9---14 The y---axis of the figure should be labeled “INDEX VARIATION, Vx ”
ERRATA B June, 1990
These additional editorial corrections have been made to ANSI/AGMA 2000--- A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook. These changes, determined after publication and Errata A, have been made in this printing, as shown below:
Upon complete review and ballot, the active members of the AGMA Inspection and Handbook Committee have decided that the
transverse plane is where the tooth thickness tolerance is applied. This changed the word “normal” to the word “transverse” on
page 15 in the second line of the definition for Tooth Thickness Variation, and on page 35 in the third line of paragraph 6.2.4.

Additional corrections were also discovered after publication and Errata A:


PAGE ITEM CHANGE
32 Eq 5.5M The first term following the equal sign should read 0.0974, with the full
equation reading,
V ψT = 0.0974− 0.0062Q 3 + 0.34641Q 2 − 6.8371Q + 48.148b0.72

47 & 71 Table 6---2 & The values for Diametral Pitch 0.5 thru 8.0 (Module 3.0 thru 50),
Table 6---2M Quality 5 are removed to agree with the formula limits established in
Sections 5 and 5M.
91 Table 8---1M The values listed in inches were changed to the appropriate millimeter
and micrometer values.
ERRATA C May, 1992
Additional editorial corrections to figures 9--- 18, 9--- 19 and 9--- 20 have been made to ANSI/GMA 2000--- A88, Gear
Classification and Inspection Handbook. These changes, determined after publication of Errata B, have been made in this
printing.

AGMA iii 2000---A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Personnel of AGMA Inspection and Handbook Committee


and Classification of Unassembled Gears Subcommittee
Chairman: P. M. Dean, Jr. (Consultant)
Chairman Subcommittee Classification System: J. C. Leming (Deceased)
Chairman Subcommittee Measuring Methods: R. E. Smith (R. E. Smith Company)

Editor: W. A. Bradley (Consultant)


Tolerance Tables: I. Laskin (Consultant)

ACTIVE MEMBERS
L. E. Andrew (Garrett), Deceased
F. E. Benton (Fellows), Deceased
J. F. Boesen (Overton Gear)
C. W. Carpenter (Xtek)
J. F. Craig (Cummins Engine)
J. Dykuizen (Fairfield)
R. Green (Eaton)
J. S. Hamilton (Wallace Murray)
G. W. Kappel (Arrow Gear)
H. Krey (Cincinnati Gear)
E. Lawson (M & M Precision)
R. L. Leslie (Speco)
D. R. McVittie (Gear Engineers, Inc.)
J. R. Miller (MAAG)
T. Porter (Illinois Tool Works)
V. Z. Rychlinski (Brad Foote)
P. Scheran (Pratt & Whitney)
E. R. Sewall (Sewall Gear)
F. A. Sirianni (Skidmore Gear)
L. J. Smith (Invincible Gear)
D. S. Whitney (Fellows)
K. D. Young (Chicago Gear)

ASSOCIATE MEMBERS
J. M. Adorjan (Dresser)
W. Coleman (Honorary Member), Deceased
J. E. Eaton (Auburn Gear)
J. E. Gutzwiller (Boston Gear)
G. Henriot (Engrenages et Reducteurs)
W. L. Janninck (Illinois Eclipse)
A. J. Lemanski (Sikorsky)
A. J. Lucas (Cincinnati Gear)
T. F. McKee (Dresser)
B. D. Pyeatt (Amarillo Gear)
W. L. Shoulders (Reliance Electric)
M. Tanaka (Nippon Gear)
S. Tomio (Tsubakimoto---Morse)
H. J. Trapp (Klingelnberg Soehne)
R. D. Wilson (Dresser)

AGMA iv 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

FOREWORD

[The foreword, footnotes, and appendices are provided for informational purposes only, and should not be
construed as a part of American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000---A88, Gear Classification and
Inspection Handbook.]
This Handbook provides tolerances for different gear quality levels from Q3 to Q15 for unassembled spur
and helical gears. It further describes methods and practices for measuring the various gear elements for which
tolerances are provided. Applicable definitions are provided.
The purpose is to provide a common basis for specifying quality, and for the procurement of unassembled
gears. It is not a design manual for determining the specific quality levels for a given application. It is not
intended for use as a reference in procurement of enclosed drives.
The AGMA Standard 390.03 was published in 1973 as a consolidation and updating of several withdrawn
AGMA publications, including:
AGMA 235.02 (Feb., 1966), Information Sheet for Master Gears
AGMA 239.01 (Oct., 1965), Measuring Methods and Practices Manual for Control of Spur, Helical and
Herringbone Gears
AGMA 239.01A (Sept., 1966), Measuring Methods and Practices Manual for Control of Bevel and Hypoid
Gears, and parts of
AGMA 236.04(05), Inspection of Fine---Pitch Gears
AGMA 390.02 (Sept., 1964), Gear Classification Manual originally published as AGMA 390.01 (1961)
Data was added for Gear Rack and Fine---Pitch Worms and Wormgears. The former separate sections of
AGMA 390.02 for Coarse---Pitch and Fine---Pitch spur, Helical and Herringbone Gearing was blended to offer a
single, compatible classification system The tolerance source identifier “Q” was added to indicate that the
tolerances in 390.03 apply. If Q is not used as a prefix in the quality number, tolerances in AGMA 390.01 and
390.02 apply.
This Handbook is an update of those sections from AGMA 390.03 for parallel axis gears only. Additionally,
the formulas have also been developed to derive the tolerances in metric terms. The format of the tolerance
tables has been revised for improved presentation but basic tolerance levels are unchanged from AGMA 390.03.
The other material in AGMA 390.03 on Bevels, Racks and Worms is not covered here, and is left unchanged in
AGMA 390.03.
A revision of 390.03 was initiated by a joint panel of representatives of AGMA and General Motors
Corporation, meeting from 1975 to 1977. Subsequently, it was revised by personnel of the AGMA Gear
Classification Handbook Committee as AGMA 2000. This version was approved by AGMA membership in
January 1988 and as a American National Standard Institute (ANSI) standard on March 31, 1988*.
Suggestions for improvement of this Standard will be welcome. They should be sent to the American Gear
Manufacturers Association, 1500 King Street, Suite 201, Alexandria, Virginia 22314.

* For the convenience of the reader, this Standard has been published on colored paper. Appropriate
Sections in conventional units of measure are in yellow; SI (metric) in rose; and common material in
white. The Appendices are in blue.

AGMA v 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table of Contents
Section Title Page
1. Scope
1.1 Equations for Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Tolerance Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 Tolerances for Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.4 Measuring Methods and Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.5 Materials and Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.6 Exceptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2. Symbols, Terminology and Definitions
2.1 Fundamental Terms and Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2.2 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3. Manufacturing and Purchasing Considerations
3.1 Manufacturing Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.2 Process Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.3 Inspection Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.4 Additional Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.5 Interpretation of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3.6 Acceptance Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4. Application of the AGMA Classification System
4.1 Basis of Classification System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.2 The AGMA Quality Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.3 Additional Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.4 Accuracy Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5. Formulas for Gear Accuracy Tolerances
5.1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.2 Symbols Used in Tolerance Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.3 Rounding of Tolerance Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.4 Runout, Radial, Tolerance, VrT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5 Pitch Variation, Allowable, VpA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.6 Profile Tolerance, VÔT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.7 Tooth Alignment Tolerance, (Formerly Total Lead Tolerance), VψT . . . . . . . . . 28
5.8 Composite Tolerance, Tooth---to---Tooth (Double Flank), VqT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.9 Composite Tolerance, Total (Double Flank), VcqT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.10 Tooth Thickness Tolerance, t T , inches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
5M. Metric Formulas for Gear Accuracy Tolerances
5.1M Metric Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.2M Symbols Used in Metric Tolerance Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.3M Rounding of Metric Tolerance Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.4M Metric Runout, Radial, Tolerance, VrT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
5.5M Metric Pitch Variation, Allowable, VpA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.6M Metric Profile Tolerance, VÔT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
5.7M Metric Tooth Alignment Tolerance, (Formerly Total Lead Tolerance), VψT . . . . 32
5.8M Metric Composite Tolerance, Tooth---to---Tooth (Double Flank), VqT . . . . . . . 32
5.9M Metric Composite Tolerance, Total (Double Flank), VcqT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
5.10M Metric Tooth Thickness Tolerance, t T values are in millimeters (mm) . . . . . . . 33

AGMA vi 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Title Page
6. Accuracy Tolerance Tables for Gears
6.1 Use of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.2 Accuracy Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6M. Metric Accuracy Tolerance Tables for Gears
6.1M Use of Metric Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.2M Metric Accuracy Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
7. Materials, Heat Treatment and Hardness Classification
7.1 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.2 Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
7.3 Designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8. Classification and Accuracy Tolerances for Spur and Helical Master Gears
8.1 Classification of Master Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.2 Tooth Thickness Tolerance Range for Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.3 Designation of Master Gear Class Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.4 Recommended Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
8.5 Suggested Marking of Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
8M. Metric Accuracy Tolerances for Spur and Helical Master Gears
8.1M Classification of Metric Master Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
8.2M Tooth Thickness Tolerance for Metric Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
8.3M Designation of Metric Master Gear Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
8.4M Recommended Metric Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
9. Measuring Methods and Practices
9.1 Inspection Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
9.2 Runout of Teeth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9.3 Pitch Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9.4 Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9.5 Tooth Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9.6 Composite Action Methods of Gear Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9.7 Tooth Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
Appendices
Appendix A AGMA Class Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Appendix B Symbol Comparison Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Appendix C Profile and Tooth Alignment Modifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Appendix D Contact Pattern Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Appendix E Accumulated Pitch Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Appendix F Single Flank Composite Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Appendix G Calibration of Master Gears and Gear Rolling Fixtures (Double Flank) . . . . . . 142

AGMA vii 2000---A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Title Page
Tables
2---1 Alphabetical Table of Terms with Symbols, by Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
2---2 Alphabetical Table of Symbols with Terms, by Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3---1 Individual Element Tolerances Required by AGMA Quality Number . . . . . . . . . 17


3---2 Composite Tolerances Required by AGMA Quality Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3---3 Minimum Number of Measurements for Typical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3---4 Radial Runout Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3---5 Pitch Variation Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3---6 Profile Tolerance Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
3---7 Tooth Alignment Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3---8 Composite Action Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3---9 Tooth Thickness Inspection Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

6---1 Element Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36


6---2 Composite Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
6---3 Tooth Thickness Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
6---1M Element Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6---2M Composite Tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6---3M Tooth Thickness Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

7---1 Materials and Heat Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

8---1 Master Gear Class Element Tolerances --- Coarse---Pitch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87


(Diameters 2---6 inch)
8---2 Reference Master Gear Class Composite Tolerances for Coarse---Pitch . . . . . . . 87
(Diameters 2---8.25 inch)
8---3 Additional Coarse---Pitch Master Gear Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
8---4 Tolerances for Fine Pitch Spur and Helical Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
8---5 Recommendation of Master Gear Classes for Inspecting
Specified Quality Work Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

8---1M Master Gear Class Element Tolerances --- Coarse---Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


(Diameter 50---150mm)
8---2M Reference Master Gear Class Composite Tolerances for Coarse---Module . . . . 91
(Diameter 50---150mm)
8---3M Additional Coarse---Module Master Gear Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
8---4M Tolerances for Fine---Module Spur and Helical Master Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
8---5M Recommendation of Master Gear Classes for Inspecting
Specified Quality Metric Work Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

9---1 Recommended Checking Load for Metallic Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

AGMA viii 2000---A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Title Page
Figures
2---1 Base Helix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2---2 Schematic of Composite Action Test Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2---3 Total Composite Variation Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2---4 Schematic of Index Variation Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2---5 Lead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2---6 Principal Pitches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2---7 Pitch Variation (Plus and Minus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2---8 Total Accumulated Pitch Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2---9 Principal Planes in Gear Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2---10 Tooth Profile in Transverse Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2---11 Functional Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2---12 Profile “K” Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2---13 Profile (Plus and Minus) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2---14 Schematic of Pitch Measurement, Two Profile Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2---15 Span Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2---16 Standard Profile Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2---17 Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2---18 Tooth Alignment “K” Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2---19 Tooth Alignment Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2---20 Chordal and Circular Tooth Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2---21 Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
2---22 Allowable Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

4---1 Illustration of AGMA Classification Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

9---1 Reference Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95


9---2 Tooth Identification Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
9---3 Runout Check, Over Pin, Ball Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
9---4 Gear Rolling Fixture (Double Flank Testing) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
9---5 Circular Pitch Measurement, Two Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
9---6 Base Pitch Measurement, Two Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9---7 Portable Pitch Measuring Device (Circular Pitch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9---8 Schematic of Single Probe Measuring Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
9---9 Relationships of Pitch, Spacing, and Index Spacing, or Accumulated Pitch 101
9---10 Pitch Variation, Two Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9---11 Pitch Variation, Single Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9---12 Spacing Variation, Two Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9---13 Spacing Variation, Single Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
9---14 Accumulated Pitch Variation, Single Probe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
9---15 Schematic of Involute Inspection Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9---16 Profile Measuring Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
9---17 Profile Inspection by Coordinates (Tangent to the Base Circle) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
9---18 Graphic Charting of Points on a Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
9---19 Typical Tooth Profile Measurement Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
9---20 Involute Profile Tolerance Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

AGMA ix 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table of Contents (cont)


Section Title Page
Figures (cont)
9---21 Profile Inspection by Optical Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
9---22 Profile Inspection by Gear---Tooth Caliper Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9---23 Profile Inspection by Measurement Over Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9---24 Tooth Alignment Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9---25 Graphic Charting of Tooth Alignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
9---26 Probe Positioning for Tooth Alignment Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
9---27 Tooth Alignment Tolerance, VψT Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
9---28 Tooth Alignment of Right Hand Helical Gear, Short Lead (---) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9---29 Tooth Alignment of Right Hand Helical Gear, Long Lead (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
9---30 Tooth Alignment of Left Hand Helical Gear, Long Lead (+) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9---31 Tooth Alignment of Left Hand Helical Gear, Short Lead (---) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
9---32 Strip Chart from Composite Action Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9---33 Circular Tooth Thickness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9---34 Tooth Thickness Measurement, Gear Tooth Caliper Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116
9---35 Tooth Thickness Measurement, Gear Tooth Comparator Method . . . . . . . . . . . 117
9---36 Tooth Thickness Inspection, Measurement Over Pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118

AGMA x 2000---A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

1. Scope 1.5 Materials and Heat Treatment. A


designation of the required material and heat
This Standard establishes a classification treatment can be included as a part of the AG-MA
system which may be used to communicate Classification Kumber. Designation numbers are
geometrical quality specifications of unassembled provided which identify gear materials, heat
external and internal involute gearing. It provides treatments, and hardness ranges (see Section 7).
a designation system for quality, materials, and 1.6 Exceptions. This Standard does not apply
heat treatment of spur, helical (single or double), to enclosed gear unit assemblies, including speed
and herringbone gears. It also provides
reducers or increasers, gear motors, shaft
information on measuring methods and practices. mounted reducers, high speed units, or other
This Standard provides the gear manufacturer and enclosed gear units which are sold on a rated
the gear buyer with a mutually advantageous horsepower basis for a given speed, ratio, or
reference for uniform tolerances and inspection application. Gear design and backlash is beyond
procedures. Thirteen classes of quality levels are the scope of this Standard. Refer to the latest
defined in this Standard, numbered Q3 through AGMA Publications Index for applicable
Ql.5, in order of increasing precision.
standards. This Standard does not apply to gears
1.1 Equations for Tolerances. Equations for larger than 400 inches (10 000 mm) in pitch
tolerances are provided for those who wish to diameter, or larger than 10 inches (250 mm) in
compute the tolerances that define the quality of face width, (per helix, if double helical or
gearing in Section 5. The equations yield the same herringbone) ; or helix angles exceeding 45
values as the tables. The accuracy tolerance degrees.
formulas are valid for gears of a minimum size of
NOTE: Tolerance values for gears outside
6 teeth through a maximum size of the lesser of
the limits stated in this Standard should be
1200 teeth or 400 inches (10 000 mm) pitch
established by determinin g the specific
diameter.
application requirements. This may require
1.2 Tolerance TabIes. Tolerance tables derived setting a tolerance smaller than calculated
from the equations are provided which show the by the formulas in this Standard,
maximum values that are allowed by the specific particularly for tooth alignment of gears
Quality Number for a gear in Section 6. The with face widths over 10 inches (250 mm).
tolerance tables in this Standard list the formula
values for diametral pitches 0.5 through 120 2. Symbols, Terminology and Deftitions
(modules 50 through 0.2), and for gears ranging
in numbers of teeth from 6 through 200. The symbols, terminology and definitions
1.3 Tolerance for Master Tolerances
Gears. pertaining to the tolerances and inspection of spur
which define levels of quality for master gears are and helical gear teeth are listed here for use in this
provided in Section 8. standard. For other definitions of geometric terms
related to gearing, see AGMA 112 (ANSI B6.14),
1.4 Measuring Methods and Practices.
Gear Nomenclature.
Measuring methods and practices are included in
order to promote uniform inspection procedures NOTE: Some of the symbols and
(see Section 9). These methods permit the user to terminology contained in this document
conduct measuring procedures which are accurate may differ from those used in other
and repeatable to a degree compatible Kith the documents and AGMA Standards. Users of
specified quality. Experienced personnel, with this standard should assure themselves that
calibrated instruments in suitable surroundings, they are using the symbols, terminology and
are required. definitions in the manner indicated herein.

AWWAGMA 1 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

2.1 Fundamental Terms and Symbols. The comparison of these symbols with those used in
terminology and symbols used in the standard are AGX4 112, AG-MA 600, IS0 701 and IS0
listed alphabetically by term in Table 2-1, and 1328, Parallel Involute Gears, IS0 System of
alphabetically by symbol in Table 2-2. A Accuracy, is given in Appendix B.

Table 2-l
Alphabetical Table of Terms with Symbols, by Terms
Where
Terms Symbol (Metric) First Used
Addendum distance to datum circle ad Eq 9.1
Adjusted Number of Teeth *i @iI Eq 2.1
Allowable Pitch Variation Eq 5.2
VPA
Angular Thickness 7 Eq 9.2
Chordal Addendum Eq 9.1
aC
Chordal Addendum Correction Factor Eq 9.1
A a,
Chordal Tooth Thickness 9.7.2.1.1
5
Circular Pitch, Transverse P Eq 2.4
Circular Tooth Thickness t Eq 9.2
Diameter, Pitch D Eq 2.2
Diameter, Datum Circle DC
Eq 9.1
Diameter, Outside Do Eq 9.1
Diametral Pitch, Transverse ‘d Eq 2.2
Face Width (Axial) F @> Eq 5.5
Gage Block Stack Height Lg Eq 9.6
Formula Constant for Thickness Code L?l Eq 5.13
Helix Angle * (8) Eq 2.1
Index Variation vx 9.3.2.1
Master Gear Total Composite Variation v,,, 9.6.3.2
Normal Diametral Pitch %d Eq 2.5
Normal Module mn Eq 5.1M
Normal Pitch Variation 9.3.1
Vpn
Number of Teeth N (2) Eq 2.1
Pitch Variation VP 9.3.2-l
Pressure Angle, Normal % Fig 2-9
Pressure Angle, Transverse 0 (a) Fig 9.35
Profile Tolerance Eq 5.3
%T
Profile Variation Fig 2-19
%
Quality Number Q Eq 5.1
Radial Runout vr 9.2.2
Radial Runout Tolerance VrT Eq 5.1

ANSIIAGMA 2 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 2-l (cant)


Alphabetical Table of Terms with Symbols, by Terms
Where
Terms Symbol (Metric) First Used
Spacing Variation VS
9.3.2.2
Test Distance (composite action test) cd
Eq 9.4
Test Radius, Master Gear Rnn
Eq 9.4
Test Radius, Master Gear Arbor R Eq 9.6
ram
Test Radius, Work Gear Rrw Eq 9.4
Test Radius, Work Gear .4rbor R raw Eq 9.6
Tooth Alignment Tolerance Eq 5.4
%T
Tooth Alignment Variation Fig 9-24
v4f
Tooth Thickness Tolerance ‘T Eq 5.12
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Tolerance Eq 5.6
v4T
(Double Flank)
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Variation Fig 2-3
(Double Flank)
Total Accumulated Pitch Variation 9.3.2.1
Total Accumulated Pitch Variation, Within a 9.3.2.1
Sector of k Pitches
Total Composite Tolerance (Double Flank) %qT Eq 5.9
Total Composite Variation (Double Flank) %? 9.6.3.2
Transverse Tooth Thic-kness tt Eq 9.2
True Position Pitch Pm 9.3.2.1
Variation in Gear Geometry V Eq 5.1
Variable, Equation Y Eq 5.10

Characteristic Symbols as Subscripts


Allowable Variation A --
Tolerance T --

A%I/AGMA 3 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 2-2
AlDhabetical Table of Svmbols with Terms, by Symbols
Symbol Symbol Terms
Terms [Metric)
(Metic)
Chordal Addendum Total Composite Variation
=c Vc4
Addendum Distance to Datum Circle (Double Flank)
=d
cd Test Distance (composite action zest) V,,, Total Composite Variation,
D Pitch Diameter Master Gear
Datum Circle Diameter V Total Composite Tolerance
Q w
Do Outside Diameter (Double Flank)
F (b) Face Width (Axial) Pitch Variation
vP
Gage Block Stack Height Allowable Pitch Variation
=g VPA
=n Formula Constant for Thickness Code V Normal Pitch Variation
pn
*n
Normal Module
3l Tooth-to-Tooth Composite
Variation (Double Flank)
N (z) Number of Teeth
(zi) Adjusted Number of Teeth Tooth-to-Tooth Composite
Ni
pd Diametral Pitch, Transverse Tolerance (Double Flank)
P nd Normal Diametral Pitch vf Radial Runout
P Circular Pitch, Transverse VrT Radial Runout Tolerance

‘rn True Position Pitch Vs Spacing Variation


Q Quality Number vx Index Variation
R ram Test Radius, Master Gear Arbor Tooth Alignment Variation
%
R raw Test Radius, Work Gear Arbor Tooth Alignment Tolerance
%T
Rrm Test Radius, Master Gear Profile Variation
v+
%W
Test Radius, Work Gear QT
Profile Tolerance
t Circular Tooth Thickness 7 Angular Thickness
% Chordal Tooth Thickness 6 (a) Pressure Angle, Transverse
zt Transverse Tooth Thickness h Pressure Angle, Normal
‘T Tooth Thickness Tolerance * (B) Helix Angle

Vap Total Accumulated Pitch Variation *d Helix Angle at Datum Circle


Total Accumulated Pitch Variation, Chordal Addendum Correction Factor
Vapk A=c
Sector of k Pitches

ANSI/AGMA 4 200%A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

2.2 Definitions. The following definitions are Base Pitch. (See Pitch, Base)
listed in alphabetical order. In order to convey Blank. (See Gear Blank)
the greatest amount of information however, the
names of several terms have been rearranged so Break, tip or edge. The tip or edge break
that the principal characterisdcs will be grouped (comer radius) refers to a rounding or chamfering
together. Thus, the term Allowable Pitch of the edges formed by the intersection of the
Variation may be found in the list. However, it tooth flank and the end or top surface of a gear
refers the reader to Pitch Variation, Allowable tooth.
where the definition is found. This achieves a
close grouping of the related features of the basic
characteristic, pitch. The reader can compare
these terms without having to search the entire
list.
Accumulated Pitch Variation Within a
Sector of k Pitches. (See Pitch Variation, Total
Accumulated, Within a Sector of k Pitches.)
Adjacent Pitch Difference. (See Spacing
BASE CIRCLE
Variation) BAiE HELIX
Adjusted Number of Teeth, pi (L i). The
adjusted number of teeth is a factor for relating Fig 2-l Base Helix
the number of teeth on a helical gear to those of a
spur gear of the same diameter. It is used for Chordal Tooth Thickness. (See Tooth
entering the Tolerance Tables. Thickness, Chordal)
N Circle, Datum, Dc . The datum circle is a
Ni =cos* OEq 2.1)
circle on which measurements are made.
2
zi =- (Eq 2.M)
cos $ Circle, Pitch. (See Standard Pitch Circle)

Allowable Pitch Variation. (See Pitch Circular Pitch. (See Pitch, Circular)
Vacation, Allowable) Circular Tooth Thickness. (See Tooth
Allowable Variation. (See Variation, Allow- Thickness, Circular)
able) Composite Variation (Double Flank).
Axial Pitch. (See Pitch, Axial) Composite variation is the total change in center
distance when a gear is inspected by a composite
Axial Runout (Wobble). (See Runout, action test.
Axial)
Composite Action Test (Double Flank). The
Ball-Probe Test. (See 9.2.3.2)
composite action test is a method of inspection in
Base Circle.The base circle is a circle from which the work gear is rolled in tight double flank
which involute tooth profiles are derived. contact with a master gear or a specified gear, in
Cylinder. The base cylinder order to determine composite variations. The
Base
corresponds to the base circle, and is the cylinder composite action test must be made on a variable
from which involute tooth surfaces, either straight center distance composite action test device (see
or helical, are derived. Fig 2-2).

Base Helix. Base helix is a helix which lies Composite Tolerance, Tooth-to-Tooth
on the base cylinder of a helical involute gear (see @ouble Flank), VqT. The permissible amount
Fig 2-1). of tooth-to-tooth composite variation.

A!!SI/AGhU 5 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Datum Axis of Rotation. The datum axis of


WORK GEAR n rotation is the axis of the gear used as the basis
for measurements.
Datum Circle. (See Circle, Datum)
Datum Surface. (See Surface, Datum)
INDICATOR
Datum Tooth. The datum tooth is the
designated tooth used as the starting point for
measuring other teeth.
Diameter, Profile Control. Profile control
diameter is the specified diameter of the circle
beyond which the tooth profile must conform to
Fig 2-2 Schematic of Composite Action the specified involute curve. (see Profile,
Test Device FunctionaI)
Double Flank Composite Action Test. (See
Composite Tolerance, Total (Double
Composite Action Test)
Flank), V&T. The permissible amount of total
composite variation. Eccentricity. Eccentricity is the distance
between the center of a datum circle and a datum
Composite Variation, Tooth-to-Tooth
axis of rotation.
(Double Flank), vq . The greatest change in
center distance while the gear being tested is Edge Round. (See Break, tip or edge)
rotated through any angle of 360 degree/N during Face Width, F (b). Face width is the length
a double flank composite action test (see Fig of the gear teeth in an axial plane. In this
2-3). Standard, the face width of a double helical or
Composite Variation, Total (Double herringbone gear is the sum of the axial lengths of
Flank), V& . The total change in center distance each helix.
while the gear being tested is rotated one complete Face Width, Functional. The functional
revolution during double flank composite action face width is that portion of the face width less
test (see Fig 2-3). the edge round at each end.

1 REVOLUTION (360“) OF WORK GEAR

3600/N -/-I_/--

Fig 2-3 Total Composite Variation Trace

ANSI/AGMA 2000-A88
6
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Flank. (See Surface, Tooth) between the extreme values of index variation for
a given gear. Total index variation is also
Form Diameter. (See Diameter, Profile
equivalent to Total Accumulated Pitch Variation,
Control)
%p ’ as measured by a two probe spacing system.
Functional Gear Size. (See Tooth Thick-
ness, Functional) Index Variation Total Within a Sector of k
Functional Face Width. (See Face Width, Teeth. Total index variation within any sector of
Functional) k teeth is the maximum algebraic difference
between extreme values of Index Variation within
Functional Profile. (See ProfJe, Functional)
a sector of k teeth.
Functional Tooth Thickness. (See Tooth
Thickness, Functional) Indicating Over Pins. The measurement of
Gear Blank. The work piece used for the the change in radial distance over pins or wires
manufacture of a gear, prior to machining the gear placed in each tooth space to determine runout
teeth. with reference to the rotating axis.

Index Variation, V,. Index variation is the Inspection Chart. The generated recording
displacement of any tooth from its theoretical or trace from an inspection machine used to
position, relative to a datum tooth. Measurements display a measured variation of gear geometry.
are usually linear, near the middle of the
“K” Chart. (See Profile Tolerance and
functional tooth profile, and if made normal to
9.4.2.1)
the tooth surface, should be corrected to the
transverse plane. Distinction is made as to the Lead. Lead is the axial advance of a helix
algebraic sign of this reading (see Fig 2-4). for one revolution (360 degrees), as in a screw
Index Variation, Total index
Total. thread, and the teeth of a helical gear (see Fig
variation is the maximum algebraic difference 2-j).

INDEX MECHANISM

DATUM CIRCLE

INDEX READINGS Cv,)

DASH LINES REPRESENT


THEORETICAL LOCATION

Fig 2-4 Schematic of Index Variation Test

ANSYAGMA 7 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Fig 2-5 Lead


Lead Variation. (See Tooth Al@rnent Pitch, Axial. Axial pitch is *Lhepitch of a
Variation) gear parallel to the axis of rotation.
Master Gear. A gear of known quality, used Pitch, Base, pb. Base pitch of an involute
to perform a composite action test. gear is equal to the circumference of the base
Measurement Over Pins. The measurement circle divided by the number of teeth. It is the
of the distance taken over a pin positioned in a pitch on the base circle or along the line of action.
tooth space and a reference surface. The Corresponding flanks of involute gear teeth are
reference surface may be the reference axis of the parallel curves, and the base pitch is the constant
gear, a datum surface, or either one or two pins and fundamental distance between them along a
positioned in the tooth space or spaces opposite tangent to the base circle in a transverse plane
the first. This measurement is used to determine (see Fig 2-6).
tooth thickness. Pitch, Base, Normal. The normal base pitch
Mounting Surface. A mounting surface is a in an involute helical gear is the base pitch in the
normal plane. It is the normal distance between
surface used to locate and support a gear in its
final application. Usually, at least one axial and parallel helical involute surfaces on the line of
one radial surface are involved. Preferably, these action in the normal plane, or is the length of arc
on the normal base helix. It is a constant distance
same surfaces should be used for manufacturing
and inspection operations. in any helical involute gear.
Pitch Circle. (See Standard Pitch Circle)
Normal Base Pitch. (See Pitch, Base,
Normal)
Normal Chordal Tooth Thickness. (See
Tooth Thickness, Chordal, Normal)
Normal Pressure Angle. (See Pressure
Angle, Normal)
Normal Tooth Thickness. (See Tooth
Thickness, Normal)

Outside Diameter, Do . The outside diameter


BASE TANGENT
is the diameter of the addendum circle (outside)
of a cylindrical gear. Fig 2-6 Principal Pitches
Pitch. Pitch is the distance between similar,
equally spaced tooth surfaces along a given line or Pitch, Circular, p. Circular pitch is the
arc in the transverse plane (see Fig 2-6). In this distance along a specified pitch circle or pitch line
Standard, the use of the single word pitch is to between corresponding profiles of adjacent teeth
mean circular pitch. (see Fig 2-6).

ANSIIAGMA 8 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

divided by the number of teeth. This can be


determined by the average of all pitch
measurements of the entire gear taken on
successive pairs of teeth, or between
corresponding points of adjacent teeth generated
by an angular positioning device.
Pitch Tolerance. (See Pitch Variation,
Allowable)
Pitch Variation, vp . Pitch variation is the
PITCH DASH LINES REPRESENT
THEORETICAL LOCATION algebraic (+ or -) plus or minus difference in the
transverse plane, between the true position pitch,
Fig 2-7 Pitch Variation and an actual pitch measurement. If
pm’
(Plus and Minus) measured in a plane other than the transverse
plane, a correction using the appropriate helix
Pitch Cylinder. Cylinder of the same angle must be applied to the measured value (see
diameter as the pitch circle. Figs 2-7 and 2-8).
Pitch Diameter, D. The pitch diameter is Pitch Variation, Allowable, VpA. Allowable
the diameter of a standard pitch circle and is pitch variation is the maximum allowable amount
defined by the number of teeth divided by the of pitch variation. It is the permissible plus or
transverse diametral pitch, Pd. It is also defmed minus variation from the true position pitch and it
from the pitch of the basic rack of the 20 degrees is the amount shown in the tabies or formulas.
(or other) gear system employed. SECTOR OF THRi PITCHES

D=N @q 2.2) I I 7
‘d
D=mN (Eq 2.2M)
7 -“P
1_ip

Pitch, Diametral, pd. Diametral pitch is the t !


ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter
in the transverse plane. It is also defined from the + “P
pitch of the basic rack.

Pd = -N (Eq 2.3)
- n
lJ
or
1 2 3 4 5’6Y8 9 10
=- m 2.4) TOOTH NUMBER
‘d ;
Fig 2-8 Total Accumulated Pitch
Pitch, Diametral, Normal, Pnd. The normal
Variation
diametral pitch is a ratio of the pitch diameter to
the number of teeth corrected by the helix angle. Pitch Variation, Normal, vPn . Normal
In helical gearing, the diametral pitch can be pitch variation is the plus or minus pitch measured
referenced to the normal plane by applying the in the normal plane (see Fig 2-9 for normal
cosine of the helix angle. plane).
pd N Pitch Variation Tolerance, Total, Accum-
P (Eq 2.5)
nd = cosq = D cos Jr ulated. The total accumulated pitch variation
tolerance is the permissible amount of total
Pitch, True Position, p . The me position accumulated pitch variation. (See Appendix E
pitch is the circumference~f the datum circle for guidance).

ANSIIAGMA 9 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Pitch Variation, Total, Accumulated, van. a plane can be normal to only one tooth at a
Total accumulated pitch variation is equal to the point.
algebraic difference between the maximum and Plane, A pitch plane may be any
Pitch.
minimum values obtained from the summation of plane tangent to a gear’s pitch cylinder.
successive values of pitch variation, V , and is
Plane, A transverse plane is
Transverse.
the same as total index variation (see Lg 2-8). perpendicular to the axis of rotation. The
Pitch Variation, Total, Accumulated, With- transverse plane and plane of rotation coincide
in a Sector of k Pitches, %pk - Total Ac- (see Fig 2-9).
cumulated Pitch Variation within a Sector of k Pressure Angle, Normal, +n. The normal
Pitches is equal to the algebraic sum of individual pressure angle is the angle at a point on the pitch
plus or minus adjacent pitch variations, VP , wixhin cylinder between the line of pressure which is
that sector. The Total Accumulated Pitch normal to the tooth surface and the plane tangent
Variation within a Sector of three (k = 3) pitches, to the pitch cylinder. The pressure angle gives the
~~3, is shown in Fig 2-8. direction of the normal to a tooth profile (see Fig
2-9). (For additional information on pressure
Plane, Normal. A normal plane is a plane and profile angles see AGMA 112, Gear
normal to a tooth surface at a specified diameter . NomencZuture, Definition Number 9 .O1.)
At such a point, the normal plane contains the
line normal to the tooth surface and the radius Pressure Angle, Transverse, 4. The trans-
verse pressure angle is the pressure angle in a
from the point to the axis of rotation (see Fig
2-9). On a helical rack, a normal plane is normal transverse plane.
to all teeth it intersects; on a helical gear however, Process Control. (See 3.2)

FTRANSVERSE PLANE

a- NORMAL PLANE

PL.ANE

DA
CYLINDER

Fig 2-9 Principal Planes in Gear Geometry

ANWAGMA 10 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Profile. Profile is one side of a tooth in a Profile Tolerance, T/oT. The permissible
cross section between the outside circle and the amount of profile variation in the functional
root circle. Usually a profile is the curve of proftie; designated by a specified “K” chart
intersection of a tooth surface and a plane or envelope as shown in Fig 2-12. Plus material at
surface normal to the pitch surface, such as the the tip which increases the amount of variation
transverse, normal, or axial plane (see Fig 2-10). outside the functional profile is not acceptable.
Minus material beyond the start of tip break can
be disregarded (see Fig 2-11).

TRANSVERSE

OUTSIDE DIAMETER
___-__-_-___

STiif 6F %b-Bi%ilt -
-/
I
SURFACE
Fig 2-10 Tooth Profde in Transverse
Plane
HIGH POINT OF
TOOTH CHART MUST
BE TANGENT TO
REFERENCE LINE\
3
FUNCTIONAL
PROFILE

Profile Control Diameter. (See Diameter,


Profile Control)
SPACE OOTH
Profile, Functional. Functional profile is
(+) t-1
that portion of the tooth flank between the profile
control diameter and the addendum circle or start
of tip break (see Fig 2-11). PROFILE
CONTROL DIAMETER

/OUTSIDE DIAMETER I
0 REFERENCE LINE
START OF TIP BREAK
Fig 2-12 Profde “K” Chart
-t PITCH DIAMETER

PROFILE CONTROL Profile Variation, V+ . Profile variation is


- DIAMETER
BASE CIRCLE
the difference between the measured and the
ROOT DIAMETER specified functional profile. If measured in a
EXTERNAL
TOOTH normal plane, a correction using the appropriate
helix angle must be applied to the measured value
(see Fig 2-13).
r,,,-ROOT DIAMETER
Quality. The characteristic properties of a
ROFILE CONTROL
DIAMETER gear distinguishing the nature of its manufacturing
-PITCH DIAMETER
tolerances.
Quality Number, Q. A number repre-
START OF TIP BREAK
sentative of the level of quality possessed by a
.---- =--. = ‘“INSIDE DIAMETER gear, as determined by this Standard (see 4.2).
INTERNA,L -BASE CIRCLE
Reference Axis. Reference axis is a specified
TOOTH
line about which a gear is intended to rotate.
Fig 2-11 Functional Profde Reference Tooth. (See Datum Tooth)

A??SIIAGMA 11 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

is used to determine tooth thickness (see Fig


\ (RUE INVOLUTE\
2-X).
Standard Pitch Circle. A circle defined by
the number of teeth and a specified module or
diametral pitch (see Eq 2.2 and AGMA 112.05
paragraphs 8.16 and 9.01).

Fig 2-13 Profile (Plus and Minus)

Runout. Runout is the maximum variation


of the distance between a surface of revolution
and a datum surface, measured perpendicularly to
that datum surface.
Runout, Axial. &da1 runout (wobble) is the
runout of the teeth measured in a direction
parallel to the datum axis of rotation.
Fig 2-14 Schematic of Pitch
Runout, Radial, V,. Radial runout is the Measurement, Two Probe Device
runout measured in a direction perpendicular to
the datum axis of rotation.
Standard Profile Angle. Standard profile
Runout, Radial, Tolerance, VrT. Radial angle is the angle at the standard pitch circle
between a line tangent to the tooth surface and a
rtmout tolerance is the permissible amount of
radial line of the standard pitch circle (see Fig
runout.
2-16). The profile angle and the pressure angle
Single Probe Device. (See 9.3.3.2) have the same magnitude.
Spacing. The term spacing is used as a In spur gears the profile angle is considered
general term to reference the accuracy with which only in a transverse plane. In helical gears the
teeth are positioned around the gear. Spacing has profile angle may be considered in different
no numerical value and refers only to a group of planes. In specifications it is essential to use terms
numerically valued tooth position measurements that indicate the plane which the profile angle lies,
such as pitch or index. such as transverse or normal. Usually a single
Spacing Variation, v, . Spacing variation is gear is stated in terms of the standard pitch and
profile angle of the hob or cutter used to generate
the difference between any two (2) adjacent its teeth. (See AGhL4 Standard 112, para 9.1.)
measurements of pitch as obtained by a
two-probe device (see Fig 2-14), or is equal to Surface, Datum. The datum surface is the
the difference between two (2) adjacent pitch surface used as the basis for measurements. The
variation vaiues obtained from a single probe datum surface is established by the specific
device. measuring device used.
Span Measurement. Span measurement is Surface, Indicated. The indicated surface is
the measurement of the distance across several that surface from which the variations from a
teeth, along a line tangent to the base cylinder. It datum surface are measured.

ANSIIAGMA 12 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Fig 2-13 Span Measurement

PROFILE Test Radius. The test radius is a number


I ANGLE, used as an arithmetic convention established to
simplify the determination of the proper test
distance, cd, between a master and a work gear
for a composite action test. It is used as a
measure of the effective size of a gear. The test
radius of the master, plus the test radius of the
work gear is the set-up center distance for
checking. Test radius is not the same as the
operating pitch radii of two tight meshing gears
unless both are without variations and have
standard tooth thickness.

Test Radius Limits. The test radius limits


define the allowable range of test radius that takes
into account tooth thickness and total composite
variations.

Fig 2-16 Standard Profile Angle Tolerance, T (subscript). Tolerance is the


amount by which a specific dimension is permitted
Surface, Tooth. The tooth surface forms the to vary. The tolerance is the difference between
side of a gear tooth, sometimes called the flank the maximum and minimum limits, and is an
(see Fig 2-10). absolute value without sign (see Fig 2-17).

AXWAGMA 13 2000-A88
I .

