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PanSystem® 2012

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


User Guide

PanSystem ®

Well Test Analysis


Pa n Sy stem 
Advanced Gauge Data
Conditioning

USER GUIDE
Software Version: 2012
COPYRIGHT AND WARRANTY
PanSystem 2012
© 2012 Weatherford International

This document contains information proprietary to Weatherford, with all rights


reserved worldwide. Any reproduction or disclosure of this publication, or any part
hereof, to persons other than Weatherford personnel is strictly prohibited, except by
written permission of Weatherford.

DISCLAIMER
Information in this guide is subject to change without notice and does not constitute a
commitment on the part of Weatherford. It is supplied on an “as is” basis without any
warranty of any kind, either explicit or implied. Information may be changed or
updated in this guide at any time.

The screen shots depicted in this user guide are for illustration purposes only. Several
product features shown on the screen shots and described in the guide are specific to
the integration options selected while configuring the system, and may not be
available on your installation.

THIRD-PARTY SOFTWARE
The following products and organizations have been mentioned in this
documentation. Various trademarks are owned by the respective owners.

Microsoft®, Windows 95®, Windows 98®, Windows 2000®, Windows NT® and
Windows XP® are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United
States and other countries, http://www.microsoft.com.

USING THIS MANUAL


This manual is designed to address the needs of both the new and advanced user. It
assumes you have knowledge of basic oil field terminology and have minimal
familiarity with Microsoft Windows®.

2 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
About Advanced Data Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Acronyms & Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

CHAPTER 2: Performing Advanced Data Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


Steps Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Accessing the Menu Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Selecting a Dataset for Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Configuring the File Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Preprocessing: Preparing Data for Data Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

CHAPTER 3: Data Conditioning Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19


About the Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Outlier Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Denoising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Event Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Abort Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Addition of Reduced Data to Data Edit Plot Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

CHAPTER 4: Tutorials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 3


4 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning
FIGURES

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning menu option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10


Dataset selection dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Configuration file selection prompt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Preprocessing status bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning wizard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Outliers in a dataset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Wavelet coefficients plot for outlier removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Outlier removed (blue) data after applying iterative thresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Interpolated data (blue) using linear interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Noisy data versus denoised data (blue) using sym8, Rigrsure and Soft
thresholding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Wavelet coefficients plot along with denoised data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Events detected (blue markers) in the de-noised data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Reduced data set (Zoomed in this picture of a buildup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
The progress bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Reduced data plotted in the Data Edit Plot window along with flow periods . . . . . . . . . 33
Rate change table after ADC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Example: Pressure plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Example: Pressure plot pre-processed data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Example: Pressure plot with outliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Example: Pressure plot with selective removal of outliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (100 psi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (50 psi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (10 psi) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Example: Data interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Example: Denoising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Example: Event detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Example: Plotting event detection coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Example: Detecting event locations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Example: Process repetition for event detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Example: Plot with reduced data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Example: Reduced data with denoised data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Example: Zoom-in on the plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 5


Example: Return to the Data Edit plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

6 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


Chapter 1
OVERVIEW

This chapter contains the following topics:

About Advanced Data Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


Acronyms & Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 7


1 OVERVIEW
About Advanced Data Conditioning

ABOUT ADVANCED DATA


CONDITIONING
Modern pressure gauges record pressure at a high rate. The time versus
pressure data obtained over a period of time is sometimes huge and it is
difficult to analyze and store this amount of data. Also the conventional
techniques for noise removal lead to suppression of small transience which
was of interest to the reservoir engineers. Similarly, the standard data
reduction techniques do not preserve all the transience and hence any
analysis performed on this reduced data may lead to incorrect estimation of
well and reservoir parameters.

Advanced gauge data conditioning uses wavelet based algorithms to remove


single point outliers, denoise the data, and identify transients (buildups and
drawdowns) and to reduce the data in such a manner that these transients are
preserved in the reduced data set. The workflow to perform data
conditioning is defined as follows and cannot be changed:

• Outlier Removal
• Interpolation
• Denoising
• Event Detection
• Data Reduction

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning can be used to analyze pressure data


obtained from conventional gauges, permanent down-hole gauges and from
Formation Tester systems.

