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GRD Journals- Global Research and Development Journal for Engineering | Volume 3 | Issue 5 | April 2018

ISSN: 2455-5703

Effect on Strength Properties of Concrete by


using Prosopis Juliflora Wood Powder as Partial
Replacement of Sand
M. Praveena V. Nalina
Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
V.S.B. Engineering College, Karur V.S.B. Engineering College, Karur

S. Sowmiya Vasumathi Sampath


Department of Civil Engineering Department of Civil Engineering
V.S.B. Engineering College, Karur V.S.B. Engineering College, Karur

Abstract
In today’s world the main emphasis is on green and sustainable development. River sand is one of the vital ingredient in the
construction. Environmental concerns are being raised against uncontrolled extraction of river sand. But in presence of water it
reacts with free lime and form hydrated products which helps in attaining good strength and also improving the durability. The
arguments are mostly in regards to protect river beds against erosion and the importance having natural sand as a filter for ground
water. So, prosopis juliflora wood powder is partially replaced with river sand.
Keywords- Prosopis Juliflora, Natural Sand

I. INTRODUCTION
Concrete is most widely used construction material in the world due to its ability to get cast in any form and shape. It also replaces
old construction materials such as brick and stone masonry. The strength and durability of concrete can be changed by making
appropriate changes in its ingredients like cementitious material, aggregate and water and by adding some special ingredients.
Hence concrete is very well suitable for a wide range of applications. Prosopis juliflora wood powder is partially replaced 10%,
20% and 30% in place of natural sand.
Prosopis juliflora (Seemai Karuvelam in Tamil) grows tremendously and spreads due to its mechanism to overcome
adverse conditions of like drought and salt. This is facilitated by its high ‘proline’ content under stress conditions, which helps the
plant to thrive where other species die.
With deep penetrating roots, it can draw water from deeper layers. Though the species has played a role in changing land
use and the livelihood security of huge populations of the world, due to poor management practices, it has colonized many
important ecosystems, creating a negative pressure on biodiversity. Prosopis juliflora being invasive with negative impact to
biodiversity and inhabitants, it has useful attributes also. This project involves the experimental investigation of strength properties
of concrete by replacing PJWP with sand.

II. PROSOPIS JULIFLORA


Prosopis juliflora (Seemai Karuvelam in Tamil) grows tremendously and spreads due to its inbuilt mechanism to overcome adverse
conditions of like drought and salt. By its high ‘proline’ content under stress conditions, its thread to die other species.
It can draw water from deeper layers, because of it has deep penetrating roots. Though the species has played a role in
changing land use and the livelihood security of huge populations of the world, due to poor management practices, it has colonized
many important ecosystems, creating a negative pressure on biodiversity. Prosopis juliflora being invasive with negative impact
to biodiversity and inhabitants, it has useful attributes also. This project involves the experimental investigation of strength
properties of concrete by replacing PJWP with sand.

III. MATERIALS USED

A. Cement
Cement is fine, grey powder. It is mixed with water and materials such as sandl and crushed stone to make concrete. The cement
and form a paste that blinds the other materials together as the concrete hardens. In the present work PPC cement of 43 grades was

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Effect on Strength Properties of Concrete by using Prosopis Juliflora Wood Powder as Partial Replacement of Sand
(GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 5 / 008)

used for casting cubes for all concrete mixes. The cement was uniform color i.e. grey with a light greenish shade and was free from
any hard lumps.

B. Fine Aggregate
The materials which passes through sieve test no. 480 is called as fine aggregate. Usually natural sand is used as a fine aggregate
at places where natural sand is not available alternate materials are used as fine aggregate. The sand used for the experimental
works was locally procured and conformed to grading II. Sieve Analysis test of the fine aggregate was carried out in the lab test.
The sand was first sieved through 4.75 mm sieve and then was washed to remove the dust.

C. Coarse Aggregate
The material retained on 4.75mm sieve is called as coarse aggregate. Crushed stone and natural gravel are the common materials
used as coarse aggregate for concrete. Coarse aggregates are obtained by crushing various types of granites, schist, crystalline and
limestone and good quality sand stones.
The grading of coarse aggregate confirmed to the requirement as per IS: 383-1970.