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

ali-nment generated by an appropriate inspection


MIN.
LIMIT TCLEFIANCE machine.
Tooth Alignment Variation, V$. Tooth
alignment variation, (formerly lead variation), is
the difference between the measured tooth
alignment and the specified too-h alignments
measured normal to the specified tooth alignment
X.
IT and the tooth surface on the functional face width
(see F ig 2-19).
TOLERANCE

MIN. MAX.
LIMIT LIMIT

Fig 2-17 Tolerance


-CONTACT PATH O F
Tooth Alignment. Tooth alignment is the MEASURING POINT
alignment, normal to the helix, between the line
of intersection of actual and theoretical tooth
surfaces on the pitch c y linder.
Tooth Alignment Tolerance, ‘$T -
(Formerly Lead Tolerance) The permis s ible
of tooth alignment variation, designated
by the specified “K” chart envelope as shown in
F ig 2-18. Tolerance values in this standard are F ig 2-19 Tooth Alignment Variation
normal to the tooth surface.
Tooth Alignment Trace. The tooth alignment Tooth Profile. (See Proftie.)
trace, (formerly measured lead trace), is the Tooth Thickness. Tooth Thickness is the
trace recorded on an inspection chart that thickness of a gear tooth at a specified diameter or
indicates variations from the reference tooth tooth height.

FUNCTIONAL
FACE W IDTH
t REFERENCE
UNE -0
“jr1

FACEW IDTH

Fii 2-18 Tooth Alignment “K” Chart

ANSIIAGMA 14 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Tooth Thickness, Chordal, tc . The chordal Total Composite Variation. (See Composite
Variation, Total.)
tooth thickness is the length of the chord
subtending a circular tooth thickness arc (see Fig Total Index Variation. (See Index
2-20). Variation, Total.)
Transverse Plane. (See Plane, Transverse)
Two-Probe Device. (See 9.3.2.1)
Variation.Variation is the measured plus or
minus change from the specified value (see Fig
2-2 1).

THICKNESS

Fig 2-20 Chordal and Circular


Thicknesses, tC
Tooth
GEE-.;,,,, L”*R,*TloN
Tooth Thickness, Chordal, Normal. The
normal chordal tooth thickness is the length of the
chord subtending a tooth thickness arc in the
normal plane.
Tooth Thickness, Circular, t. The circular
tooth thickness is the length of arc between two
sides of the same gear tooth, on a specified circle Fig 2-21 Variation
(see Fig 2-20).
Tooth Thickness, Functional. The tooth Variation, Allowable, A (subscript).
thickness as determined by meshing with a Allowable variation is the permissible plus or
specified gear on a calibrated composite action minus deviation from the specified value (see Fig
test fixture. 2-22).
Tooth Thickness, Normal, t, . The circular
tooth thickness in the normal plane.
Tooth Thickness Tolerance, tT. The
MINUS
permissible amount of tooth thickness variation. VARIATION
Tooth Thickness, Transverse, tt . The PLUS
- VARIATION
circular tooth thickness in a transverse plane.
ALLOWABLE
Tooth Thickness The variation
Variation. MEASUREMENT __
from a specified value of transverse circular tooth (MINIMUM)
thickness.
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Tolerance. (See
Composite Tolerance, Tooth-to-Tooth.)
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Variation. (See ALLOWABLE MEASUREMENT
c
Composite Variation, Tooth-to-Tooth.) (MAXIMUM)
Total Accumulated Pitch Variation. (See
Pitch Variation, Total Accumulated.) Fig 2-22 Allowable Variation

ANWAGMA 15 2000-A88
Gear CIassification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

3. Manufacturing and Purchasing elements such as manufacturing planning,


Considerations machine tool maintenance, cutting tool seiection
and maintenance, heat treatment control, and
quality assurance pro,mms, as needed, to achieve
This Standard provides classification and maintain the necessary gear quality. When
tolerances and inspection methods for properly applied, gears manufactured by specific
unassembled gears. This Section presents control techniques will be found to be of very
considerations for control of various phases of uniform quality. Therefore, little or no final
manufacturing, including the recommended inspection may be necessary for a gear,
methods of inspection control. particularly in some classification levels; assurance
These methods provide the manufacturer and of the necessary quality level having been built-in
purchaser with recommendations for verifying the through careful manufacturing control at each
quality of a manufactured product, as well as step.
information relative to the interpretation of NOTE: Documentation may be deemed
inspection data. unnecessary for products manufactured
under process control when inspection
Some design and application considerations
records are not specified in the purchase
may warrant inspection or documentation not
normally available in standard manufacturing contract.
processes. Specific requirements should be stated Using process control, relatively few
in the conuactual documents. measurements may be made on any one gear. For
example, tooth size may be evaluated by a
3.1 Manufacturing Certification. Certification measurement over pins, a span measurement, or
of variations in accordance with the gear’s specific another similar measurement which is usually
AGMA Qualiry Number and inspection charts or checked on only two or three sections of a given
data can be requested as part of the purchase
gear. It is assumed that these measurements are
contract. Specifying an AGMA Quality Number representative of all of the teeth on the gear.
or inspection criteria which is in excess of that
Gears made in production quantities may be
required by the application may increase the cost inspected at various steps in their manufacturing
unnecessarily. Specific methods of inspection, sequence on a statistical basis. Thus, it is possible
documentation of Quality Number, and other that a specific gear can pass through the entire
geometric tolerances of a gear are normally
production process without ever having been
considered items which should be specifically inspected. However, the manufacturer of that
agreed upon between manufacturer and gear is willing to certify that its quality is equal to
purchaser.
those gears that were inspected, based on his
The manufacturing of gearing to a specified confidence in his process control.
quality may or may not include specific 3.3 Inspection Methods. Gear geometry may
inspections. When applications warrant, detailed be inspected by a number of alternate methods.
inspections, data analysis, and additional The selection of the particular method depends
considerations may be necessary to establish not only on the magnitude of the tolerance and
acceptance criteria for a gear. the size of the gear, but also on production
3.2 Process Control. Process control is defined quantities, equipment available, accuracy qf gear
as the method by which a gear’s accuracy is blanks, and inspection costs.
maintained through control of each individual step The manufacturer or the purchaser may wish
of its manufacturing process. Upon completion of to measure one or more of the geometric features
all manufacturing operations, a specific gear has of a gear fo verify its quality level. However, a
been given an inherent level of accuracy (quality). gear which is specified to an AGMA Quality
This level of accuracy was established during the Number must meet all the individual tolerance
manufacturing process, and is totally independent requirements applicable fo the particular quality
of any final inspection. Process control includes number and size as noted in Tables 3-l and 3-2.

A?.?.SIiAGMA 16 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

The manufacturer shall have the option of among the applicable methods described in this
selecting either the individual tolerances of Table Standard and summarized in Table 3-3,
3-1, or the composite tolerances of Table 3-2 for (2) The piece of inspection equipment to be
gears which are specified by both types of used by the selected inspection method, provided
tolerances. it is properly calibrated,
(3) The individual teeth to be measured, as
Normally, the individual tolerances of pitch, long as they are approximately equally spaced and
proftie, and tooth alignment shall apply to both meet the minimum number required by the
sides of the teeth, unless only one side is specified method, as summarized in Table 3-3,
as the loaded side.
NOTE: This Standard provides tolerances
When prior agreement between the for unassembled gears. The inspection of
manufacturer and purchaser specifies inspection gearing mated in an assembly for a specific
of gears, the manufacturer may select: application is beyond the scope of this
(1) The inspection method to be used from document.

Table 3-1
Individual Element Tolerances Required by AGiVM Quality Number
AGMA Pitch Tolerance Elements
Quality (Module) Radial Pitch Tooth
Number Runout Variation Profile Alignment
3-j 8 (3) to X
0.5 (50)
6-7 20 (1.25) to X X
0.5 (50)
8-15 20 (1.25) to X X X X
0.5 (50)

Size Range - (Adjusted number of teeth):


A’i Min=6
h’i MAX= 1200 or (400 pnd) = (10000 /mn), whichever is smaller

Table 3-2
Composite Tolerances Required by AGMA Quality Number
AGMA Pitch Composite Tolerances
QUW (Module)
Number Total Tooth-to-Tooth
5 120 (0.2) to
12 (2.0) X X
6-14 120 (0.2) to
0.5 (50) X X
15 120 (0.2) to
20 (1.25) X X

Size Range (Adjusted number of Teeth):


Ni Min=6
A’i Max = 1200 or (200 Pnd ) = (5000 lmn), whichever is smaller

AllSIlAGMA 17 2000-A88
. .

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

3.3.1 Recommended Inspection Control which actually makes contact with its mate. With
Methods. The recommended methods of this technique, the areas that contact can be
inspection control for each AGMA Quality observed by coating the teeth with a marking
Number and type of inspection are listed in Tables compound and meshing the gears. A judgement
3-4 through 3-9. of compatibility may be made by the position and
size of the contact area. It does not necessarily
NOTE: No particular method of inspection indicate compatible tooth shape for loaded
or documentation is considered mandatory conditions. Axial runout may also be indicated by
unless specifically agreed upon between a shifting of the tooth contact from side to side,
manufacturer and purchaser. When progressively around the gear. This test can
applications require inspections beyond include the effect of tooth element variations,
those recommended in this Standard, such as a variation in tooth alignment (see
special inspection methods must be Appendix D). This Standard does not provide
negotiated prior to manufacturing the gear. tolerances relating these tesrs to gear quality.
3.3.2 Tooth Contact Pattern Inspections. 3.3.3 Inspection by Sound Test. Quality in
Checking tooth contact patterns with a mate or mated gears may also be evaluated by running the
master gear is a method of inspection of either gears in a suitable sound testing machine. The
assembled gears, or gears mounted on a gear acceptability is characterized by periodic variation
testing machine. It provides an indication of in sound during each revolution, or high levels of
compatible tooth shape, both up and down the noise. This Standard does not provide specific
tooth profile, and lengthwise on the tooth. It limits for this test, which is normally based on
evaluates that portion of the gear tooth surface experience.

Table 3-3
Minimum Number of Measurements for Typical Methods
Typical Minimum Number
Tolerance Measuring Method of Measurements
Runout Composite Action Test All Teeth
Ball Probe Check All Teeth
Index Measurement All Teeth

Pitch Variation Pitch Measurement All Teeth


Index Measurement All Teeth

Profile Profile Test 3 Teeth*


Tooth Alignment (lead) Lead Test 3 Teeth*

Total Composite Composite Action Test All Teeth


Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Composite Action Test All Teeth

Tooth Thickness Tooth Caliper 2 Teeth’


Addendum Comparator 2 Teeth*
Span Measurement 1 Place
Over Pins Measurement 1 Place
Test Radius Measurement All Teeth with
Rolling Master
2 Places with
Fixed Master *

l See paragraph 3.3 item (3) for spacing

ANSIIAGMA 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

NOTE: This Standard provides tolerances (1) Backlash allowances in tooth thickness
for unassembled gears only. The inspection (2) Materials furnished by the purchaser
of gearing mated in an assembly for a (3) Matching gears as sets
specific application is beyond the scope of (4) Master gears for composite measurement
this standard. (5) Replacement gearing
(6) Modified AGMA Quality Number
3.4 Additional Considerations. When specifying
the quality of a given gear, there are additional or The items fisted and other special
special considerations that should be reviewed. considerations should be reviewed and agreed
These considerations may include items such as: upon between manufacturer and purchaser.

Table 3-4
Radial Runout Inspection Control

Recommended Methods of Control*


AGMA Pitch Pitch Diameter, inches [mm)
Quality (Module)
Number e
0.75 100 200-F
(20) (14i?) (830) (20) $5) (65) (GO) (2540) (5080)
0.5 (50) 1 1 1 1
1 (25) 1 1 1 1 1
5 2 (12) 1 1 1 1 1 1
and 4 (6) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
6 8 (3) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

0.5 (50) 1 1 1 1
1 (25) 2-3 1 1 1 1
7 2 (12) 2,3 2,3 1, 1 1 1
thru 4 (6) 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 1 1
9 8 (3) 293 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 23
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2.3 2,3 293

0.5 (50) 2,3 2.3 233 2.3


1 (25) 2,3 2.3 2,3 273 2.3
10 2 (12) 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2.3 2.3
thru 4 (6) 2,3 2,3 2,3 2.3 2,3 293 23
15 8 (3) 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 23
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) 2,3 2.3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2.3 23

l Recommended Methods
Number 1 -Process Control
Number 2 - Measurement over a pm placed in a series of spaces while the part is rotated on its datum
axis
Number 3 - Composite action test
NOTE: When the runout control is accomplished by a composite action test with a gear of known
accuracy, and the total indicator reading is within the runout specification, the gear is acceptable. The
total indicator reading includes tooth element variations in addition to runout.

ANWAGMA 19 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 3-5
Pitch Variation Inspection Control
Recommended Methods of Control*
AGMA
Quality Pitch Pitch Diameter, inches (mm)
Xumber (Module) 0.75 100 200+
c-w t;o5) $0) (LO) $0) $5) (&O) (2540) (5080)
Oi5 13 1,2 1,2 :-i 1,2 1:;
I-
i-ml : ‘t6’2 1,2 1.2
1,2 1,2 1:2
:*; 112 112
:*; 192

9 186 (E) 1.2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1,2 ::; 1.2


to
20 (1.25) 1.2 1,2 1,2 1,2 1.2 1,2 1,2 192
0.5 (50) 1.2 172 1.2 1.2
1 (25) 1,2 1.2 1,2 1.2
10 1,2 1.2 1.2 ::i 1.2 192
and : ‘t6”: i i ; ; ; 1.2 172
11 186 (3) 2 2
to
20 (1.25) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

i (t62: 2 ; ; ; ; ; ;
E-u 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
15 1: (%) to
20 (1.25) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
* Recommended Methods: Number 1 - Process Control ; Number 2 - Pitch-Measuring Instruments
Table 3-6
Profile Tolerance Inspection Control
Recommended Methods of Control*
AGMA Pitch Diameter, inches (mm)
Quality Pitch
Number (Module) 0.75 1.5 100 200+
cw (40) $0) $0) $0) (62355, (1~~0) (2540) (5080)
172 1 1 1
1.2 1,2 1
8 1.2 1.2 1,2 : :
and
9 1:: (t6:)
(E) 1,2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
1,2 1: 1 :
to
20 (1.25) 1,2 1.2 1.2 1,2 1.2 1,2 1 1 1

1,2 :*;- 1,3 :s


10 ; z 1’3 ::3’ 113
and i (g{ 2 ; : 112 1:3 ::; 1,3
11 8 (3) 2 2 2 1.2 1,3 153
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) 2 2 2 2 2 1,2 1.3 1,3 193
193 1.3
12 : (t6:) i ; i 5 193 193 ::z
2 2 2 2 1.3 193
15 186 (I?;) to
20 (1.0) 2 2 2 2 2 2 193 193
* Recommended Methods: Number 1 - Process Control ; Number 2 - Involute-Measuring Instruments,
Number 3 - Portable or Indirect Measuring Methods

ANSIIAGMA 20 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 3 -7
Tooth Alignment Inspection Control
Recommended Methods of Control*
AGMA Pitch Diameter, inches (mm)
QUdtiy Pitch 0.75
Number (Module) (20) (&Y $0) (l&) (zb) (iii) (lz0) (it!& (5%($

05
1 (50)
(3 12 12 :5 :g :5

fhru : \gj) 12 12 :g :1 :5 :5 :5
10 8 (3) 12 12 19 12 12 13 13
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) u 12 12 12 12 192 1,3 13
2 2 2 2.
5
zru : \gy 2 2 :2 2; 2 ; 2

15 8 (3) 2 2” 2 2 2 i i
16 (1.5) to
20 (1.25) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

* RecommendedMethods
Number 1 - ProcessControI
Number 2 - Lead-Check&Instrument
Number 3 - Portable Measuring Insirmnent or Contact Pattern Checks
Table 3-8
Composite Action Inspection Control
Recommended Methods of Control*
AGMA Pitch Diameter, inches (mm)
Bualay Pitch
Number (Module) 7; ) (2!i (i$ (l&I) (ii\) (6?9 (l%O) (i%)
5 120 (0.2) to

120(0.2)
to
kru 20 (1-m 12 u 12 12 13
10 20 (125j to
2 (lm) 12 u 12 12 1,2 12 12
l.20 (0.2) to
Ll 20
10 (lz!q to 2 2 2 2 2
(2.5)
3.2 4 (6.0) 12 12 12 Id 12 12 12
20 (1.25) to
12 (2.0) 2 2 2 2 12 12 12

Erll 20
120 (0.2)to
(12!q 2 2 2 2 2
I.5

* Recommended Methods: Number 1 - Processcontrol; Number 2 - Composite Action Test

ANSUAGMA 21 2000-A88
. .

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 3-9
Tooth Thickness Inspection Control
Recommended Methods of Control
Tooth-Thickness
Tolerance, inches Method
(=> Number *Measuring Method
> 0.004 (0.098) 1 Process Control
2 Tooth Caliper
3 Addendum Comparator

4 Span Measurement
5 Measurement Over Pin (or Over Rack Shaped Blocks)
-g 0.004 (0.098) 6 Measurement of Center Distance at Tight Mesh
7 Measurement of Backlash at Operating Center

* A measuring method giving a higher degree of accuracy may be used to measure thickness tolerances of
any lower degree of accuracy.
3.4.1 Backlash. An individual gear does not tooth thickness of either or both gears of a
have backlash. Backlash is only present when one meshing pair, the center distance on which
gear mates with another. The theoretical backlash unassembled gears are to be operated must be
of a gear set is based on the tooth thickness of designed to provide adequate operating backlash.
each member in mesh, as well as the center The tolerance on center distance should be
distance at which the gears are assembled. The toward increasing backlash.
actual backlash will be a function of the tolerances 3.4.2 Material Furnished by the Purchaser.
on tooth thickness, runout, lead, profile, and Gear blank dimensions supplied by the purchaser
center distance. should be mutually agreed upon, which will permit
Some backlash must be present in all power the gear manufacturer to hold the tolerances for
transmitting gear meshes. It is required to assure the specified Quality Number.
that the nondriving sides of the teeth do not make Certain defects in the rough material or
contact. Backlash in a given mesh varies during turned blanks may be found only after some
operation as a result of changes in tooth element machining operations have been performed. For
variations, speed, temperarure, load, etc. example, inclusions, blow holes, or other defects
Adequate backlash should be present during static may appear in the material when cutting the teeth.
conditions, when it can be measured, to assure If defects are serious enough to cause rejections,
sufficient backlash under load at the most adverse the gear manufacturer must be reimbursed for the
operating condition. The amount of backlash work performed prior to the discovery of the
required depends upon the size of the gears and defect, unless previously agreed otherwise.
the application. Unless otherwise specified, the When heat treating operations are required,
maximum tooth thickness of a gear should be less the gear manufacturer shall assume the
than the theoretical value by the amount of responsibility for the final quality only when the
backlash allowance, including the influence of the material furnished is in accordance with the
elemental tolerances. The minimum tooth agreed upon material specifications.
thickness must be less than the maximum tooth
thickness by the tooth thickness tolerances. 3.4.3 Matching Gears as Sets. In some
applications, it is necessary to provide matched
The methods of determining the backlash sets. In such a case, the purchaser must agree on
required for individual applications are beyond the details of the additional specifications covering
the scope of this Standard (See AGMA 231). how the matching is to be verified. Applications
Unless an allowance for backlash is made in the requiring high accuracy gearing may necessitate

ANWAGMA 22 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

the matching, or modifying, of pinion and gear 3.4.7 Additional Criteria. Considerations
profiles and helix angles such that the matched set for certain gearing applications may require a high
is satisfactory for the application. Matched sets degree of accuracy in the angular position of the
can be provided, but usually at extra cost. teeth. For such applications, a specification of
the allowable amount of index variation should
NOTE: This Standard provides tolerances be established in addition to the Quality Number
for unassembled gears only. The inspection shown herein.
of gearing mated in an assembly for a 3.5 Interpretation of Data. The interpretation
specific application is beyond the scope of of data should be carefully conducted in
this Standard. However, for high accuracy accordance with the inspection methods indicated
gearing, the matching process can be fully in Section 9, and with the instruction of the
satisfactory even when individual element measuring equipment manufacturer. Unless
tolerances are exceeded. The matching otherwise contractually agreed upon, the
process for such gears sold as pairs assumes interpretation of data shall be the prerogative of
greater importance than the individual the gear manufacturer.
absolute measurements.
3.6 Acceptance Criteria. The tolerances,
3.44 Master Gears for Composite Action methods, and definitions contained in this
Tests. When a composite check is specified, a Standard prevail unless contractual agreements
master gear becomes necessary. A master gear is a between the manufacturer and purchaser contain
gear of known quality, designed specifically to specific exceptions.
mesh with the gear to be inspected for composite 3.6.1 Evaluation of Gear Quality. The
variation. The design, accuracy, and cost of a quality of a gear is determined by the lowest
master gear must be negotiated between the AGMA Quality Number obtained by evaluating
manufacturer and purchaser. Usually, a specific the gear using the criteria of this Standard.
master is required for each different production
gear design. hotiding or manufacturing a special 3.6.1.1 Element Method. If the gear is
master gear must be scheduled to be available to be accepted by individual element inspections,
when the manufactured gear is to be inspected by it is acceptable if the following variations do not
composite measurements. exceed the tolerances for the specified AGMA
Quality Number:
3.4.; Replacement Gearing. For
(1) Radial Runout Variation
replacement gearing, the performance obtained
(2) Pitch Variation
from the previous gearing should be evaluated. If (3) Profile Variation
satisfactory, replace with similar material and (4) Tooth Alignment (Formerly lead)‘
quality. If improved performance is desired, Variation
modifications of material, heat treatment, and
quality level should be considered. Consult with 3.6.1.2 Composite Method. If the gear is
the manufacturer for appropriate recom- to be accepted by means of a composite action
mendations. test (double flank), it is acceptable if the following
variations do not exceed the tolerances for the
3.4.6 Modified AGMA Quality Number. specified AGMA Quality Number:
Conditions may require that one or more of the
(1) Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Variation
individual elements or composite tolerances be of
(2) Total Composite Variation
a lower or higher Quality Number than the other
tolerances. In such cases, it is possible to modify NOTE: Within the body of this Standard,
the Quality Number to include a Quality Number all references to composite variation are
for each gear element or composite tolerance (see understood to apply to a double flank
Appendix A). composite action test.

ANSIfAGMA 23 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

4. Application of the -4GIvL4 AGMA Classification Number for a given set of


Classification System conditions is presented in Fig 4-l and Appendi..
A.
4.1.1 Quality Number (Required). Thi-ceen
4.1 Basis of Classification System. The AGMA
Quality Classes of accuracy are provided in this
Classification System is an alpha numeric code
Standard, numbered Q3 through Q15 in order of
which may consist of from one to three items;
increasing precision.
Quality Number, Tooth Thickness Tolerance
Code, and a Material and Hardness Code. The 4.1.2 Tooth Thickness Tolerance Codes
AGMA Classification Number shall consist of a (Optional). Tooth Thickness Tolerances Codes
prefix letter Q identifying the tolerance source, are provided in this Standard. These codes, A, B,
and a Quality Number identifying the specific C, and D, specify permissible variations in order
tolerances. An example of how to establish an of decreasing tolerance.

Tooth Material
Quality Thickness Designation and
Number Cpde Hardness Range
I

0 \
TYPICAL AGMA CLASS NUMBER + Q 8 HA 14
--
t
Tolerance Source Identifier l
Indicates the tolerances in AGMA 2000-A88
If not shown, tolerances in AGMA 390.01 and
390.02 apply. (See Sections 1 and 3.)
Quality Number l t
This integer (ranging from 3 through 15) identifies
the accuracy level of the tooth element tolerances.
(See Sections 4 and 5.)

Tooth Thickness Code l

This code letter (A through D) indicates the tooth


thickness tolerance. (See Section 4 and paragraph 6.2.4.)

Hyphen l
Required to separate tooth thickness and
materials designation letters.

Material Designation l
Two letter group indicating type of material.
(See Section 7.)

Treatment and Hardness Designator l

Indicates the type of heat treatment, and the hardness


range. (See Section 7.)

Fig 4-l IIlustration of AGMA Classification Number

ANSI/AGMA 24 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

4.1.3 Material Designation and Hardness (1) Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Tolerance


Code (Optional). The material designators (double flank), $r
consist of pairs of letters that symbolize the
(2) Total Composite Tolerance
generic material. The hardness is designated by a
pair of numerals indicating the hardness range for (double flank), sqT
that material.
The quality of a specific gear is designated by
4.2 The AGMA Quality Number. The AGMA
the lowest Quality Number obtained in relating the
Quality Number defines the accuracy of a gear in
measured variations to the tooth-to-tooth and
either of two methods:
total composite tolerances. In the case where
(1) The element (analytical) inspections individual Quality -Numbers have been specified
(2) The composite action test, double flank for each of the characteristics, the quality is
4.2.1 Methods of Evaluation. The designated by stating the values for both
evaluation of the AGMA Quality can be made by characteristics.
either of the above methods, but not both. When
4.3 Additional Characteristics. In certain
composite action tolerance is specified it shall be
applications there may be additional
in lieu of any element inspection.
characteristics that may require tolerances in
4.2.1.1 Element Inspection. When order to assure satisfactory performance. For
element inspection is used, the AGMA Quality of example, if dimensions for tooth thickness,
a gear is determined by evaluating the following tolerances or total index variation, or surface
individual tooth elements: finish tolerances are desirable in order to assure
(1) Radial Runout Tolerance, VrT satisfactory performance in special applications,
such dimensions and tolerances should appear on
(2) Allowable Fitch Variation, kVpA drawings or purchase specifications. Methods of
(formerly pitch tolerance) measuring some of these characteristics are
discussed in Section 9, and in the Appendices.
(3) Profile Tolerance, ST
4.4 Accuracy Tolerances. The tolerances for
(4) Tooth Alignment Tolerance, VJlr each item that govern the quality of gears are
(formerly lead tolerance) calculated by the equations given in Section 5,
The quality of a specific gear is designated by and presented in tabular form in Section 6.
the lowest quality number obtained in relating the Values outside the limits of either the tables
measured variations to the four element or the equations are beyond the scope of this
tolerances. In the case where individual Quality Standard, and should not be extrapolated. The
Numbers for each of the elements have been specific tolerances of such gears must be agreed
specified, the quality is designated by stating the upon by the buyer and the seller. Within the body
values for the elements specified. of the tables, values not shown may be obtained
4.2.1.2 Composite Action Test. If a gear by interpolation. However, the values obtained
is to be evaluated by the composite action test, the through interpolation may not be as accurate as
following tolerances are used to determine the those obtained using the equations, and should be
Quality Number of the gear: used only as approximations.

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.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

(THIS PAGE IS INTEXI’IONALLY LEFT BLANK)

ANSIIAGMA 26 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

5. Formulas for Gear Accuracy formulas, vtith the exception of tooth thickness,
Tolerances are to be rounded in ten-thousandths of an inch,
as follows:
0.0 < V <= 0.4: Round up to 0.4
5.1 Derivation. The following gear accuracy
tolerance formulas are reconsuucted from the 0.4 < V 2 10: If the second number to the right
AGMA 390.03 formuias and, except where
noted, derive the tolerances in ten-thousandths of of the decimal point is 2 3,
an inch. The levels of the tolerances correspond round up the tolerance to
directly to those originaIly shown in AGMA nearest 0.1. If the second
390.03 Gear Handbook. Tables and equations number to the right of the
are provided to determine tolerances. The decimal point is < 3, round down
equations allow the determination of tolerances to nearest 0.1.
for sires which are within the formuia limits.
10 < V <= 100: If the number just to the right
NOTE: Tolerance values which are not of decimal point is 2 3, round
covered by the gear size formula limits
provided in this document must be up the tolerance to nearest 1.
estabhshed by negotiations. If the number just to the right
of the decimal point is < 3,
5.2 Symbols Used in Tolerance Formulas. round down to the nearest 1.
The following symbols are used in the tolerance
100 < v: If the number just to the left
formulas:
F = face width, inches of the decimal point is 2 3,
L* = number corresponding to the code round up the tolerance to
letter for the tooth thickness nearest 10. If the number just to
tolerance grade. the left of the decimal point is
N = number of teeth < 3, round down to the nearest
10.
Ni = adjusted number of teeth,
(see Eq 2.1) where
v= the calculated value from the
Pnd = normal diameual pitch
equations 5-l to 5-15 in
Q = quality number ten-thousandths of an inch.
bT = tooth thickness tolerance
5.4 Runout, Radial, Tolerance, VrT.
v = pitch variation, total accumulated
ap
VcqT = composite tolerance, total (double Vfl = 58.0 (Aj)".238 (p&-o.722 (1.4)(~9
flank)
pitch variation, allowable
0% 5.1)
$A =
Formula Limits:
'qT = composite tolerance,
tooth-to-tooth Q Ni Pd
vrT = runout, radial, tolerance min. 3 6 0.5 for all Q values
vqr = tooth alignment tolerance
max. 8 for Q = 3 thru 5 and
'+T = profile tolerance 20 for Q = 6 thru 15
Y = tible
* = helix angle
5.3 Rounding of Tolerance Values. The gear See Table 6-l with values for Ni from 6 to
quality tolerance values calculated from the 200 teeth.

AKWAGhfA 27 2000-A88
.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

5.5 Pitch Variation, Allowable, 5.4. 5.8 Composite Tolerance, Tooth-to-Tooth


(Double Flank), V *
= lo.5 (Ni) o*177(Pnd)-o*401 (1.42) (‘-‘) 0
?$A
0% 5.2) For adjusted number of teeth, hit 20:
Formula Limits:
Q Ni ‘n.d vqT= 54.7 (N2-“-24 <pnd) -o.24 (1 . 4>(8-Q)
0.5 (Eq 5.6)
min. 6 6
max. 20

[ 1
l5 1200 or For adjusted number of teeth, 20 < ?$z 32:
(400 p,d),
whichever VqT= 38.2 @i)-o*13 (Pnd )-o’23 (l.4)(8-Q)
is smaller
m 5-7)
See Table 6-l with values for Ni from 6 to
200 teeth. For adjusted number of teeth, 32 c Ni:
5.6 Profile Tolerance, V+= . VqT= 25.0 (Pnd )-o.24 (1.4) (8-Q) (Eq 5.8)

0.154 -0.589 (8 - Q)
Vet= 21.5(Ni) (l-4) Formula Limits:
(‘nd )
0% 5.3)
Q Ni ‘nd
Formula Limits:
min. 5 6 12 for Q = 5
Q Ni Pd
0.5 for Q = 6 thru 14
mm. 8 6 0.5
20 for Q = 15
max. 20

i 1
max. 15 1200 or 120 for all Q values
(200 p&h
whichever
See Table 6-1 with values for Ni from 6 to is smaller
200 teeth.
See Table 6-2 with values of q from 6 to 200
5.7 Tooth Alignment Tolerance, (Formerly teeth.
Total Lead Tolerance), V$ T.
5.9 Composite Tolerance, TotaI (Double
For face widths, F 5 1.0 inch
Flank), sq T .
V$ T = t-O.00244 Q3 + 0.13638 Q *
_ 2.69177 Q + 18.9561 @q 5.4) For adjusted number of teeth, Ni <= 20.2, and
normal diametral pitch, Pnd => 20,
For face widths, 10 1 F > 1.0 inch
VqT = E-O.002 44 Q3 + 0.136 38 Q*
-2.69177 Q + 18.9561 (F)“-72
0% 5.5)
Formula Limits:

mm.
Q
8
Ni
6
P&
0.5
F
no mm.
1
max. 15 r 1200 or 1 20 10 inches
-[
O-075(20 - Pi)

pnd
(20 - Ni)
1(Eq
5-g)
See Table 6-l For Eq 5.9, 5.11 and 5. 12

ANSI/AG,MA 28 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Hehcal Gears

Y= (5.0337 iog,o pnd > - 0.5153 (Eq 5.10) For pitches, 6 2 pnd < 48

= 0.02634 (2) l-L, (pnd)-Oe8 (Eq 5.14)


For adjusted number of teeth, Ni 5 20.2, and 5

norma diametral pitch, cd< 20,


For pitches, 48 2 p 2 120
nd
= 0.01215 (2)‘-+ (Pn&-0*6
V = 15.0 fT
cqT (Eq 5.15)

x (1.16)
(10-H
(1.4)
(8-Q)
10%
j-11) Code A, L

Limits: Pnd
n
= 1

For adjusted number of teeth, N j > 20.2, and min. = 2 for all Q values
ail pitches:
max. = 5 for Q = 3 and 4
. 0.24 Pnd(-o*la = 8 for Q = 5
VcqT= 14.5 (-) =32 forQ=6
C
=120 forQz7andup

x (1-W
(10-Y)
(l-4)
(8-Q)
1 (Eq 5.12) Code B, L
n
Limits: P&,
= 2

Formula Limits: min. = 2 for all Q values

Q Ni - max.= 8 forQ=5
mm. 5 6 12 forQ=5 = 32 for Q = 6
0.5 for Q = 6 thru 14 = 120 for Q = 7 and up
20 for Q = 15
CodeC, Ln= 3
max. 15 1200 or 120 for all Q values

[ 1
(200 P&l’ Limits: Pnd,
whichever mm. = 2 for all Q values
is smaller
max. = 32 for Q = 6
See Table 6-2 with Mlues of Nj from 6 to 200 = 120 for Q = 7 and up
teeth.

Code D, Ln = 4

5.10 Tooth Thickness Tolerance, tT , inches. Limits: Pnd ,


min. = 8 for all Q values
For pitches, 0.5 2 Pnd < 6
max. = 120 for Q =7andup

‘T = 0.03769 (2)1-L, (P&-l.’ (Eq 5.13)


See Table 6-3.

A.NSI/AGMA 29 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

(THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK)

A??SIlAGMA 2000-A88
30
Gear ClassZcation and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

5M. Metric Formulas for Gear z = number of teeth


Accuracy Tolerances 2 I. = adjusted number of teeth,
(see Eq 2.lM)
5.1M Metric Derivation. B = helix angle

The following gear accuracy tolerance 5.3M Rounding of Metric Tolerance Values.
formulas are reconsmrcted from the AGMA The gear quality tolerance values calculated from
390.03 formulas and, except where noted, are the formulas with the exception of tooth thickness
meuicated to derive the tolerances in micrometers are to be rounded in micrometers as follows:
ow = 0.001 mm). The levels of the metric
Tolerances correspond directly to those originally 0.0 < v 51.0: Round up to nearest 0.1
shown in AGMA 390.03 Gear Handbook. In this 1.0 c v s 10: If the second number to the
Standard, see Section 5 for non-metric formulas.
right of the decimal point is
NOTE: Tolerance values which are not 2 3, round up the tolerance to
covered by the gear size formula limits
nearest 0.1. If the second
provided in this document must be
number to the right of the
established by negotiations.
dedmnl point is < 3, round down
5.2M Symbols Used in Metric Tolerance to nearest 0.1
Formulas. 10 c v s 100: If the number just to the right
The following symbols are used in the metric of decimal point is 1 3, round
tolerance formulas:
up the tolerance to nearest 1.
b = face width If the number just to the right
Ln = number corresponding to the code of the decimal point is < 3,
letter for the tooth thickness round down to the nearest 1.
tolerance grade
1oocv : If the number just to the left
= module, normaI
mn of the decimal point is 1 3,
e = quality number round up the tolerance to
tT = tooth thickness tolerance nearest 10. If the number just to
the left of the decimal point is
v = pitch variation, total accumulated
. =P 0, round down to the nearest
‘qT = composite tolerance tooth-to 10.
-tooth (double flank) where
VcqT = total composite tolerance (double v= the calcuiated value f?om the equations
-1 5.1M to 5.15M in micrometers otm>.
pitch variation, allowable 5.4M Metric Runout, Radial, Tolerance, Vr..
GA =
vrT = runout, radial, tolerance
VJ,T = tooth alignment tolerance Vfl = 14.255 (zi)o.238 (mn ) os722(l.4)(8Q)
- (Eq 5-W)
‘$T = profile tolerance

ANSUAGMA 31 2000-A8 8
.

Gear Classification aqd Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Formula Limits: 5.?M Metric Tooth Alignment Tolerance,


(Formerly Total Lead Tolerance), VW l

Q zi mn For face widths, b<= 25 mm


mm. 3 6 3 for Q = 3 thru 5
vtiT = j-O.0062 Q3+ 0.346 41Q2-6.8371 Q
1.25 for Q = 6 thru 15 T-

+ 48.1481
(Eq 5.4M)
1200 or 50 for all Q values For face widths, 2501 b > 25 mm
10 000
vip0.0974 [-0.0062 Q3+ 0.34641 Qc 6.8371 Q
I mn >
T

+ 48.1481 bo.72
whichever
@ smaller_
Formula
. Limits:
See Table 6-1M. Q ti mn b
5.5M Metric Pitch Variation Aliowable, VpA. mm. 8 6 1.25 no min.
50 250 mm
0.177~~,~.401~~~~~~ (8-Q)
+ VpA = 7.289 (z i)
0% 5.2M)
Formula Limits:
Q zi m,n See Table 6-1M.
1
whichever
is smaller.

min.
max.
8

(1 >1
10mn

15 whichever
1200 or
000
6
50
1.25 5.8M Metric Composite Tolerance,
Tooth-to-Tooth (Double Flank), VqT -

For adjusted number of teeth, Zi 2 20:


-0.24
b smallerJ - Vqr= 63.92 (zi> (mn )0’24(1.4)(84’
(Es 5.W
See Table 6-1M with values for z i from 6 to
200 teeth. For adjusted number of teeth, 20 < zi s 32:

= 46.11 6j)‘0.13 (nh)“.23(l.4) (8-Q)


5.6M Metric Profile Tolerance, V+T - v4T
0% 5.7W

V+T= 8.125 (~j)o’15~(~n~o~58g(~~~~(84) For adjusted number of teeth, 32 < Zi :


._
0% 5.3M) (Es 5.8M)
‘qT = 29 . 22 (mn )os24 (1 . 4) (84)
Formula Limitsz
Q zi mn Formula Limits:
. Q ‘i mn
mm. 8 6 1.25
mm. 5 6 0.2 for all Q values
max.
I(10
000
15 -1200 or
)1
(10 000 )
50
2 for Q = 5

1 4 mn
whicheve
i issmallerI
50 for Q = 6 tbru 14
1.25 for Q = 15

See Table 6-1M with values for zf from 6 to SeeTable6-2Mwithvaluesof zifrom6to


200 teeth. 200 teeth.

ANSIIAGMA 32 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

5.9M Metric Composite Tolerance, Total 5.10M Metric Tooth Thickness Tolerance, t T
(Double Flank), v values are in millimeters (mm).
cqT *
For adjusted number of teeth, zi s 20.2, and For modules, 502% ~4.
normaI module, mn s 1.27:
fT= 0.0377(2)1-Ln(mn) (Eq 5.13w

1
(O-15)
V = 38.1 (0.7953 m,) o’1477 mn For modules 4 2 m n > 0.5
w [

x
C
(l.16)(10-~(l.4)(84)
1 f~ 0.0503(2)1-LR (m,)Os8

For modules 0.5 2 m R > 0.2


(Eq 5.1&l)

- 0.15 h7t -1.27 )(20+


10%
5.9M) tcr= 0.0443 (2+-L,
1
(m,) OS6 0% 5.15M)

For Eq 5.9M,5.llM and 5.12M Code A, L, = 1


Limits: mn*
Y= 6.5562 - (5.0337 log,, mn) (Eq 5.10M)
max = 50 for alI Q values

min. =5forQ=3and4
For adjusted number of teeth, z i 2 20.2, and
normal modules, mn > 1.27: = 3 for Q = 5
= 0.8 for Q = 6
0.1477 rntsl> l,$lO-Yjj = 0.2 for Q = 7 and up
V mn) .
cqT= J
Code B, Ln =2

max = 12 for alI Q &es

For adjusted number of teeth, z i> 20.2, and all min. = 3 for Q = 5
modules; = 0.8 for Q = 6
= 0.2 for Q = 7 and up
Zi mn)
0.1477mze1'
1 Code c, L,= 3
(8-Q) Limits: m,,
x (1 . l6)(1o-y) (1.4)
1 (Es 5.12M) max. = 12 for all Q &es
Formula Limits: min. = 0.8 for Q = 6
e z. mn = 0.2 for Q = 7 and up
mm. 5 6' 0.2 for all Q Values
Code D, Ln= 4
max. 15 2 for Q = 5
Limits: mn,
50 for Q = 6 thru 14
max. = 3 for alI Q &es
1.25 ‘for Q = 15
-. min. 0.2 for Q = 7 and up
See Table 6-2M with values of z i from 6 to
200 teeth. See Table 6-3M.