Acronyms & Definitions


Term Definition
ADC Advanced Data Conditioning/Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning
TPR Time, Pressure, Rate

8 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


Chapter 2
PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA
CONDITIONING

This chapter contains the following topics:

Steps Involved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Accessing the Menu Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Selecting a Dataset for Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning 11
Configuring the File Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Preprocessing: Preparing Data for Data Conditioning . . . . . 12

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 9


2 PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Steps Involved

STEPS INVOLVED
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning consists of the following steps:

• “Accessing the Menu Option”

• “Selecting a Dataset for Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning”

• “Configuring the File Selection”

• “Preprocessing: Preparing Data for Data Conditioning”

• Performing the workflow steps. For more information, see Chapter 3,


“Data Conditioning Workflow.”

For information about using the Advanced Gauge Conditioning dialog box,
refer to “Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions” on page 13.

Accessing the Menu Option


The Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning menu option is available on the
Processing ribbon of the Data Preparation view. The ADC menu gets enabled
when at least one file is loaded into PanSystem.

Figure 1: Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning menu option

10 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Selecting a Dataset for Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning 2
Selecting a Dataset for Advanced Gauge Data
Conditioning
Upon clicking the Adv Gauge Data Conditioning menu option, the list of all the
datasets that have at least one pressure column will appear in a list box as
shown in the figure below. This dialog will appear only if there are more than
one such dataset. If there is only one dataset, this dialog will not appear and
the pressure dataset shall be considered for ADC by default.

Figure 2: Dataset selection dialog

The dataset that the user is currently analyzing shall appear as the default
selection in the list, but the user can choose another data set. Only one dataset
can be selected as ADC it can be performed on only one dataset at a time.

Select the dataset and then click OK, or else Cancel the operation.

Configuring the File Selection


After selecting the dataset, the system asks to load a previously saved
configuration file. The configuration file contains the configuration
parameters required to perform ADC on a given dataset. This is usually
specific to a particular dataset, but can, of course, be used with others.

The message box shown in the following figure will appear. Select Yes to load
an existing configuration file, or select No. If a configuration file is not
selected, the ADC module calculates default values for the configuration
parameters and shows them in the ADC screens.

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2 PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Preprocessing: Preparing Data for Data Conditioning

Figure 3: Configuration file selection prompt

If the user selects Yes, it opens up a Windows File Open dialog and the user
can select the file. Configuration files are xml files with a .cfg file extension.
The default selection directory shall be user’s data directory.

Preprocessing: Preparing Data for Data Conditioning


After selecting the configuration file, data is loaded into the ADC module
from PanSystem and is preprocessed to remove:

• Data points with negative pressure values.

• Data points where pressure is 0 psia.

• Data points where the pressure value is greater than 20,000 psia.

• Any data point that is a duplicate in time. Only one point is kept for each
time stamp.

A status bar is displayed in PanSystem during preprocessing as shown


below.

Figure 4: Preprocessing status bar

The preprocessed data are shown in blue in Figure 5.

12 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions 2
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions
The Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning option provides a wizard-like
interface for the various steps of the workflow. The screen is divided into
three panes as shown below.

Figure 5: Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning wizard

The following items are in the left pane:

Data Conditioning Workflow: The first group box named “Data Conditioning
Workflow” shows the steps in the data conditioning workflow. The workflow
is predefined and cannot be changed. The current workflow step remains
highlighted in bold.

Configuration parameters: The title and contents of each box changes


according to the current workflow step. The user enters values for the
configuration parameters, or accepts the defaults. The configuration
parameters for each workflow step will be explained in detail in later sections.

Add data as TPR: Processed data obtained at each workflow step can be saved
as an individual TPR for further analysis if required. However, in most of the
cases, the outlier-removed data and denoised data is not required in separate
TPR form outside of the ADC module. The user can select the datasets to save
as TPRs, except for the final stage, which is mandatory.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 13


2 PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions

: Click Run & Plot to process the data with the configuration values
entered, and view the results in the plot area. A progress bar along with an
Abort button is displayed to show the status of the processing. The processed
data is plotted along with the previous step’s processed data. If one or more
previous steps were skipped by the user, then the skipped steps will be
performed internally before performing the current step. The user may “Run
& Plot” any number of times with different configuration values until
satisfied with the results. Each new run will restart from the original data
that came through to that stage.