D. Water
Water acts as a lubricant for the fine aggregate and coarse aggregate and acts as chemical cement to form the binding paste for the
aggregate water is used for the aggregate water is used for curing the concrete after it has into the forms. Water is generally
considered as satisfactory for mixing and curing of concrete. If water contains any sugar or excess of acid or salt, it should not be
used. Ordinary tap water is used for preparation for concrete.

E. Prosopis juliflora wood powder (PJWP)


Prosopis juliflora wood powder is partially replaced 10%, 20% and 30% in place of natural sand. So, the compressive strength is
experimentally found and compared with the conventional concrete.

IV. MIX DESIGN DETAILS


As per IS 10262-2009, the mix ratio for the pavers is arrived. Concrete mixes prepared with PPC of 43grade at water cement ratio
of 0.4 and were checked for their workability, compressive strength and durability properties. Natural aggregates werw replaced
by Natural wooden powder at certain percentages. The mix design details of various specimens are tabled below. Temperature
conditions and relative humidity in laboratory were monitored during the curing i.e. 27±2ºc and relative humidity 65±5.
W/C ratio Cement FA CA
0.50 1 2.35 4.23

V. TESTS ON CONCRETE
Concrete is tested in both fresh state and hardened state. In this paper it has been conducted workability test in fresh concrete and
compressive strength test in harden concrete.

VI. WORKABILITY
Workability is defined as the property of concrete which determines the amount of internal work to produce compaction. Another
definition which envelopes a wider meaning is that, it is defined as the ‘ease with which concrete can be compacted 100% having
regard to mode of compaction and place of deposition.

VII. SLUMP CONE TEST


The concrete slump test measures the consistency of fresh concrete before it sets. It is performed to check the workability of freshly
made concrete, and therefore the ease with which concrete flows. It can also be used as an indicator of an improperly mixed batch.
This test is carried out by simple equipment and simple procedures are used. This test result is used to ensure that capability of
different loads under field conditions.
1) The Inner surface of the cone should be free from dust & moisture.
2) Apply one coat of oil inside.
3) Ensure the place is smooth and horizontal where you going to place the cone.
4) First, fill up the cone with concrete 1/4th of the height.
5) Tamp the concrete layer with 20-25 times with help of tamping rod.
6) Then follow the same procedure by placing 1/2 & 3/4 of concrete respectively.

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Effect on Strength Properties of Concrete by using Prosopis Juliflora Wood Powder as Partial Replacement of Sand
(GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 5 / 008)

VIII. RESULT OBTAINED


The slump cone value should be in the range 0-175mm.The average slump value obtained is 40 mm.

IX. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH TEST


The compressive strength is the most important properties of harden concrete. The concrete making properties of various
ingredients of mix are usually measured in terms of the compressive strength. It is used to measure the qualitative measure of
harden concrete.
Compressive strength (N/mm2) = (Ultimate load/Area of cross section)
Table 1:
NM Mortar cubes with 0% PJWP and 100% PPC
M1 Mortar cubes with 10% PJWP and 90% PPC
M2 Mortar cubes with 20% PJWP and 80% PPC
M3 Mortar cubes with 30% PJWP and 70% PPC

X. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH RESULTS


Table 2: Average Test Result after 7 Days Curing
CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE VALUE(CONTROL) TEST SPECIMENS CONCRETE REPLACED WITH PJWP
16.70N/mm2 M1 16.78
16.70N/mm2 M2 12.4
16.70N/mm2 M3 7.68

Fig. 1: 7 Days compressive strength test

Table 2: Average Test Result after 28 Days Curing


CONVENTIONAL CONCRETE VALUE (CONTROL) TEST SPECIMENS CONCRETE REPLACED WITH PJWP
23.52N/mm2 M1 23.78
23.52N/mm2 M2 20.4
23.52N/mm2 M3 15.68

Fig. 2: 28 Days compressive strength test

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Effect on Strength Properties of Concrete by using Prosopis Juliflora Wood Powder as Partial Replacement of Sand
(GRDJE/ Volume 3 / Issue 5 / 008)

XI. CONCLUSION
The conclusions based on the results are:
1) The compressive strength values of control specimens for 7 days and 28days are 17N/mm 2 and 25N/mm2 respectively.
2) With the use of PJWP there was an increase in compressive strength with decrease in percentage of replacement. The
compressive strength results obtained for respective days are in the tables
3) The optimum result is obtained in 10% replacement of PJWP with natural sand.

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