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ANSIiAGMA 34 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

6. Accuracy Tolerance Tables for Gears 6.2.2 Allowable Pitch Variation, V The
p.4 *
allowable values of pitch variation in Table 6-l
This Section provides a series of element are plus or minus allowances.
accuracy tolerance tables of the various Quality 6.2.3 Tooth Alignment Tolerance, V
Numbers for spur and helical gears. w
Tooth Alignment Tolerance (formerly Total Lead
6.1 Use of Tables. The accuracy tolerance Tolerance) is limited to ten (10) inches of face
tables derived from the equations provide direct width. The Mlues are the total tolerance band
reading of the tolerance for selected diametral width, in the normal plane, of the tooth ali-nunent
pitches, and a range of stepped increments of n-ace.
adjusted number of teeth, Ni (see Eq 2.1), for a 6.2.4 Tooth Thickness Tolerance, t T. The
given gear. The values in the Tables have been tooth thickness tolerance as specified by the
rounded in accordance with Section 5.3. If any AG,MA Class Number is applied to the transverse
intermediate pitch, or an intermediate adjusted circular tooth thickness. If tooth thickness is
number of teeth in the gear is involved, the specified by a single value, it is understood to be
tolerance may be computed from the tolerance the maximum value and the tolerance is
formulas given in Section 5. subtracted from it to obtain the minimum tooth
thickness. The AGMA tooth thickness tolerance
6.2 Accuracy Tolerances.
codes (A, B, C or D as listed in Table 6-3) should
6.2.1 Accuracy Tolerance Tables. The be applied separately from the selection of
following tables are given for the selection of AGhL4 Quality Number tolerances. In many
accuracy tolerances on spur and helical gear applications, allowing a larger range of tooth
teeth: thickness tolerance or operating backlash will not
affect the performance or load capacity of highly
Table 6-l - Radial Runout Tolerance, YT accurate gears, and may allow more economical
Allowable Pitch Variation, V manufacturing. A tight tooth thickness tolerance
PA should not be used unless absolutely necessary,
Profile Tolerance, v
W since it has a strong influence on manufacturing
Tooth Alignment Tolerance, V$T cost (see AGh4A 231).
Table 6-2 - Tooth-To-Tooth Composite 6.2.5 VaIues in the Tolerance Tables. The
Tolerance, v tolerance values specified in Tables 6-l and 6-2
qT are in ten-thousandths of an inch. The tolerance
Total Composite Tolerance, V values in Table 6-3 are in inches. The tables
W
provide tolerances for gear sires ranging from 6
Table 6-3 - Tooth Thickness Tolerance, rT through 200 teeth.

ANSIIAGMA 35 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, VT*
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Tee& (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teelb (Ni =N!COS @)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q3 0.5 RUNOUT 790 850 890 930 1000 1050 1100 1140 1180 1210 1240 1270 1290 1320 1340 1370 1460 1.540 1820
1.0 RUNOUT 480 510 540 570 610 640 670 690 710 730 7.50 770 790 800 820 830 890 940 1100
1.5 RUNOUT 360 380 400 420 4.50 480 500 520 530 550 560 570 590 600 610 620 660 700 820
2.0 RUNOUT 290 310 330 340 370 390 400 420 430 450 460 470 480 490 490 500 540 570 670
3.0 RUNOUT 220 230 250 260 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 400 420 500
4.0 RUNOUT 180 190 200 210 220 240 250 260 260 270 280 280 290 300 300 310 330 350 410
6.0 RUNOUT 130 140 150 160 170 180 180 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 240 260 300
8.0 RUNOLT 110 120 120 130 140 140 150 160 160 170 170 170 180 180 180 190 200 210 250

Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni= Nkos J')
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 2OO

Q? 0.5 RUNOUT 560 600 640 670 710 750 790 810 840 860 890 910 930 940 960 980 1040 1100 1300
1.0 RUNOUT 340 370 390 400 430 460 480 490 530 520 540 550 560 570 580 590 630 670 790
1.5 RUNOUT 260 270 290 300 320 340 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 440 470 500 590
2.0 RUNOUT 210 220 240 2.50 260 280 290 300 310 320 330 330 340 350 350 360 390 410 480
3.0 RUNOUT 160 170 180 180 200 210 220 220 230 240 240 250 260 260 260 270 290 300 360
4.0 RUNOUT 130 140 140 150 160 170 180 180 190 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 230 250 290
6.0 RUNOUT 94 100 110 110 120 130 130 140 140 1.50 150 150 160 160 160 lk0 180 180 220
8.0 RUNOUT 76 82 86 90 96 100 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 150 180

Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni=N/cos q)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No- Pad Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q50.5 RUNOUT 400 430 460 480 510 540 560 580 600 620 630 650 660 670 690 700 750 790 930
1.0 RUNOUT 250 260 280 290 310 330 340 350 370 380 380 390 400 410 420 420 450 480 560
1.5 RUNOUT 180 200 210 220 230 240 260 260 270 280 290 290 300 310 310 320 340 360 420
2.0 RUh'OUT 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 220 230 230 240 240 250 250 260 280 290 340
3.0 RUNOUT 110 120 130 130 140 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 180 190 190 190 210 220 260
4.0 RUNOUT 90 96 100 110 120 120 130 13O 140 140 140 150 150 1.50 150 160 170 180 210
6.0 RUNOUT 67 72 76 79 85 89 93 97 100 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 130 160
8.0 RUNOUT 55 58 62 64 69 73 76 79 81 83 86 87 89 91 93 94 100 110 130

ANWAGMA 36 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, 2Vp~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (A’: = Nlcos q)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd V-r= 6 8 10 I2 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

46 0.5 RUNOUT 290 310 330 340 360 380 400 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 530 560 660
PITCH+/- 39. 41. 42. 44. 46. 48. 49. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 56. 57. 58. 61. 63. 72.

1.0 RUNOUT 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 280 290 290 300 300 320 340 400
PITCH+/- 29. 31. 32. 33. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 44. 46. 48. 54.

1.5 RUNOUT 130 140 1.50 160 170 180 180 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 220 230 240 260 300
PITCH+/- 25. 26. 27. 28. 30. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 37. 39. 41. 46.

2.0 RUNOUT 110 120 120 130 140 140 150 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 180 180 200 210 250
PITCH+/- 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. 32. 32. 33. 33. 3s. 36. 41.

3.0 RUNOUT 79. 85. 89. 93. 100 110 110 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 140 150 160 180
PITCH+/- 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 30. 31. 35.

4.0 RUNOUT 64. 69. 72. 76. 81. 85. 89. 93. 96. 98. 100 100 110 110 110 110 120 130 150
PITCH+/- 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 27. 28. 31.

6.0 RUNOUT 48. 51. 54. 57. 61. 64. 67. 69. 71. 73. 7.5. 77. 79. 80. 81. 83. 89. 93- 110
PITCH+/- 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. 27.

8.0 RUNOUT 39. 42. 44. 46. 49. 52. 54. 56. 58. 60. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 72. 76. 90.
PITCH+/- 13. 13. 14. 14. IS. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 24.

10. RUNOUT 33. 36. 37. 39. 42. 44. 46. 48. 49. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 61. 65. 76.
PITCH+/- 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. lg. 22.

12. RUNOUT 29. 31. 33. 34. 37. 39. 40. 42. 43. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 49. 50. 54. 57. 67.
PITCH+/- 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 20.

16. RUNOUT 24. 25. 27. 28. 30. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 40. 41. 44. 46. 54.
PITCH+/- 9.6 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 38.

20. RUNOUT 20. 22. 23. 24. 25. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 37. 39. 46.
PITCH+/- 8.8 9.2 9.6 9.9 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. lS. 16.

ANSSIAGMA 37 2000-A88
.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, 1; T; Allowable Pitch Variation. kr;l.~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
-.
Number of Teeth (N): for Helical G-an, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (h’; = ~Vlcos $)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tme 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 26 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 so 100 200

Q7 0.5 RUNOUT 210 220 230 240 260 260 290 300 310 320 320 330 340 350 350 360 3SO 400 470
PITCH+/- 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 37. 3s. 39. 39. 40 40. 41. 43 45 50.

1.0 RUNOUT 130 140 140 1.50 160 170 180 180 190 190 200 200 210 210 210 2:O 230 240 290
PITCH+/- 21. 22. 23. 23. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 33 34 3s

1.5 RUNOUT 93. 100 110 110 120 130 130 140 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 160 1’0 1SO 220
PITCH+/- 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 24 25 25 25. 26. 26. 26. 2s. 29 33

2.0 RLJNOUT 76. 81. 85. 89. 95. 100 110 110 110 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 150 1SD
PITCH+/- 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 25. 26 20

3.0 RUNOUT 56. 60. 64. 67. 71. 75. 78. 81. 84 86. 89. 91. 93. 94. 96. 9s. 110 110 130
PITCH+/- 13. 14. 1s. 1.5 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 25.

4.0 RUNOUT 46. 49. 52. 54. 58. 61. 64 66. 68. 70. 72 74. 75. 77 78. 79. 85. 90. 110
PITCH+/- 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. IS. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 22

6.0 RUNOUT 34. 37. 39. 40. 43. 46. 48. 49. 51. 52. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 63. 67. 79
PITCH+/- 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14 1.5. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 19.

8.0 RUNOUT 28. 30. 31. 33. 35. 37. 39. 40. 41 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 47 46. 52. 54. 64.
PITCH+/- 8.9 9.4 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12 12. 13. 13. 13 13 13. 14 14 15. 17.

10. RUNOLT 24. 25. 27. 28. 30. 32. 33 34. 35. 36. 37. 3s. 39. 40. 40. 41. 44. 46. 55
PITCH+/- 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.7 lo 11. 11. 11 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12 13 14 15.

12. RUNOUT 21 22. 24. 25. 26. 28. 29. 30. 31 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36 39. 41. 48
PITCH+/- 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.6 9.0 9.4 9.7 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 14

16. RUNOUT 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 23. 24. 24. 25 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29 31. 33. 39.
PITCH+/- 6.8 7.1 7.4 7.6 8.0 8.4 8.6 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. IO. 11. 11. 13.

20. RUNOUT IS. 16. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 27. 28. 33.
PITCH+/- 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.0 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.8 10. 12.

ANWAGMA 38 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, ?%A; Proffie Tolerance, V+
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Nj = Nlcos J’)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd TYPe 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q8 0.5 RUNOUT 150 160 170 170 190 200 210 210 220 230 230 240 240 250 250 260 270 290 340
PITCH+/- 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 30. 32. 36.
PROFILE 43. 45. 46. 48. 50. 51. 53. 54. 5.5. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 60. 61. 64. 66. 73.

1.0 RUNOUT 89. 95. 100 110 110 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 150 1.50 150 160 170 180 210
PITCH+/- 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 27.
PROFILE 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 44. 49.

1.5 RUNOUT 66. 71. 75. 78. 84. 88. 92. 96. 99. 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 150
PITCH+/- 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 1.5. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 23.
PROFILE 23. 24. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 35. 38.

2.0 RUNOUT 54. 58. 61. 64. 68. 7’2. 75. 78. 80. 83. 85. 87. 89. 90. 92. 93. 100 110 130
PITCHt/- 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 21.
PROFILE 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. 24. 25. 2.5. 25. 26. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 33.

3.0 RUNOUT 40. 43. 46. 48. 51. 54. 56. 58. 60. 62. 63. 65. 66. 67. 69. 70. 75. 79. 93.
PITCH+/- 9.3 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. IS. 17.
PROFILE 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 26.

4.0 RUNOUT 33. 3.5. 37. 39. 41. 44. 46. 47. 49. 50. 51. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 61. 64. 75.
PITCH+/- 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 16.
PROFILE 13. 13. 14. 14. IS. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20. 22.

6.0 RUNOUT 25. 26. 28. 29. 31. 33. 34. 3.5. 36. 38. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 45. 48. 56.
PITCH+/- 7.0 7.4 7.7 8.0 8.4 8.7 9.0 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.
PROFILE 9.9 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 1s. 15. 17.

8.0 RUNOUT 20. 21. 23. 24. 25. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 37. 39. 46.
PITCHtl- 6.3 6.6 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.9 11. 12.
PROFILE 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.3 9.7 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14.

10. RUNOUT 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 23. 24. 2.5. 25. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 31. 33. 39.
PITCHt/- 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.4 11.
PROFILE 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 13.

12. RUNOUT 1.5. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 28. 29. 34.
PITCH+/- 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.9
PROFILE 6.6 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.8 10. 11.

16. RUNOUT 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 24. 28.
PITCH+/- 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.5 7.8 8.8
PROFILE 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.3 8.6 9.5

20. RUNOUT 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 1.5. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 24.
PITCH+/- 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.9 7.2 8.1
PROFILE 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.3 7.5 8.3

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), VJ~T

QS FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 4.9 4.9 5.6 6.6 8.1 9.5 11.0 13.0 16.0 18.0 22.0 26.0

&VSI/AGMA 39 2000-A88
.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spu and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, _++A; Proftie Tolerance, V+
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)

Number of Teeth (Nf ; for HeIicaJ Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos q)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q9 0.5 RUNOUT 110 110 120 130 130 140 150 1.50 160 160 170 170 170 180 180 180 200 210 240
PITCH+/- 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. ‘18. 18. 19. l9. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 25.
PROFILE 31. 32. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 44. 46. 47. 52.

1.0 RUNOUT 64. 68. 72. 75. 80. 85. 88. 92. 95. 97. 100 100 110 110 110 110 120 130 150
PITCH+/- 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. IS. 15. 1.5. IS. 16. 17. 19.
PROFILE 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 2?. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 31. 35.

1.5 RUNOUT 48. 51. 54. 56. 60. 63. 66. 69. 71. 73. 75. 76. 78. 79. 81. 82. 88. 93. 110
PITCH+/- 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 16.
PROFILE 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 25. 28.

2.0 RUNOUT 39. 41. 44. 46. 49. 51. 54. 56. 58. 59. 61. 62. 63. 65. 66. 67. 71. 75. 89.
PITCH+/- 7.7 8.1 8.4 8.7 9.2 9.5 9.8 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 15.
PROFILE 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 23.

3.0 RUNOUT 29. 31. 33. 34. 36. 38. 40. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 53. 56. 66.
PITCH+/- 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.8 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9-3 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 11. 11. 12.
PROFILE 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 18.

4.0 RUNOUT 24. 25. 27, 28. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 40. 41. 43. 46. 54.
PITCH+/- 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.8 9.2 9.6 11.
PROFILE 9.0 9.4 9.7 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 16.

6.0 RUNOL’T 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 32. j4. 40.
PITCH+/- 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.8 8.2 9.2
PROFILE 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 12.

8.0 RUNOLI 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21, 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 26. 28. 33.
PI-.KH+/- 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 7.0 7.3 8.2
PROFILE 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8-S 8.9 9.2 10.

10. RUNOUT 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 24. 28.
PITCH+/- 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.5
PROFILE 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.8 8.1 9.0

12. RUNOUT 11. 11. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17.’ 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 20. 21. 25.
PITCH+/- 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.2 7.0
PROFILE 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.7 7.0 7.2 8.1

16. RUNOUT 8.6 9.2 9.7 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 20.
PITCH+/- 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.5 6.2
PROFILE 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.8

20. RUNOUT 7.3 7.8 8.3 8.6 9.2 9.7 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 17.
PITCH+/- 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.9 5.0 5.7
PROFILE 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.4 6.0

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), V$T

Q9 FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 4.0 4.0 4.6 5.4 6.6 7.8 8.8 11.0 13.0 15.0 18.0 21.0

ANSUAGMA 40 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
EIement Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, kVp~; Profile Tolerance, Vl
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos q)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd fn= :6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Ql .o .5 RUNOUT 75. 80. 85. 88. 95. 100 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 150 170
PITCH+/- 9.5 30. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 1.5’. 16. 18.
PROFILE 22. 23. 24. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 31. 33. 34. 38.

1.0 RUNOUT 46. 49. 51. 54. 57. 61. 63. 66. 68. 70. 71. 73. 75. 76. 77. 79. 84. 89. 110
PITCH+/- 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 14.
PROFILE IS. 15. 16. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 25.

1.5 RUNOUT 34. 36. 38. 40. 43. 45. 47. 49. 51. 52. 53. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 63. 66. 78.
PITCH+I- 6.1 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.6 10. 12.
PROFILE 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 20.

2.0 RUNOUT 28. 30. 31. 33. 35. 37. 38. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 51. 54. 64.
PITCH+/- 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.6 8.9 10.
PROFILE 9.6 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 17.

3.0 RUNOUT 21. 22. 23. 24. 26. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 38. 40. 47.
PITCH+I- 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.3 7.6 8.6
PROFILE 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.4 8.8 9.1 9.4 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.

4.0 RuNOUT 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 31. 33. 39.
PITCH+/- 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.6
PROFILE 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.5 9.9 11.

6.0 RUNOUT 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. 29.
PITCH+/- 3.5 3.7 -3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 S-1 5.2 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.5
PROFILE 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.7

8.0 RUNOUT 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 20. 23.
PXTCH+/- 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.8
PROFILE 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.6 7.3

10. RUNOUT 8.6 9.2 9.7 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. IS. 16. 17. 20.
PITCH+/- 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.3
PROFILE 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.4

12. RUNOUT 7.6 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.5 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. IS. 18.
PITCH+/- 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.9
PROFILE 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.8

16. RUNOUT 6.1 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.8 8.2 8.5 8.9 9.1 9.4 9.6 9.9 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 14.
PITCH+/- 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.4
PROFILE 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.9

20. RUNOUT 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.7 10. 12.
PITCH+/- 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 4.0
PROFILE 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.3

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), &T

QlO FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 3.3 3.3 3.7 4.4 5.3 6.3 7.2 8.8 11.0 12.0 15.0 17.0

ANWAGMA 2000-A88
.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V, T ; Allowable Pitch Variation, ~V,A; Profile. Tolerance, V+
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)

Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, LJ.& Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos e)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Me 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Qll .5 RUNOUT 54. 57. 61. 63. 68. 71. 74. 77. 80. 82. 84. 86. 88. 89. 91. 93. 99. 110 130
PITCH+/- 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. 11. 11. 13.
PROFILE 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 24. 27.

1.0 RUNOUT 33. 35. 37. 38. 41. 43. 45. 47. 48. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 60. 63. 75.
PITCH+/- 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.0 8.3 9.4
PROFILE 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 18.

1.5 RUNOUT 24. 26. 27. 29. 31. 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 45. 47. 56.
PITCH+/- 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.8 7.1 8.0
PROFILE 8.2 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.5 9.8 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 14.

2.0 RUNOUT 20. 21. 22. 23. 25. 26. 28. 29. 29. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 37. 39. 45.
PITCH+/- 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.3 7.1
PROFILE 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.7 8.0 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 10. 11. 12.

3.0 RUNOUT 15. 16. 17. 17. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 27. 29. 34.
PITCHiI- 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 47 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.4 6.0
PROFILE 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.7 8.1 8.4 9.3

4.0 RUNOUT 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 23. 28.
PITCH+/- 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.4
PROFILE 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.9

6.0 RUNOUT 8.9 9.5 10. 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 18. 21.
PITCH+/- 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.6
PROFILE 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.4 5.6 6.2

8.0 RUNOUT 7.2 7.7 8.2 8.5 9.1 9.6 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 17.
PITCH+/- 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 4.1
PROFILE 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.2

10. RUNOUT 6.2 6.6 7.0 7.3 7.8 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 14.
PITCH+/- 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.7
PROFILE 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.6

12. RUNOUT 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 7.8 8.0 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 10. 11. 13.
PITCH+/- 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.5
PROFILE 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.6 3.7 4.1

16. RUNOUT 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.6 10.
PITCH+/- 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.1
PROFILE 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5

20. RUNOUT 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.9 7.3 8.6
PITCH+/- 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8
PROFILE 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.7 3.1

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), QT

Qll FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.5 4.3 5.0 5.8 7.1 8.3 9.5 12.0 14.0

ANWAGMA 42 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, ~V$A; Profile Tolerance, VI
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth 8; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Xi = Nlcos $)
Q Pitch ToIerance
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

412 .5 RUNOUT 38. 41. 43. 45. 48. 51. 53. 55. 57. 59. 60. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66. 71. 75. 88.
PITCH+/- 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.4 7.7 8.7
PROFILE 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 1.5. 1.5. 1.5. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 19.

1.0 RUNOUT 23. 25. 26. 27. 29. 31. 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 39. 40. 40. 43. 4.5. 53.
PITCH+/- 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.6
PROFILE 7.4 7.7 8.0 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.

1.5 RUNOUT 17. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 32. 34. 40.
PITCH+/- 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.6
PROFILE 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.7 9.0 10.

2.0 RUNOUT 14. IS. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 26. 28. 33.
PITCH+/- 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 5.0
PROFILE 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.6 8.4

3.0 RUNOUT 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 20. 21. 24.
PITCH+/- 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.3
PROFILE 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.6

4.0 RUNOU’T 8.5 9.1 9.6 10. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 20.
PITCH+/- 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.8
PROFILE 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.9. 5.0 5.6

6.0 RUNOUT 6.4 6.8 7.2 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.8 9.2 9.5 9.7 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13. IS.
PITCH+/- 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.2
PROFILE 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.4

8.0 RUNOUT 5.2 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.2 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.6 10. 12.
PITCH+/- 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.9
, PROFILE 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.7

10. RUNOUT 4.4 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.6 10.
PITCH+/- 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.6
PROFILE 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.3

12. RUNOUT 3.9 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.6 6.7 7.1 7.5 8.9
PITCH+/- 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5
PROFILE 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9

16. RUNOUT 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.8 6.1 7.2
PITCH+/- 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.2
PROFILE 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.5

20. RUNOUT 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.2 6.1
PITCH+/- 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0
PROFILE 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), WT

412 FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 2.1 2.1 2.4 2.8 3.4 4.0 4.6 5.7 6.6 7.6 9.3 11.0

ANSUAGMA 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, ~V$A; Profile Tolerance, VI
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = N/cos $)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. $ Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

413 .5 RUNOUT 27. 29. 31. 32. 35. 36. 38. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 47. 51. 53. 63.
PITCH+/- 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.4 6.2
PROFILE 7.9 8.3 8.6 8.8 9.2 9.6 9.8 10. 10. II. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 14.

1.0 RUNOUT 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 29. 31. 32. 38.
PITCH+/- 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.1
PROFILE 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.9 8.1 9.1

1.5 RUNOUT 13. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24. 29.
PITCH+/- 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5 4.0
PROFILE 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.2 6.4 7.1

2.0 RUNOUT 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 20. 23.
PITCH+/- 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5
PROFILE 3.5 3.7 3.8 i.9 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.2 5.4 6.0

3.0 RUNOUT 7.5 8.0 8.5 8.8 9.5 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. IS. 17.
PITCH+/- 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.0
PROFILE 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.8

4.0 RUNOUT 6.1 6.5 6.9 7.2 7.7 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.3 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 14.
PITCH+/- 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.7
PROFILE 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.6 4.0

6.0 RUNOUT 4.6 4.9 5.1 -5.4 5.7 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.4 8.9 11.
PITCH+/- 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.3
PROFILE 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 3.2

8.0 RLJNOUT 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.8 7.2 8.5
PITCH+/- 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.0
PROFILE 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.7

10. RUNOUT 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.7 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.8 6.1 7.2
PITCH+/- 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9
PROFILE 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.3

12. RUNOUT 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.4 6.3
PITCH+/- 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7
PROFILE 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.1

16. RUNOUT 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.4 5.2
PITCH+/- 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5
PROFILE 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.8

20. RUNOUT 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.5 3.7 4.4
PITCH+/- 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4
PROFILE 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), QT

413 FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 1.7 1.7 1.9 2.2 2.7 3.2 3.7 4.5 5.3 6.0 7.4 8.7

ANWAGMA 44 2000-A88
Gear Ciassification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T; Allowable Pitch Variation, +I$A; Proffie Tolerance, V+
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for HeIical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = N/cos $)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

414 .5 RTJN0TJ-T 20. 21. 22. 23. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 36. 38. 45.
PITCH+/- 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.3
PROFILE 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.5 8.7 9.7

1.0 RUNOUT 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 23. 27.
PITCH+/- 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.3
PROFILE 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.5

1.5 RUNOUT 8.8 9.4 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 17. 17. 20.
PITCH+/- 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8
PROFILE 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.4 4.6 5.1

2.0 RUNOUT 7.2 7.7 8.1 8.5 9.1 9.5 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 17.
PITCH+/- 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5
PROFILE 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.3

3.0 RUNOUT 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.8 7.1 7.4 7.7 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.9 11. 12.
PITCH+/- 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1
PROFILE 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.4

4.0 RUNOUT 4.4 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.8 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 8.1 8.5 10.
PITCH+/- 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9
PROFILE 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.9

6.0 RUNOUT 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 6.0 6.3 7.5
PITCH+/- 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.6
PROFILE 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.3

8.0 RUNOLIT 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.2 6.1
PITCH+/- 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4
PROFILE 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.9

10. RUNOUT 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.2 4.4 5.2
PITCH+/- 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3
PROFILE 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.7

12. RUNOUT 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.5
PITCH+/- 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.2
PROFILE 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.5

16. RUNOUT 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.7
PITCH+/- 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1
PROFILE 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3

20. RUNOUT 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.1
PITCH+/- 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 O-70.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0
PROFILE 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), QT

014 FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 1.3 1.3 1.5 1.8 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.9 6.9

ANSIIAGMA 45 2000-A88
. .

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-l
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V,T ; Allowable Pitch Variation, +Vp.4; Profile Tolerance, Vl
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth Q; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos *)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Ql5.S RUNOUT 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 26. 27. 32.
PSTCHt/- 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 3.1
PROFILE 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.3 7.0
1.0 RUNOUT 8.4 9.0 9.5 10. 11. il. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 20.
PITCH+/- 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.3
PROFILE 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.6
1.5 RUNOUT 6.3 6.8 7.1 7.4 8.0 8.4 8.8 9.1 9.4 9.7 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 15.
PITCH+/- 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0
PROFILE 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.7
2.0 RUNOUT 5.1 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.5 6.8 7.1 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.5 10. 12.
PITCHt/- 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8
PROFILE 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.1
3.0 RUNOUT 3.8 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.8 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.1 7.5 8.8
PITCH+/- 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 i.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.5
PROFILE 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.4
4.0 RUNOUT 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.8 6.1 7.2
PITCH+/- 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3
PROFILE 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1
6.0 RUNOUT 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.3 4.5 5.3
PITCH+/- 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.1
PROFILE 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6
8.0 RUNOUT 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3,0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.7 4.3
PITCH+/- 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0
PROFILE 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.4
10. RUNOUT 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.7
PXTCH+I- 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9
PROFILE 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2
12. RUNOUT 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.2
PI-KIW- 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.9
PROFILE 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1
16. RUNOUT 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.6
PITCHt/- 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8
PROFILE 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.9
20. RUNOUT 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.3
PITCH+/- 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7
PROFILE 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), VJrr

Ql5 FACEWIDTH 0.1 1.0 1.2 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 10.0
TOLERANCE 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7 2.0 2.3 2.8 3.3 3.8 4.6 5.4

ANSIIAGMA 46 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V,,, ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos @)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd fue 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q5 12. TOTAL 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 95. 98. 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 140
T-TO-T 54. 50. 48. 46. 43. 40. 39. 39. 38. 38. 38. i8. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38.
16. TOTAL 83. 83. 83. 83. 83. 83. 82. 84. 86. 88. 89. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 98. 100 100 110 110 120
T-TO-T SO. 47. 45. 43. 40. 38. 37. 36. 36. 35. 3. 35. 35. 35. 35. 3.5. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35.
20. TOTAL 74. 14. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 76. 77. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 87. 89. 90. 92. 98. 100
T-TO-T 48. 4.5. 42. 40. 38. 36. 35. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34.
24. TOTAL 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 69. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 81. 82. 84. 89. 93.
T-TO-T 46. 43. 40. 39. 36. 34. 34. 33. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32.
32. TOTAL 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 59. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 72. 73. 77. 80.
T-TO-T 43. 40. 38. 36. 34. 32. 31. 31. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.

40. TOTAL 55. 55. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 55. 56. 57. 57. 58. 59. 60. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 69. 72.
T-TO-T 40. 38. 36. 34. 32. 30. 30. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29.

48. TOTAL 51. SO. 50. SO. 50. 50. 49. so. 51. 52. 53. 54. 54. 55. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 63. 66.
T-TO-T 39. 36. 34. 33. 31. 29. 29. 28. 28. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27.

64. TOTAL 45. 4.5. 45. 44. 44. 44. 44. 44. 4.5. 46. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. 49. 50. 51. 52. 52. 55. 57.
T-TO-T 36. 34. 32. 31. 29. 27. 27. 26. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 2.5. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
80. TOTAL 41. 41. 41. 41. 40. 40. 40. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 44. 44. 44. 45. 46. 47. 47. 50. 51.
T-TO-T 34. 32. 30. 29. 27. 26. 26. 25. 2.5. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24.

96. TOTAL 38. 38. 38. 38. 37. 37. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 41. 42. 42. 43. 44. 46. 47.
T-TO-T 33. 31. 29. 28. 26. 25. 24. 24. 24. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 2i. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23.

120. TOTAL 35. 3s. 34. 34. 34. 34. 33. 34. 3.5. 35. 3.5. 36. 36. 37. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 41. 43.
T-TO-T 31. 29. 28. 26. 25. 23. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22.

ANSIJAGMA 47 2000-A88
.
L

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I&r ,* Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (hy; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos @ )
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd 'be 6 8 10 12 36 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

460.5 TOTAL 470 470 470 470 470 470 480 500 510 550 550 560 570 590 600 610 630 660 680 700 780 840
T-TO-T 83. 77. 73. 70. 65. 62. 58. 57. 56. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58.
1.0 TOTAL 290 290 290 290 290 290 290 300 310 320 330 340 340 350 360 360 380 390 400 410 450 480
T-TO-T 70. 65. 62. 59. 55. 52. SO. 49. 48. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49.
2.0 TOTAL 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 220 230 240 240 250 250 280 290
T-TO-T 59. 55. 52. 50. 47. 44. 42. 42. 41. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42.
4.0 TOTAL 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 160 180 190
T-TO-T 50. 47. 44. 43. 40. 38. 36. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35.
8.0 TOTAL 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 86. 88. 90. 92. 93. 95. 96. 97. 98. 100 110 110 110 120 120
T-TO-T 43. 40. 38. 36. 34. 32. 31. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 50. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.
12. TOTAL 68.‘ 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 70. 71. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79 81. 85. 85. 86. 92. 96.
T-TO-T 39. 36. 34. 33. 31. 29. 28. 28. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27.
16. TOTAL 59. 59. 59. 59. 59. 59. 59. 60. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 67. 68. 70. 73. 73. 74. 79. 82.
T-TO-T 36. 34. 32. 31. 29. 27. 26. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
20. TOTAL 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 59. 60. 61, 62. 64. 65. 66. 70. 73.
T-TO-T 34. 32. 30. 29. 27. 26. 25. 25. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24.
24. TOTAL 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 48. SO. 51. 51. 52. 53. 54. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 64. 66.
T-TO-T 33. 31. 29. 28. 26. 25. 24. 24. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23.
32. TOTAL 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 47. 48. 48. 49. SO. 51. 52. 55. 57.
T-TO-T 31. 29. 27. 26. 24. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
40. TOTAL 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 38. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 49. 51.
T-TO-T 29. 27. 26. 25. 23. 22. 21. 21. 21. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
48. TOTAL 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 45. 47.
T-TO-T 28. 26. 25. 24. 22. 21. 21. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
64. TOTAL 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 31. 32. 32. 3;. 33. 34. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 37. 39. 41.
T-TO-T 26. 24. 23. 22. 21. 19. 19. 19. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
80. TOTAL 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 36. 37.
T-TO-T 25. 23. 22. 21. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.
96. TOTAL 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 33. 34.
T-TO-T 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. la. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.
120. TOTAL 25. 25. 25. 25. 24. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 30. 31.
T-TO-T 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.

W AGMA 48 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I&T ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (w; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos Jr)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd T-e 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 20C

Q7 0.5 TOTAL 340 340 340 340 340 340 340 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 470 480 500 550 600
T-TO-T 59. 55. 52. 50. 47. 44. 42. 41. 40. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42.

1.0 TOTAL 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 220 220 230 240 240 2.50 250 260 260 270 280 290 290 320 350
T-TO-T 50. 47. 44. 42. 40. 38. 36. 35. 34. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 3.5. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35.

2.0 TOTAL 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 140 140 150 1.50 150 160 160 160 160 170 170 180 180 200 210
T-TO-T 42. 40. 38. 36. 34. 32. 30. 30. 29. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.

4.0 TOTAL 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 90. 93. 95. 97. 99. 100 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 130
T-TO-T 36. 34. 32. 30. 28. 27. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 2s. 2.5. 25. 25. 25. 25.

8.0 TOTAL 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 62. 63. 64. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 70. 72. 74. 76. 77. 83. 87.
T-TO-T 30. 28. 27. 26. 24. 23. 22. 22. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.

12. TOTAL 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 54. 5.5. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 66. 69.
T-TO-T 28. 26. 24. 23. 22. 21. 20. 20. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. lg. lg. lg. 19. lg. 19.

16. TOTAL 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. ’ 53. 56. 59.
T-TO-T 26. 24. 23. 22. 20. 19. lg. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.

20. TOTAL 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 39. 40. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 43. 43. 45. 45. 46. 47. 50. 57,.
T-TO-T 24. 23. 22. 21. 19. 18. 18. 18. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.

24. TOTAL 35. 35. 3.5. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 45. 47.
T-TO-T 23. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.

32. TOTAL 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 39. 41.
T-TO-T 22. 20. 19. 19. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.

40. TOTAL 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 27. 28. 29. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 3.5. 37.
T-TO-T 21. 19. 18. 18. 16. 16. 15. 15. 1.5. 15. 15. 15. IS. 15. 15. 1.5. 15. 15. 1.5. 1s. 15. 15.

48. TOTAL 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. 34.
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.

64. TOTAL 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29.
T-TO-T 19. 17. 16. 16. IS. 14. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.

80. TOTAL 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 26.
T-TO-T 18. 16. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12.

96. TOTAL 20. 20. 20. 20. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 24.
T-TO-T 17. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12.

120. TOTAL 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. lg. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

AMWAGhL4 49 2000-A88
. a

G e a r Classification a n d In s p e c tio n H a n d b o o k fo r U n a s s e m b l e d S p u r a n d Helical G e a r s

Table 6-2
C o m p o s i te T o l e r a n c e s
T o ta I C o m p o s i te Tolerance, V ,,, ,* T o o th-To-Tooth C o m p o s i te Tolerance, Vqr
In T e n - T h o u s a n d th s o f a n In c h ( 0 . 0 0 0 1 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, U s e Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = N/cm @)
Q Pitch Tolerance
Vo. P n d Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q S 0.5 TOTAL 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 250 260 270 280 290 290 300 310 310 320 340 350 360 400 430
T-TO-T 42. 39. 37. 36. 33. 32. 30. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.

1.0 TOTAL 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 170 170 170 180 180 180 190 190 200 210 210 230 250
T-TO-T 36. 33. 32. 30. 28. 27. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.

2.0 TOTAL 94. 94. 94. 94. 94. 94. 95. 98. 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 140 150
T-TO-T 30. 28. 27. 26. 24. 23. 22. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.

4.0 TOTAL 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 65. 66. 68. 69. 70. 72. 73. 74. 75. 77. 79. 81. 83. 89. 95.
T-TO-T 26. 24. 23. 22. 20. 19. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.

8.0 TOTAL 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. SO. SO. 52. 53. 54. 55. 59. 62.
T-TO-T 22. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 16. 16. 15. 15. 15. 1.5. 1.5. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.

12. TOTAL 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 47. 49.
T-TO-T 20. 18. 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.

16. TOTAL 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 34. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 40. 42.
T-TO-T 18. 17. 16. 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13- 13.

20. TOTAL 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 36. 37.
T-TO-T 18. 16. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12.

24. TOTAL 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28, 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 33. 34.
T-TO-T 17. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12.

32. TOTAL 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

40. TOTAL 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 26.
T-TO-T IS . 14. 13. 13. 12. II. 11. II. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

48. TOTAL 19. 19. 19. 19. 18, 18. 18. 18. lg. 19. lg. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24.
T-TO-T 14. 13. 13. 12. II. II. 11. 10. 10. 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9

64. TOTAL 17. 17. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17, 18. 18. 18. 18. lg. 19. lg. 20. 21.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. II. 11. 9.8 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2

80. TOTAL 16. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. IS . 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 11. 11. 9.8 9.3 9.2 9.1 8.9 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8 8.8

96. TOTAL 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 1s. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 11. lo. 9.4 8.9 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4

120. T O T A L 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 1;. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 16.
T-TO-T 11. 11. 10. 9.6 8.9 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9

WAGMA 50 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V,,, ,. Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (,Vi = h’icos $)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tfle 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q9 0.5 TOTAL 170 170 170 170 170 170 180 180 190 190 200 210 210 210 220 220 230 240 250 260 280 310
T-TO-T 30. 28. 27. 26. 24. 23. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.

1.0 TOTAL 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 140 150 150 170 180
T-TO-T 26. 24. 23. 22. 20. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.

2.0 TOTAL 67. 67. 67. 67. 67. 67. 68. 70. 72. 74. 75. 77. 79. 80. 81. 82. 85. 88. 90. 92. 100 110
T-TO-T 22. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 16. 1.5. IS. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.

4.0 TOTAL 45. 4.5. 45. 45. 45. 45. 4.5. 46. 47. 48. 49. SO. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 57. 58. 59. 64. 68.
T-TO-T 18. 17. 16. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.

a.0 TOTAL 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 39. 39. 42. 44.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. Il. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

12. TOTAL 25. 2.5. 25. 2.5. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 34. 3.5.
T-TO-T 14. 13. 13. 12. 11. 11. 10. 10. 9.8 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9

16. TOTAL 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 29. 30.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. 11. 11. 9.8 9.6 9.4 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2

20. TOTAL 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 26. 27.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 11. 11. 9.8 9.3 9.1 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 a.7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7

24. TOTAL 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 11. 10. 9.4 8.9 8.7 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 a.3 8.3 8.3 a.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3

32. TOTAL 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21.
T-TO-T 11. 11. 9.8 9.4 8.8 8.3 8.2 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8

40. TOTAL 15. 15. 15. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 1.5. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19.
T-TO-T 11. 9.8 9.3 8.9 8.3 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4 7.4

48. TOTAL 14. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17.
T-TO-T 10. 9.4 8.9 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1

64. TOTAL 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15.
T-TO-T 9.4 8.8 8.3 8.0 7.4 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6

80. TOTAL 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. lo. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 14.
T-TO-T a.9 a.3 7.9 7.5 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3 6.3

96. TOTAL 11. 11. 10. 10. 9.9 9.6 9.5 9.7 9.8 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12.
T-TO-T 8.5 8.0 7.5 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

120. TOTAL 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.3 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 10. 11. 11.
T-TO-T 8.1 7.5 7.1 6.8 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7

ANSIJAGMA 51 2000-A88
.
L

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V,,, ,* Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vqr
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth 0; for HeIical Gears. Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos $)
Q Pitch Tolerance
go. Pnd Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q lO .5 TOTAL 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 140 340 140 150 150 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 200 220
T-TO-T 22. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15.

1.0 TOTAL 75. 75. 75. 75. 75. 7.5. 76. 79. 81. 83. 86. 88. 89. 91. 93. 94. 98. 100 110 110 120 130
T-TO-T 18. 17. 16. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.