Example: If the user is on the Denoising step and clicks Run & Plot, then the
Denoising operation will be performed on the interpolated data, and denoised data
will be plotted against interpolated data. If the Interpolation step was skipped by the
user then interpolation will be performed internally using the default values before
performing Denoising. If the user denoises again with different parameters, the
operation will be rerun on the interpolated data.

: Click Next to move to the next workflow step. You should move to
the next step once you are satisfied with the results of the current step.
Clicking the Next button will display the configuration parameters for the
next step and a plot of the data of the previous step.

The user can click Next on each screen, without clicking Run & Plot, to
navigate to the last workflow step, and then click Run All to perform the entire
sequence.

Configuration values will be saved at each Next click if the “Save all
configuration” option is checked. Use the browse button to define the
destination folder and file name (extension .cfg).

Example: If the current step is Denoising and the Next button is clicked then the
next workflow step (Event Detection) is selected and the configuration parameters for
event detection are displayed. Plot of denoised data will be shown in the plot area.

: Click the Back button to navigate to the previous workflow step in


the ADC wizard.

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PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions 2

: Switch on the check box to save the configuration values to


a .cfg file for future use. If this is checked then configuration values for all
the steps will be written to a file in xml format. The user can select the
location and file name by clicking the browse button. The default path for this
file is
C:\Users\user name\AppData\Weatherford\PanSystem\data and
the default name of the file is same as the dataset name. Each time the user
clicks Next or Run All, the configuration values are saved to this file.

The right pane is the plot area and displays the plot of latest processed data
versus previous workflow step data. The plot area contains a tool bar with the
following buttons to facilitate various viewing options.

Resume: The resume button enables tracking on all axes. When tracking
is enabled, the axes will adjust their minimum and span values based on the
tracking style. In addition to enabling tracking, all cursors will be hidden, and
the axes minimum & span will be restored to the values they had when the
axes tracking was initially disabled. This button can also be used to unzoom.

Pause: The pause button turns off tracking on all axes. When tracking is
off, the axes will remain fixed while data is being added.

Scroll (Axes): When the Axes Scroll Mode button is active, the user can
drag the axis and scroll the view. When this button is selected, the Axes Zoom
Mode button is unselected.

Zoom out: When this button is clicked, all axes are zoomed out by a
factor 2x (Default is 2, use the ZoomIn/OutFactor property from the
Properties tool bar to change this). When this button is clicked, tracking on all
axes will be disabled to pause the view.

Zoom in: When this button is clicked, all axes are zoomed in by a factor
2x (Default is 2, use the ZoomIn/OutFactor property from the Properties tool
bar to change this). When this button is clicked, tracking on all axes will be
disabled to pause the view.

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2 PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions

Zoom box: This button allows the user to zoom into a particular region in
the DataView. The box can start at any point, but the mouse must be dragged
to the lower right to actually cause a zoom. The zoom action will affect all
axes. You can also use this button for a second purpose by handling the
OnBeforeZoomBox event and setting the Cancel parameter to TRUE. By
setting the Cancel to True, the zoom will not occur and you can substitute
your own code for the behavior you desire such as zooming only the X-Axis
or possibly adding annotations. When this button is clicked, Tracking is not
initially disabled; only after the user selects rubber-bands a proper area and
then releases the mouse button, tracking on all axes will be disabled.

Cursor: This button generates a vertical red line which you can drag
sideways with the mouse. As it moves, it displays a readout of the x- and
y-coordinates of the newly processed data.

Properties: This button brings up the run-time property editor for the
component. Here you can make temporary changes to the plot properties
(color, size, trace/marker, scaling, etc.).

Copy to clipboard: This button copies an image of the plot component to


the clipboard. The format is Bitmap, Metafile, or JPEG as specified by the
“CopyToClipBoardFormat” property on the main interface.

Save: This button brings up a save dialog to save the image of the plot
component to a file. The user can select Bitmap, Metafile, or JPEG as the file
type.

Print: This button will print the screen display of the plot component. If
the PrintShowDialog property is set to True, the user will first see a dialog for
selecting the printer and setting specific options. The user will also have the
option of canceling the print job when the print dialog is shown.