2.0 TOTAL 48. 48. 48. 48. 48. 48. 48. 50. 51. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 61. 63. 64. 66. 72. 76.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

4.0 TOTAL 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 46. 48.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.8 9.4 9.2 9.0 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2

8.0 TOTAL 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 2i. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 28. 30. 32.
T-TO-T 11. 10. 9.8 9.4 8.7 8.3 8.0 7.9 7.7 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8 7.8

12. TOTAL 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 25.
T-TO-T 10. 9.4 8.9 8.5 7.9 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0

16. TOTAL 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 21. 22.
T-TO-T 9.4 8.7 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.8 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6

20. TOTAL 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19.
T-TO-T 8.9 8.3 7.8 7.5 7.0 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2 6.2

24. TOTAL 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17.
T-TO-T 8.5 7.9 7.5 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.2 6.1 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0

32. TOTAL 12. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. Il. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15.
T-TO-T 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.3 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6

40. TOTAL 11. 11. 11. 11. 10. 10. 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13.
T-TO-T 7.5 7.0 6.6 6.4 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3

48 TOTAL 9.9 9.8 9.7 9.6 9.4 9.3 9.2 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.8 9.9 10. 10. 10. Il. 11. Il. 11. 11. 12. 12.
T-TO-T 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1

64. TOTAL 8.9 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.7 10. 11.
T-TO-T 6.7 6.3 5.9 5.7 5.3 5.0 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7

80. TOTAL 8.2 8.1 8.0 7.9 7.7 7.4 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.8 9.2 9.5
T-TO-T 6.4 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5

96. TOTAL 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.4 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.7 1.9 8.0 8.1 8.5 8.8
T-TO-T 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

120. TOTAL 7.2 7.0 6.9 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.7 7.9
T-TO-T 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

W AGMA 52 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V,,, ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (Iv’); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos @)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tme
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 20(

Qll .5 TOTAL 87. 87. 87. 87. 87. 87. 89. 92. 96. 99. 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 130 150 160
T-TO-T 16. 14. 14. 13. 32. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

1.0 TOTAL 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 56. 58. 60. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 70. 72. 74. 76. 84. PO.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.7 9.2 9.0 8.9 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1

2.0 TOTAL 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 44. 4.5. 46. 47. 51. 55.
T-TO-T 11. 10. 9.7 9.3 8.7 8.2 7.9 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7

4.0 TOTAL 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 28. 29. 30. 30. 33. 35.
T-TO-T 9.3 8.7 8.2 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.6

8.0 TOTAL 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 22. 23.
T-TO-T 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6

12. TOTAL 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 1.5. 1.5. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18.
T-TO-T 7.2 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0

16. TOTAL 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15.
T-TO-T 6.7 6.2 5.9 5.7 5.3 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7

20. TOTAL 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 14.
T-TO-T 6.3 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.6 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5
24. TOTAL 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.2 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.8 10. 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.
T-TO-T 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3
32. TOTAL 8.3 8.3 8.2 _ 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 10. 11.
T-TO-T 5.7 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0
40. TOTAL 7.7 7.6 7.6 7.5 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 9.1 9.5
T-TO-T 5.4 5.0 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.8
48. TOTAL 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.0 6.8 6.6 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.4 8.7
I-TQ-T 5.1 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6
64. TOTAL 6.6 6.5 6.4 6.3 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.3 7.6
T-TO-T 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
80. TOTAL 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.6 6.8
T-TO-T 4.6 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2
96. TOTAL 5.8 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.3
T-TO-T 4.4 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.l. 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
120. TOTAL 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.5 5.7
T-TO-T 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9

ANWAGMA 2000-A@
. ^

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I&T ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth Q; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos q)
Q Pitch Tolemxe
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Qlt .S TOTAL 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. b3. 66. 68. 70. 72. 74. 76. 78. 79. 81. 84. 87. 90. 92. 100 110
T-TO-T 11. 10. 9.7 9.3 8.7 8.2 7.7 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7

1.0 TOTAL 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 39. 40. 41. 43. 44. 45. 40. 47. 47. 48. 50. 52. 53. 54. 60. 64.
T-TO-T 9.3 8.7 8.2 7.9 7.3 7.0 6.4 6.5 6.4 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5

2.0 TOTAL 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 37. 39.
T-TO-T 7.9 7.3 7.0 6.7 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.S 5.5

4.0 TOTAL lb. lb. lb. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 23. 25.
T-TO-T 6.7 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
8.0 TOTAL 11. 11. Il. Il. 11. 11. 11 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 34. 14. 14. 16. 16.
T-TO-T 5.6 5.3 5.0 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0

12. TOTAL 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13.
T-TO-T 5.1 4.8 4.5 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.b 3.6

16. TOTAL 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.8 8.0 a.2 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 11. 11.
T-TO-T 4.8 4.5 4.2 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3-4 3.4

20. TOTAL 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 9.3 9.7
T-TO-T 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3-2 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.2
24. TOTAL 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.6 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.4 8.8
T-TO-T 4.3 4.1 3.8 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
32. TOTAL 6.1 6.0 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.b 5.7 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.3 7.6
T-TO-T 4.1 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9
40. TOTAL 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.8
T-TO-T 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7
48. TOTAL 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.1 4.9 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.2
T-TO-T 3.7 3.4 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
64. TOTAL 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.4
T-TO-T 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
80. TOTAL 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.0 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.9
T-TO-T 3.3 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
96. TOTAL 4 4 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.3 4.5
T-TO-T 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
12O.TOTAL 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.1
T-TO-T 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

SIIAGMA 54 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V,,, ,- Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth Q; for Helical Gears, Use Adjusled Number of Teeth (Ni = Nicos Jr)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 201

413.5 TOTAL 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 47. 49. 50. 52. 53. 54. 56. 57. 58. 60. 62. 64. 66. 74. 79.
T-TO-T 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 5.9 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
1.0 TOTAL 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 43. 46.
T-TO-T 6.6 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7
2.0 TOT/& 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 24. 26. 28.
T-TO-T 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0
4.0 TOTAL 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 18.
T-TO-T 4.8 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
8.0 TOTAL 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 11. 12.
T-TO-T 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
12. TOTAL 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.7 9.1
T-TO-T 3.7 3.4 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
16. TOTAL 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.5 7.8
T-TO-T 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
20. TOTAL 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.6 6.9
T-TO-T 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3
24. TOTAL 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 6.0 6.3
T-TO-T 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
32. TOTAL 4.5 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.2 5.4
T-TO-T 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
40. TOTAL 4.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.9
T-TO-T 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
48. TOTAL 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4
. T-TO-T 2.6 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9
64. TOTAL 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.9
T-TO-T 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7
80. TOTAL 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5
T-TO-T 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
96. TOTAL 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2
T-TO-T 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6
120. TOTAL 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9
T-TO-T 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 I.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

ANWAGMA 55 2000-A88
. .

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, V&T ,* Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gems, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos @)
Q Fitch Toierance
No. Pnd T-e 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

414 .5 TOTAL 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 41. 43. 45. 46. 47. 53. 57.
T-TO-T 5.6 5.2 5.0 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9
1.0 TOTAL 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 31. 33.
T-TO-T 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.5 5.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 5.3 3.3 3.3 3.3

2.0 TOTAL 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 15. 17. 19. 20.
T-TO-T 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8

4.0 TOTAL 8.3 8.3 8-i 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.3 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.5 9.7 9.8 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.
T-TO-T 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4

8.0 TOTAL 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.2 ?.3 7.8 8.2
T-TO-T 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
12. TOTAL 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.2 6.5
T-TO-T 2.6 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8

16. TOTAL 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.6
T-TO-T 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7

20. TOTAL 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.7 5.0
T-TO-T 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

24. TOTAL 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5
T-TO-T 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 3.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

32. TOTAL 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 -2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.9
T-TO-T 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

40. TOTAL 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5
T-TO-T 2.0 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4

48. TOTAL 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.2
T-TO-T 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3

64. TOTAL 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8
T-TO-T 1.8 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

80. TOTAL 2.7 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.2 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5
T-TO-T 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

96. TOTAL 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3
T-TO-T 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

120. TOTAL 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1
T-TO-T 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 ‘1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

SIIAGMA 56 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2
Composite Tolerances
TotaI Composite Tolerance, V,,, *, Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, 1’s~
In Ten-Thousandths of an Inch (0.0001 in)
Number of Teeth (N); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (Ni = Nlcos q)
Q Pitch Tolerance
No. Pnd Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q15 20. TOTAL 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5
T-TO-T 1.7 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

24. TOTAL 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.1 3.2
T-TO-T 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

32. TOTAL 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8
T-TO-T 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1 1.1

40. TOTAL 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
T-TO-T 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

48. TOTAL 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3
T-TO-T 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 I z

64. TOTAL 2.3 2.2 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0
T-TO-T 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9

80. TOTAL 2.2 2.1 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8
T-TO-T 1.2 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

96. TOTAL 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6
T-TO-T 1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

120. TOTAL 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5
T-TO-T 1.1 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8

ANSIfAGh3A 57 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-3
Tooth Thickness Tolerance, ( tr) (All Tolerance Values in inches)

Tolerance Codes
Quality Diametral
A B C D
Number Pitch
3 0.5 0.074
and 1.2 0.031
4 2.0 0.019
3.2 0.012
5.0 0.0075

0.5 0.074
1.2 0.031
5 2.0 0.019 0.009
3.2 0.012 0.006
5.0 0.0075 0.0037
8.0 0.0050 0.0025

0.5 0.074
1.2 0.031
2.0 0.019 0.009
3.2 0.012 0.006
6 5.0 0.0075 0.0037
8.0 0.0050 0.0025
12.0 0.0036 0.0018
20.0 0.0024 0.0012 0.0006
32.0 0.0016 0.0008 0.0004

0.5 0.074
1.2 0.031
2.0 0.019 0.009 0.0048
3.2 0.012 0.006 0.0029
5.0 0.0075 0.0037 0.0019
8.0 0.0050 0.0025 0.0013 0.0006
12.0 0.0036 0.0018 0.0009 0.0004
20.0 0.0024 0.0012 0.0006 0.0003
32.0 0.0016 0.0008 0.0004 0.0002
50 0.0012 0.0006 0.0003 0.00014
80 0.0008 0.0005 0.00022 0.00011
120 0.0007 0.0003 0.00017 0.00009

ANWAGMA 58 2000-A88
Gear ClassZication and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

6.M Metric Accuracy Tolerance Tables The values are the total tolerance band width, in
for Gears the’normal plane, of the tooth alignment trace.
6.2.4M Tooth Thickness Tolerance, fT.
6.1M Use of Metric Tables. The accuracy ‘Ike tooth thickness tolerance as specified by the
tolerance tables provide direct reading of the AGMA Class Number is applied to the transverse
tolerance for selected modules, and a range of circular tooth thickness. If tooth thickness is -
stepped increments of adjusted number of ted, specified by a single value, it is understood to be
z i , for a given gear. The values in the tables have the maximum value, and the tolerance is
been rounded in accordance with Section 5.3M. subtracted from it to obtain the minimum tooth
If any intermediate module or an intermediate thickness. The AGMA tooth thickness.tolerance
adjusted number of teeth in the gear is involved, codes (A, B, C or D as listed in Table 6-3M)
the tolerance may be computed from the formulas should be applied separately from the selection of
given in Section SM. AGMA Quality Number tolerances. In many
applications, allowing a larger range of tooth
6.2M Metric Accuracy Tolerances.
thickness tolerance or operating backlash will not
6.2.1M Accuracy Tolerance Tables. The affect the performance or load capacity of highly
following tables are given for the selection of accurate gears, and may allow more economical
accuracy tolerances on spur and helical gear manufacturing. A tight tooth thickness tolerance
teeth: should not be used unless absolutely necessary,
Table 6-1M - Radial Runout Tolerance, Vfl since it has a strong influence on manufacturing
Allowable Pitch Variation, v cost (see AGMA 231).
PA
Profile Tolerance, ~$7. 6.2.5M Values in the Tolerance Tables.
The tolerance values specified in Tables 6-1M
Tooth Alignment Tolerance,
and 6-2M are in micrometers (P) which were
%T formerly expressed as microns. The official SI unit
Table 6-2M - Tooth-To-Tooth Composite specified in AGMA 600 for 0.001 millimeter
Tolerance, QT (0.000 001 meter) is micrometer. The conversion
of one micrometer in inches isr: ,be
-.
Total Composite Tolerance, .
one micrometer (1 urn) = 0.000 039 37’inch
Table 6-3M - Tooth Thickness Tolerance, t T (rounded to 8 decimal places).
The tolerance values in Table 6-3M ana in
6.2.2M AIlowable Pitch Variation, v millimeters (mm).
PA’
The allowable values of pitch variation in Table The module values for the tolerance tables are
6M-1 are plus or minus allowances. preferred modules selected from AGMA 600,
6.2.3M Tooth Alignment Tolerance, v from 0.25 9 50 module.
w
Tooth Aiignment Tolerance (Formerly Total Lead The tables provide tolerances for gear sizes
Tolerance) is limited to 250 mm of face width. ranging from 6 through 200 teeth.

ANSYAGMA 59 2000-A88
Gear Clasification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and HeIical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Rtmout Tolerance, VT*
In Micrometers (pm)
Number of Teeth (2); for He3ic.a.lGears, Use Adjusted hber of Teeth (zi = Z/COS 8)
Q Module Tolerance
No. m, TP _ 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

43 3.0 RUNOUT 260 280 300 310 330 350 360 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 440 450 480 510 600
4.0 RUNOUT 320 340 360 380 410 430 450 460 480 490 500 520 530 540 550 550 590 630 740
6.0 RUNOUT 430 460 490 510 540 570 600 620 640 660 670 690 700 720 730 740 800 840 990
8.0 RUNOUT 530 570 600 620 670 700 740 760 790 810 830 850 870 880 900 910 980 10301220
12. RUNOUT 710 760 800 830 890 940 980 1020 10501080 1110 1140 1160 1180 1200 1220 1310 1380 1630
20. RUNOUT 1020 1100 1160 1210 1290 1360 1420 1480 1520 1570 1610 1640 1680 1710 1740 1770 1890 2000 2350
25. RUNOUT 1200 1290 1360 1420 1520 1600 1670 1730 1790 1840 1890 1930 1970 2010 2040 2080 2220 2350 2770
50. RUNOUT 1980 2120 2240 23402500 2640 2750 2860 2950 3030 3110 3180 3250 3310 3370 3430 3670 3870 4560

Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Tie& (zi = zkos 8) -
Q Module Tolerance
No. m, Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q4 3.0 RUNOUT 190 200 210 220 240 250 260 270 280 290 290 300 310 310 320 320 350 360 ~430
4.0 RUNOUT 230 2.50 260 270 290 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 380 390 400 420 450 53i
6.0 RUNOUT 310 330 350 360 390 410 430 440 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 570 600 710
8.0 RUNOUT 380 410 430 450 480 500 530 550 560 580 590 610 620 630 640 650 700 740 870
12. RUNOUT 510 540 570 600 640 670 700 730 750 770 790 810 830 850 860 870 940 990 1160
20. RUNOUT 730 780 830 860 920 970 1020 1050 1090 1120 1150 1170 1200 1220 1240 1260 13.50 1430 1680
25. RUNOUT 860 920 970 1010 1080 1140 1190 1240 1280 1310 1350 1380 1410 1430 1460 1480 1590 1680 1980
50. RUNOUT 1420 1.520 1600 1670 1790 1880 1970 2040 2110 2170 2220 2270 2320 2370 2410 2450 2620 2760 3260

Number of Teeth (2): for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi = zkos@
Q ModuleTokrance
No. m, Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

QS 3.0 RUNOUT 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 250 260 310
4.0 RUNOUT 170 180 190 190 210 220 230 240 240 250 260 260 270 270 280 280. 300 320 380
6.0 RUNOUT 220 240 250 260 280 290 310 320 330 340 350 350 360 370 370 380 410 430 510
8.0 RUNOUT 270 290 310 320 340 360 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 500 530 620
12. RUNOUT 360 390 410 430 460 480 500 520 540 550 570 580 590 600 620 630 670 710 830
20. RUNOUT 520 560 590 '620 660 700 730 750 780 800 820 840 860 870 890 900 970 1020 1200
25. RUNOUT 610 660 690 720 780 820 850 890 910 940 960 990 1010 10301040 1060 1140 1200 1410
50. RUNOUT 1010 1080 1140 1190 1280 1350 1410 1460 1510 1550 1590 1620 1660 1690 1720 1750 1870 1970 2330
t

ANSIJAGM.4 60 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, Vr~ , AUowable Pitch Variation, I&
l

In Micrometers (pm)
Number of Teeth (z); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi = z/cos B)
Q Module Tokgce
No. 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200
m,

Q61.25 RUNOUT 50. 54. 57. 59. 64. 67. 70. 73. 75. 77. 79. 81. 83. 84. 86. 87. 93. 98. 120
PITCH+/- 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 28. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 33. 35. 37. 41.
1.50 RLJNOUT 58. 62. 65. 68. 73. 77. 80. 83. 86. 88. 90. 92. 94. 96. 98. 99. 110 110 130
PITCH+/- 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 35. 35. 36. 38. 39. 44.
2.0 RUNOUT 71. 76. 80. 83. 89. 94. 98. 100 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 120 130 140 160
PITCH+/- 27. 28. 29. 30. 32. 33. 34. 3.5. 36. 37. 37. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 42. 44. SO.
3.0 RUNOUT 95. 100 110 110 120 130 130 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 160 170 180 190 220
PITCH+/- 32. 33. 3.5. 36. 37. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 47. 50. 52. 59.
4.0 RUNOUT 120 130 130 140 150 160 160 170 180 180 180 190 190 200 200 200 220 230 270
PITCH+/- 35. 37. 39. 40. 42. 44. 45. 46. 48. 49. 49. 50. 51. 52. 52. 53. 56. 58. 66.
6.0 RUNOUT 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 230 240 250 250 260 260 270 270 290 310 360
PITCH+/- 42. 44. 46. 47. 49. 51. 53. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 62. 66. 68. 77.
8.0 RUNOUT 190 210 220 230 240 260 270 280 290 300 300 310 320 320 330 330 360 380 440
PITCH+/- 47. 49. 51. 53. 55. 58. 60. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66A 67. 68. 69. 70. 74. 77. 87.
12. RUNOUT 260 280 290 310 330 340 360 370 390 400 410 420 420 430 440 450 480 500 590
PITCH+/- 55.' 58. 60. 62. 65. 68. 70. 72. 74. 75. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 87. 90. 100
16. RUNOti 320 340 360 380 400 420 440 460 470 490 500 510 520 530 540 550 590 620 730
PITCHit- 62. 65. 67. 70. 73. 76. 79. 81. 83. 84. 86. 87. 89. 90. 91. 92. 97. 100 120
20. RUNOUT 370 400 420 440 470 500 520 540 560 570 590 600 610 620 640 650 690 730 860
PITCH+/- 67. 71. 74. 76. 80. 83. 86. 88. 90. 92. 94. 96. 97. 99. 100 100 110 110 130
25. RUNOUT 440 470 500 520 550 580 610 630 650 670 690 700 720 730 750 760 810 860 1010
PITCH+/- 74. 77. 81. 83. 87. 91. 94. 97. 99. 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 140
50. RUNOUT 720 770 820 850 910 960 1010 1040 1080 1110 1130 1160 1190 1210 1230 1250 1340 1410 1660
PITCH+/- 97. 100 110 110 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 160 160 180

ANSIIAGMA 61 2000-A88
c

Gear Clasification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Elem ent Tolerances i
Runout Tolerance, V,, ; Allowable Pitch Variation, VpA
In M icrom eters (pm )
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Ninnber of Teeth (zi =Z/~OS 6)
Q ModuleTdera~ce
No. m , Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

471.25 RUNOUT 36. 39. 41. 43. 46. 48. 50. 52. 54. 55. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 67. 70. 83.
PITCEW- 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 25. 26. 29.
1.50 RUNOUT 41. 44. 46. 49. 52. 55. 57. 59. 61. 63. 65. 66. 67. 69. 70. 71. 76. 80. 95.
PITCH+/- 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 27. 28. 31.
2.0 RUNOLJT 51. 54. 57. 60. 64. 67. 70. 73. 75. 77. 79. 81. 83. 85. 86. 87. 94. 99. 120
PlTCkW- 19. 20. 21. 21. 23. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 30. 31. 35.
3.q RUNOUT 68. 73. 77. 80. 86. 90. 94. 98. 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 130 160
PITCH+/- 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 28. 28. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 33. 35. 37. 41.
4.0 RUNOUT 83. 89. 94. 98. 110 110 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 150 160 160 190
PITCH+/- 25. 26. 27. 28. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 37. 39. 41. 46.
6.0 RUNOUT 110 120 130 130 140 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 180 190 190 190 210 220 260
PITCEW- 29. 31. 32. 33. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 44. 46. 48. 54.
8.0 RUNOUT 140 150 160 160 180 180 190 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 240 240 260 270 320
PITCH+/- 33. 35. 36. 37. 39. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 47. 48. 49. 49. 52. 54. 61.
12. RUNOUT 190 200 210 220 230 250 260 270 280 280 290 300 300 310 310 320 340 360 430
PITCH+/- 39. 41. 42. 44. 46. 48. 49. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 57. 58. 61. 64. 72.
16. RUNOUT 230 240 260 270 290 300 320 330 340 350 360 370 370 380 390 390 420 440 526
PITCH+/- 43. 46. 47. 49. 52. 54. 55. 57. 58. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 64. 65. 69. 71. 81.
20. RLJNOUT 270 290 300 320 340 360 370 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 450 460 490 520 610
PITCH+ 47. 50. 52. 54. 56. 59. 61. 62. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 75. 78. 88.
25. RUNOUT 310 340 350 370 400 420 440 450 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 540 580 610 720
PITCH+/- 52. 55. 577. 59. 62. 64. 66. 68. 70. 71. 72. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 82. 85. 96.
SO. RUNOUT 520 550 580 610 650 690 720 750 770 790 810 830 850 860 880 890 960 1010 1190
PITCH+/- 68. 72. 75. 77. 81. 85. 87. 90. 92. 94. 96. 97. 99. 100 100 100 110 110 130

ANSYAGMA 62 2000-A38
Gear Chssification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, -
VT~ , Allowable Pitch Variation, lrpA ; Profile Tolerance, WT
In Micrometers (pm)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi = zhs 6)
Q Module Tollce
No. mn 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

Q8 1.25 RTJNOUT 26. 28. 29. 30. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 48. 50. 59.
PITCH+/- 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. IS. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 18. 21.
PROFILE 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 1.5. IS. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 21.
1.50 RuNOUT 29. 32. 33. 35. 37. 39. 41. 42. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. SO. 51. 54. 57. 68.
PITCH+/- 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20, 22.
PROFILE 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 24.
2.0 RUNOLJT 36. 39. 41. 43. 46. 48. 50. 52. 54. 55. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 63. 67. 71. 83.
PITCH+/- 13. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 25.
PROFiLE 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 25. 28.
3.0 RUNOUT 48. 52. 55. 57. 61. 64. 67. 70. 72. 74. 76. 78. 79. 81. 82. 84. 90. 94. 110
PITCH+/- 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 25. 26. 29.
PROFILE 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 29. 31. 32. 35.
4.0 RUNOUT 60. 64. 67. 70. 75. 79. 83. 86. 89. 91. 94. 96. 98. 100 100 100 110 120 140
PITCH+/- 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 28. 29. 33.
PROFiLE 24. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 34. 35. 36. 38. 42.
6.0 RUNOUT 80. 85. 90. 94. 100 110 110 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 150 160 190
PITCH+/- 21. 22. 23. 23. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 33. 34. 38.
PROFILE 31. 32. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 44. 46. 48. 53.
8.0 RUNOUT 98. 110 110 120 130 130 140 140 150 150 160 160 160 170 170 170 180 190 230
PITCH+/- 23. 24. 2.5. 26. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 37. 38. 43.
PROFILE 37. 38. 40. 41. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. SO. 51. 52. 52. 55. 56. 63. 100 34.
12. RUNOUT 130 140 150 160 170 180 180 190 200 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 250 260 300
PITCHtI- 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 43. 45. 51.
PROFILE 46. 49. 50. 52. 54. 56. 57. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 65. 66. 69. 72. 80.
16. RUNOUT 160 180 180 190 210 220 230 240 240 250 260 260 270 270 280 280 300 320 370
PITCH+/- 31. 32. 34. 35. 36. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 45. 45. 46. 48. SO. 57.
PROFlLE 55. 57. 59. 61. 64. 66. 68. 70. 71. 72. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 78. 82. 85. 94.
20. RUNOUT 190 210 220 230 240 250 270 280 280 290 300 310 310 320 330 330 350 370 440
PITCH+/- 33. 35. 37. 38. 40. 41. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. SO. 50. 53. 55. 62.
PROFILE 63. 66. 68. 70. 73. 75. 78. 79. 81. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 93. 97. 110
25. RUNOUT 230 240 250 270 280 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 370 380 390 420 440 520
PITCIW- 37. 38. 40. 41. 43. 45. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 54. 55. 58. 60. 68.
PROFILE 71. 75. 77. 80. 83. 86. 88. 91. 92. 94. 96. 97. 98. 100 100 100 110 110 120
50. RUNOUT 370 400 420 440 470 490 SlO 530 550 570 580 590 610 620 630 640 680 720 850
PITCH+/- 48. 51. 53. 55. 57. 60. 62. 63. 65. 66. 67. 69. 70. 71. 72. 72. 76. 79. 90.
PROFILE 110 110 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 150 150 160‘ 170 190

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), J&T

QS FACEWIDTH 1 25 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250


TOLERANCE 13. 13. 14. 17. 20. 23. 29. 34. 39. 45. 55. 65.

ANSUAGMA 63 2000-A88
. ,

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

Table 6-IM
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, VrT ; Allowable Pitch Variation, I& ; Profile Tolerance, 5~
In Micrometers (pm)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears. Use Adjusted Ntsmber of Teeth (.zi = zkos 6)
QModuleT&ge
No. 80 100 200
m, 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60

Q91.25 RUNOLJT 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 25. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 34. 36. 42.
PITCH+/- 7.7 8.1 8.5 8.7 9.2 9.6 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 15.
PROFILE 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.7 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 15.
1.50 RUNOUT 21. 23. 24. 25. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 36. 39. 41. 48.
PITCH+/- 8.3 8.7 9.1 9.4 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 16.
PROFILE 9.7 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 17.

2.0 RUNOLJT 26. 28. 29. 31. 33. 34. 36. 37. 39. 40. 41. 42, 42. 43. 44. 45. 48. 50. 59.
PITCH+/- 9.3 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 16. 18.
PRO- 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 36. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 20.
3.0 RUNOUT 35. 37. 39. 41. 44. 46. 48. 50. 52. 53. 54. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 64. 68. 80.
PITCH+/- 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 18. 21.
PROFILE 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 25.

4.0 RUNOUT 43. 46. 48. 50. 54. 57. 59. 61. 63. 65. 67. 68. 70. 71. 72. 74. 79. 83. 98.
PITCH+/- 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20: 23.. -*
PROFILE 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 27. 30.
6.0 RUNOti 57. 61. 64. 67. 72. 76. 79. 82. 85. 87. 90. 92. 93. 95. 97. 99. 110 110 130
PITCH+/- 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 27.
PROFILE 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 34. 38.

8.0 RUNOUT 70. 75. 79. 83. 89. 93. 98. 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 140 160
ma+/- 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 26. 27. 30.
PROFILJZ 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 36. 36. 37. 37. 39. 40. 45.

12. RUNOUT 94. 100 110 110 120 1% 130 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 160 160 180 190 220
PITCH+/- 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 32. 36.
PROFILE 33. 35. 36. 37. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 47. 49. 51. 57.
16. RUNOUT 120 130 130 140 150 160 160 170 170 180 180 190 190 200 200 200 220 230 270
PITCH+/- 22. 23. 24. 24. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 32. 34. 35. 40.
PROFILE 39. 41. 43. 44. 46. 47. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 53. 54. 55. 55. 56. 59. 61. 67.
20. RUNOUT 140 150 160 160 170 180 190 200 200 210 220 220 220 230 230 240 250 270 310
PlTCEi+I- 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 35. 37. 39. 44.
PROFILE 45. 47. 49. 50. 52. 54. 55. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 62. 63. 64. 67. 69. 77.

25. RUNOUT 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 250 260 260 270 270 280 300 310 370
PTrcn+/- 26. 27. 28. 29. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 41. 42. 48.
PROFILE 51. 53. 55. 57. 59. 61. 63. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 76. 79. 88.
50. RUNOUT 260 280 300 310 330 350 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 490 520 610
PITCH+/- 34. 36. 37. 38. 40. 42. 43. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. 50. 50. 51. 54. 56. 63.
PROW 77. 80. 83. 85. 89. 92. 95. 97. 99. 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 130

T?otb Alignment Tolerance (Lead), X/q-


Q9 FACEWIDTH 1 25 ' 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250
TOLERANCE 10. 10. 12. 14. 17. 19. 23. 27. 32. 37. 45. 53.
7

ANSIIAGMA 64 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, Vrr ; Allowable Pitch Variation, VpA ; Profde Tolerance, I&*
Iu Micrometers (kim)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gean, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi = z/cos 8)
Q Module Tolerance
No. Tw 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 loo 200
m,

10 1.25 RUNOUT 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 24. 26. 30.
PITCH+/- 5.4 5.7 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.6 9.0 10.
PROFILE 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.3 9.6 11.

1.50 RUNOUT 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 28. 29. 35.
PITCH+/- 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.6 7.0 7.2 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9.3 9.6 11.
PROFILE 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.7 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 11. 11. 12.

2.0 RUNOUT 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 34. 36. 43.
PITCH+/- 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.8 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.9 11. 11. ;2.
PROFILE 8.2 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.6 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 14.
3.0 RUNOUT 25. 27. 28. 29. 31. 33. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 46. 48. 57.
PITCH+/- 7.7 8;l 8.5 8.7 9.2 9.6 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 15.
PROFILE 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 18.
4.0 RIJNOLIT’ 31. 33. 34. 36. 38. 41. 42. 44. 45. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 56. 59. 70.
PITCH+/- 8.7 9.1 9.5 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 16.
PROFILE 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. IS. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 21.
6.0 RUNOUT 41. 44. 46. 48. 51. 54. 57. 59. 61. 62. 64. 65. 67. 68. 69.. 70. 75. 80. 94.
PITCH+/- 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 19.
PROFILE 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 24. 24. 27.
8.0 RUNOUT 50. 54. 57. 59. 63. 67. 70. 72. 75. 77. 79. 81. 82. 84. 85. 87. 93. 98. 120
PITCHi+ 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. IS. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 21.
PROFILE 19. 20. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 2.5. 26. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29. 32.
12. RUNgUT 67. 72. 76. 79. 85. 89. 93. 97. 100 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 130 130 160
PxTCHt/- 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22. 25.
PROFILE 24. 25. 26. 26. 28. 29. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 33. 34. 35. 37. 41.
16. RUNOUT 83. 89. 93. 97. 110 110 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 1SO 160 190
PITCH+/- 1.5. 16. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 25. 28.
PROFILE 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 42. 43. 48.
20. RUNOUT 97. 110 110 120 120 130 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 160 170 170 180 190 230
PITCH+/- 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 2s. 26. 27. 31.
PROFILE 32. 34. 35. 36. 37. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 44. 44. 45. 45. 46. 48. 49. 55.
25. RUNOUT 120 120 130 140 150 150 160 170 170 180 180 180 190 190 200 200 210 220 260
PITCHt/- 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 29. 30. 34.
PROFILE 37. 38. 40. 41. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 50. 51. 52. 52. 54. 56. 63.
50. RUNOUT 190 200 210 220 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 300 310 320 320 330 350 370 430
PxTCH+/- 24. 25. 26. 27. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 38. 39. 45.
PROFILE 55. 57. 59. 61. 64. 66. 68. 70. 71. 72. 73. 75. 76. 77. 77. 78. 82. 85. 94.

To&h Alignment Tolerance (Lead), VIJST


QlO FACEWIDTH 1 25 30' 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250
TOLERANCE 8.2 8.2 9.3 12. 14. IS. 19. 22. 26. 30. 37. 43.

ANSIIAGMA 2000-A88
c
c

G e a r Classification a n d In s p e c tio n H a n d b o o k fo r U n a s s e m b l e d S p u r a n d Helical G e a r s

Table 6-fM
E l e m e n t Tolerances
R u n o u t Tolerance, V rT ; A llowable P itch V a r i a tio n , l r p A ; P rofile Tolerance, 5 ~ -
In M icrometers ( p m )
Naunber.of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, U s e Adjusted N r r m b e r of Teeth [zi = tfcos 6)
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

1 1 1.25 R U N O U T 9.4 10. 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 1s. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 18. 18. 22.
PlTCH+I- 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.3 7.1
P R O F ILE 4.5 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.7
1.50 R U N O U T 11. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20. 21. 25.
PsTaiiI- 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.7
P R O F ILE 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.4 7.7 8.5
2.0 R U N O U T .13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 25. 26. 30.
P ITCH+/- 4.6 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.3 7.6 8.6
P R O F ILE 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.8 9.1 10.
3.0 RUNOUT 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 33. 35. 41.
P ITCH+/- 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.2 6.5 6.7 7.0 7.2 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.6 9.0 10.
P R O F ILE 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.2 9.5 9.7 9.8 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13.
4.0 RUNOUT 22. 23. 25. 26. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 40. 42. 50.
P ITCli+I- 6.1 .6.4 6.7 6.9 7.3 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.7 10. 12.
P R O F ILE 8.8 9.2 9.6 9.8 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 15.
6.0 RUNOUT 29. 31. 33. 34. 37. 39. 41. 42. 43. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. so. 54. 57. 67.
P ITCH+/- 7.2, 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.6 8.9 9.2 9.4 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 14.
P R O F ILE 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 1s. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 19.
8.0 RUNOUT 36:‘ 38. 41. 42. 45. 48. 50. 52. 53. 55. 56. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 66. 70. 82.
P ITCHi/- 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.1 9.6 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 15.
P R O F ILE 13. 14. 15. IS . 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 23.
12. RUNOUT 48. 51. 54. 57. 61. 64. 67. 69. 71. 74. 75. 77. 79. 80. '82. 83. 89. 94. 1 1 0
PxTcH+/- 9.5 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 55. 16. 18.
P R O F ILE 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 26. 29.
16. RUNOUT 59. 63. 67. 70. 75. 79. 82. 85. 88. 90. 93. 95. 97. 99. 100 100 110 120 140
P ITCH+/- 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 20.
P R O F ILE 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 30. 31. 34.
20. R U N O U T 69. 74. 78. 82. 88. 92. 96. 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 1 3 0 1 4 0 1 6 0
P S T C E W - 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 19. 22.
P R O F ILE 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 32. 33. 34. 35. 39.
25. RUNOUT 82. 87. 92. 96. 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 0 l20 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 150 160 190
P ITCH+/- 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 24.
P R O F ILE 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 36. 36. 37. 37. 39. 40. 45. .
50. RUNOUT 140 150 150 160 170 180 190 20 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 230 250 260 310
P ITCH+/- 17. 18. 19. 19. 20. 2l. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 27. 28. 31.
P R O F ILE 39. 41. 42. 44. 46. 47. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 53. 54. 55. 55. 56. 58. 60. 6 7

T o o th A l i g n m e n t Tolerance w d ) , R /g-

Q ll FACEWDTEI 1 25 3? 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250


TOLE&WCE 6.6 6.6 7.5 9.2 11. 12. 15. 18. 21. 24. 29. 34.

ANWAGMA 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, Vr~ *, Allowable Pitch Variation, VpA ; Profile Tolerance, I&r
In Micrometers (pm)

Q Module Tderzmce
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjuned Numberof Teeth (zj = z/cos 8)
No. m, Tme 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

12 1.25 RUNOUT 6.7 7.2 7.6 7.9 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 16.
PITCH+/- 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 5.0
PROFILE 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.5

1.50 RUNOUT 7.6 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.6 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 15. 18.
PITCH+/- 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.4 .
PROFILE 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.5 6.1

2.0 RUNOUT 9.4 10. 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. IS. 16. 16. 16. 16. 18. 19. 22.
PITCH+/- 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.2 5.4 6.1
PROFILE 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.5 7.2

3.0 RUNOUT 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 25. 29.
PITCH+/- 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.1 6.3 7.1
PROFILE 5.3 5.6 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.0 8.2 9.2

4.0 RUNOUT 16. 17. 18. 18. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 29. 30. 36.
PITCH+/- 4.3 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.8 7.1 8.0
PROFILE 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.4 9.7 11.

6.0 RUNOUT 21. 22. 24. 2.5. 26. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 39. 41. 48.
PITCH+/- 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.7 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.7 6.8 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 8.0 8.3 9.4
PROFILE 8.0 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.3 9.7 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 14.

8.0 RUNOUT 26. 28. 29. 30. 32. 34. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 44. 47. 50. 59.
PITCH+/- 5.7 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.8 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 9.0 9.3 11.
PROFILE 9.5 9.9 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 16.
12. RUNOUT 34. 37. 39. 41. 43. 46. 48. 50. 51. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 64. 67. 79.
PITCH+/- 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.6 8.0 8.3 8.5 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.8 9.9 10. 13. 11. 13.
. PROFILE 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 21.

16. RUNOUT 42. 4.5. 48. 50. 53. 56. 59. 61. 63. 65. 66. 68. 69. 71. 72. 73. 78. 82. 97.
PITCH+/- 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13. 14.
PROFILZ 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 25.

20. RUNOUT 50. 53. 56. 58. 63. 66. 69. 72. 74. 76. 78. 80. 81. 83. 84. 86. 92. 97. 120
PITCH+/- 8.2 8.6 9.0 9.3 9.8 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 15.
PROFILE 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 23. 24. 25. 28.
25. RUNOUT 58. 62. 66. 69. 74. 78. 81. 84. 87. 89. 91. 94. 95. 97. 99. 100 110 120 140
PlTCH+I- 9.0 9.4 9.8 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 17.
PROFILE 19. 20. 20. 21. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 2.5. 25. 26. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29. 32.
SO. RUNOUT 96. loo 110 110 120 130 140 140 140 150 150 160 160 160 160 170 180 190 220
PITCH+/- 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 1.5. 15. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20. 22.
PROFILX 28. 29. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 42. 43. 48.

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), I&T

Qlt FACEWIDTH 1 25 30 ’ 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250


TOLERANCE 5.3 5.3 6.0 . 7.3 8.6 9.8 12. 14. 17. 19. 23. 28.

ANSIIAGMA 67 2000-A88
Gear Uassification and Inspection Handbook for UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

Table 6-IM
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V$T ; Allowable Pitch Variation, VpA ; Profile Tolerance, l(p
In Micrometers (ml)
NumberofTeeth (2); for Helical Gars,UseAdjusMNrrmberofTeeth (zj =Z/WS @)
Q Mo&leTolerance
No. ma Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

13 1.25 RUNOUT 4.8 5.1 5~4 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.9 9.3 11.
PITCH+/- 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5
PROFILE 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.9
1.50 RUNOUT S-5 5.8 6.2 6.4 6.9 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.4 10. 11. 13
PITCH+/- 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.8
PROFILE 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.4
2.0 RUNOUT 6.7 7.2 7.6 7.9 8.5 8.9 9.3 9.7 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 16.
PITCEW- 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.3
PROFILE 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 5.2
3.0 RUNOUT 9.0 9.6 10. 11. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17. 18. 21.
PITCHH- 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.5 5.0
PROFILE 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.7 5.9 6.5
4.0 RUNOUT 11. 12. 13. 13. 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 21. 22. 26.
PITCH+/- 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.6
PROFILE 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4. 6.4 6.7 7.0 7.j
6.0 RUNOUT 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 28. 29. 34.
PITCH+/- 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.9 6.6
PROFILE 5.7 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8-O 8.1 8.2 8.5 8.8 9.8
8.0 RUNOUT 18. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 26. 26. 27. 28. 29. 29. 30. 31. 31. 32. 34. 36. 42.
PIXI-W- 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.3 6.6 7.4
PROFILE 6.8 7.1 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 10. 11. 12.
12. RUNOUT 25. 26. 28. 29. 31. 33. 34. 35. 37. 38. 39. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 45. 48. 56.
PITCH+/- 4.7 5.0 5.2 Sd 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.4 7.7 8.8
PROFLE 8.6 9.0 9.3 9.6 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 1s.
16. RUNOUT 30. 32. 34. 36. 38. 40. 42. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. SO. 51. 52. 56. 59. 69.
PXTCHtI- 5.3 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.3 6.5 6.8 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.4 8.7 9.8
PROFILE 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 18.
20. RUNOUT 36. 38. 40. 42. 45. 47. 49. 51. 53. 54. 56. S7. 58. 59. 60. 61. 66. 69. 82.
PlTCHil- 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 9.1 9.5 11.
PROFILE 12. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 20.
25. RUNOUT 42. 45. 47. 49. 53. 55. 58. 60. 62. 64. 65. 67. 68. 70. 71. 72. 77. 81. 96.
PITCEW- 6.3 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.5 7.8 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.5 10. 11. 12.
PROW 13. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 23.
50. RUNOUT 69. 73. 77. 81. 87. 91. 95. 99. 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 130 140 160
PITCH+/- 8.3 8.8 9.1 9.4 9.9 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 16.
PROFSLE 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 30. 31. 34.

%‘?ofh A.&nment Tolerance (Lead), QT


QI~ FACEWIDTH 1 25 '30 40 SO 60 80 100 125 1SO 200 250
TOLERANCE 4.2 4.2 4.7 5.8 6.8 7.8 9.6 11. 13. IS. 19. 22.
5

ANSYAGMA 68 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, V$T ; Allowable Pitch Variation, VpA ; Profile Tolerance, I$*
In Micrometers (pm)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears. Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi = z/cos 6)
Q Module Tolerance
No. m, TYPe 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

14 1.25 RLNXl-I’ 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.9
PITCH+/- 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5
PROFILE 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8

1.50 RUNOUT 3.9 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.2 7.6 9.0
PlXZH+/- 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1:9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.7
PROFILE 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.1

2.0 RUNOUT 4.8 5.1 5.4 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.2 8.3 8.9 9.4 11.
PITCH+/- 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.0
PROFILE 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.7

3.0 RUNOUT 6.4 6.9 7.3 7.6 8.1 8.6 8.9 9.3 9.6 9.8 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 13. 15.
PITCH+/- 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.5
PROFILE 2.7 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.7

4.0 RUNOUT 7.9 8.5 8.9 9.3 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 18.
PITCH+/- 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4 3.5 4.0
PROFILE 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.5

6..0 RUNOUT 11. 12. 12. 13. 14. 14. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 20. 21, 25.
PITCH+/- 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.7
PROFILE 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.8 S.8 6.1 6.3 7.0

8.0 RUNOUT 13. 14. 1.5. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 24. 26. 30.
PITCH+/- 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.6 5.2
PROFILE 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.9 7.2 7.5 8.3

12. RUNOUT 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 33. 34. 40.
PITCH+I- 3.3 3.5 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.5 6.2
PROFILE 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.6 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9.2 9.5 11.