The bottom pane contains the following wizard buttons.

: This button restores default values for configuration


parameters in all the workflow steps. If a configuration file is loaded initially,
then it restores the values from the configuration file. Otherwise the default
calculated values will be restored.

16 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions 2

: Click this button to run all the workflow steps at any point during
data conditioning. This is a quick way to perform ADC and should be done if
the user is sure about the configuration values entered. If specific workflow
step/steps have been performed individually by clicking Run & Plot, then Run
All will skip those steps and perform the remaining steps. After processing,
“Run All” closes ADC, adds the reduced data as a new TPR in PanSystem,
and plots the reduced data on the Data Edit Plot. If the option to add other
processed data was selected in “Add data as TPR”, then those datasets will
also be added as TPR. Flow periods (events) will be marked on the Data Edit
Plot as shown in Figure 15.

: This button cancels ADC and returns to the PanSystem Data Edit
Plot window. If any data has been processed before clicking Cancel and “Add
data as TPR” is switched on for that data set, this processed data will be
added to PanSystem as a new TPR. You should click Cancel if you are in the
middle of ADC and you need to close ADC without losing the processed
data. The processed data can be loaded again by performing ADC all over
again on the saved/processed TPR.

Example: After performing outlier removal you cancel ADC. If you had switched on
“Add outlier removed data as TPR”, then the outlier removed data will be added as a
new TPR. You can restart ADC later, but this time pick the TPR added for outlier
removed data in the selection list box. Make sure that you load the configuration file
you saved last time. The outliers that were removed last time will not appear.

: This button cancels ADC and does not save any data. In other
words this is a way to quit ADC without saving any processed data or
configuration data.

: This button opens the ADC help file for user reference. This help
file can also be opened by pressing F1.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 17


2 PERFORMING ADVANCED DATA CONDITIONING
Screen Dialog and Operational Instructions

18 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


Chapter 3
DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW

This chapter contains the following topics:

About the Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


Outlier Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Denoising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Event Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Abort Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Addition of Reduced Data to Data Edit Plot Window . . . . . 33

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 19


3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
About the Workflow

ABOUT THE WORKFLOW


Outlier Removal
“Outliers” are data points that lie away from the trend of the data. They can
be identified by their misalignment with the rest of the data.

Figure 6: Outliers in a dataset

Since an outlier is isolated and lies away from the rest of the data, it causes
discontinuities in the data stream, creating two consecutive singularities. For
example, an outlier that lies above the trend of the data departs from the data
trend, creating the first singularity. The second singularity is a result of a
sudden decrease from the outlier back to the trend of the signal. These
singularities are detected by using wavelets and analyzing their detail
coefficients.

20 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Outlier Removal 3
• Show Coefficients Plot: The Coefficient plot shows the detailed wavelet
coefficients. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, whenever there
exists an outlier in the data, the detail coefficient will first change sharply
in one direction, either increasing or decreasing, and then change again in
the opposite direction. Therefore, the singularities created by the outliers
can be detected by screening for two large magnitudes of the detail
coefficients with opposite signs. An appropriate threshold can be selected
by carefully observing the coefficients plot.

Figure 7: Wavelet coefficients plot for outlier removal

• Threshold: This is the coefficient threshold in psi to remove outliers. An


outlier point in the original data will be removed when two consecutive
coefficients of opposite sign cross this threshold. A rule of thumb in
choosing a threshold is to ask oneself how far a point has to be from the
general trend to be considered an outlier. Since pressure data may be
spurious with outliers of different magnitudes, the obvious outliers
should be eliminated first, thus revealing the main structure of the signal,
and the less obvious ones are eliminated iteratively. The default value is
calculated by statistically analyzing the coefficients plot.

Note: Unless the Recursive option is switched on, each new run will
restart from the original data that came through to this stage.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 21


3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Interpolation

• Recursive: To perform outlier removal iteratively, switch on this flag.


Outliers whose magnitudes in the detail signal are higher than, say; 20 psi
should be removed first. Then, the threshold should be reduced
successively to 15 psi, 10 psi, and 5 psi. For a better value of threshold for
the dataset, observe the coefficients plot after each iteration. Each time
you enter a new threshold click Run & Plot to perform outlier removal and
view the results in the plot area.