16. RUNOUT 22. 23. 24. 26. 27. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 40. 42. 50.
PITCH+/- 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.9 6.1 6.9
PROFILE 7.3 7.6 7.9 8.1 8.5 8.8 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 13.

20. RUNOUT 25. 27. 29. 30. 32. 34. 3.5. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 44. 47. 49. 58.
PITCH+/- 4.1 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.6
PROFILE 8.3 8.7 9.0 9.3 9.7 10. 10. 11. 11. Il. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 14.
25. RUNOUT 30. 32. 34. 35. 38. 40. 41. 43. 44. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 51. 55. 58. 68.
PITcHi/- 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.7 5.8 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 7.0 7.3 8.3
PROFILZ 9.5 9.9 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. IS. 16.

50. RUNOUT 49. 53. 5s. 58. 62. 65. 68. 71. 73. 75. 77. 79. 80. 82. 83. 85. 91. 96. 110
PITCH+/- 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.6 7.0 7.3 7.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 8.2 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 9.3 9.7 11.
PROFILE 14. 15. 16. 16. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 25.

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), UJ~T

Q24 FACEWIDTH 1 25 30’. 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250


TOLERANCE . -3.3 3.3 3.8 4.6 5.4 6.2 7.6 8.9 11. 12. 15. 17.

AN3fAGM.A 69 2000-AS8
Gear Cksiiication and Inspection Handbook for UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

Table 6-1M
Element Tolerances
Runout Tolerance, VrT ; Allowable Pitch Variation, I-& ; Profile Tolerance, I$T
In Micrometers (urn)
m of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears,UseAdjustedNumberof Teeth (zi =z/cos &)
Q Module Tolerance
No. m, Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 80 100 200

16 1.25 RUNOUT 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.6
PITCH+/- 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8
PROFILE 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 2.0
1.50 RUNOUT 2.8 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 5.2 5.4 6.4
PlTCH+/- 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9
PROFILE 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.2
2.0 RUNOUT 3.4 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.3 6.7 7.9
PITCH++ 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 I.5 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1
PROFILE 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.6
3.0 RUNOUT 4.6 4.9 5.2 5.4 5.8 6.1 6.4 6.6 6.8 7.0 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.5 9.0 11.
pITI-+/- 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.5
=OFIIaE 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.3
4.0 RUNOUT 5.7 6.1 6.4 6.7 7.1 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.4 8.7 8.9 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.6 9.8 11. 11. 13.
PIT'CH+I- 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8
PROFILE 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.6 4.0
6.0 RUNOUT 7.6 8.1 8.5 8.9 9.6 10. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. IS. 18.
PlTCH+l- 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.3
PROFILE 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 5.0
8.0 RUNOUT 9.3 10. 11. 11. 12. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. IS. IS. 16. 16. 16. 17. 18. 22.
PIXEi+l- 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.7
PROFILE 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.2 5.4 6.0
12. RUNOUT 13. 14. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 25. 29.
PITcH+I- 2.3 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.7 3.9 4.4
PRO- 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.6 6.8 7.6
16. RUNOUT 16. 17. 18. 18. 20. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 29. 30. 36.
PITCH+/- 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 3.9 4.2 4.3 4.9
PROW 5.2 5.5 5.6 5.8 6.1 6.3 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.8 8.0 8.9 .
20. RUNOUT 18. 19. 21. 2i. 23. 24. 2.5. 26. 27. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 34. 35. 42.
PITCH+I- 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.5 4.7 5.3
PROFILE 6.0 6.2 6.4 6.6 6.9 7.2 7.4 7.5 7.7 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.9 9.2 10.
25. RUNOUT 21. 23. 24. 25. 27. 28. 30. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 36. 36. 377. 39. 42. 49.
PITCH+/- 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.0 5.2 5.8
PROFiLE 6.8 7.1 7.3 7.5 7.9 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 10. 11. 12.
500. RUNOUT 35. 38. 40. 41. 44. 47. 49. 51. 52. 54. 55. 56. 57. 59. 60. 61. 65. 68. 81.
PiTCFliI- 4.1 4.4 4.5 4.7 4.9 5.1 5.3 5.4 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.8 7.7
PROFILE 10. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. 15. 15. 16. 18.

Tooth Alignment Tolerance (Lead), I$T

Ql5 FACEWIDTH . 1 25 30 40 50 60 80 100 125 150 200 250


TOLERANCE 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.6 4.3 4.9 6.0 7.0 8.2 9.4- 12. 14.

ANSYAGMA 70 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
-. Total Composite Tolerance, IQ ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vqr
In Micrometers Qun)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears. Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos B)
Q Module Tolergxe
No.m, Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q5.20 TOTAL 86. 86. 85. 85. 84. 84. 83. 84. 85. 87. 88. 89. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 95. 96. 97. 100 110
T-TO-T 78. 73. 69. 66. 61. 58. 58. 57. 56. 55. 55. 55. 55. 55. 55. 5.5. 55. 55. 55. 55. 55. 55.
.25 TOTAL, 94. 94. 93. 93. 92. 92. 91. 92. 94. 9.5. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 120
T-TO-T 82. 77. 73. 69. 65. 61. 61. 60. 59. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58. 58.
-30 TOTAL 100 100 100 100 100 99. 98. 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130
T-TO-T 86. 80. 76. 73. 68. 64. 64. 62. 61. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60.
.40 TOTAL 120 120 120 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 ii0 120 130 130 130 130 130 130 140 150
T-TO-T 92. 86. 81. 78. 73. 69. 68. 67. 66. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 65. 6.5.
.SO TOTAL 130 130 130 130 130 130 120 130 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 160 160
T-TO-T 97. 90. 86. 82. 77. 73. 72. 70. 69. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68.
-60 TOTAL 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 170 180
T-TO-T 100 94. 89. 86. 80. 76. 75. 73. 72. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71. 71.
-80 TOTAL 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 160 170 170 170 170 170 180 180 180 190 200 210
T-TO-T 110 100 96. 92. 86. 81. 80. 78. 77. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76.
1.0 TOTAL 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 180 180 180 180 190 190 190 190 200 200 210 210 220 230
T-TO-T 120 110 100 97. 90. 86. 84. 82. 81. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80.
1.25 TOTAL 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 200 200 200 210 210 210 210 220 220 230 230 230 250 260
T-TO-T 120 110 110 100 95. 90. 88. 87. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85. 85.
2.0 TOTAL 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 250 2.50 260 260 260 270 270 270 280 290 290 300 320 330
T-TO-T 140 130 120 120 110 100 98. 96. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95. 95.

WSIIAGMA 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-ZM
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, IQ ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, ‘JST
In Micrometers O.Lxn~
Number ofheti (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Nomber if Teeth (zi =Z/COS @)
Q Module TFece
No. mn
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q6.20 TOTAL 62. 62. 61. 61. 61. 60. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 63. 64. 65. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 73. 75.
T-TO-T 56. St. 49. 47. 44. 42. 41. 41. 40. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39.
-25 TOTAL 68. 67. 67. 67. 66. 66. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 70. 71. 72. 72. 74. 75. 76. 77. 81. 83.
T-TO-T 59. 55. 52. 50. 46. 44. 44. 43. 42. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41.
30 TOTAL 73. 73. 72. 72. 71. 71. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 78. 80. 81. 82. 83. 88. 91.
T-TO-T 61. 57. 54. 52. 48. 46. 46. 45. 44. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43.
-40 TOTAL 82. 82. 81. 81. 81. 80. 79. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 91. 92. 94. 95. 100 110
T-TO-T 66. 61. 58. 56. 52. 49. 49. 48. 47. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46. 46.
30 TOTAL 90. 90. 89. i9. 89. 88. 87. 89. 91. 92. 93. 94. 96. 97. 98. 98. 100 100 110 110 110 120
T-TO-T 69. 65. 61. 59. 55. 52. 51. SO. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49.
-60 TOTAL 97. 97. 97. 96. 96. 96. 95. 97. 98. 100 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 l?+O
T-TO-T 72. 67. 64. 61. 57. 54. 53. St. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51. 51.
.80 TOTAL 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 150 -
T-TO-T 77. 72. 69. 66. 61. 58. 57. 56. 55. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 59. 54. 54. 54. S44. 54. 54. 54.
1.0 TOTAL 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 160 170
T-T&T 82. 76. 72. 69. 65. 61. 60. 59. 58. 57. 57. 57. 57. 57. S7. 57. 57. 57. S7. S7. S7. 57.
1.25 TOTAL 140 140 140 140 140 140 130 140 140 140 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 170 180 190
T-TO-T 86. 80. 76. 73. 68. 65. 63. 62. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61. 61.
2.0 TOTAL 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 180 180 180 190 190 190 190 200 200 210 210 210 230 240
T-TO-T 96. 90. 85. 82. 76. 72. 70. 69. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68.
3.0 TOTAL 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 210 220 220 230 230 230 240 240 240 250 260 260 270 290 300
T-TO-T 110 99. 94. 90. 84. 80. 77. 76. 74. 75. 75. 75. 75. 7s. 7s. 75. 75. 75.. 7s. 75. 7s. 7s.
6.0 TOTAL 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 310 320 330 330 340 350 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 430 460
T-TO-T 130 120 110 110 99. 94. 90. 89. 87. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88. 88.
12. TOTAL 450 450 450 450 450 450 460 470 480 500 510 520 530 540 550 550 S70 590 600 620 670 720
T-TQ-T 150 140 130 130 120 110 110 110 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110
20. TOTAL 630 630 630 630 630 630 630 650 670 690 710 720 740 750 770 780 810 830 850 880 960 1030
T-TO-T 170 160 150 140 130 130 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120
25. TOTAL 730 730 730 730 730 730 730 760 780 810 830 840 860 880 890 910 940 970 1000 103011301210
T-TO-T 180 170 160 150 MO 130 130 120 120 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130 130
50. TOTAL 1180 11801180 1180 1180 1180 1190 1240 1290 1330 1370 1400 1440 1470 1500 1520 1590 1640 liO0 1740 1940 2100
T-TO-T 210 200 190 180 170 160 1.50 IS0 140 150 150 lS0 ISO 150 150 150 lS0 150 150 150 150 150

WfAGMA 72 2000-A88
-. Gear Classification and hpection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I.&r ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Micrometers oun>
Number of Teeth (2); for HelicaI Gears, Use AdjustedNmber of Teeth (zi=z/cos 8)
Q Module Tolermce
No. m, Type 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

~7.20 TOTAL, 45. 45. 44. 44. 43. 43. 42. 43. 44. 44. 45. 45. 46. 46. 47. 47. 48. 49. 49. 50. 52. 54.
T-TO-T 40. 37. 35. 34. 31. 30. 30. 29. 29. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28.
.25 TOTAL 49. 49. 48. 48. 48. 47. 46. 47. 48: 49. 49. 50. 50. 51. 51. 52. 53. 53. 54. 55. 58. 60.
T-TO-T 42. 39. 37. 36. 33. 31. 31. 31. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30. 30.
.3C TOTAL 53. 52. 52. 52. 51. 51. 50. 51. 52. 53. 53. 54. 54. 55. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 63. 65.
T-TO-T 44. 41. 39. 37. 35. 33. 33. 32. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. , 31. 31.
.4? TOTAL 59. 59. 59. 58. 58. 57. 57. 58. 59. 60. 60. 61. 62. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 72. 74.
T-TO-T 47. 44. 42. 40. 37. 35. 35. 34. 34. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33. 33.
.S@ TOTAL 65. 64. 64. 64. 63. 63. 62. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 68. 69. 70. 70. 72. 73. 74. 75. 79. 83.
T-TO-T 49. 46. 44. 42. 39. 37. 37. 36. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 3.5.
.63 TOTAL 70. 69. 69. 69. 69. 68. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 80. 81. 82. 87. 90.
T-TO-T 52. 48. 46. 44. 41. 39. 38. 37. 37. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36. 36.
23 TOTAL 79. 79. 78. 78. 78. 78. 77. 79. 80. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 90. 91. 93. 94. 100 110
T-TO-T 55. 52. 49. 47. 44. 42. 41. 40. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39.
10 TOTAL 87. 87. 87. 86. 86. 86. 85. 87. 89. 91. 92. 93. 95. 96. 97. 98. 100 100 110 110 110 120
T-TO-T 58. 55. 52. 49. 46. 44. 43. 42. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41. 41.
:.2-S TOTAL 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 95. 97. 99. 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 130 130
T-TO-T 62. 58. 55. 52. 49. 46. 45. 44. 44: 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43.
z-0 TOTAL 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 160 170
T-TO-T 69. 64. 61. 58. 55. 52. 50. 49. 48. 49. 49. 49. 49. 492 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49.
3.0 TOTAL 1 50 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 160 160 160 170 170 170 i70 170 180 180 190 190 200 210
T-TO-T 76. 71. 67. 64. 60. 57. 55. 54. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53.
i.C TOTAL 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 230 230 240 240 250 250 260 260 270 270 280 290 310 330
T-TO-T 90. 84. 79. 76. 71. 67. 65. 63. 62. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63.
12 TOTAL 330 330 330 330 330 330 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 480 510
T-TO-T 110 99. 94. 90. 84. 79. 76. 74. 73. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74. 74.
2C. TOTAL 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 470 480 490 510 520 530 540 550 560 580 590 610 630 690 730
T-TO-T 120 110 110 100 95. 90. 85. 84. 82. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84.
2: TOTAL 520 520 520 520 520 520 520 540 560 580 590 600 620 630 640 650 670 700 720 730 810 870
T-TO-T 130 120 110 110 100 95. 90. 88. 86. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89. 89.
50. TOTAL 840 840 840 840 840 840 850 890 920 950 980 10001030 1050107010901130 117012101250 13901500
T-TO-T 150 140 130 130 120 110 110 100 100 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110

AiiSUAGMA 73 zooo-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears \

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I& ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Micrometers (jun)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos 6)
Q
No. Module
m, =%F” 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 130 150 200

Q8 -20 TOTAL 33. 33. 32. 32. 31. 31. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 32. 33. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 35. 37. 39.
T-TO-T 28. 27. 25. 24. 23. 21. 21. 21. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
.2S TOTAL 36. 35. 35. 35. 34. 34. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 36. 37. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39 41. 43.
T-TO-T 30. 28. 27. 25. 24. 23. 22. 22. 22. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.
.M TOTAL 38. 38. 38. 37. 37. 36. 36. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 41. 42. 43. 45. 46.
T-TO-T 31. 29. 28. 27. 25. 24. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
-40 TOTAL 43. 42. 42. 42. 41. 41. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 44. 45. 45. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 51. 53.
T-TO-T 34. 31. 30. 28. 27. 25. 25. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24. 24.
.SO TOTAL 47. 46. 46. 46. 46. 45. 45. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. 49. SO. SO. 51. 52. 53. 54. $7. S9.
T-TO-T 35. 33. 31. 30. 28. 27. 26. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25.
-60 TOTAL 50. SO. SO. 50. 49. 49. 48. 49. SO. 51. 52. 52. 53. 54. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 62. 65.
T-TO-T 37. 35. 33. 31. 29. 28. 27. 27. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26. 26.
.80 TOTAL 57. 56. 56. 56. 56. 56. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 71. .74.
T-TO-T 40. 37. 35. 34. 31. 30. 29. 29. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28.
1.0 TOTAL 62. 62. 62. 62. 62. 62. 61. 62. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 68. 69. 70. 72. 73. 74. 75, so. 83.
T-TO-T 42. 39. 37. 35. 33. 31. 31. 30. 30. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29.

1.25 TOTAL 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 68. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 80. 82. 83. 84. 90. 94.
T-TO-T 44. 41. 39. 37. 35. 33. 32. 32. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 33. 31. 31. 31. 51. 31.

2.0 TOTAL 86. 86. 86. 86. 86. 86. 86. 88. 90. 91. 93. 94, 96. 97. 98. 99. 100 110 110 110 ;?O 120
T-TO-T 49. 46. 44. 42. 39. 37. 36. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35.
3.0 TOTAL 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 I20 130 130 130 130 140 1.50 150
T-TO-T 54. 51. 48. 46. 43. 41. 39. 39. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 388. 38. 38. 38. 38. 3;. 38.
6.0 TOTAL 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 170 170 170 180 180 la0 190 190 200 200 200 2: 0 230
T-TO-T 64. 60. 57. El. 51. 48. 46. 45. 4s. 45. 4s. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. IS. 4.. . 45.
12. TOTAL 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 240 250 250 260 270 270 280 280 280 290 300 310 320 34) 370
T-TO-T 76. 71. 67. 64. 60. S7. 54. 53. 52. S3. 53. 53. 53. 53. 53. S33. 533. 53. 53. 53. 53 S3.
20. TOTAL 320 320 320 320 320 320 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 390 400 410 430 440 450 490 530
T-TO-T 86. 80. 76. 72. 68. 64. 61. 60. 59. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60.
25. TOTAL -0 370 370 370 370 370 370 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 500 510 530 5aC 620
T-TO-T 90. 84. 80. 76. 71. k8. 64. 63. 62. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. 63. $3. 63. 63. 63. 63.
SO. TOTAL 600 600 600 600 600 600 610 640 660 680 700 720 730 750 760 780 810 840 870 890 990 1070
T-TD-T 110 99. 94. 90. 84. 80. 75. 74. 72. 75. 75. 7s. 75. 7s. 75. 75. 75. 75. 75. 75. 75. 75.

ANSIIAGMA 74 2000-A88
Gear Cbsification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite ToIerance, IQ ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, V&-
In Micrometers h.rnI
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos @)
Q Module Tokrance
No. m, Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q9 -20 TOTAL 24. 24. 24. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 27. 28.
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 15. IS. IS. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
-25 TOTAL 26. 26. 26. 25. 25. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 30. 33.
T-TO-T 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 16. 16. IS. 1s. 1.5. 1s. 15. 1.5. 15. 15. 1s. 15. 15. 15. 15. 1s.
-30 TOTAL 28. 28. 27. 27. 27. 26. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 32. 33.
T-TO-T 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
40 TOTAL 31. 31. 31. 30. 30. 29. 29. 30. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 37. 38.
T-TO-T 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 18. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.
20 TOTAL 34. 34. 33. 33. 33. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 37. 38. 39. 41. 42.
T-TO-T 25. 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
-60 TOTAL 36. 36. 36. 36. 35. 35. 35. 35. 36. 37. 37. 3%. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 41. 41. 42. 44. 46.
T-TO-T 26. 25. 23. 22. 21. 20. 20. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19. 19.
-80 TOTAL 41. 41. 40. 40. 40. 40. 39. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. 44. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 51. 53.
T-TO-T 28. 26. 25. 24. 22. 21. 21. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
1.0 TOTAL 45. 45. 44. 44. 44. 44. 44. 45. 46. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. 49. SO. 51. 52. 53. 54. S7. 60.
T-TO-T 30. 28. 26. 25. 24. 22. 22. 22. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21.
1.25 TOTAL 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. SO. 51. 52. 52. 53. 54. 55. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 64. 67.
T-TO-T 32. 29. 28. 27. 25. 24. 23. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
2.0 TOTAL 62. 62. 62. 62. 62. 62. 61. 63. 64. 65. 66. 68. 68. 69. 70. 71. 73. 74. 76. -77. 83. 86.
T-TO-T 35. 33. 31. 30. 28. 26. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25
3.0 TOTAL 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 76. 75. 77. 79. 81. 82. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 91. 93. 95. 96. lS0 110
T-TO-T 39. 36. 34. 33. 31. 29. 28. 28. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27.
6.0 TOTAL 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 130 130 140 140 140 1SO 160 170
T-TO-T 46. 43. 41. 39. 36. 34. 33. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32.
12. TOTAL 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 170 180 180 190 190 190 200 200 200 210 220 220 230 250 260
T-TO-T 54. 51. 48. 46. 43. 41. 39. 38. 37. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38.
20. TOTAL 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 240 2S0 250 260 270 270 280 -280 280 300 300 310 320 350 380
T-TO-T 61. 57. 54. 52. 48. 46. 44. 43. 42. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43.
25. TOTAL 270 270 270 270 270 270 270 280 290 290 300 310 320 320 330 330 3S0 360 370 380 410 440
T-TO-T 65. 60. 57. 55. 51. 48. 46. 45. 44. 45. 45. 45. 45 4s. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 45. 4s. 45.
SO. TOTAL 430 430 430 430 430 430 440 450 470 490 500 510 S20 540 SSO 560 580 600 620 640 710 770
T-TO-T 76. 71. 67. 65. 60. S7. 54. 53. n. 54. 54. 54. 54. 34. 54. 54. El. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54.

ANSUAGMA 2000-A88
. ..

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-ZM
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, tqT ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Micrometers @m)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos @)
Q Module Told= =
No. m,
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 IS0 200

QlO -20 TOTAL .-IS. 18. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 20.
T-TO-T 1s. 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10.
.25 TOTAL 19. 19. 19. 18. 18. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 21. 22.
T-TO-T 1s. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.
30 TOT.& 21. 20. 20. 20. 19. 19. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 24.
T-TO-T J6. 15. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.
.40 TOTAL 23. 23. 22. 22. 21. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 27.
T-TO-T 17. 16. 1s. 1s. 14. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. x2. 12.
SO TOTAL 2s. 24. 24. 24. 24. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 30.
T-TO-T 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.
-60 TOTAL 26. 26. 26. 26. 25. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 32. 33.
T-TO-T -L 19. 18. 17. 16. IS. 14. 14. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.
.80 TOTAL 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 3. 35. 37. 38.
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 15. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
1.0 TOTAL 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 35, 35. 36. 37. 37. 38. 39. 41. 43.
T-TO-T 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 16. IS. 1.5. 1s. 1s. 1s. 15. 15. IS. 1s. 1s. 15. 1s. 1s. 1s. 1s.
1.25 TOTAL 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 38. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 42. 43. 46. 46.
T-TO-T 23. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.
2.0 TOTAL 4.4. 44. 44. 44. 44. 44. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 48. 49. SO. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 9. 62.
T-TO-3 25. 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18.
3.0 TOTAL 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 54. 55. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 62. 63. 65. 66. 68. 69. 74. 78.
T-TO-T 28. 26. 25. 24. 22. 21. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
6.0 TOTAL 79. 79. 79. 79. 79. 79. 79. 81. 83. 85. 87. 88. 90. 91. 92. 94. 97. 99. 100 110 110 120
T-TO-T 33. 31. 29. 28. 26. 25. 24. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 2.3. 23. 23. 23.
:
12. TOTAL 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 150 150 150 160 160 180 190
T-TO-T 39. 36. 34. 33. 31. 29. 28. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27.
20. TOTAL 160 160 160 160 160 160 170 170 180 180 190 190 190 200 200 200 210 220 220 230 250 270
T-TO-T 44. 41. 39. 37. 35. 33. 31. 31. 30. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31.
25. TOTAL 190 190 190 190 190 190 190 200 210 210 220 220 230 230 230 240 250 260 260 270 300 320
T-TO-T 46. 43. 41. 39. 36. 35. 33. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32. 32, 32. 32. 32.
SO. TOTAL 310 310 310 310 310 310 310 330 340 3S0 360 370 380 380 390 400 410 430 440 460 510 SSO
T-TO-T 54. 51. 48. 46. 43. 41. 38. 38. 37. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 38. 388. 38. 38. 38. 388. 38.

QSUAGMA 76 2OOQ-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-ZM
Composite Toierances
Total Composite Tolerance, I&T ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, V”T
In Micrometers (urn>
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos 8)
Q Modnle Tolerance
No. m, Tn= 6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Qll .2 TOTAL 14. 13. 13. 13. 12. Il. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14.
T-TO-T 10. 9.6 9.1 8.7 8.2 7.7 7.7 7.5 7.4 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.3
-25 TOTAL IS. 14. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. 16.
T-TO-T 11. 10. 9.6 9.2 8.6 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7 7.7
.30 TOTAL 15. 15. 15. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 1.5. 15. 15. 15. 1.5. 16. 16. 17.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 10. 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.4 8.3 8.1 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
.40 TOTAL 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 15. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 19.
T-TO-T 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.6 9.1 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6 8.6
33 TOTAL 18. 18. 18. 37. 17. 17. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. lg. 20. 21. 22.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.6 9.5 9.3 9.2 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

-60 TOTAL 19. 19. 19. 19. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 1s. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 23. 24.
T-TO-T 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.9 9.7 9.5 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.4
-80 TOTAL 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 20. 20. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 26. 27.
T-TO-T IS. 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10. 10.
1.0 TOTAL 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 2.5. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 29. 31.
T-TO-T 15. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 11. Il. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

1.25 TOTAL 25. 2.5. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 28. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 33. 34.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11.

2.0 TOTAL 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 32. 33. 33. 34. 35. 35. 36. 36. 36. 37. 38. 39. 39. 42. 44.
T-TO-T 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13.

3.0 TOTAL 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 39. 40. 40. 41. 42. 43. 43. 44. 45. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 53. 56.
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
6.0 TOTAL 56. 56. 56. 56. 56. 56. 56. 58. 59. 61. 62. 63. 644. 65. 66. 67. 69. 71. 12. 74. 80. 8s.
T-TO-T 23. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.

12. TOTAL 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 84. 85. 87. 90. 92. 94. 96. 98. 100 100 100 110 110 110 320 130 130
T-TO-T 28. 26. 25. 23. 22. 21. 20. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.
20. TOTAL. 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 140 150 150 160 160 160 180
120 190
T-TO-T 31. 28. 27. 25. 23. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22. 22.
29. 22.

25. TOTAL 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 140 150 150 160 160 160 170 170 170 380 180 190 190 210 230
T-TO-T 33. 31. 29. 28. 26. 25. 24. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23.

50. TOTAL. 220 220 220 220 220 220 220 230 240 250 260 260 270 270 280 280 300 310 320 330 360 390
T-TO-T 39. 36. 34. 33. 31. 29. 28. 27. 27. 2?. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 27. 2?, 27.

ANSIIAGMA 77 2000-A88
.
c

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled @LX and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Com posite Tolerances
Total Com posite Tolerance, &T ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, v&P
In M icrom eters hm1
Number of Teeth (2); for He&al Gears. Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =z/cos 6)
Q Module Tolerance
No. mn Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

QU .2 TOTAL 10. 9.9 9.5 9.2 8.6 7.9 7.8 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.6 8.7. 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.7 10.
T-TO-T 7.4 6.9 6.5 6.2 5.8 5.5 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2
.2S TOTAL 11. 11. 10. 9.9 9.3 8.7 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. 10. 11. 11.
T-TO-T 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.6 6.2 5.8 5.8 5.7 S-6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
-30 TOTAL 12. 11. Il. 11. 10. 9.4 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.8 9.9 10. 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. l2. 12.
T-TO-T 8.1 7.6 7.2 6.9 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7 5.7
-40 TOTAL 13. 12. 12. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14.
T-TO-T 8.7 8.1 7.7 7.4 6.9 6.5 6.5 6.3 6.2 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1 6.1
.50 TOTAL 13. 13. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. 16.
T-TO-T 9.2 8.6 8.1 7.8 7.3 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5
.60 TOTAL 14. 14. 14. 14. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. 15. 15. 15. 16. 17.
T-TO-T 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.1 7.6 7.2 7.1 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.7
-80 TOTAL 16. IS. 15. 15. IS. 15. 14. 15. IS. IS. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 19. 20.
T-TO-T 10. 9.6 9.1 8.7 8.1 7.7 7.6 7.4 7.3 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2 7.2
1.0 TOTAL 17. 17. 17. 17. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 21. 22.
T-TO-T 11. 10. 9.6 9.2 8.6 8.1 8.0 7.8 7.7 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6
1.25 TOTAL 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 24. 25.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 10. 9.7 9.0 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.1 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
I
2.0 TOTAL 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 23. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 25. 26. 26. 27. 27. 28. 28. 30. 32.
T-TO-T 13. 12. 12. 11. 10. 9.6 9.3 9.1 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0
3.0 TOTAL 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 28. 29. 30. 30. 31. 31. 32. 32. 32. 33. 34. 35. 35. 38. 40.
T-TO-T 14. 13. 13. 12. 11. 11. 10. 10. 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9
6.0 TOTAL 40. 40. 40. 40. 40. 40. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 47. 48. 49. 51. 52. 53. 57. 60,
T-TO-T 17. 16. 15. 14. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. u. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12.

12. TOTAL 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 60. 62. 64. 66. 67. 69. 70. 71, 72. 74. 76. 78. 80. 82. 89. 95,
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.
20. TOTAL 83. 83. 83. 83. 83. 83. 84. 87. 89. 92. 94. 96. 98. 100 100 110 110 110 120 120 130 140
T-TO-T 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 16. 15. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 16.. 16. 16. 16.
25. TOTAL 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 96. 97. 100 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 150 160
T-TO-T 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 18. 17. 17. 16. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17. 17.

50. TOTAL 160 160 160 160 160 160 160 170 170 180 180 190 190 200 200 200 210 220 230 230 260 280
T-TQ-T 28. 26. 25. 24. 22. 21. 20. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20.

WSYAGMA 78 2000-A88
Gear classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I@ *, Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vqy-
In Micrometers @.m)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted tkmber of Teeth (zi dcos 6)
Q Module Tolerance
No. mR Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q13.2 TOTAL 7.9 7.6 7.3 7.0 6.3 5.7 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.9 7.2
T-TO-T 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7

.25 TOTAL 8.4 8.1 7.8 7.4 6.8 6.2 6.1 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.6 7.9
T-TO-T 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9
.30 TOTAL 8.8 8.5 8.2 7.9 7.3 6.7 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.3 8.6
T-TO-T 5.8 5.4 5.1 4.9 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1
-40 TOTAL 9.4 9.2 8.9 8.6 8.1 7.6 7.5 7.7 7.8 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.6 8.8 8.9 9.0 9.5 9.9
T-TO-T 6.2 5.8 5.5 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.6 4.5 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4
.50 TOTAL 10. 9.7 9.5 9.3 8.8 8.4 8.3 8.4 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.9 10. Il. 11.
T-TO-T 6.6 6.1 5.8 5.6 5.2 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
.60 TOTAL 11. 10. 10. 9.9 9.5 9.1 9.0 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12.
T-TO-T 6.9 6.4 6.1 5.8 5.4 5.1 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8
.80 TOTAL Il. Il. 11. 11. 11. 10. 10. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 14.
T-TO-T 7.3 6.9 6.5 6.2 5.8 5.5 5.4 5.3 5.2 5.2 -5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2
1.0 TOTAL 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. IS. 16.
T-TO-T 7.8 7.2 6.9 6.6 6.1 5.8 5.7 5.6 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.5
1.25 TOTAL 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. IS. 15. 15. 15. 16. 16. 17. 18.
T-TO-T 8.2 7.6 7.2 6.9 6.5 6.1 6.0 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8
2.0 TOTAL 16. 16. 16. -16. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 18. 18. 19. 19. 20. 20. 20. 22. 23.
T-TO-T 9.2 8.5 8.1 7.8 7.2 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4
3.0 TOTAL 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 20. 21. 21. 22. 22. 22. 23. 23. 23. 24. 24. 25. 25. 27. 28.
T-TO-T 10. 9.4 8.9 8.5 8.0 7.6 7.3 7.2 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
6.0 TOTAL 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 29. 30. 30. 31. 32. 32. 33. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 41. 43.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 11. 10. 9.4 8.9 8.6 8.4 8.3 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4
12. TOTAL 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 544. 56. 57. 59. 64. 68.
T-TO-T 14. 13. 13. 12. 11. 11. 10. 9.9 9.7 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9
20. TOTAL 59. 59. 59. 59. 59. 59. 60. 62. 64. 66. 67. 69. 70. 71. 73. 74. 77. 79. 81. ti3. 91. 98.
T-TO-T 16. 15. 14. 14. 13. 12. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. 11. ll. ll.
25. TOTAL 69. 69. 69. 69. 69. 69. 69. 72. 74. 76. 78. 80. 82. 83. 85. 86. 90. 92. 95. 98. 1x0 120
T-TO-T 17. 16. 15.‘ 14. 13. 13. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. l2. 12. 12. 12.
50. TOTAL. 110 110 110 110 110 110 120 120 120 130 130 130 140 140 140 150 150 160 160 170 190 200
T-TO-T 20. 19. 18. 17. 16. 15. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14.

ANSUAGMA 79 2000-A88
. .

Gear Classificationand Inspection Handbook for UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite Tolerance, I& ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, V$
In Micrometers Q.un)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, .Use Adjnsled Numbex of Teeth (Zi =Zbs 6)
Q Module Tolerance
No. mn Type
6 8 10 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 loo 150 200

414.2 TOTAL 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.3 4.7 4.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 5.0 5.1
T-TO-T 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7
.2.5 TOTAL 6.6 6.3 6.0 5.7 5.1 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 S-S 5.7
T-TO-T 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
-30 TOTAL 6.8 6.5 6.3 6.0 5.4 4.8 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.9 6.2
T-TO-T 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9
.40 TOTAL 7.3 7.0 6.7 6.5 5.9 5.4 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.4 6.8 7.0
T-TQ-T 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.3 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.1
50 TOTAL 7.6 7.4 7.1 6.9 6.4 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.5 7.8
T-TO-T 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3
-60 TOTAL 7.9 7.7 7.5 7.3 6.9 6.5 6.4 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.6 7.7 7.8 8.2 8.6
T-TO-T 4.9 4.6 4.3 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5
-80 TOTAL 8.4 8.2 8.1 7.9 7.7 7.4 7.3 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.2 8.3 8.5 8.7 8.8 9.0 9.5 9.9
T-TO-T 5.3 4.9 4.7 4.5 4.2 3.9 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.7
1.0 TOTAL 8.7 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.1 8.3 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.5 9.7 9.9 10. 11. 11.
T-TO-T 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.1 4.0 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9 3.9
1.25 TOTAL 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.1 9.0 9.2 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.9 10. 10. 10. 11. 11. Il. 11. 11. 12. 13.
T-TQ-T 5.8 5.5 5.2 5.0 4.6 4.4 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1
2.0 TOTAL 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 12. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 13. 14. 14. 14. 15. 16. 16.
T-TQ-T 6.5 6.1 5.8 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.8 4.7 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6
3.0 TOTAL 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 14. 15. 15. 15. IS. 16. 16. 16. 16. 17. 17. 17. 18. 18. 19. 20.
T-TO-T 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.1 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.1 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 5.1
6.0 TOTAL 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 21. 22. 22. 23. 23. 24. 24. 24. 25. 25. 26. 27. 27. 29. 31.
T-TO-T 8.5 7.9 7.5 7.2 6.7 6.4 6.1 6.0 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.0
12. TOTAL 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 31. 32. 33. 34. 34. 35. 36. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 46. 49.
T-TO-T 10. 9.4 8.9 8.5 7.9 7.5 7.2 7.1 6.9 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1 7.1
20. TOTAL 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 43. 44. 46. 47. 48. 49. SO. 51. 52. 53. 55. 56. 58. 59. 65. 70.
T-TO-T 12. 11. 10. 9.6 9.0 8.5 8.1 7.9 7.8 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 8.0
25. TOTAL 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 49. 50. 51. 53. 55. 56. 57. 59. 60. 61. 62. 64. 66. 68. 70. 77. 82.
T-TQ-T 12. 11. 11. 10. 9.5 .9.0 8.5 8.3 8.2 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4 8.4
50. TOTAL 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 80. 81. 84. 87. 90. 93. 95. 97. 99. 100 110 110 110 120 120 130 140
T-TO-T 14. 13. 13. 12. 11. 11. 10. 9.8 9.6 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9 9.9

NSIIAGMA 80 2000-A88
Gear Class&&on and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-2M
Composite Tolerances
Total Composite ‘Tolerance, &T ; Tooth-To-Tooth Composite Tolerance, Vq~
In Micrometers (w)
Number of Teeth (2); for Helical Gears, Use Adjusted Number of Teeth (zi =dcos fi)
Q Module Tolerance
m,
No. Type 6 8 10 12’ 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 70 80 90 100 150 200

Q15.2 TOTAL 5.2 4.8 4.5 4.2 3.5 2.9 2.9 2.9 3.0. 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7
T-TO-T 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9

‘-25 TOTAL 5.3 5.0 4.7 4.4 3.8 3.2 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 4.0
T-TO-T 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.3 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0

-30 TOTAL 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.9 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.2 4.4
T-TO-T 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1

.40 TOTAL 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.9 4.4 3.9 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.3’ 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.9 5.0
T-TO-T 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2 2.2
30 TOTAL 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.2 4.7 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.4 5.6
T-TO-T 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.7 2.5 2.5 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4
-60 TOTAL 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.4 5.0 4.6 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.1 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.9 6.1
T-TO-T 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5
-80 TOTAL 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.3 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.8 7.1
T-TO-T 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.6
1.0 TOTAL 6.4 6.3 6.3 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.6 6.8 6.9 7.0 7.2 7.6 7.9
T-TO-T 4.0 3.7 3.5 3.4 3.1 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.8
1.25 TOTAL 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.5 6.4 6.6 6.7 6.9 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.3 5.4 7.6 7.7 7.9 8.0 8.5 8.9
T-TO-T 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9

ANSIIAGMA 81 2000-A88
Gear Chssification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-3M
Tooth Thickness Tolerance, tr1 (Tolerance Values in Millimeters)
Tolerance Codes
Quality
Number Module A B C D
50.00 1.885
3 20.00 oi754
and 12.00 0.452
4 8.00 0.302
5.00 0.188

50.00 1.885
20.00 0.754
5 12.00 0.452 0.226
8.00 0.302 0.151
5.00 0.188 0.094
3.00 0.121 0.061

50.00 1.885
20.00 0.754
12.00 0.452 0.226
6 8.00 0.302 0.151
5.00 0.188 0.094
3.00 0.121 0.061
2.00 0.088 0.044
1.25 0.060 0.030 0.015
0.80 0.042 0.021 0.011
50.00 - 1.885
20.00 0.754
12.00 0.452 0.226 0.113
8.00 0.302 0.151 0.075
5.00 0.188 0.094 0.047
3.00 0.121 0.061 0.030 - 0.015
2.00 0.088 0.044 0.022 0.011
1.25 0.060 0.030 0.015 0.008
0.80 0.042 0.021 0.011 0.005
0.50 0.029 0.014 0.007 0.004
0.40 0.025 0.012 0.006 0.003
0.30 0.019 0.010 0.005 0.002
0.20 0.014 0.007 0.003 0.002

ANSVAGMA 82 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

7. Materials, Heat Treatment and suitable for gearing. No attempt is made to offer
specific recommendations. For this information,
Hardness Classification
see AGMA 240.
7.1 Purpose. This identification is provided to
7.3 Designation. Table 7-l is provided to assist
assist the user in specifying a complete AGMA
the designer or buyer in designating an
Classification Number. It presents codes for
appropriate material and heat treatment
material designations, and hardness ranges for
combination. In case of doubt, consult with a
most common gear metals.
materials specialist.
7.2 Selection. There are many combinations of
materials, heat treatments, and hardness ranges
Table 7-l
Materials and Heat Treatment
Designation Hardness Range
Xurnber Material Treatment (see notes 1 and 3)
UC-1 Carbon Steel Annealed or as rolled Equivalent to 179 Bhn for
AGMA Durability Rating
UA-11 Alloy Steel Annealed or as rolled Equivalent to 179 Bhn for
AGMA Durability Rating
HC-1 Carbon Steel Normalize or Quench
and Temper 212 to 248 Bhn
HC-2 Carbon Steel Quench and Temper 223 to 262 Bhn
HC-3 Carbon Steel Quench and Temper 248 to 285 Bhn
HC-4 Carbon Steel Quench and Temper 262 to 302 Bhn
HC-5 Carbon Steel Quench and Temper 285 to 321 Bhn
HC-6 Carbon Steel Quench and Temper 302 to 351 Bhn
HA-11 Alloy Steel Normalize or Quench
and Temper 223 to 262 Bhn
HA-12 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 248 to 285 Bhn
HA-13 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 262 to 302 Bhn
HA-14 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 285 to 321 Bhn
HA-15 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 302 to 351 Bhn
HA-16 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 331 to 388 Bhn
HA-17 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 351 to 402 Bhn
HA-18 Alloy Steel Quench and Temper 402 to 461 Bhn
(42 to 49 Rc)
FC-1 Carbon Steel Flame Harden 43 Rc min.
FC-2 Carbon Steel Flame Harden 48 Rc min.
FC-3 Carbon Steel Flame Harden 52 Rc min.
FC-4 Carbon Steel Flame Harden 55 Rc min.
FA-11 Alloy Steel Flame Harden 43 Rc min.
FA-12 Alloy Steel Flame Harden 48 Rc min.
FA-13 Alloy Steel Flame Harden 52 Rc min.
FA-14 Alloy Steel Flame Harden 55 Rc min.
IC-1 Carbon Steel Induction Harden 43 Rc min.
IC-2 Carbon Steel Induction Harden 48 Rc min.
IC-3 Carbon Steel Induction Harden 52 Rc min.
IC-4 Carbon Steel Induction Harden 55 Rc min.
IA-11 Alloy Steel Induction Harden 43 Rc min.
IA-12 Alloy Steel Induction Harden 48 Rc min.
IA-13 Alloy Steel Induction Harden 52 Rc min.
IA-14 Alloy Steel Induction Harden 55 Rc min.
cc-1 Carbon Steel Cyanide 55 Rc min.

ANSIIAGMA 83 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 7-l (cant)


Materials and Heat Treatment
Designation Hardness Range
Number Material Treatment (see notes 1 and 3)
CA-11 Alloy Steel Cyanide 55 Rc min.
CN-1 Carbon Steel Carbonitride 55 Rc min.
CN-11 Alloy Steel Carbonitride 55 Rc min.
NA-11 Alloy Steel (4140-
4340-4640) Nitride 48 Rc min.
NA-12 Alloy Steel Nitride 64 Rc min.
CH-1 Carbon Steel Carburize 48 Rc min.
CH-2 Carbon Steel Carburize 50 Rc min.
CH-3 Carbon Steel Carburize SS Rc min.
CH-4 Carbon Steel Carburize 58 Rc min.
CH-5 Carbon Steel Carburize 60 Rc min.
CH-11 Alloy Steel Carburize 48 Rc min.
CH-12 Alloy Steel Carburize 50 Rc min.
CH-13 Alloy Steel Carburize 55 Rc min.
CH-14 Alloy Steel Carburize 58 Rc min.
CH-15 Alloy Steel Carburize 60 Rc min.
CI-20 Cast Iron As Required
CI-30 Cast Iron As Required 174 Bhn min.
CI-35 Cast Iron As Required 183 Bhn min.
CI-40 Cast Iron As Required 202 Bhn min.
CI-50 Cast Iron As Required 217 Bhn min.
CI-60 Cast Iron As Required 223 Bhn min.
hq-1 NoduIar Iron Anneal 179 Bhn mm.
M-2 Nodular Iron Anneal or ~Normalize
and Temper 212 Bhn min.
NI-3 Nodular Iron Anneal or Normalize
and Temper 223 Bhn min.
h’I-4 Nodular Iron Anneal or Normalize
and Temper 248 Bhn min.
NI-5 NoduIar Iron Quench and Temper 255 Bhn min.
NI-6 Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 262 Bhn min.
Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 269 Bhn min.
ii-;: Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 277 Bhn min.
NI-9 Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 285 Bhn mm.
NI-10 Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 302 Bhn min.
NI-11 Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 311 Bhn min.
NI-12 Nod&r Iron Quench and Temper 331 Bhn min.
NI-13 Nodular Iron Quench and Temper 351 Bhn min.
hq-14 Nodular Iron FIame Harden or
Induction Harden 48 Rc min (Note 3)
SN-1 Stainless Steel - non-
magnetic (300 Series) None Required -----e-w-
SM-2 Stainless Steel -
magnetic (440 Series) None Required ---------
SM-3 Stainless Steel - magnetic Quench and Tempered
(410,416,440) Induction Harden
or Bright Harden As Specified
SM-4 Stainless Steel - Harden and Temper
magnetic (440) Induction Harden
or Bright Harden As Specified

ANWAGMA 84 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 7-l (cant)


Materials and Heat Treatment
Designation Hardness Range
Number Material Treatment (see notes 1 and 3)
AB-1 Aluminum/Bronze As Cast 116 Bhn min.
AB-2 Alumm~Bronze As Cast 116 Bhn min.
AB-2 Aluminum/Bronze Heat Treated 121 Bhn min.
AB-3 Aluminum/Bronze As Cast 140 Bhn mm.
AB-3 Aluminum/Bronze Heat Treated 190 Bhn min.
AB-4 Aluminum/Bronze As Cast 175 Bhn mm.
AB-4 Aluminum/Bronze Heat Treated 202 Bhn min.
AB-5 Aluminum/Bronze Wrought, Heat Treated 180 Bhn min.
AB-6 Ahuninum/Bronze Wrought, Heat Treated 180 Bhn min.
MB-1 Manganese/Bronze As Cast 85 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-2 Manganese/Bronze As Cast 125 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-3 Manganese/Bronze As Cast 200 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-4 Manganese/Bronze As Cast 210 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-5 Manganese/Bronze Wrought - Soft 150 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-6 Manganese/Bronze Wrought - Half Hard 190 Bhn (500 Kg)
MB-7 Manganese/Bronze Wrought - Hard 210 Bhn (500 Kg)
BZ-1 Tin Bronze As Cast 70 Bhn (500 Kg)
BZ-2 Tin Bronze Chill Cast 70 Bhn (500 Kg)
BZ-3 Tin Bronze As Cast 80 Bhn (500 Kg)
BZ-4 Tin Bronze Chill Cast 85 Bhn (500 Kg)
BZ-5 Tin Bronze As Cast ---
BZ-6 Tin Bronze Chill Cast 95-!&n (1500 Kg)
BZ-7 Tin Bronze Centrifugal cast ----
BZ-8 Tin Bronze Chill Cast 95-&n (1500 Kg)
AL- 1 Aluminum 2017 T3 Sheet Heat Treated ------
AL-2 Aluminum 2017 T4 Sheet Heat Treated 105 Bhn (500 Kg)
AL-3 Aluminum 2024 T3 Sheet Heat Treated 120 Bhn (500 Kg)
AL-4 Aluminum 2024 T4 Sheet Heat Treated 120 Bhn (500 Kg)
AL-5 Aluminum 6061 to Bar or
Sheet Heat Treated 95 Bhn (500 Kg)
BR-1 HH Brass As rolled ----a-

Non-Metallic ----- (Note 2)

NOTES:
(1) All Brinell hardness numbers are those obtained with a 3000 Kg load unless otherwise specified. For
routine acceptance testing, the diameter of the impression should be read to 0.05 mm.
(2) The use of, and specifications for nonmetalic materials shall be established by agreement between gear
manufacturer and buyer.
(3) Where a hardness of Rc Mm is shown, a designer may prefer to provide a range of hardness. Such
cases should be by agreement between the gear manufacturer and the buyer. This includes carbon and
alloy steels, for all surface hardening methods, except nitriding.

ANSI/AGMA 85 2000-A88
,
P

G e a r Classification a n d In s p e c tio n H a n d b o o k fo r U n a s s e m b l e d S p u r a n d Helical G e a r s

(THIS P A G E IS INTENTIO N A L L Y LEFT BLANK)

A N S IfA G M A 86 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

8. Classification and Accuracy ’ Table 8-1 (cant)


Tolerances for Spur and Helical Master Tooth Alignment Tolerance
Gears For AI1 Coarse Pitch Master Gear Classes

This Section contains tabulations of the Face Width Tolerance3


(inches) (Ten-Thousandths)
individual tooth element tolerances, the
composite-action tolerances, tooth thickness, and 1 1.0
other dimensional tolerances for spur and helical 2 1.5
master gears. (See Section 8M for Metric). 3 2.0
8.1 Classification of Master Tolerances. Five 4 2.5
master gear tolerance classes are provided for 5 3.0
coarse pitch gears and four classes for fine pitch
(20 and finer). For spur and helical gears,
numbered 1 through 5 in order of increasing
precision, see Tables 8-l through 8-5. (1) Total Bandwidth. Unlike the “K” chart profile
8.2 Tooth Thickness Tolerance Range for variation tolerances for the Quality Number of
the inspected gears per this Standard, Master
Master Gears. Two tooth thickness tolerance
Gear Class Profde tolerances are established by a
ranges are recognized, each having a code (Code
constant bandwidth of the total values listed.
A and Code B) (see Table 8-S).
8.3 Designation of Master Gear Number. The (2) FIM. Full Indicator Movement
class of accuracy for spur and helical master gears
(3) An additional 0.0001 inch for end relief is
is designated by its class number, prefixed by
allowed at either end of face; however, 80 percent
Master C denoting Master Gear Ckzss Number,
central face shall be within tolerance shown.
and suffixed by the tooth thickness code letter.
Example: Master C3A
8.4 Recommended Application. The Master
Table 8-2
Gear Class Number recommended for each
AGMA Quality Number of work gear is given in Reference Master Gear Class Composite
Table 8-5. Tolerances For Coarse-Pitch
(Diameters 2-8.25 inch)
Table 8-1
Tolerance ’
Master Gear Class Element Composite (Ten-Thousandths)
Action
Tolerances-Coarse-Fitch Test Master Gear Class
(Diameters 2-6 inch) 1 2 3 4 5
Tolerance l Tooth
Gear (Ten-Thousandths) to 3.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.8
Element
Master Gear Class Tooth
1 2 3 4 5
Runout Over Total 7.5 6.0 4.0 3.0 2.0
One Pin (FIM2) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0
Profile’ 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 (1) Master Gears (coarse pitch) will be qualified
Pitch Variation 2.0 2.0 1.5 1.0 1.0 by elemental inspection. Qualification by
composite method may be requested.

ANWAGMA 87 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 8-3
Additional Coarse-Pitch Master Gear Tolerance
Tooth Thickness Code Tolerance (Ten-Thousandths)

Circular Tooth Thickness l Code A 225


Code B 225

Tolerance (Ten-Thousandths)
Master Gear Class
1 2 3 4 5
Bore a + Tolerance 1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4 0.4
-0.0
Outside Radius (FIMe) 5 5 5 5 5
Axial Runout Per 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.2
inch of Radius
OD Runout (FIM3) 2 2 2 2 1.2

(1) Circular Tooth Thickness. It is the responsibility of the master gear manufacturer to provide an
outside diameter and a testing radius based upon the actual tooth thickness as determined by an over pins
measurement. This outside diameter shah be calcuiated to contact the inspected gear at its profile control
diameter at minimum tooth thickness. See the method of calculation for master gears in Appendix G.
(2) Bore. The difference between the effective bore size and the size between any two diametricahy
opposite points shah not be more than the bore tolerance. Bell mouth wiIi be aIlowed on 10 percent of
the total bore length, with a length of bell mouth not to exceed 0.250 inches total.
(3) FIM. FuU Indicator Movement

Table 8-4
Tolerances for Fine Pitch Spur and Helical Master Gears1
Classification by Composite Tolerance 2
Master Gear Class
Tolerances (Ten-Thousandths)
Composite Test
1 2 3 4
Tooth-To-Tooth 2 1.6 1.0 0.6
Total 5 3.5 2.0 1.0

Classification by Gear Elements


Master Gear Class
Tolerances (Ten-Thousandths)
Gear Element

Pitch Variation 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6


Profile Variation4 1.6 1.4 1.0 0.6
Runout (FIMs) 2.8 1.8 1.0 0.6
Tooth Alignment-Max To@ 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2

ANWAGMA 88 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 8-4 (cant)


Tolerances for Fine Pitch Spur and Helical Master Gears1
Additional Tolerance

Tooth Pitch
Thickness Diameter Tolerance
Code (inches) (Ten-Thousandths)

A 22.25 2.0
> 2.25 3.0
Circular Tooth Thickness7
B -1.25% of Circular Pitch

A 62.25 0.4
Face Runout (FIMS)
B >2.25 1.2
Outside Radius8 5.0
Master Gear Class
Bore8 g 1 and 2 1.2
3 and 4 0.4

NOTES:
(1) When considering master gears with fewer than 20 teeth, check with the manufacturer regarding
calibration and use.
(2) When a composite check is specified, it becomes necessary to composite check this master with
another master of Eke or higher quality class. Unless it is clearly stated that the master must have a
total-composite-tolerance level, Classes 1 through 3 shall be considered acceptable on the basis of
gear-tooth element checks only. Class 4 can only be accepted on the basis of both composite check and
the gear-tooth-element check as described above.
(3) Classification shall be by composite tolerance in this area.
(4) Not apphcable to 100 pitch and finer. The profile tolerances shown are total band width tolerance
(see Note 1 and Table 8-l).
(5) FIM. FuIl Indicator Movement. Gear runout is over one pm.
(6) Predicated on the allowance of an additional 0.0001 inch for end relief at either end of the face;
however, 80 percent central face shall be within the tolerance shown.
(7) Circular Tooth Thickness. It is the responsibility of the master gear manufacturer to provide an
outside diameter and a testing radius based upon the actual tooth thickness as determined by an over pins
measurement. This outside diameter shall be calculated to contact the inspected gear at its profiIe control
diameter at maximum tooth thickness. (See the method of calculation for Master Gears in Appendix G.)
Value is based on Arc Tooth Thickness =+

(8) Tolerance all plus, only.


(9) Bore. The difference between the effective bore size of any two diametricahy opposite points shaI.lnot
be more than the bore tolerance. Bell mouth wiII be allowed on 10 percent of the total bore length, with a
length, of bell mouth not to exceed 0.250 total.

ANWAGMA 89 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 8-5
Recommendation of Master Gear Classes for Inspecting Specified Quality Work
Gears
Master Gear Classes for Coarse Pitch Gearing
Work Gear Pitches Coarser Pitches Pitches Pitches
Quality Number than4 4 to 8 8 to 13 13 to 20
5 1 1 1 1
6 1 1 1 1
78 1 1 1 5
9 1 2 3
10 1 :. 3 4
11 1 3 4 4
12 4 4 5
13 5 4 5 5
14 4 5 5 5
15 5 5 5 5

Master Gear Classes for Fine Pitch Gearing


Work Gear Pitches Pitches Pitches Pitches
Quality Number 20 to 32 32 to 50 50 to 80 80 to 120

2 1 1 1 1
7 1 1 1 2
8 1 1 2 2
9 2 2 3
10 ; 2 3 3
11 3 3 3 4
12 z 3 4 4
13 4 4 4
14 4 4 4 4
15 4 4 4 4

8.5 Suggested Marking of Master Gears.


(a) Spur (b) Helical
Marking Marking

Diametral Pitch DP Normal Diametral Pitch NDP


PA Normal Pressure Angle NPA
Pressure Angle
Base Diameter BD
Base Diameter BD Number of Teeth N
Number of ‘Teeth N Helix Angle and Hand HA-RorL
Arc Tooth Thickness ArcT Lead L
or Testing Radius TR Arc Tooth Thickness, Normal’ NArcT
AGMA Master Gear or Testing Radius TR
AGMA Master Gear
Class and Code 1A Class and Code lA, 4B, etc.
* Arc Tooth Thickness, Normal, is taken at the
diameter obtained by dividing the number of teeth
by the Transverse Diametral Pitch, and is
calculated from the iinal measurement over one
pill.

ANSUAGMA 90 2000-888
Gear ClaWication and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

SM.Metric Accuracy Tolerances for Spur Table 8-1M (cant)


and Helical Master Gears Tooth Alignment Tolerance b)
For All Coarse Module Master Gear Classes
This Section contains metric tabulations of the
individual tooth element tolerances, the composite Face Width Tolerancd
(mm) (micrometers, um)
action tolerances, tooth thickness, and other
dimensional tolerances for spur and helical master
25 2.5
gears. (See Section 8 for non-metric.)
50 4.0
8.1M Classification of Metric Master 75 5.0
Tolerances. Five master gear tolerance classes 100 6.5
are provided for coarse module gears and four
125 7.5
classes for fine module, 1.25 module and finer,
for spur and helical gears, numbered 1 through 5
in order of increasing precision (see Tables 8-1M (1) Total Bandwidth. Unlike the ‘K” chart profile
through 8-5M). variation tolerances for the Quality Number of
8.2M Tooth Thickness Tolerance for Metric the inspected gears per this Standard, Master
Master Gears. Two tooth thickness tolerance Gear Class Profile tolerances are established by a
ranges are recognized, each having a code (Code constant bandwidth of the total values listed.
A and Code B) (see Table 8-1M and 8-SM).
8.3M Designation of Metric Master Gear (2) FIM. Full Indicator Movement
Number. The class of accuracy for spur and
helical master gears is designated by its class (3) An additional 0.0003 mm for end relief is
number, prefixed by Mcrster C denoting Muster allowed at either end of face; however, 80 percent
Gear Class Number, and suffixed by the tooth central face shall be within tolerance shown.
thickness code letter. Example: Master C3A
8.4M Recommended Metric Application. The
Master Gear Class Number recommended for
each AGMA Quality Number of work gear is Table 8-2M
given in Table 8-SM.
Reference Master Gear Class .
Composite Tolerances For
Table 8-1M Coarse-Module
Master Gear Class Element (Diameter 50 - 150 mm)
Tolerances-Coarse Module
(Diameter 50 - 150 mm) Tolerance l
(micrometers, pm)
Tolerance l Element
(micrometers, u.m) MasterGearbass
1 2 3 4 5
Element Master Gear Class
Tooth
Runoutover to 7.5 5.0 3.5 2.5 2.0
One Fin (FBF) 12.5 10.0 7.5 5.0 2.5 Tooth
Profile’ 7.5 6.5 5.0 4.0 2.5
Pitch Variation 5.0 5.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 Total 19.0 15.0 11.0 7.5 5.0

(1) Master Gears (coarse module) will be


qualified by elemental inspeaion. Qualification by
composite method may be requested.

ANSUAGMA 91 2000-A88
.

Gear Clasification and mection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 6-3M
Additional Coarse-Module Master Gear Tolerance
Tooth Thickness Code Tolerance @m)

Circular Tooth Thickness1 Code A 264


CodeB 264

Tolerance &m)
Master Gear Class
1 2 3 4 5

Bore 2 + Tolerance 4 3 2 1 1
-0.0
Outside Radius (FIM3) 13 13 13 13
Axial Runout2er 0.16 0.16 q.16 0.16 0.12
(mm) of Radius
OD Rtmout o;IM3) 5 5 5 5 3

(1) Circular Tooth Thickness. It is the responsibiliity of the master gear manufacture, to provide an outside
. diameter, and a testing radius based upon the actual tooth thickness as determined by an over pins
measurement. This outside diameter shall be calculated to contact the inspected gear at its profile control
diameter at minimum tooth thkkness. (See the method of calculation for master gears in Appendix G.)
(2) Bore. The difference between the effective bore size and the size between any two diametricany
opposke points shall not be more than the bore tolerance. BeIl mouth will be allowed on 10 percent of
the total bore length, with a length of bell moufh not to exceed 6 mm total.
(3) FIM. Full Indicator Movement

Table 8-4M
Tolerances for Fiae-Module Spur and Helical Master Gears1
Classification by Composite Tolerance 2
MasterGearclass.
Tolerances (rrm)
Composite Test
1 2 3 4

Tooth-To-Tooth
Total 512 48.5 2.5
5.0 E

Classification by Gear Elements


MasterGearClass
Tolerances (urn)
Gear Element
1 2 3 4=
Fitch Variation 3 2.5 2.0 1.5
Profile Variation4 4 3.5 Z 1.5

-m-w
Tooth Alignment-Max Totals ; 4.5
3.0 3.0 ::;

ANSUAGMA 92 2000-A88
Gear Clxsification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 8-4M (cant)


Tolerances for Fine-Module Spur and Helical Master Gears1
Additional Tolerances
Tooth Fitch
Thickness Diameter Tolerance
Code (mm) Om)
A 16Onu.n 5
>6Omm 8
Circular Tooth Thickness’
B -1.25% of circular Pitch
A 16Omm 1
Face Runout (FIMs)
i B >6Omm 3
Outside Radiu.9 13
Master Gear Class
Bore8 9 land2 3
3and4 1

NOTES:
(1) When considering master gears with fewer than 20 teeth, check with the manufacturer regarding
calib-ation and use.
(2) When a composite check is specified, it becomes necessary to composite check this master with
another master of like or higher quality class. Unless it is clearly stated that the master must have a
total-composite-tolerance level, Classes 1 through 3 shall be considered acceptable on the basis of
gear-tooth element checks only. Class 4 can only be accepted on the basis of both composite check and
the gear-tooth-element check as described above.
(3) classification shall be by composite tolerance in this area. I
(4) NOt applicable to 0.25 Module and finer. The profile tolerances shown are total band width tolerance
(see Note 1 and Table 8-2M).
(5) FIM. Full Indicator Movement. Gear nmout is over one pin.
(6) Predicated on the allowance of an additional 3 m for end relief at either end of the face; however,
80 percent central face shall be wit&n the tolerance shown.
(7) Circular Tooth Thickness. h is the responsibiJ.iQ of the master gear manufacturer to provide an
outside diameter and a testing radius based upon the actual tooth thickness as determined by an over pins
measurement. This outside diameter shall be calculated to contact the inspected gear at its profile control
diameter at maximum tooth thickness. (See the method of calculation for M+er Gears in Appendix G. )
Value is based on Arc Tooth Thickness = y

(8) Tolerance all plus, only.


(9) Bore. The difference between the effective bore size of any two diametrically opposite rjoinu shaII not
be more than the bore tolerance. Bell mouth will be allowed on 10 percent of the total bore length with a
length, of bell mouth not to exceed 6 mm total.

ANSYAGMA 93 2000-A88
.
c

G e a r classification a n d In s p e c tio n H a n d b o o k fo r U n a s s e m b l e d S p u r a n d Helical G e a r s

Table 8 4 3 3
R e c o m m e n d a tio n o f M a s ter G e a r Classes for In s p e c tin g S p e c i fie d Q u a lity
M e tric W o r k G e a r s
M a s te r G e a r Classes fo r C o u r s e M o d u le G e a r i n g

Work Gear M o d u le C o a r s e r M o d u le M o d u le M o d u le
Q u a lity N u m b e r th a n 6 6 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 .2 5

5 1 1 1 1
6 1 1 1 1
7 1 1 1 1
8 1 1 1 2
9 1 1 2 3
10 1 2 3 4
11 1 3 4 4
12 2 4 4 5
13 3 4 5 5
14 4 5 5 5
15 5 5 5 5

M a s te r G e a r Classes fo r F i n e M o d u le G e a r i n g

Work Gear M o d u le M o d u le M o d u le M o d u le
Q u a lity N u m b e r 1 .2 5 to 2 8 0 .8 to 0 .5 0 .5 to 0 .3 0 .3 to 0 .2

5 1 1 1 ( 1
6 1 1 1 1
7 - 1 1 1 2
8 1 1 2 2
9 1 2 2 3
10 2 2 3 3
11 3 3 3 4
12 3 3 4 4
13 3 4 4 4
14 4 4 4 4
15 4 4 4 4

A N S IIA G M A 94 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9. Measuring Methods and Practices to reduce inspection costs and assure a given level
of quality.
9.1.3 Inspection Data References.
This Section describes the recommended
methods and practices used for the inspection of 9.1.3.1 Reference Surfaces. In order to
spur and helical involute gears. Practices and facilitate the machining, inspection, and assembly
inspection methods which are recognized and of a gear, the radial and axial auxiliary reference
accepted throughout the gear industry as being surfaces should be indicated clearly on the
reliable have been included. manufacturing drawings (see Fig 9-l).

These methods can provide accurate and 9.1.3.2 Reference Axis. The reference
repeatable measurements of the particular quality axis for a gear with a bore shall be the datum axis
when correctly applied. Experienced personnel, of rotation concentric to the bore. The reference
using calibrated instruments in a suitable axis for a gear with a shaft shall be the datum axis
environment, are required. Exotic and of rotation established by the bearing support
research-type inspection methods have not been surfaces of the shaft.
included.

NOTE: No particular method of inspection


or documentation is considered mandatory
unless specifically agreed upon between
manufacturer and purchaser. When
applications require inspections beyond
those recommended in this Standard,
special methods must be negotiated prior to
manufacturing the gear.

9.1 Inspection Practices. As explained


previously, all gears are manufactured to a given t
OUTSIDE REFERENCE
level of accuracy (quality) by process control (see DlAMEl-ER AxlS
3.2). When inspection is specified, it may be .esY%%Cj 1
carried out by a number of alternate methods.
The selection depends not only on the magnitude
I
of the tolerance and the size of the gear, but also
on production quantities, available equipment,
and inspection costs. Fig 9-l Reference Surfaces
9.1.1 Statistical Sampling. Production
9.1.3.3 Reference Identification of
quantities, available equipment, labor, and
Tooth Data. When viewing a gear’s axial
inspection costs may influence the choice of using
reference surface (see Fig 9-l), the teeth shail be
statistical sampling methods. If sampling
numbered for identification in a clockwise
inspection is to be utilized, the particular sampling
direction from a datum tooth (k = 1, 2, 3 . . . etc
plan shall be negotiated between manufacturer
. . . to case n). Then, the following terminology is
and purchaser. A suggested method would be a
vaiid for identification of external and internal
sampling plan in accordance with Mil-Std-105D
tooth data (see Fig 9-2):
Level II Normal 4 percent AQL (Acceptable
(I) Flank (right or left). The surface
Quality Level).
bounding a tooth when this tooth is viewed with its
9.1.2 First Piece Inspection. On small tip above its root.
quantities of parts, fmst piece inspection with (2) Pitch (right or left). The pitch between
process control for subsequent parts may be used corresponding flanks of tooth kl and k2 , etc.

ANWAGMA 95 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

DATUM TOOTH perpendicular to the axis of rotation between the


indicated surface and a datum surface.
LEFT FLANK- /- RIGHT FLANK Eccentricity and Out-of-roundness are
components of radial nmout.

9.2.2.1 Eccentricity. Eccentricity is


often the principal contributor to radial runout. It
is often caused by the difference in centers used
during cutting and nmning (or testing), by
distortions in mounting, or by a combination of
LEFT PITCH / \ RIGHT both.
EXTERNAL PITCH
9.2.2.2 Out-of-Roundness. Out-of-
roundness is the irregular radial variation from a
datum surface in a given plane of rotation,
exclusive of eccentricity.

Out-of-roundness may be caused by errors in


LEFT PITCH -$J ~ ~~ ;;FW;
machine tools, cutting tools, lack of rigidity in
setup, hardness variation in the gear blank, or
heat treat distortion.

9.2.3 Runout Measuring Methods. Radial


runout, VT, of gear teeth is measured by a
specified probe such as a cylinder, ball, cone,
INTERNAL \ DATUM rack, or gear tooth, and is made perpendicular to
TOOTH
the datum atiace.

Radial runout, Vr , measurements may include


the effects of the following:
Fig 9-2 Tooth Identification
Eccentricity of the datum circle relative to
Terminology thedatumaxis
Out-of-roundness of the datum circle.
9.2 Runout of Runout is the total
Teeth. M runout (wobble) of gear blank
variation of the distance between a datum surface, relative to the datum axis of rotation
and an indicated surface, measured perpendicular Tooth alignment variation
to the datum surface. In order to be meaningful, Profile variation
the datum surface, and the indicated surface must Pitch variation
be specified or identified. Typical specified Tooth thickness variation
nmouts are axial and radial runout.
9.2.3.1 Indicating Over a Pin. Runout
9.2.1 Form of Axial Axial nmout
Runout. is measured by indicating a difference in the
(wobble) exists when the axes of rotation of the indicated value of the position of a pin or ball
datum surface and the indicating surface are not device, placed in each tooth space, relative to an
parallel. This is normally measured in a direction axis of rotation.
parallel to the axis of rotation of an indicated
surface from a datum surface. 9.2.3.2 Ball-Probe Test. Radial Runout
can be measured by indicating the position of a
9.2.2 Forms of Radial Runout. Radial ball probe (see Fig 9-3). Other types of probes
Runout is formed by variations in the distance can be used if applicable.

AXWAGMA 96 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

work gear and a master gear on a gear rolling


fixture (see Fig 9-4). The gears are rolled
together in tight mesh, with one member on a
movable center which is spring or weight loaded.
The readings include variations of the reference
(master) gear and the tooth to-tooth composite
variations in the gear being tested. These
variations should be considered when jud-tig the
acceptability of the gear being tested.
9.2.3.4 Root Circle or Outside Diameter
Runout Test. Runout may be measured by
indicating the root circle or the outside diameter,
when the finishing tool has machined these
surfaces simultaneously with the tooth profiles.
Fig 9-3 Runout Check, Over Pin, Ball Machining variations may affect these
Probe measurements, but readings obtained do not
include the effects of various other items as
9.2.3.3 Composite Radial
Action Test. previously described in 9.2.3. Therefore, this
Runout may be measured by observing the change method should only be used for Quality Kumbers
in center distance during one revolution of the specified as Q7 and lower.

NORMAL OR
y SETUP CENTER ALTERNATE METHODS
DISTANCE” (SET OF MAINTAINING TIGHT
MASTER WITH GAGE BLOCKS) MESH

GEAR TO BE
DIAL INDICATOR
MUST READ ‘0”
AT SETUP
CENTER DIATANCE

LINE ON CHART .
ALTERNATE METHODS
CHART SYNCHRONIZED F %%ENTS OF MEASURING CENTER
SETUP CENTER DISTANCE CHANGES
WITH MASTER GEAR DISTANCE
Ti I
. . . . . . . l . . . . . l . . . . tit
---------- ---------- - ?

/yVd --Y - --
, WC-

. . . . . . l .**.*...** . . . .

J 1 I

Fig 9-4 Gear Rolling Fixture (Double Flank Testing)

ANWAGMA 97 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.2.4 Tangential Method of Runout


Measurement. Tangential methods of runout
measurement are described in Appendices E and
F.
9.3 Pitch Variation. Pitch, spacing, accumula
-tive pitch, and index variations are elemental
parameters relating to the accuracy of tooth
locations around a gear. The following is a
description of the measuring methods, and a guide
to the interpretation of data generated by the
measuring devices. Accumulative pitch and index
variations are not toleranced in this standard.
(For further discussion, see Appendix E.)
9.3.1 Methods of Pitch Variation Fig 9-5 Circular Pitch Measurement,
Measurement. Measurements for determining
Two Probe Device
pitch, spacing, accumulative pitch, and index
variations are made: 9.3.2.1 Two Probe Measurement
(1) At or near the center of the tooth profile. Device. The two probe method involves a device
which has one fixed probe contacting a flank on a
(2) In the transverse plane. With helical datum circle near the center of tooth profile. The
gears, the pitch measurement may be made in the second probe, either a mechanical or electronic
normal plane, and the values then divided by the indicator, contacts the adjacent tooth flank at or
cosine of the helix angle ( vP = VPn / cos Jr ) for near the same point on the profile (see Fig 9-5).
comparison with the specified tolerances in this As the gear is rotated around its datum axis, the
Standard. two probe device moves in and out on a precision
slide and stop, and indicates successive adjacent
(3) Relative to the gear datum axis of rotation
pitches. These readings are then summed together
with bench or floor type instruments, or relative
and divided by the number of teeth. This yields
to the top lands when using portable instruments.
the true position pitch, p,. The true position
Sequential tooth flanks in both directions of
pitch is then subtracted from each actual pitch
rotation should be used for pitch measurements.
reading to obtain the plus and minus values of
However, if the specific operating direction of the
pitch variation, VP . The pitch variations may then
gear is known, only the loaded flanks need to be
measured. be successively summed (obsening algebraic
signs) to obtain the values of accumulated pitch
9.3.2 Basic Devices for Pitch Variation variation for each tooth ending the summation,
Measurement. There are two common types of
Vapk, which is also .the index variation, v- . Total
devices for measuring pitch, spacing, and index
variation. The two probe device is used for Accumulated Pitch Variation, V , is the sum of
=P
comparison of adjacent pitches around a gear, the maximum negative accumulative pitch
while the single probe device can determine the variation, subtracted from the maximum positive
actua1 location of each tooth around a gear (index accumulated pitch variation. Similarly, maximum
variation). total index variation is the sum of the maximum
The values of pitch, spacing, and index or minus index variation, subtracted from the
accumulated pitch variation can be determined by maximum plus index variation. The maximum
either measuring device with suitable calculations. variation has no plus or minus sign. The
However, for best accuracy, the single probe difference between adjacent values of pitch
method is preferred. (See Appendix E for further variation yields Mlues of spacing variation, Vs . If
discussion of this subject.) base pitch variation is to be measured, align the

ANWAGMA 98 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

measuring device along a tangent to the base surfaces (outside diameter) of the teeth are used
circle as shown in Fig 9-6. for the datum surface, the readings are influenced
by runout of the gear’s outside diameter. If base
pitches are measured, runout of the teeth may not
affect the readings; however, profile variations
may affect the readings.

9.3.2.2 Single Probe Measurement


Device. A precision indexing device, such as an
BASE CIRCLE index plate, circle divider, optical or electronic
encoder, or polygon and auto collimator is used to
index the test gear to the theoretical position
relative to a datum tooth (see Fig 9-8). A single
probe, on a precision slide mechanism, is brought
BASE CIRCLE \ into contact with the first datum and each
successive tooth flank around the gear. The
Fii 9-6 Base Pitch Measurement, readings from this series of measurements are
Two Probe Device recorded as the actual value of index variation
from the theoretically correct position relative to
Measurement by the two probe system has the datum tooth. The difference between
been described above for a bench or floor successive measurements determines the
mounted measuring device. Portable pitch individual values of single pitch variation, V .
P
measuring two probe devices are also available. The difference between any two adjacent values
These instruments embody the mechanism of pitch variation is calculated to determine the
described above, but in a portable housing (see spacing variation, Vs . The difference between
Fig 9-7). The instrument is moved around the
gear, engaging successive pitches, and variations minimum and maximum index readings is total
shown on the indicator are recorded. If the top accumulated pitch variation, V .
=p

F’ig 9-7 Portable Pitch Measuring Device (Circular Pitch)

ANSIIAGMA 99 2000-A88
Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

INDEX MECHANISM

- DATUM CIRCLE

READINGS Cv,)

DASH LINES REPRESENT


THEORETICAL LOCATION

Fig 9-8 Schematic of Single Probe Measuring Device


Computer Numerical Control (CNC) type, or value is the amount by which the probes were set
coordinate measuring machines can also be used off from the tNe position pitch). To eliminate the
to measure gears in the above described manner. amount of the probe setting error from the results,
These usually wiIl include the use of a rotary axis the mean value is subtracted from each individual
with an encoder controlled index. value, which gives individual plus or minus
deviations of each individual measured pitch from
9.3.3 Use of Tooth Position Measuring
the theoretical true position pitch. These single
Devices. Pitch variations and index variations
can be measured by either the two probe device pitch variations, I$, , for the hypothetical gear of
or the single probe device. Fig 9-9, will be graphed as shown by the chart of
Pitch Variation of Fig 9-9, and column C of the
9.3.3.1 Use of the Two Probe Device.
tabulation shown in Fig 9-9.
The actual measurements indicated by probe
deflection of the two probe device read directly as (4) Accumulated Pitch Variation,%@, is
single pitch variation, 2 vP . The procedure is as calculated by the algebraic addition of successive
follows: single pitch variations, as shown in the chart of
index variations of Fig 9-9 and in column D, or
(1) Set the probes against identical spots on
adjacent tooth flanks and adjust so that the probe the tabulation in Fig 9-9.
deflection indicator is about in the middle of its 9.3.3.2 Use of the Single Probe Device.
range. The measurements indicated by the deflection of
(2) Take successive measurements all around the probe of the single probe device read directly
the gear. in Index Variation, Vx . The procedure is as
NOTE: The following steps are usually follows:
computerized. (I) Set the probe against the selected datum
(3) Each measurement is stored, then tooth and adjust the indicator to a zero reading.
averaged to arrive at a mean mlue. (This mean (2) Take successive measurements all around

ANSIIAGMA 100 2000-A8 8


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

the gear. The output is shown in Fig 9-9 in the 9.3.4.1 Two Probe Device for Pitch
graphic chart of Index Variation, and in column Variation. Measurements by this method are
A of the tabulation. made with a device as shown in Fig 9-5. The
readings are tabulated as shown in column D of
NOTE: Index Variation is synonymous Fig 9-9, or recorded on a graph as shown in Fig
with Accumulated Pitch Variation, so that 9-10. Readings are taken; they are summed and
. . then divided by the number of teeth. The result is
accumulated pitch variation, v&k , can be
read directly from the index variation the true position pitch, pm. If working only with
readings. Total accumulated pitch tabulated values, the true position pitch, pm, is
. .
vanauon, I& , is the total of the greatest subtracted algebraically from each reading in
positive and negative readings at index column D. The results are listed, as in column F,
variation. for values of plus or minus pitch variation, VP . If
using a recorder or graphical method, the data will
(3) To find the single pitch variation, V’ , of appear in the form shown in Fig 9-10. It is
any pitch, the Index Variation of the tooth is necessary to read the value of each data point,
algebraically subtracted from the Index Variation sum them, and divide by the number of teeth to
of the preceding tooth, as shown in tabular get the true position pitch, p, . This value is then
column B of Fig 9-9.
plotted as a line at the proper position on the
graph. All values of pitch variation, V are then
9.3.4 Pitch Variation, VP . Pitch variations P
read as the plus or minus difference from the true
can be measured by either a two probe device or a
single probe device. position pitch, pm.

Single Probe - Precision Method I Two Probe Method


B C D F
Diff.-
Diff. Bawan Diff. -
?izizf,” Adj. Etdxs I Adj. Pitdus T

Tach
Rtcbhtiatkw lndotvariarian
v, vx
A 0 0 Ref.
B +2 BUI~DUSA +2 A to B 0 t 2 +2 +2
C +2 CmhsB 0 stoc -2 - 2 0 +2

E
F
+4

-2
0
1 6
DminusC
EminusD
F&USE
+2
-6

+2
CtoD

DtoE
EwF
-8
0

0
=
-

-
8
8

4
+2

-6
+2
+4

-2

0
I 6

G -2 CmhsF -2 FwG -4 * 4 -2 -2
A 0 AmimsCi +2 GwA 0 5 0 +2 0

N==7

vap =6 I VP = -6 -2Avg vs = 8

Fig 9-g Relationships of Etch, Spacing, and Index Spacing, or Accunmlated Pitch

ANWAGMA 101 2000-A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.3.5 Spacing Variation, V, . Spacing


variations can also be measured by either a two
probe or a single probe device.
9.3.5.1 Two Probe Device for Spacing.
Spacing variation measurements are also made by
a device as shown in Fig 9-5. The readings are
tabulated as shown in column D, Fig 9-9, or
recorded on a graph. When using a table, spacing
variation values, Vs , are found as the difference
between two adjacent values in column D, and
listed as shown in column E. When using a
recorder or graphical method, the readings from
PAIRS OF ADJACENT TEETH the two probe device will be displayed as shown in
Fig 9-12. Spacing variation, V, , values are read
as the difference between any adjacent data
Fig 9-10 Pitch Variation, Two Probe points.
Device

9.3.4.2 Single Probe Device for Pitch


Variation. A device, as shown in Fig 9-8, is used
for this method of measurement. The readings are w
z
either tabulated as shown in Fig 9-9, column A, E
or recorded on a graph, as in Fig 9-11. When 5
using the tabular method, values of pitch uO
variation, v , as shown in column B, are found 8
s
by taking tK e difference between adjacent values s
of index variation, 3 , as shown in column A. If z-
using a recorder or graphical method, values of
r
pitch variation, vP , are found as the difference 1 1
between the adjacent data points.
PAIRS OF ADJACENT TEETH
Fig 9-12 Spacing Variation, Two Probe
Device

9.3.5.2 Single Probe Device for


Spacing. A single probe device, as shown in Fig
9-8, can also be used to determine spacing
variation. The readings are either tabulated as
shown in Fig 9-9, column A, or determined from
a graph, as shown in Fig 9-13. When using the
tabular method, it is first necessary to follow the
procedure outlined in 9.3.4.2 (single probe
device) to find pitch variation, vp , values.
8 910 Spacing variation values, V, as shown in column
TOOTH NUMBER C, are found as the difference between two
adjacent values of pitch variation. When using a
Fig 9-11 Pitch Variation, Single Probe graph, the values of pitch variation, VP , are taken
Device as the difference between any adjacent data

ANSI/AGhlA 102 2000-A@


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

points. List them in a table, as shown in Fig 9-9, v , (total index variation), algebraically subtract
column B. Take the differences between adjacent tl% maximum and minimum values in column G.
values in this column, and lisist them in column
C as the values of spacing variation, 5 . 9.3.6.2 Single Probe Device for
Accumulated Pitch. Accumulated pitch
variation may also be measured on a single probe
device, as shown in Fig 9-8. The readings are
either tabulated, as shown in Fig 9-9 column A,
or recorded on a graph, as shown in Fig 9-14. To
find total accumulated pitch variation, v , (total
index variation), algebraically subtr=f ct the
maximum and minimum values in column A. In
the case of recorded or graphed data, read the

Ii
difference between the maximum and minimum
values of the total accumulated pitch variation,
V or total index variation.
=P’
5 6
TOOTH NUMBER
SECTOR OF
THREE PITCHES
Fig 9-13 Spacing Variation, Single
Probe Device
I
9.3.6 Accumulated Pitch Variation,V,p . 4 ‘w
This variation, also known as index variation,VX ,
1 -,v,
1 1
may be measured by a two probe or single probe I
device. +"P
9.3.6.1 Two Probe Device for
Accumulated Pitch. Measurements for
accumulated pitch vwiation are made by a two
probe device as shown in Fig 9-5. Use the 12345678910
following procedure, and refer to Fig 9-9: TOOTH NUMBER
(1) Take all readings around the gear and
tabulate the plus and minus values, as shown in Fig 9-14 Accumulated Pitch Variation,
column D. Single Probe Device
(2) Sum the readings in column D and divide
by the number of teeth. The result is the true
9.3.7 Total Accumulated Pitch Variation
position pitch, pm.
Within a Sector of k Pitches, Vapk (T.otal Index
(3) Algebraically subtract the true position Variation Within a Sector of k Pitches). When
pitch, pm, from each reading in column D, and evaluating the total index variation within a sector
record the plus and minus value results as pitch of k pitches, or the total accumulated pitch
variation, v , in column F. variation within a sector of k pitches, V , use
(4) Adpd successive values of pitch variation the procedures outlined in 9.3.6. From t?i?list or
and tabulate as shown in column G. These are graph of individual values of index variation or
individual values of index variation or accumulated pitch variation, determine the
accumulated pitch variation. greatest difference within any sector of k pitches
(5) To find total accumulated pitch variation, or within a sector of k pitches from a datum tooth.

ANSIIAGMA 103 2000-A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Zinassembled Spur and Helical Gears

See example in Fig 9-14 which shows total The gear must be accurately mounted and
. . held with its datum axis of rotation in coincidence
accumulated pitch vanauon, bP3, within a sector
of 3 pitches. with the instrument spindle axis. Additionally, the
probe tip must be accurately positioned within the
9.4 Profile. Profile is the shape of the tooth plane tangent to the base cylinder with its zero roll
flank from its root to its tip. The functional profile position precalibrated (see Fig 9-16).
is the operating portion which is in act@ contact
during tooth mesh, and cannot extend below the OUTSIDE CIRCLE
base cylinder.
9.4.1 Profile Inspection Methods. The
normal measurement methods of profile are with
generative, coordinate, or portable involute
checking instruments.
9.4.1.1 Generative Involute Checking
Instruments. TANGENT PLANE
The most common instruments
used for inspection of profile are generative
involute checking instruments. These instruments
measure the variation of the actual profile from a
nominal involute profile which is generated by the
instrument. Generating the nominal involute
requires a tangential movement of a measurement
probe on the surface in a synchronized, linear
relationship with rotational movement of the gear
mounted on the instrument spindle (see Fig

B
9-15). J PROBE

HELICAL
T
DIRECTION OF MEASUREMENT
SECTION X - Y

Fig 9-16 Profile Measuring Method


Probe tips may be chisel point, disk, or
spherical, provided that accurate positioning is
maintained. Measurement of extreme profile
modification may require correction for shift of
probe contact point.
Fig 9-15 Schematic of Involute
It is often desirable to orient the measurement
Inspection Device probe path of motion normal to the tooth surface.
Generative involute checking instruments may It should be noted that this Standard specifies
employ a master base circle or master involute profile tolerances in the transverse plane. If
cam to generate the nominal involute curve. Such measurements are made in the normal plane, all
instruments may include a ratio mechanism which values must be corrected by dividing by the cosine
relates the actual workpiece base circle to the of the helix angle before comparison against the
master base circle. Generative involute checking tolerances.
instruments may employ a Computer Numerical 9.4.1.2 Coordinate Measurement
Control electronic drive system to generate the Inspection Instruments. Involute profile can
nominal involute curve. be inspected by non-generative, coordinate

ANWAGMA 104 2000-A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

measurement instruments. Such instruments checking instrument which can be taken to the
indicate the tooth profile by a series of discrete gear. Such instruments may operate on a variety
points, storing the coordinates of each point. The of generative or non-generative principles. Tne
Mriation of the actual profile from the nominal is portable instrument must be accurately mounted
then determined by comparison of the stored test at a known distance from, and in alignment with,
point coordinates against calculated coordinates of the gear axis. This often requires extra care in
the theoretical nominal profile (see Fig 9-17). design and manufacture of the gear blank.
9.4.2 Profile Charts. Amplified traces of
REFERENCE profile inspection test results should be presented
on charts which are calibrated for degrees of roll
or rolling path length as well as magnification of
measured variation (see Fig 9-18).
An unmodified profile with no variations ti
be charted as a straight line. Excess material on
the profile is considered a plus variation while
insufficient material is considered a minus
variation. In addition to identifying the location
and magnitude of the highest point on the profile
or the maximum profile variation, these charts are
valuable for deter-mining profile characteristics
such as tip rounds, undercut, and tip or root relief
(see Fig 9-19).
Fig 9-17 Profile Inspection by
Coordinates (Tangent to the Base 9.4.2.1 Profile Tolerances. The profile
Circle) tolerances listed in this Standard are to be
interpreted by a standard “K” chart, as shown in
Coordinate measurement inspection Fig 9-20. The tolerance is the allowable envelope
instruments may operate in two dimensions (X of this standard “K” chart for each portion of the
and Y coordinates) or three dimensions (X, Y, functional profile. hofile traces which fit wkhin
and 2 coordinates). Measurement of an involute the shaded zone are considered acceptable.
profile with two dimensional systems requires
accurate mounting of the gear with its axis Profile tolerances may alternatively be
perpendicular to the X-Y plane. Three specified by a tabular method. This may be
dimensional systems require alignment of the gear particularly useful with inspection systems capable
axis parallel to one of the three insmunent axes. of handling test data in digital form.
This may be accomplished by accurate mounting
9.4.3 “K” Chart Tolerance Modification. It
of the part, or mathematically adjusting the
may be desirable to modify the involute profile
instrument axis to coincide with the gear axis.
“K” chart tolerance zone. Such modifications
Coordinate measurement inspection instruments
might be in response to specification of special
commonly use spherical measurement probe tips
design characteristics such as tip relief.
which require correction for shift of the probe
Additionally, profile “K” chart tolerance
contact point.
modifications may be desired to relax or tighten
9.4.1.3 Portable Involute Checking control of certain characteristics of an unmodified
Instruments. Profile measuring instruments are involute form. In such cases, specific agreements
generally fixed type machines. Gears to be tested must be made between manufacturer and
must be brought to the instrument and accurately purchaser, since modification of the profile “K”
mounted, typically on ti, between centers or on chart tolerance is beyond the scope of this
a face plate. However, for very large gears it may Standard. Refer to Appendix C for examples of
be preferable to employ a portable involute modified charts.

AIWWAGMA 105 2000-A88


GearClastication and hspectior~Handbookfor UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

0.0006

33
30
27
24
21
18
15
12
9
6
3
0

0.0007

Fig 9-B Graphic Charting of Points On a Profile

TRUE FUJS PROFILE


PROFILE (hUNUS FlIESSURE ANGLE)

PRoFlLE wNmoL
DIAMEmt
?+ I r’i cl

Fig 9-19 Typical Tooth Profile MeasurementCharts

ANWAGMA 106 2oclcLA88


Gear ClassificationandInspectionHandhookfor Unassembled
Spurand Helical Gears

PROFILETOLERANCE

4- OUTSIDE
DIAMETER
f--
START OF TIP ROUND
+

4-4$’ HIGH POINT OF TOOTH CHART MUST


BE TANGENT TO REFERENCELINE
S

TOLEWNCE ZONE c
w-m-
\ CONTROL DIAMETERI

Fig 9-20 Involute Profile Tolerance Zone

9.4.4 Other profiie Checking Methods actualmeasurements of variationof an inspectedprofile


from a nom&L However, in &taxes where the
9.4.4.1 Projection. A shadowof the geartooth
measurement by othersuggested methodsis not feasible,
underinspectionmaybeopricallymagaifI~anddirectiy
these iudirectmethodsmay prove valuable.
or~flexprojectedtope.rmitcomparisonof theprofileto
a largescalelayout of a speciiiedprofile (seeFig 9-21). (1) Multiple ThicknessMeasurement-The chordal
llis method is generally limited to small gears. tooth thiclzess and assoc&ed addendumdepth for
However,when gearsaretoo largeto bemountedin the semal positionson a toolh maybe computedfor a gear
projector, a thin wafer (cut simultaneouslywith the toothcaliper(see9.72.1). Comparisonof measurements
gear),ora moldofageartoothformmaybeusedfor with the computed values will give an i&i&on of
projection.This methodrequirestwo known reference protie accm-acy (seeFig P-22).Howeva, readingsgive
so&cestolocatetheimagebothmdiallyaudangnlarly. no clue as to which profile may havean aor, sincetwo
fJanks ofameasurxltootharecontactedatthesame
time. This me&d will not reveal variations which
canceleachother,suchasthosecausedby a form cutter,
whichhasbeenoffietfiomatmeradialpositi~
(2) Auxihry Gaging Elements. The theorical
positiouof wires,rolls, pins,or balls of severaldifferent
diametersplacedin a tooth spacemaybe co-ted and
comparedto actualmeasurements (SeeFig 9-23). This
method has limiaions sim&u to those of gear tooth
Fii !L21 Profile hpection by Optical czdipermeasmmen?s.
Projection (3)ContactPattemChecks.ThemaIingofagearfor
contactpatternchecking with anotherof known profile
9.4.4.2 Yndirect Profile Imp&ion Methods. mayin&rate profile variafious.However,this methodis
The following techniquesmay be employed for beyondthe scupeof this Standard-Refer to AppendixD
inspeaionof gearprofiles.Thesemethodsdo not yield forthismethod.

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.

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

(3) Contact Pattern Checks. The mating of a on the surface of a c y linder which is concentric
gear for contact pattern checking with another of with the datum axis of rotation of the gear. Tooth
known profile may indicate profile variations. alignment is restricted to the operating portion
However, this method is beyond the scope of this which is intended to be in contact during loaded
Standard. Refer to Appendix D for this method. operation, and does not include edge rounds or
chamfers.
Lead, as a term used for helical or
herringbone gears, is the a&l advance of a helix
for one complete turn of the gear. The lead of a
spur gear, therefore, is infinite. The lead of a
helical gear is commonly specified by the angle of
inclination of the helix to the axis of rotation at a
specified diameter. This helix angle is normally
specified at the standard pitch diameter.
Tooth alignment variation (formerly lead
variation) is the difference between the specified
and the measured tooth alignment of the gear,

0
measured normal to the specified alignment (see
F ig 9-24).

0w--
TOOTH
MEASURED ALIGNMENT

J L

Fig 9-22 Profile Inspection by


Gear-Tooth Caliper Method ALIGNMENT

HEUCAL TOOTH
Fig 9-24 Tooth Alignment Variation
9.5.1 Tooth Alignment Inspection
Methods. The normal methods of measuring
tooth alignment are with generative, coordinate,
or portable checking instruments.
9.5.1.1 Generative Tooth Alignment
Checking Instruments. The most commonly
used instruments for inspection of tooth alignment
are generative tooth alignment checking
instruments. Such instruments measure the
variation of the actual tooth alignment from a
Fig 9-23 h-oftie Inspection by
nominal tooth alignment which is generated by the
Measurement over Pins instrument. Generation of the nominal tooth
9.5 Tooth Alignment. Tooth alignment is the alignment requires the axial movement of a
lengthwise alignment of the tooth flank across the measurement probe in a synchronized, linear
face from one end to the other. The theoretical relationship with rotational movement of the gear
tooth alignment of a spur gear is a straight line mounted on the instrument spindle (see F ig
parallel to its rotating axis. Tooth alignment of 9-25). W hen measuring spur gears, the rotational
helical or herringbone gears is a helix contained movement is eliminated.

AWSIIAGMA 108 2000-A88


Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

, VARIATION Vti Generative tooth alignment checking


instruments may employ a variety of mechanical
configurations to generate the nominal tooth
ali-enment. Commonly, the gear is rotated by a
P4CE master disk driven by a straight edge, which in
-0 turn is driven by the axial movement of the probe
slide.

The tangential movement of the straight edge


is translated into axial movement of the probe by
a ratio mechanism. Combination instruments also
capable of checking involute profile often utilize
their master base circle mechanisms in this
manner. Other configurations include master lead
bar and follower mechanisms, and master lead
screw and change gearing mechanisms.
Generative tooth alignment checking instruments
may employ a Computer Numerical Control
electronic drive systems to generate the nominal
tooth alignment trace.

The gear must be accurately positioned with


its axis of rotation in coincidence with the
instrument spindle axis. Additionally, the probe
tip is usually positioned to operate normal to the
tooth surface, at or near the pitch diameter (see
Fig 9-23 Graphic Charting of Tooth Fig 9-26). Probe tips most commonly used are
Alignment spherical or disk shaped.

DATUM
BASE CIRCLE
CIRCLE
TANGENT // .’

BASE
CIRCLE

Fig 9-26 Probe Positioning for Tooth Alignment Inspection

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.5.1.2 Coordinate Measurement taken to the gear. The portable instrument must
Inspection Instruments. Tooth alignment can be accurately mounted at a known distance from,
be inspected by non-generative, coordinate and in alignment with, the gear axis. This often
measurement instruments. Such instruments requires extra care in design and manufacture of
probe the tooth lengthwise at a series of discrete the gear blank.
points, storing the rectangular coordinates of each 9.5.2 Tooth Alignment Charts. Amplified
point. The variation of the actual tooth alignment traces of tooth alignment inspection test results
from the nominal is then determined by should be presented on charts which are
comparison of the stored test point coordinates calibrated for axial displacement and the
against calculated coordinates of the theoretical magnification of the measured tooth alignment
nominal tooth alignment. variation.
Coordinate measurement inspection Alignment of an unmodified tooth free of any
instruments operate in three dimensions (X, Y, variations will be charted as a straight line. Excess
and 2 coordinates) to measure tooth alignment. material is considered a plus (+) variation while
The gear axis must be aligned parallel with one of insufficient material is considered a minus (-)
the three instrument axes. This may be variation. In addition to identifying the location
accomplished by accurate mounting of the part, or and magnitude of tooth alignment variations,
mathematically adjusting insmnnent axis to these charts are valuable for identifying such tooth
coincide with the gear axis. Coordinate alignment characteristics as edge chamfers, end
measurement inspection instruments commonly relief, crown, and taper (see Appendix C).
use spherical measurement probe tips which
require correction for shift of probe contact point. 9.5.2.1 Tooth Alignment Tolerances.
The tooth alignment tolerances specified in this
Standard are to be interpreted by a “I? chart as
9.5.1.3 Portable Tooth Alignment shown in Fig 9-27. The tolerance is the allowable
Checking Instruments. Tooth alignment envelope of the "K" chart for each portion of the
measuring instruments are generally fixed type ftmctional tooth alignment. Measured tooth
machines which require that the gears to be tested alignment uaces which fit within the shaded zone
must be brought to the instrument and accurately are considered acceptable. Tooth alignment
mounted, typically on axis between centers or on tolerances may alternatively be specified by a
a face plate. However, for very large gears it may tabular method. This may be particularly
be preferable to employ a portable tooth attractive for use with inspection systems capable
alignment checking instrument which can be of handling test result data in digital form.

HIGH POINT OF TOOTH CHART MUST


BE TANGENT TO REFERENCE LINE
FUNCTIONAL

TOOTH
-.L REFERENCE
UNE -0
ALlGNMENT
TOLERANCE,vqq
4

Fig 9-27 Tooth Alignment Tolerance, VqT Zone

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.5.3 “K” Chart Tolerance Modification.


It may be desirable to modify the tooth alignment
tolerance “K” chart envelope. Such chart
modifications might be in response to specification
FACEWIDTH
of special design characteristics such as crown.
Additionally, tooth alignment tolerance “K” chart
modifications may be desired to relax or tighten
control of certain characteristics of an unmodified PATH OF CONTACT
OF MEASUR~NC~ PONTER
tooth alignment form. In such cases, specific I r

agreements must be made between manufacturer


and purchaser, since modification of the tooth
alignment tolerance “K” chart is beyond the
scope of this Standard (see Appendix C).

9.5.4 Long and Short Lead. This Standard


describes variations of tooth alignment in terms of
FACEWlDl-H
plus and minus variations measured normal to the
tooth alignment. It may be advantageous for
machining adjustments to additionally designate
observed variations in terms of long and short
lead. The relationship between tooth alignment,
lead, and helix angle is such that as the helix Fig 9-28 Tooth Alignment of Right
angle increases, the lead length shortens; thus a Hand Helical Gear, Short Lead (-)
short lead (minus lead) indicates an increase in
helix angle, and a long lead (plus lead) indicates a
decrease in helix angle.
tFi%ix!~
I 7/ “%:s~E&~
CAUTION: Plus and minus tooth FACEWIDTH

alignment traces may be ambiguous as to


interpretation of an excess or lack of
material. They are dependent upon where
the stylus is zeroed, and whether readings
are taken on opposite flanks of the same
tooth or on adjacent flanks of the same
space. A minus lead is not necessarily the
same thing as a minus tooth alignment
trace. For this reason it is important to use
the figures for interpretation.

9.5.4.1 Right Hand Gears. If the gear FP

being checked has right hand external helical


teeth, and the charted line deviates from the
datum line as shown in Fig 9-28, then the actual
lead is shorter than the desired lead. If the
charted line deviates from the datum line as
shown in Fig 9-29, then the actual lead is longer Fig 9-29 Tooth Alignment of Right
than the desired lead. Hand Helical Gear, Long Lead (+)

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.5.4.2 Left Hand Gears. When the teeth have D$dRlRLEAD -d

a left hand helix, as shown in Fig 9-30, and the


charted line deviates from the datum line as
shown then the lead is longer than the desired
lead. When the charted line deviates as shown in
Fig 9-31, then the actual lead is shorter than the
desired lead.

PATH OF CONTACT
9.5.5 Indirect Tooth Algnment Inspection / OF MEASURING POINTER
Methods. The following indirect methods may be
employed for inspection of gear tooth alignment.
These methods do not provide the actual levels of
tooth alignment variation. However, in instances
where the measurement methods outlined in 9.5.1
are impractical, these indirect methods may prove
valuable.
FACEWlD

9.5.5.1 Tooth Alignment Indication


Using Axial Pitch. An indication of tooth
alignment accuracy may be derived from
inspection of axial pitch on gears with sufficient
helix angle and face width to have multiple axial Fig 9-30 Tooth Alignment of Left
overlaps. The measurement must be made parallel Hand Helical Gear, Long Lead (+)
to the gear axis at increments equal to the axial
pitch. The variation in resulting measurement
values is indicative of variation of tooth alignment.
Pitch ~riations of the measured teeth can affect
axial pitch measurements, and must be
considered. The axial pitch method of tooth
alignment inspection is especially attractive for
large diameter, wide face width gears.

9.5.5.2 Tooth Alignment Checking with


a Master Gear. Contact pattern checking with a
master gear may be used to check the tooth
alignment variation of gears in place, or when
gears are too large to be accomodated in a lead
checking instrument. The axes of the gear and
master must be parallel. Refer to Appendix D for
this method.

9.6 Composite Action Methods of Gear


Inspection. There are two composite
measurement methods of gear inspection:

(1) Single flank composite test Fig :ft Hand


(2) Composite action test, double flank Helical Gear, Short Lead (-)

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.6.1 Single Flank Composite Test. The in tight mesh center distance by either a dial
method of inspection using single flank composite indicator, or recording de\rices that produce
testing of gears is beyond the scope of this charts. Composite action charts are amplified
Standard. For this method see Appendix F. traces of a composite action test presented on
9.6.2 Composite Action Test, Double
charts synchronized to work rotation, and the
Flank. The composite action test is a means of magnification of the measured radial displacement
inspecting the work gear by the double flank of composite variation. Figure 9-32 is a typical
contact method. The work gear is mounted on a chart showing the interpretation of the data. This
rolling fixture with a variable center distance, and figure shows the interpretation for tooth-to-tooth
run in tight (zero backlash) mesh against a master composite variation and total composite variation.
gear.
The variations shown in Fig 9-32 include the
The variations in center distance, which occur
effects of the variations which exist in both the
as the gears are rotated together in tight mesh, are
work gear and the master gear. When required,
either stylus recorded on a chart or require the
the results of composite action tests should be
reading of a dial indicator.
reported in accordance with 9.6.3.1 and 9.6.3.2.
Gear variations evaluated by the composite
action test are tooth-to-tooth composite variation 9.6.3.1 Tooth-to-Tooth Composite
and total composite variation. In certain cases, Variation Data. Tooth-to-tooth composite
functional tooth thickness and radial nmout can variation data, during a composite action test, is
also be evaluated (see 9.2.3.3). obtained as the work gear is rotated through any
The tooth-to-tooth composite variation and angle of 3600/N. This test indicates values which
the total composite variation can be evaluated by include the effects of profile, pitch, tooth
meshing with a master gear which has smaller thickness, and tooth alignment variations in both
variations than those expected in the gears to be the work gear and in the master gear. There is no
inspected. If only these two variations are to be practical way of subtracting the variations in the
evaluated, lower master gear class tooth thickness specified (master) gear from the recorded values.
tolerances, and fixtures with undefined center The permissible values of tooth-to-tooth
distances may be used. composite variation toleranced in this Standard
9.6.3 Interpretation of Composite Action are the maximum values as read on a dial or from
Test Data. Gear rolling fixtures indicate changes a chart for any 3600/N segment.

Fig 9-32 Strip Chart from Composite Action Test

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

9.6.3.2 Total Composite Variation Data. reflected in the inspection results.


Total composite variation data, during a (2) Parallelism of Axes. The fixture should
composite action test, is obtained when the work be designed for holding the work gear on a datum
gear is rotated through one complete revolution. axis which is parallel to the master gear axis.
The effects of total composite variation in the Some fixtures provide a means of tilting the
specified (master) gear may be compensated for master gear and work gear axes in relation to each
by the following procedure: other. Such fixtures should incorporate provisions
(1) Determine the total composite variation, for accurately setting the tilt angle and re-aligning
V as measured on the chart or dial indicator. the axis to the zero position with precision. This
cc?’ requirement also implies that provision should be
(2) Obtain the total composite variation,
made for keeping a fixed angular relationship
Vcqm’ of the master gear (obtained from between the axis of the work gear and that of the
calibration). master gear during their movement toward and
(3) Determine the total composite tolerance, away from each other.
VcqT, allowed on drawing. (3) Mounting. Provision should be made for
holding the work gear in the gear rolling fixture by
Then the following cases apply: the same mounting surfaces as those which will be
If Vcq 2 VcqT - Fqrn, work gear is acceptable. used in the final assembly, when those surfaces
are specified on the gear drawing. Although not
If Vcq > xqT + vqrn, work gear is rejected. essential to the conduct of the inspection, the use
of these mounting surfaces will eliminate
If neither of these conditions exist, the work differences, which may be due to radial and
gear is in question. Compensation for variations lateral nmout variations in the mounting.
may be made by phasing, which can be done by (4) Maintaining Prescribed Mesh. Provision
indexing the master gear with respect to the work should be made for adjusting the force keeping
gear, repeating the test and analyzing the results. the test gear and master gear in tight mesh. This
The work gear is acceptable, if the highest of the force should be uniform over the entire reading
phased reading is: scale. Two traditional methods of doing this are:
V cq =<V cqT +v (a) by means of a weight, or (b) by means of a
cm
9.6.4 Equipment Requirements for w-a-
(5) Changes in Center Distances. Provision
Composite Action Testing. Figure 9-4 shows a
should be made for accurately indicating the
schematic diagram of a gear rolling fixture. This
changes in the center distance that occur during
figure and the following discussion is intended to
the testing. This may be done by means of a dial
show the basic kinematic and mechanical
indicator or a recording device. If recording is
requirements of the equipment necessary to
employed, it is desirable to have a definite
comply with this Standard. It is not intended to
relationship between the position on the chart and
imply that this is the only acceptable construction.
a circumferential position on either the work gear
Some items to be considered, which influence or master gear. An accurate method of calibrating
the composite action test measurements, are: the dial indicator or recording equipment over its
(1) Minimum Runout or Wobble. Provision working range is essential.
should be made for the master gear to rotate with (6) Other Considerations. Additional features
a minimum of runout or lateral wobble. Fixed which contribute to the ease of operation and the
hardened and ground studs are generally used for accuracy of the results are:
master gears with hardened bores. Ground (a) Means of quickly and accurately setting
bushings, precision interference ball bushings, or different center distances on the fixture.
centers for use with shank type master gears (b) Means of driving the gears mechanically
should be considered for more accurate test at low speed in preference to turning them by
results. Any clearance between the test gear bore hand. This reduces the chance that small
or hub and its mounting stud or bushing will be variations will be undetected if the gear is driven

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

too fast and also reduces handling of the master applied when using the composite variation test:
gear. (1) A master gear and a gear rolling fixture
(c) Means of protecting the equipment from should be calibrated as outlined in Appendix G or
contaminants and accidental damage. by other means which will result in equivalent
(d) Solid bases and a dust free temperature accuracy.
controlled environment are requirements for the (2) The gear to be inspected and the master
measurement of gears of extreme accuracy. gear are to be mounted on the gear rolling f?xture.
9.6.5 Inspection Equipment. In order to If mounting surfaces are specified, these are to be
achieve the most accuracte economical inspection used. Set the checking load in accordance with
the procedure used and the quality of the rolling 9.6.7.
fixtures and master gears should be matched to (3) The work gear is then rotated through at
the quality of the gears to be inspected. least one complete revolution, in double-flank
contact with the master gear.
9.6.5.1 Gear Rolling Fixture. Due to (4) The work gear is to be accepted or
the complexity of the complete gear rolling rejected on the basis of the method given in 9.6.3.
fixture, it is not possible to specify absolute levels The interpretation of the recorded chart is given
of fixture quality. Any inaccuracies in the fixture in Fig 9-32.
will reduce the tolerance allowed for the inspected
gear. The fixture quality and the reliability of 9.6.7 Checking Spring Load and Mass
calibration must be compatible with the work gear Weight. The amount of applied spring load or
tolerance. It is suggestedthat the fixture accuracy dead weight (mass) is important when checking
and calibration be within 10 percent of the part gears on a gear rolling fixture. Excessive load on
tolerance. fine tooth gears of narrow face width, or gears
9.6.5.2 Master Gears. Master gears made of soft materials, or on journal type gears
used for composite action inspection may be one having slender shafts, will result in incorrect
of three types of known quality: readings caused by the deflection of the gear teeth
or shaft. Conversely, too light a load on coarse
(1) A master gear designed specifically to
gears of relatively wide face width will result in
inspect the composite variation of a work gear. It
incorrect readings, because of variations in the
normally will assure proper and complete
contact between the work gear and the master
inspection.
gear.
(2) A standard master gear of known size and
outside diameter which may be used to inspect 9.6.7.1 Recommended Loads. The
several different work gears of the same pitch or recommended loads between gear and master are
module. Caution must be taken to assure that based on tooth size values, and are given in Table
acceptable gears are not being rejected because of 9-l.
excessive depth of contact by an oversize outside
diameter on the master gear. Similarly, caution 9.6.7.2 Alternate Loads. These loads
must be taken to avoid the possibility of accepting were determined empirically, and are based on a
gears with a short depth of active profile when the face width of 0.1 inch (2.5 mm). For narrower
master gear has an undersize outside diameter. face widths, the load should be changed
proportionally. It may be necessary to increase the
(3) A selected mating gear of known quality. load for a face width greater than 0.1 inch (2.5
It should be adjudged as to the degree of which may be done in the proper
-17
complete inspection by calculation and proportion and should be agreed upon by the user
calibration. and supplier. The loads are based on anti-friction
9.6.6 Method of Conducting Composite mountings for the movable head and include the
Inspection. The following procedure should be force on the indicating device.

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table 9-l
Recommended Checking Load for Metallic Gears

Size Load’
kg
Diameual Pitch Equiv. Module ounces & 20%)
1 to 9 2.5 to less than 25 33 to 39 1.0
10 to 19 1.25 to less than 2.5 29 to 35 0.9
20 to 29 0.8 to less than 1.25 25 to 31 0.8
30 to 39 0.6 to less than 0.8 21 to 27 0.7
40 to 49 0.50 17 to 23 0.6
50 to 59 0.40 13 to 19 0.5
60 to 79 0.30 6 to 10 0.3
80 to 99 0.25 3 to 5 0.2
100 to 120 0.20 3 to 5 0.1

1 For non-metallic gears use l/2 of the listed value.

9.7 Tooth Thickness. Tooth Thickness is the achieved by measurements utilizing gear tooth
circular thickness of a gear tooth in its transverse calipers, addendum comparator, tooth vernier,
plane. Circular tooth thickness is the length of arc micrometers, pins, balls, or blocks as described in
between two sides (profiles) of a gear tooth on a the measuring methods. The recommended
datumcircle (see Fig 9-33). methods of measurement for determining tooth
9.7.1 Tooth Thickness Tolerance and thickness are listed in Table 3-9.
Inspection Limits. The methods used to 9.7.2.1 Vernier Gear Tooth Caliper.
determine tooth thickness are not generally direct Theoretical settings of the gear tooth caliper can
measurements. In order to evaluate tooth be calculated to any desired accuracy. Thickness
thickness, each measuring method involves some may be measured at any convenient depth on the
additional characteristic of the gear. Thus, when tooth, but it is usually calculated and measured
the maximum and the minimum limits for tooth near the middle of the tooth height (see Fig
thickness are determined using the tolerance 9-34).
values shown in Table 6-3 (6-3M), the
measurement limits must be selected to allow for
the additional characteristics inuoduced by the
specific measuring method to be employed. (See
AGMA 231).

THICKNESS

Fig 9-33 Circular Tooth Thickness


Fig 9-34 Tooth Thickness
9.7.2 Measuring Methods for Tooth Measurement, Gear Tooth Caliper
Thickness. Tooth thickness determination is Method

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9.7.2.1.1 Chordal Measurement. Since


the tooth caliper measures on a straight or chordal
Do = outside diameter
D = standard pitch diameter
line, the distance, tc, is slightly less than the
When the chordal tooth thickness is measured
distance along the arc of the datum circle.
using a tooth caliper, the addendum setting must
Although this difference is frequently ignored, it
also be corrected for the actual outside diameter.
becomes significant for coarse pitch and low
numbers of teeth. 9.7.2.2 Addendum Comparator. This
9.7.2.1.2 Evaluation of Caliper instrument measures tooth thickness by
Measurement. The chordal addendum, cc, is comparing the gear addendum with that of a basic
rack (see Fig 9-35). The comparator jaws must
altered by enlargements or reductions in the
have the same angle as the normal pressure angle
outside diameter of the gear or pinion, because
of the gear being inspected. To prepare the
the outside diameter is used as a point of
insuument to measure a gear, a steel block
reference in tooth caliper measurements.
corresponding to a rack tooth of the proper pitch
Correction must always be made for taper and
(module) is used to set the comparator jaws to the
dimensional variation of the outside diameter of
proper width. With the block in place, the dial
the gear blank. To calculate the chordal
indicator is set to read zero for the standard
addendum, a , a correction Au must be made
addendum.
for the height’of the chord spaLed by the tooth
NOTE: Since the outside diameter is used
caliper. This correction is always added to the
as a reference point in apphcation of the
addendum of the gear and is calculated as follows:
comparator, correction must be made for
taper and dimensional variation of the
outside diameter of the individual gear
blank.
a ‘ad +Aac.?$-$k cos (S ) @q 9-l) /------w-e\
C

For Spur Gears:


(i)= Ag$ 0% 9.2)
C

For. Helical Gears:


( ;> = lFO t (c;‘$)
0% 9.3)
C

where
ad = addendum distance to datum circle
=C = chordal addendum
AaC = chordal addendum correction
c = tooth thickness Base Circle-

7 = angular thickness Fii 9-35 Tooth Thickness Measurement


= helix angle at datum circle Gear-Tooth Comparator Method
*d
When a gear is checked, a thin tooth will
*d 0% 9.4 project farther into the insuument, and the dial
indicator will read plus. Conversely, a thick tooth
DC = diameter of datum circle (point of causes a minus reading. The change in tooth
tooth thickness measurement) thickness is the difference in thickness between

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

the gear being measured and the specified tooth


thickness. This change may be computed as two
times the addendum comparator reading times the
tangenf of the normal profile angle of the
instrument.

9.7.2.3 Span Measurement. This


method utilizes a vernier or plate micrometer to
measure the distance over several teeth along a
line tangent to the base cylinder. The distance
measured is the sum of (n-1) base pitches
(normal base pitches for helical gears), plus the
thickness of one tooth at the base cylinder.
Measurements are not affected by outside
diameter variations or runout (see Fig 2-15).

NOTE: For method of computation, see


AGMA 231.

9.7.2.3.1 Limitations of Span


Measurement. The limitations of span
measurement are:

(1) Span measurement cannot be applied


when a combination of high helix angle and Fig 9-36 Tooth Thickness Inspection,
narrow face width prevent the caliper from Measurement Over Pins
spanning a sufficient number of teeth.
(2) Measurements are influenced by method (see Appendix G). In addition, the gear
variations in tooth pitch, profile, and alignment. rolling fixture requires that the center distance be
Measurements are erroneous if attempted on a calibrated.
portion of the profile which had been modified 9.7.2.5.1 Gears Mounted on Test
from true involute shape. Arbors. When the master gear and the work
gear are each mounted on a arbor, the gear rolling
9.7.2.4 Measurement Over Pins (or fixture must have a dual set of centers. In
Over Rack Shaped Blocks). Pins afford an addition, the operator should have two precision
accurate method of measuring tooth thickness of set-up arbors, having a length within 10 percent
gears of any diameter within the capacity of of that length of the work gear and master gear
available micrometers (see Fig 9-36). holding arbors. These arbors should not exceed
Measurements are affected by variations in tooth 0.000 04 inches (0.001 mm) in taper, runout,
spacing and profile. concentricity, and measured diameter. This
center type rolling fixture is set up as follows:
NOTE: For method of computation, see
AGMA 231. (1) Select a calibrated master gear (see
Appendix G). Obtain the actual testing radius,
9.7.2.5 Composite Action Method. This L, from the master gear or from its current
method utilizes a composite action test (double calibration report.

gear
flank) gear rolling fixture and a calibrated master (2) Establish the test radius of each of the set
gear. This indicates the ftmctional tooth thickness, up arbors. Work gear arbor, ~&w and master
which includes the effects of all tooth variations.
The master gear used when this method is arbor, qarn-
employed must be calibrated by a suitable (3) Obtain the maximum and minimum

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allowable testing radii from the work gear drawing. distances (such as the use of pitch disks,
CL- and R, min>. etc.) are acceptable if they can be shown to
make the same allowances for the effects of
(4) Calculate the maximum and minimum test
testing radius tolerance on the master gear,
distance, Cd . the effects of wear in the bore of the master
gear, and the effects of tolerance on the
'dmax=Rnn ‘Rkwmax 0% 9.9 bore of the work gear.
Cdmin =Rm +Rrwmin (Eq 9.6) (7) The diameter of arbors for bored type
work gears and master gears shall be such as to
where insure that the gears will be wrung onto their test
= testing radius, work gear, arbors. Arbor sets having a diameter difference of
3-wmil-l
minimum allowable 0.000 075 inches (0.002 mm) for classes 10 or
= testing radius, work gear, better are convenient. Ball-bushing arbors with
%v max interference fits can also be used. It is important
maximum allowable
when composite checking gears in this quality
Rrm = testing radius, master gear
range, to remove all possible looseness between
(5) Calculate the maximum and the minimum the arbors and bores of both master gear and
gage stack height, Lg . inspected gear, by one of these methods, so that
additional nmout is not reflected in the composite
Lg max = cd ~lliuc- cRraw+Rram) 0% 9.7) chart due to inaccurate mounting. Journal-type
gears are tested on their own centers.
Lgrnin = cd min-(Rraw+ R ram> (Eq 9.8)
(8) In the case of gears of appreciable size,
where the member having the least weight should be
= gage block stack height, placed on the movable centers.
Lg- (9) The work gear should be rotated through
maximum
at minimum of one complete revolution.
LgInin = gage block stack height,
(10) The gear is to be accepted or rejected on
minim- the basis of all measurements being within the
R ram = test radius, master gear arbor limits set by the recorded maximum and minims
R raw = test radius, work gear arbor testing center distance.

(6) With the test arbors in place, set the 9.7.2.6 Measurement of Backlash at
maximum stack of gage blocks, L in place Operating Center Distance (Test). This is
g- another measure of work gear functional tooth
between the arbors, and with a testing pressure thickness with a master gear. The test center
equal to that used to perform the composite distance is fixed and it must be accurately
action test, record the maximum testing center determined that the axes are parallel and in the
distance shown. Repeat the procedure using the same plane. The backlash of the test set should
minimum stack of blocks, L . , and record the be measured in at least two places, preferably
minimum testing center dista=hown by the dial four, at equal intervals around the gear.
or on the recording device.
The work gear is accepted for tooth thickness
NOTE: Other methods of setting the on the basis that the backlash at a fixed test
minimum and maximum testing center distance is within the designed tolerance.

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(THIS PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK)

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Appendix A
AGMIA Class Number System

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook.]

Al. Purpose. Tbis Appendix is provided to Step 3. After determinjng the allowable
describe in detail the procedure for developing an operating backlash range and the tangential
AGMA Class Number. The foIlowing examples effects of component variations (Refer to AGMA
show how to establish AGMA Class Numbers for 231 for method) the tooth thickness variation
various combinations of quality, tooth thickness, assigned for the subject gear is approximately
and material. 0.0006 inches (0.015 mm). Section 6, Table 6-3
indicates a Tooth Thickness Tolerance Code B is
A2. Common Quality Number for All the most appropriate.
Elements. To determine the AGMA Class
Number for the given application, experience, Step 4. Refer to Table 7-l. A Material and
and material and treatment knowledge are Treatment Number AL-4 is shown for the
necessary. Figure 4-1 shows examples of class material specified.
numbers where all gear element tolerances are of
Step 5. Combining the above data in the
the same class. same sequence results in the AGMA Class
Example: Assume a Control Gear Number QlOB-AL-4.
(Aerospace) having 116 teeth, 48 diametral A3. Changes in Quality Numbers for Some
pitch (0.5 module), 2.5 (63.5 mm) Pitch Elements of a Gear. Conditions may require that
Diameter, to be made from aluminum one or more of the individual gear-element
barstock (2024-T4), heat treated, 120 tolerances be of a different Quality Number than
Bhn. the other element tolerances. In such cases, it is
Step 1. Determine the desired Quality possible to modify the AGh4A Class Number to
Number from experience or analysis. This include the Quality Number for each gear element
indicates that Quality Number QlO is typical for tolerance.
the application. Certain gearing applications require a high
degree of accuracy in the angular position of
Step 2. Refer to 2000-A88 Section 6, Table
teeth. This element is not covered by the
6-2, for Quality Number QlO and the size of gear
classificatfon system and must be specifically
specified; the table shows a total composite
addressed. (See Appendix E.)
tolerance of 0.0011 inches (0.028mm) Table 6-2
for the same data shows a tooth-to-tooth Typical examples of AGMA Class Numbers
composite tolerance of 0.00051 inches (0.013 for Spur, Helical, and Herringbone gears are
-1. shown in Tables A-l and A-2.

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Table A-l
Illustrations of Class Numbers
When Element Tolerance Quality Numbers are the Same
Gear Selection Based on
. AGMA Tooth AGMA
m;ap&eshor MateMyte;“ber AGMA
AGMA Quality Number class
Designation Treatment Hardness Number
Runout 8 A HA-14 Q8A-HA-14
Pitch 8 Alloy Steel
Profile 8 Quench & Temper
Lead 8 285 to 321 BHN

IC-3
T-T Composite 6 B Carbon Steel
Total Composite 6 Induction Harden Q6B-IN-3
52 Rc Min

CH-13
Runout 7 B Alloy SteeJ Q7B-CH-13
Pitch Tolerance 7 Carburized
55 RC Mh

Pitch HC-1
Index A Carbon Steel Q6A-HC-1
Ritch line to Normalize & Temper
Back Face 212 to 248 BHN

Runout 8 IQ-7
Pitch 8 A Nodular Iron Q8A-NI-7
Profile 8 Quench & Temper
Lead 8 269 BHN Min

AL-4
T-T Composite 10 C Aluminum Bar 2024-14 QlOC-AL-4
Total Composite 10 Heat Treated
120 BHN (500 Kg)

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Gear -cation and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Table A-2
Illustration of Class Numbers
When Element Tolerance Quality Numbers are Different
Gear Selection Based on
AGMA Tooth AGMA
T%i;a~lior Material Number AGiMA
AGMA Quality Number Material CklSS
Designation Treatment Hardness Number
Runout 8 CH-15 Q 8A-CH-15
Pitch 10 A Alloy Steel (Except T-T
Profile 8 Carburize Spacing, Quality
Lead 60 Rc Min QlO)

Runout 11 CH-15 Q llA-CH-15


Pitch 11 A Carbon Steel (Except Lead,
Profile 11 Quench & Temper QlO)
Lead 10 285 to321 BHN

Runout 8 FA-12 Q 8A-FA-12


Pitch 9 A Alloy Steel (Except T-T
Profile 9 Flame Harden Spacing and
Lead 8 48 Rc Min. hofile Q9)

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c

Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

Appendix B
Symbol Comparison Table

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be co-ed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook. J
Bl. Purpose. This Appendix includes a symbols for terms as defined in AGMA 2000,
tabulation of many symbols in AGMA 2000-A88 compared with AGMA 112 (ANSI B6.14),
compared with those in use by other standards. AGMA 600, IS0 1328 (1975) and IS0 701
When using as symbol in a formula, figure, etc., (1976).
one should be careful of the proper definition,
context and implication, so that the proper Except for Profile and Tooth Alignment, the
undemanding is achieved. Therefore, Table B-l definitions used in all the standards listed in Table
is presented as a cross-reference for the major B-l are similar with same basic meaning.

Table B-l
Alphabetical Table of Terms with Symbols
AGMA IS0 AGMA 600
Term 2000-A88 112 1328 IS0 701
Addendum a a
Allowable Pitch Variation fpt
VPA
Base Pitch % ‘b “d ‘b
Chordal Tooth Thickness *c 5 s’
Circular Pitch, Transverse P P ab P
Circular Tooth Thickness t t S s
Face Width (Axial) F F b b
Helical Angle * Jr B
Normal Chordal Tooth Thickness tnc t nc ‘n
Normal Module “n mn mn
Normal Pitch Variation f Pn
5n
Normal Tooth Thickness tn *n ‘n
Number of Teeth N N 2 2
Outside Diameter D, D, da da
Pitch Variation
vP fP
Pressure Angle, Transverse 6 o!
Profile Tolerance
)T Vf)
Radial Runout Fr
Radial Runout Tolerance iT (F,)
Tooth Alignment Tolerance
%T
Tooth Alignment Variation
Tooth Thickness Tolerance - , :;
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Tolerance
%T fi”
(Double Flank)

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Table B-l (cant)


Alphabetical Table of Terms with Symbols
AGMA IS0 AGMA 600
Term 2000-A8 8 112 1328 IS0 701
Tooth-to-Tooth Composite Variation Vq VT)
(Double Flank)
Total Accumulated Pitch Tolerance VQpT (Fp >
Total Accumulated Pitch Variation FP
Total Accumulated Pitch Variation, F
pk
Within a Sector of k Pitches
Total Composite Tolerance i’,qT I$”
(Double Flank)
Total Composite Variation (I;;“)
54
(Double Flank)
*Total Composite Variation, VCS Ff
Single Flank (tangential composite)
Transverse Tooth Thickness *t 5 st

- Indicates Term is not used


( ) Indicates implied usage
l
See Appendix F for single flank composite variation
NOTE : Table B-l contains those symbols which have an equivalent or an implied equivalent.
It does not contain all symbols used in AGMA 2000-A88.

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Appendix C
ProBe and Tooth Alignment Modifkations

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear Classification and Inspection
Handbook].
Cl. Purpose. This Appendix is provided to give crown modification. Figure C-4 shows a typical
additional information on modified tooth forms (0.00 1 in) Tooth Alignment “K” Chart tolerance
which can be controlled with the Specification of only, and Fig C-5 shows crown tolerance (0.0003
Modified Profile, or Tooth Alignment Inspection to 0.0008 in) only. Figure C-6 shows the
Chart Tolerances. recommended method of specifying tooth
alignment and crown tolerances in a single chart.
C2. Tolerance “K” Charts for Modified Tooth
Profiles. In addition to inspecting tooth profiles C3.1 Charts of Gears with Crowned Teeth.
in general, prome inspection charts are extremely The amount and position of crowning on gear
valuable for determining and controlling undercut teeth can be checked on tooth alignment
(if present) and profile modifications such as tip inspection instruments, as shown by the charts in
and root relief. The inspection trace of the tooth Figs C-7 and C-8. The charts in Fig C-7 are the
profile can be interpreted to determine the actual adjacent sides of external spur gear teeth, whereas
form (see Fig 9-20). Specifying a modified “K” those in Fig C-8 are of the adjacent sides of
Chart can be used to control specific form external helical gear teeth. When both types of
characteristics. gears have the same amount of crowning in the
face width, the charts are similar. If the teeth had
It may be desirable for specifying applications an alignment variation, there would be a slope in
to tighten the tolerance near the pitch diameter to the charted lines in addition to the curvature
limit hoZIow (minus) profile in the center. Fig shown in Figs C-7 and C-8. It should be noted
C-l shows a “K” Chart drawing specification of a that the high points of the crowning, on adjacent
modified AGMA tolerance with reduced sides of the teeth, lie in the plane normal to the
tolerance near the pitch diameter. Figure C-2 helix, and are therefore displaced in the axial
shows an example of this modified tolerance with direction. The charts will indicate the location and
an additional modification specifying a sloped magnitude of this displacement as shown in Fig
profile. Another modified “K” Chart is illustrated C-8.
in Fig C-3. In this example, form control is
specified for both tip and root relief, using a ‘K” C3.2 Charts of Gears with Tapered Teeth.
Chart and points determined by specific degrees Tooth alignment inspection insmments can also
of roll. be used for checking the taper of gear teeth.
Charts in Fig C-9 are the adjacent sides of the
NOTE: The use of a modified ‘K” Chart teeth of an external spur gear having tapered
to tolerance the tooth form may add teeth. Here, it will be noticed that the charted
expense to the manufacture, and limit the lines are not parallel to each other, and that the
methods which can be used to achieve the departure of the charted lines from the datum
desired results. lines indicate the deviation in parallelism of the
sides of the teeth.
C3. Tolerance ‘K” Charts for Modified Tooth
Alignment Form. Tooth alignment form may be Figure C-10 shows charts of a left-hand
modified to include special characteristics such as extemal helical gear having the same amount of
crown or taper. It is recommended that tolerances taper. In the case of the helical teeth however,
for such special characteristics be superimposed there is also a minus alignment variation. This is
on the tooth alignment tolerance.This is illustrated indicated by the charted lines deviating more on
in Fig C-4 through Fig C-6 for the case of a one end of the tooth space than on the other. The

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

deviation in alignment is indicated by the sloping most applications the difference is considered
dotted line on the chart, located midway between negligiile. However, in the case of extremely
the charted lines. modified tooth alignment forms, such as taper on
It should be noted that some generative tooth a cantilever mounted pinion, this difference can
alignment checking instruments position the probe become significant. Correction of measured values
on centerline, while others offset the probe by the cosine of the pressure angle is appropriate
tangentially within the plane of action, thus for such highly modified forms Alternatively, the
maintaining true normal tooth contact. Location nominal tooth alignment trace may be defined to
of the probe on centerline results in include the modification. This reduces measured
measurements tangential to the pitch diameter values to the level of variations only, rather than
rather than the base diameter. The difference in variations plus modification. Differences in
measured values is related to the cosine of the measurement due to system configuration should
pressure angle, or less than 10 percent. Thus, for then be negligible.

(RECOMMENDED) (RECOMMENDED) (NO; RECOMMENDED)

Zero
Tolerant

(a) Standard (b) Modified Charts


Fii C-l “K” Type Chart Reduced at Pitch Diameter

OD OD
(5)

(4)
Numbers (1)
thru (5) would
(3) be the specified
Roll Angles

(2)

(1)

C-2 Sloped “I(” Type 33% C-3 Modified “K” Chart with Tip
and Root Relief Chart

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

HIGH POINT OF TOOTH CHART


MUST BE TANGENT TO
/ REFERENCELINE

0
TOLERANCE
0.001

FACEWIDTH

Fig C-4 Tolerance Only

HIGH POINT OF CROWN TOOTH


SPECIFIEDZONE CHARTMUSTBETANGENTTO
FOR HIGH POINT\ REFERENCE LINE IN THIS AREA

EDGE ROUND

REF:NRENCE - O
CROWN
TOLERANCE
0.0003
0.0008

* = DRADWW~~;~N

Fig C-5 Crown Tolerance Only

HIGH POINT OF CROWN TOOTH


SPECIFIED ZONE CHART MUST BE TANGENT TO
0.0003 MIN. FOR HIGH POINT REFERENCE LINE IN THlS AREA

EDGE ROUND

‘:~~““’ -0

0.0008 MAX. UNCTIONAL FACE

* = DRAWlNO DESIGN
DIMENSIONS

Fig C-6 Total Tooth Alignment and Crown Tolerance Specification

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Gear Chsification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

FACEWlDlH

FACE FACE

Fig C-7 Chart of ExtemaI Spur Gear Fig C-9 Chart of External Spur Gear
Having Crowned Teeth Having Tapered Teeth
NOlE:THEHlGHPOiNT
OF THE CROWN ARE
LOCATED AT AND ARE

As SHOWN BELOW.

NG FOlNlER

FACEWIDTH

Fii C-8 Chart of External He&l Gear Fig C-10 Chart of Helical Gear Having
Having Crowned Teeth Tapered Teeth and a Lead Deviation

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Appendix D
Contact Pattern Check

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be consuued as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear Chsification and Inspection
Handbook.]
D 1. Purpose. Contact checking is used for the D2.4 Test Load. Usually, the test load is
inspection of mating gear sets to determine their very light. In some gear testing machines, the test
operational compatability and for the inspection load can be varied and controlled.
of gears which @l not fit into available checking D2.5 Operator Training. Since operator
machines because of size and weight limits. This skill is an important factor in application of the
Appendix explains methods of obtaining and marking compound and control of the test load, it
analyzing contact patterns, and methods for is important that uniform procedures be
evaluating the observed deviations from designed established and that operators be trained in these
contact. Contact checking is commonly used on procedures, so that reproduciile results may be
bevel, mill, marine, and high speed gears. obtained.
D2. Control of Test Conditions. The D3. Calibration. Calibration of the thickness of
reproducibility of contad pattern checks is the marking compound is essential to
dependent upon careful control of the test interpretation of contact pattern test results. Once
conditions. A small variation, 0.0004 inches an operator has developed a consistent technique,
(0.01 mm), in location of the gears from test to it is possible to establish the thickness of the
test will have a significant effect on the results. marking compound by shifting the axes of the
D2.1 Gear Axes Parallel. If the gears are gears out of parallel in a vertical direction in the
tested outside the housing in which they will be tangential plane by a known angle; i.e., shimming
one bearing support and observing the change in
used, or if the assembled centers are adjustable,
the gears must be mounted with their axes exactly the pattern. This calibration should be performed
parallel. This is usually accomplished in an regularly to be sure that the marking compound,
adjustable testing frame with the line of centers test load, and operator technique have not varied.
horizontal, so that a precision level and
micrometers can be used to establish parallel axes D4. Recording Results. Contact patterns are
at the given center distance in a common plane. usually recorded by photography, sketches, or
The absolute value of center distance is not as tapes. Instant developing color 5 is particularly
important as maintaining the gear axes parallel. useful for recording contact patterns. Tapes are
made by carefully applying transparent mending
D2.2 Test Gears. If test gears are being tape (scotch tape) over the contact pattern,
compared to a master gear, the master gear must removing the tape, and applying the tape with the
be of known quality, and of a quality to assure adhering pattern to white paper.
that errors in the master gear will not appreciably
affect the results. DS. Interpretation of Results. Typical values
for carefully applied marking compound thickness
Gears may also be tested as matched pairs. are from 0.0003 inches (0.008 mm) to 0.0005
D2.3 Marking Compound. various inches (0.012 mm).
marking compounds can be used including Figure D-l shows a contact pattern obtained
prussian blue, dye check developer, and with good profile contact, and some tooth
proprietary compounds. It is important that the alignment mismatch. If the marking compound
compound be controlled carefully, since its thickness is 0.0004 inches (0.01 mm), the tooth
viscosity and the method of application will affect misalignment shown over the length of the contact
the 5 thickness, which is critical to the pattern is also 0.0004 inches (0.01 mm). An
interpretation of results. angular correction in helix angle or mounting of

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0.0004 inches (0.01 mm) divided by the length of D6. Specifications. Contact pattern acceptability
contact should produce full contact. is specified by defining the area in which contact
The contact pattern shown in Fig D-2 shows may not occur, the areas in which contact should
perfect tooth alignment with profile mismatch. occur, and the percentage of contact required in
Using the same marking compound calibration as the desired area. Figure D-4 ihustrates a contact
the example above, the profile mismatch is pattern which meets the specifkations
0.0008 inches (0.02 mm), since contact extends approximately 7.5 percent of contact, excluding
over only one-half of the profile. extremes of tooth which are intentionally relieved.

Figure D-3 shows an undulating contact


pattern which might be caused by periodic error in
the generating machine.

LENGTH

Fig D-l Matching Profiles, With Lead Fig D-3 Waviness


Mismatch And End Relief

Fig D-2 Matching Leads, With Profile Fig D-4 Typical Specification:
Mismatch And End Relief Approximately 75% Contact, Excluding
Extremes Of Tooth,. Which Are
Intentionally Relieved

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Appendix E
Accumulated Pitch Variation

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A% Gear Classij’kution and Inspection
Hundbook] .
El. Purpose. This Appendix is provided as a E3.2 Single Probe Method. A precision
discussion of accumulated pitch variation and indexing device, such as an index plate, circle
index variation. The two terms are essentially divider, optical or electronic encoder, or polygon
synonymous. Although these elements are not and auto collimator, is used to index the test gear
toleranced within the body of this Standard, they exactly 36O”/N or one pitch for each tooth (see
are presented here as a method of measuring and Fig 9-9). A single probe, on an accurate slide
analyzing gear accuracy and characteristics. The mechanism, is brought into contact with the first
following describes accumulated pitch variation, and each successive tooth flank around the gear.
but is understood to apply to index variation also. The readings from this series of measurements are
recorded as the direct and actual value of
E2. Total Accumulated Pitch Variation, I&. accumulated pitch variation for each successive
Total Accumulated pitch variation is equal to the tooth. These readings require no further
algebraic difference between the maximum and mathematical manipulation.
minimum values obtained from the summation of E4. Recommended Method. In theory, both
successive values of pitch variation, V? . methods will reveal the same data about any gear
(see Fig 9-9). However, this is only uue when
A plot of accumulated pitch variation values
measuring gear teeth with perfect finish and form.
of any tooth, relative to the first or reference
Due to irregularities in the tooth surfaces being
tooth, is useful for the understanding of the
measured, and lack of resolution and accuracy of
accuracy and characteristic of any gear. This plot
the measuring device, the results will hardly ever
readily shows the position of any tooth with
agree. Of the two systems, the single probe
respect to its correct position, as well as its
method is the most accurate.
relationship to an adjacent, or any other tooth.
Each pitch measurement, by the two probe
E3. Measurement of Accumulated Pitch system, will have some error caused by surface
Variation. There are two general methods of irregularities. In the mathematical process
measuring accumulated pitch variation: the two de&id above, these errors can often be
probe pitch or spacing tester, and the single probe accumulated, along with the pitch variations, so
device. that they affect the final results of accumulated
E3.1 Two Probe Method. The two probe pitch variation. Any one value of accumulated
method involves the use of a device which pitch variation can include the summation of
schematically has a fixed probe on one tooth errors in the measurement of several, or many
flank, and a moveable indicator on the adjacent pitches.
tooth flank (see Fig 9-S). As the gauge moves On the other hand, surface irregularities will
progressively around the gear, successive actual also affect the accuracy of single probe
pitches are recorded. These are then summed measurements. However,; the error for any one
together and divided by the number of teeth. tooth wiIl only affect the ‘reading for that tooth.
This yields the average measured pitch, pm. The Each reading is individual, and is not influenced
average measured pitch is then subtracted from by the reading of any other tooth or the
each actual pitch reading to obtain values of pitch summation process.
variation. The pitch variation values are then This, therefore, is the most accurate of the
successively summed together to obtained values two systems when measuring gears (see Figs E-l
of accumulated pitch variation. and E-2).

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Fig E-l Influence of Flank Form Irregularities on the Single Pitch Readings

Fig E-2 Determination of Ctiulative Pitch Variation Curves (Index Variation) On


the Basis of Single or Span Pitch Measurements

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NOTE: Due to flank errors and surface over a sector of k pitches, is equal to the
roughness of the new flanks, measurements accumulated pitch variation range, over that
taken of the same pitch may show different sector of k pitches.
results when feelers are applied at different
Es.4 Spacing Variation, Vs . Spacing
radial or axial positions.
variation is the difference between any two (2)
Figure E-l is a schematic example: The two values of adjacent pitch variation. F’itch variation
feelers contact the teeth at different points; is the difference between two adjacent readings;
distances S1 and S4 are longer than distances S2 therefore spacing variation will involve three (3)
and S3 . Thus, the indicated comparative pitch readings, representing (2) adjacent pitches.
value can vary by a certain amount, which may E6. Application of Data. Accumulated pitch
reach a -urn approximately equal to the sum variation can show up in many forms in real gears.
of the form error variation within the contacted When looking at the total graph of data, the
zones of the two relevant flanks. characteristic shape can be very informative
relative to the cause of the variation or the
E5. Interpretation of Data. As seen in Fig 9-9, performance of the gear in its final application.
several values can be derived from pitch variation
data. E6.1 Sinusoidal Runout or Accumulated
Pitch Variation. A gear that has runout, by the
ES.1 Pitch Variation, v . The difference traditional definition, will also have a large
between any two adjacent rea&gs is read as pitch amount of accumulated pitch variation. However,
variation, V . it is possible to produce a gear that will have little
P or no nmout, but will have a large sinusoidal
E5.2 Pitch Variation Total, Accumulated, accumulated pitch variation.
Vop. The difference between the maximum and Example: A gear cut with nmout and
minimum readings are equal to the accumulated then shaved (see Fig E-3). This sinusoidal
pitch variation range, V accumulated pitch variation will have the
a@ same running qualities as a gear with the
ES.3 Pitch Variation, Total Accumulated same amount of runout.
Over Sector of k Pitchs, V The difference NOTE: Suspect runout or accumulated
apk ’
between the maximum and minimum readings, pitch variation or both.

.-6
.-fi
40
33
5

-ill
I 2 3 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1
Tooth Number

Fig E-3 Sinusoidal Pattern of Accumulated Pitch Variation

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E6.2 A Ramp Shaped Graph with Large pitch variations, but less than or equal to the
First to Last Tooth Pitch Variation. This is allowable accumulated pitch variation, v This
generally associated with a thermal problem, ap’
can be caused by kinematic errors in the gear
looseness in the gear processing machine or
processing machine, by heat treat distortions
tooling, or tool wear (see Fig E-4).
related to a bolt hole pattern, or other
NOTE: Suspect cutting equipment for non-symmetrical section around the gear (see Fig
thermal irregularities or machine tool E-5).
looseness and wear.
E6.3 A Pattern of Waviness Every Few NOTE: Suspect kinematics in gear
Teeth Around the Gear. T’his results in an processing equipment or heat treatment
accumulated pitch variation over a sector of k distortions causing non-symmetrical section
pitches, Vapk , that is greater than the individual in the gear.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1
Tixch Number

F’ig E-4 Ramp Shaped Pattern of Accumulated Pitch Variation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 I5 16 1
I Tab Number
Fii E-5 Waviness Pattern of Accumulated Pitch Variation

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

E6.4 Random Large Pitch Variations. At of machine or tooling.


times, a single or a few random large individual
pitch variations can account for all or most of the E7. Guidelines to Quality Judgements.
total accumulated pitch variation. This could be Tolerances for total accumulated pitch variation,
caused by measurement errors due to irregularities V , are not included in this Standard. However,
in a very coarse surface finish, or by looseness in =P
tolerances specified for nmout could be used as a
the gear processing machine or tooling (see Fig guideline. In general, accumulated pitch variation
E-6). could be expected to be equal to, or larger than,
NOTE: Suspect surface finish or looseness the allowable values of runout tolerances.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 1
Tooth Number
F’ii E-6 Random Pattern Accumulated Pitch Variation

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Appendix F
Single Flank Composite Testing

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes onIy and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear CZassification and Inspection
Handbook.]
Fl. Purpose. This Appendix is provided as a F3. Description. With single flank testing,
description of single fIank composite testing of mating gears roll together at their proper center
gears. It is an alternative method of inspecting distance with backIash and with on.Iy one flank in
gears, that is useful for the detection of certain contact (see Fig F-l). Testing gears in this
types of inaccuracies present in gears that may, or manner more closely simulates operation of the
may not, be detected by other methods now in gears in their application than any other means of
common use. Tolerances for this method of evaluation. Gears can be tested by pairs or with
inspection are not included in the body of this master gears.
Standard. The single flank test is run using encoders or
other devices to measure rotational motion.
F2. Introduction. As an introduction to the Encoders may be attached to the input and output
basic understanding of the subject, most of this shafts of a special machine for testing pairs of
text relates to the simple case of inspecting spur gears. The encoders may also be used portably, by
gears. The interpretation of data, relative to attaching them directly to the input and output
helical gears, is a little more complex, but the shafts of an actual gear box so as to inspect the
general principles apply. qua&y of a complete train of gears.

DOUBLE FLANK GEAR TEST SINGLE FLANK GEAR TESTING

MEASURES VARIATION IN CENTER DISTANCE MEASURES ROTATiONAL MOVEMENTS

Fig F-l Composite Gear Testing, Double and Single Flank

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Data from encoders is processed in an profile variations, due to the influence of overlap
instrument that shows the accuracy or smoothness or increased contact ratio. Lead or tooth
of rotational motion resulting from the meshing of alignment variation is best measured by elementral
the gears (transmission variations). This data can checks, gimbal head double flank composite test,
be directly related to portions of involute or or by tooth contact pattern checks.
profile variations, pitch variation, runout, and
accumulated pitch variation. Probably the most Figure F-2 is a schematic of a typical
important aspect of single flank testing is that it measuring system that describes the principle of
permits measurement of profile conjugacy, which operation. The phase difference of the two
is the parameter that most closely relates to typical processed pulse trains is converted to an analog
gear noise. waveform proportional to Eiriations in
Single flank testing is not a panacea. Lead or transmission motion. Motion variations of less
tooth alignment variation of spur and helical gears than one arc second can be detected. This
cannot be measured directly by this method. difference is recorded as an analog waveform and
Lead variations do, however, influence other comes out of the instrument on a strip chart, as
motion tr ansmission variations that result from shown in Fig F-3.

Phasecomparator

Fig F-2 Schematic of a Single Flank Measuring Device

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TRANSMISSION

TRANSMISSION

Fig F-3 Individual Tooth Variations Revealed By Single Flank Testing

F4. Interpretation of Data. Gears with perfect figure shows additional information of (a)
involute tooth forms wiIl roll together with uniform adjacent pitch variation, (b) total accumulated
motion. When pitch variations or involute pitch variation, (c) tooth-to-tooth transmission
modifications (intentional or otherwise) exist in a variation, and (d) total uansmMon variation.
gear, non-uniform motion will result.
In some applications, perfect involutes are The ability to check accumulated pitch
desirable. However, profiies are often modified to variation is an important amiibute of single flank
obtain a compromise between load carrying testing. First of all, there is a difference between
capabilities and smoothness of roll or transmitted runout and accumulated pitch variation. A gear
motion. Such modifications produce variations in with rlmout does have accumulated pitch
the recorded dam output. These variations must variation. A gear with accumulated pitch variation
be acknowledged when interpreting the graphs. does not necessarily have nmout.
Figure F-4 shows three typical tooth shapes and
their resulting motion curves: Runout occurs in a gear with a bore or
(1) 4a is a perfect involute showing zero locating surface that is eccentric from the pitch
angular displacement error circle of the teeth. Rtmout is shown as a variation
(2) 4b shows profile modification resulting in in depth of a ball type probe as it engages each
the parabola-like motion curve successive tooth slot. Or, it can be a large total
(3) 4c shows a tooth with pressure angle composite variation if observed on a double flank
variation and the resulting ramp motion curve tester.
Fig F-S is another way to show a relationship
A gear can be produced by various means that
between involute shape and a single flank graph of
will have little or no nmout as described above,
a spur gear. Such curves are a graphic
and will test excellent by the ball check. It could,
representation of some of the types of
non-uniform motion that gears are likely to however, have large accumulative pitch variation.
transmit. This happens when a gear is cut with runout, and
then shaved or ground on a machine that does not
All tooth meshes, added together, will have a rigid drive coupling the tool to the
generate the results as shown in Fig F-3. That workpiece.

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B 1Pildl __ lpitcfi -I- 1PM J


t +d
z9
z
Perfector i O-
fJ@llfPe 1 Angular
MO&IOCame
Toothshnpc 3
4 -
(a) conjugatefor tooth shapes

fi (b) curve for tip and root relief

(c) curve for profile relief

Fig F-4 Angular Motion Curves from Tooth Modifications

Fig F-5 Graphic Representation of Non-Uniform Motion of Gears Under Light Load

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when the gear is cut with an eccentric pitch Accumulated pitch variation can be found and
circle, the slots are at different radii and angular evaluated by a precision index/single probe
positions. When the gear is shaved, it is run with a spacing checker, or by a single flank composite
tool that maintains a constant, rigid center test.
distance, but is not connected to the workpiece by Figures F-6 and F-7 are shown to help
a drive train. Therefore, all slots are now illustrate the advantages of single flank versus
machined to the same radius from the center of double flank composite tests.
rotation, and are displaced from true angular
position by varying small amounts. The resulting F5. Data Analysis. Much of the needed
gear has very small amounts of individual pitch information can be read directly IYom the analog
variations, but has a large accumulated pitch graph as described above. However, in many
variation to which the single flank tester responds. cases, this data becomes complex and difficult to
read. Techniques are available to aid in this
analysis such as: Fourier analysis (real time
These accumulated pitch variations have all analyzers), time history averaging techniques, and
the undesirable effects of a gear with traditional computer aided data analysis. It is not the intent
runout. It would check good by either a ball of this Appendix to go into details of these
check or a double flank composite test. subjects.

Fig F-6 Typical Recordings of Gears with Runout Variations

Fig F-7 Typical Record&s of Gears with Accumulated Pitch Variation


(Double and Single Flank Testing)

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Appendix G
Calibration of Master Gears and Gear Rolling Fixtures (Double Flank)

[This Appendix is provided for informational purposes only and should not be construed as a part of
American Gear Manufacturers Association Standard 2000-A88, Gear CIassifcation cznd Inspection
Handbook.]
Gl. Purpose. This Appendix is provided to ways, as follows:
desaii in detail a procedure for caliirating G2.3.1 When High Quality Master
master gears or specified gears and gear rolling Gear Available. If a master gear of two or more
fixtures for use in performing composite action quality levels better than that of the master being
tests (double flank). calibrated is available, proceed as follows:
G2. Calibration of Master Gears or Specified Step 1. Mark one tooth of the high quality
Gears. Prior to calibration, the master or master.
Step 2. Mark three teeth approximately 120°
specified gear should be inspected to assure that it
meets all of the individual tooth and gear blank apart on the master to be calibrated.
tolerances for its quality class. Step 3. Mesh the marked tooth of the high
quality master with one of the marked teeth of the
62.1 Method of Calibration. Master gears master being caliirated and rotate the master gear
may be calibrated for either of two different being calibrated through one revolution. Note the
measurements. The method of cahiration to be total composite variation reading, and repeat this
given is dictated by the end use of the master, procedure for each of the two remaining marked
based on comprehensive inspection by either of teeth.
the following methods: Step 4. From the largest reading obtained in
Method I - For caliiration of master gears Step 3, subtract the known value of total
that are to be used to determine the composite variation of the high quality master
tooth-to-tooth composite variations and total gear. This difference is the value of the composite
composite variation of a work gear. MI-iation to be assigned to the master being
Method II - For calibration of master gear caliirated.
which will also be used to measure functional
tooth thickness (gear size) as well as composite G2.3.2 Calibration Procedure for Two
VXhtiOIlS.
Master Gears of Similar Quality. If two master
gears of similar quality are to be evaluated,
G2.2 Suitability of Master Gear. The proceed as follows:
suitability of a specific master gear for inspecting a Step 1. Mark three teeth on each master gear
given design of work gear should be established by at approximately 120 degree increments and
each of the following: identify each by 1, 2, 3, etc.
(1) Establish that the master gear will inspect Step 2. Mesh each pair of master gears
the functional profile of the work gear. together on a gear rolling fixture. Starting with
(2) Establish that the tips of the work gear tooth 1 of Master A, rotate it starting with tooth 1
teeth will not interfere with the roots of the master of Master B, through one full revolution of each.
gear teeth, and that the work gear teeth will not Next, rotate tooth 2 of Master B with tooth 1 of
contact below the form diameter of the master Master A, and so on for nine combinations. Note
gear. the tooth combination that produces the
(3) Establish that the Quality level of the maximum total composite variation.
master gear is equal to, or better, than the Step 3. If only two gears are to be evaluated,
tolerances specified in Table 8~1 through Table assign to each gear one-half of the maz&mtm
8-4. value of total composite variation, as noted in
G2.3 Method I Calibration Procedure. Step 2.
Method I Calibration can be performed in two Step 4. If three or more gears are to be

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbookfor UnassembledSpur and Helical Gears

evaluated, mesh each gear with each of the other at cm of pins) for the given number of teeth,
gears.Selectthe pair and meshingcombinationthat diameti pitch and pressureangleby usingpages6
exhibits the lowest maximum value of total and 8 of StandardAGMA 23152
compositevariation. Then: rS;, (evenor odd) = 05(Dm + d)
Step 5. For the pair found to have the lowest
maximum total compositevariation in Step 4, ass@ Step3. Determine the theoretical pitch radius of
one-half of the maximum value found to each the mastergear.
member. CaSlthese the bestnzas?m.
D N
Step 6. For each of the remaining combiuations
in which either of the bestmaster gearsnoted in Step
5 were used, assign to the unmarked member the
0y =2pd
Where N = number of teeth in mastergear
value of maximum total compositevariation minus
Pd = diametralpitch of mastergear
the amount assignedto the best masterin Step5.
G2.4 Method II Calibration Procedure.Method Step4. Measurethe actual radius over one pin,
II calibration establishe the maximum functional J’& for the mastergear.A radial measurementover
tooththicknessofthemasterg~inorderthatitmay one pin is made by pIacing the pin in every tooth
be used to determine the size of work gears. The spacearotmd the master gear. The five adjacent
steps for performing Method II calibration are as highest teeth (largest x&es of &) should be
follov?K selected, and the average & for these teeth
cakulated. Mark on the masterthe location of these
Step 2 Determiue the number of teeth, module teeth.
or pitch, and pressureangle of the givenmaster. Step 5. Enter Master-Gear C.&&ration Curve
(a)Ifthemastergearhasastandardpressure FigG-lorFigG-2withvahies whichisfound
angle, obtain for the given number of teeth and as followsz
pressure angle the measurement over pins for 1
diametraI pitch Dm iu Bbles 1 and 5 of AGMA AR = R; -R;
M
23152 (20 deg or 14-l/2 deg).
where R’M = cakuIatedvahreinStep2
Th~ifmastergearhasanevennumberof
teeth RP = measuredvalue in Step 4
M
radius over one pin Use Fig G-l when A RM is + @IS) and
to center of gear
F% G-2whenA RM is - (minus).
Gr&nastergearhasanoddimmberofteeth,
Step 6. CaIcuIate the corrected testing radius
thenz
R’tm for the master gear from the following
3-l
-a
d equation
q&id)= pd + 05 d
R = + 2 AR1
2~0s (No/N) tm
Where d = diameter of measmingpin. Step7.RecordthevahteallleR;m whichistobeused
(b) Ifthemastergearisneither 14-lL?-deg in setting up a gear-robing 6nrtnre when the
nor 20-deg pressure angle, c.ak&te Dm (diameter functional gear sizeis to be determined.

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Gear ClassiEcadon and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

! !!!I; f !I”! /Illlllll I I I I I


LlSETHlSCH4FtTIFTHEMEASURiD I i ; ! ! ] f i ! f ;,f
RADIUS OVER ONE PIN IS j&,&Z zl
% .0025 H-
-, I-IAN
.*.. -.C.,.,.I-~U~..n.~.,~
I nc VPUUZ anvvvrv VIY I HE

Gi
0”
DETAIL DRAWING.
R-V_ALUES NOT SHOWN ON
hJ-l-ERPCLATE

h’
z .0020
3
E
i3 .0015
E
0’
2
E” .OOlO
z
3Y
52
a .0005

0 .0005 .OOlO .OOl5 .0020 .0025


A CD NUMBER (A R, ), PLUS (+)

Fig G-l Chart Number 1

32 .0025
z5s
4zz .0020
zi
E
l&J.0015
5
I5
0’ .OOlO
z”
2
2’
=3
z JO05
Y
a
” “1 1” ” ’” ” ” ’ “1 I
0 .opos .OOlO a015 .0020 .0025
a CD NUMBER (A Rt ), MINUS (-)

Fg G-2 Chart Number 2

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

NOTE: The use of the master-gear where


calibration curve permits the use of master = misalignment in the pitch plane
0P
gears which do not have a value of tooth
(cross axis) inches/inch,
thickness exactly equal to one-half of the
circular pitch. Depending upon the use to Fa = active face width (width of the
which the master is put, the curves shown narrower member in the mesh).
may be extrapolated somewhat. The limits = apparent tooth thickness (measured
shown are those at which an error of .OOOl to
inch in tooth thickness occurs when the tooth thickness, actual tooth
master gear is used to measure a 1%tooth thickness).
pinion with a long-addendum tooth. It should be noted that the apparent tooth
G3. Gear-Rolling Fixture. thickness is a biased error, and is greater than the
actual tooth thickness of the work gear. The
G3.1 Calibration. The calibration of a alignment in the pitch plane can be conveniently
gear-rolling fixture consists in establishing the checked with a gage similar to that shown in Fig
accuracy with which the fixture can hold the work G-3. The variation of high point readings, as the
gear and the master gear in relation to each other, gage is move across the arbors, should not exceed
and the sensitivity of its indicating or recording a value equal to 0.036 times the ratio of the
mechanism. The amount of effort to be expended testing radius tolerance to the face width of the
in the rolling fixture calibration will depend upon work gear.
the accuracy class of the gears to be inspected,
and also, if the gears are to have their functional
tooth thickness measured. The rolling fixture
should be calibrated for alignment, and the axes
and the indicating instruments should be chosen
for adequate sensitivity.
G3.2 Axis-Alignment Check for Rolling
Fixture. The axes of the work gear and the
master gear must be parallel when checking spur
and helical gears. The effects of misalignment can
be expressed in terms of the vector components in
the pitch and the ardal planes.
The component in the pitch plane (cross axis)
will affect the size reading and apparent tooth
thickness, and is a cause of end contact pattern,
F% 6-3 Cross-Axis AEgnment of Test
also known as cross bearing or end tooth contact.
Apparent tooth thickness is the tooth thickness Arbors
that a work gear seems to have when inspected by The component in the axial plane
a master gear of a given tooth thickness on a (non-parallelism), will affect the center distance
specific gear-rolling fixture. The difference setting on the rolling &cture, and is a cause of end
between the true tooth thickness of a gear and its contact.
apparent tooth thickness,At , is a fur&on of the AC eP
misalignment of the axes of the gear-rolling ea = - or - whichever is smaller
L tan9
fixture, and the active face width of the mesh.
Thus where
= misalignment in the axial plane,
52
(non-parallelism)
L = active length of set-up parts (arbors,

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

pitch disks, blocks, etc.) carriage of the gear rolling fixture through the
AC = allowable center distance variation working range of the indicator or recorder. The
dynamic accuracy is established by inserting a
+ = pressure angle
wedge, or tapered arbor, between set-up arbors
held in the work gear and master gear axes, and
The axial alignment should be checked with a observing the indicator readings. The taper of the
gage-block stack. Test arbors of uniform diameter wedge should not exceed 0.001 inches per inch
should be placed in the master gear and in the (0.025 mm per mm), and should be scribed at
work gear axes. 0.0005 inch (0.013 mm) intervaIs of taper. This
The gage-block stack should be moved axially wedge should be inserted at a uniform rate, not to
along the arbors and the fixture indicator reading exceed a calibration point every five seconds, and
limits noted. The variation should not exceed withdrawn at the same rate. The checking load
one-twentieth (l/20&) of the total composite should be the same as the load to be used to
tolerance (see Fig G-4). check the actual gears. Figure G-6 shoti a
TEST
ARBORS /wsE BLOCKS
typical hysterisis loop resulting from a plot of this
test.

Ftsitim
F‘ii G-5 Roll Tester Error Spread
G3.5 Load Correction. Center distance
measurements are sensitive to load variations.
Fii G-4 Pamllel Alignment of Test Decreasing the load without re-zeroing the
Arbors indicator will cause an apparent increase in the
indicated gear size. This condition is shown in Fig
G3.3 Sensitivity. Good gaging practice G-4. In practice, it is not possible to obtain a
requires that the sensitivity level of the indicating reading, at or close to zero load, but, since the
or recording equipment on the gear rolling fixture, defIection verses load characteristic is quite linear,
should be one-tenth (l/10&1) of the quantity to it is possible to determine the no-load value by
be measured. (Center distance tolerance, total plotting a series of reading, and projecting the
composite tolerance or tooth-to-tooth composite curve back to zero load. It should be noted that
tolerance). the condition shown in Fig G-6 also exists when
63.4 Accuracy. The accuracy level should roll tester is zeroed to the set-up gage (see Fig
fall within the range of the indication unit. This G-70. Thus, for any particular checking load, it
implies that the worst non-repeat between testers will be observed that zeroing the indicator to the
will not exceed one fifth (l&h) of the quantity to set-up gage will result in a zeroing error equal to
be measured. The accuracy of a roll tester an amount 2, which can be corrected for by
movement is determined by moving the carriage offsetting the indicator to a minus 2. Then, it
through the indicating range, first one direction follows that the true size of the gear will be larger
and then the other, and noting the error at various than indicated by an amount P, which can be
positions. Figure G-5 shows how the results of corrected by setting the indicator to a plus P. In
this test appear when plotted. The carriage short, mting the indicator to a value P-Z, with
movement error is determined by moving the the serup gage in place, will result in a true size

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Gear Classification and Inspection Handbook for Unassembled Spur and Helical Gears

indication. Experienced inspectors usually know and if all dimensional reference temperatures are
whether or not it is necessary to determine the the same, usually 68 degree, there is no need for a
load correction; i.e., when the deflection curves temperature correction; and conversely, a
are parallel, as they often are, the load correction temperature correction is in order if these
can be neglected. conditions are not met. The essential idea of a
temperature correction is to compute the effect of
the ambient temperature upon the set-up parts
such as gage blocks, arbors, and pitch discs. Set
the indicator to read true length (usually a plus
correction), compute the effect of the ambient
temperature upon the gears and mountings when
used, and lastly, correct the indicator (usually a
minus correction). A simplified example may help
to clarify this latter correction. &suming the
indicator has been set to read true length, then
two known lengths, say M and G, would cause the
indicator to read:

[M+MKm (A -RM)] + [Gi GKg (A -Rg)]


Fig G6 Apparent Size Changes as a
where
Function of Load Change K= temperature coefficient
A= ambient temperature
R= dimensional reference temperature
To make the indicator read the desired M =
G, a correction equal and opposite to
MKm (A-RM) +GKg(A -Rg) should be
applied. It may be worth nothing that, in general,
the foregoing correction is not exact; i.e., the
gears are treated as pitch discs, and not as gears.
In reality, the pitches are not equal, assuming the
temperature coefficients for the gears are unequal,
and therefore, the end result will be a false
indication for gear size and tooth-to-tooth
composite variation. This effect is usually small
compared to the quantity to be measured.
Likewise, the exact correction to a pin
Fig 6-7 Relation Between the Zeroing measurement is quite complex, the reason being
Setup and the Part Setup that a temperature change causes a relative
G3.6 Temperature Correction. If all movement between the pin and teeth, assuming
temperature coefficients for gage blocks, arbors, that the temperature coefficients for the gear and
pitch discs, master gear, and work gear are equal, pinion are unequal. Again, the effect is small.

ANWAGMA 147 ZOOO-A88