• Outlier Removed data set name: This will be the name of the dataset if
the “Add outlier removed data as TPR” option has been checked.

Figure 8: Outlier removed (blue) data after applying iterative thresholding

Interpolation
In order to obtain the wavelet transform, the input data must be sampled
uniformly. In many cases, the pressure data is unevenly spaced. At first
glance, it may seem desirable to interpolate between data points to obtain an
evenly sampled set of data. Interpolation is a method of constructing new
data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

Note: Each new run will restart from the preprocessed data that came
through to this stage.

22 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Interpolation 3
• Type of Interpolation: There are two types of interpolation algorithms
implemented. One is “Linear” and other is “Nearest”.

1. Linear Interpolation: A new point(s) is introduced between two


data points at a predetermined time where pressure is determined
by fitting a line between the two neighboring data points of the
input data.

2. Nearest Interpolation: A new point(s) is introduced between two


points at a predetermined time where pressure is determined to be
the pressure of the point nearest (in time) among the two neighbors
of the input data.

The default linear interpolation is recommended. Other types of


interpolation may not work as well as the linear interpolation method
since they tend to smear out the regions where there are rapid changes.

• Interpolation Interval: This is the interpolation interval in seconds to


interpolate the data. A default value is suggested based on a preliminary
analysis of the data. Interpolation interval should not be too small
otherwise it would introduce many points resulting in a huge data set.
Also if there are too many interpolated points between any two points
then the local behavior will be dominant and the overall trend will be
affected. On the other hand, if the interpolation interval is large then it
may end up losing data points. If the data points deleted lie in the fast
changing early transient region then the results will be affected and the
algorithm may not be able to detect the exact rate change events in later
steps.

The Interpolation Interval must, of course, be less than the total time
range.

• Tolerance Factor: During interpolation, if the difference between the


predetermined time of the point to be interpolated and time coordinate of
one of the neighboring data points is less than a certain tolerance factor,
then no interpolated point is created and the original point is preserved
with its time and pressure coordinates.

The tolerance factor must be less than 10% of the interpolation interval.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 23


3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Denoising

Figure 9: Interpolated data (blue) using linear interpolation

Denoising
Denoising is a procedure that is applied to the data to reduce the scattering
and the fluctuations in the data values in order to extract the most
representative features from the data. One of the most effective ways to
denoise data without making prior assumptions about their behavior is the
wavelet thresholding method. While most denoising methods tend to smear
out sharp features in the data, the wavelet thresholding method generally
preserves most of these features. In any case, the smearing effect cannot be
avoided when data spacing is large. The denoising process thus gives the best
results when the data is collected at a high sampling frequency.

Note: Each new run will restart from the outlier-removed data that came
through to this stage.

• Wavelet type: Select a wavelet type: Haar or Sym8.

• Decomposition level: Select the level of decomposition. The level of


decomposition represents the frequencies that will be smoothed out.
Level 1 represents frequencies that lie between the maximum frequency
fmax and fmax/2. Level 2 represents frequencies that lie between fmax/2 and
fmax/4 and so on. Therefore, Level 1 represents high frequency noise and
level 10 is very low frequency noise.

24 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Denoising 3
— The decomposition level should satisfy the following equation:

For the maximum level (LMAX): 2LMAX ≤ number of interpolated


points.

— Smooth all levels up to this level: If this option is ON, smoothing will
be applied to all the levels starting from level 1 up to the selected
level - that is, all the frequencies that lie between fmax and fmax / (2LMAX)
will be smoothed out. If this is off, then only the frequencies
corresponding to selected level will be smoothed out.

• Thresholding Rule: Select the threshold calculation rule. Available


selections are Rigrsure, Heursure, Minimax and Sqtwolog.

— Rigrsure: This is an adaptive threshold selection using the principle


of Stein's Unbiased Risk Estimate (quadratic loss function). One gets
an estimate of the risk for a particular threshold value t. Minimizing
the risks in t gives a selection of the threshold value. Threshold is
where j is the level of decomposition.

• [Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/
wavelet/ch06_a44.html ]

• [Ref: Wavelet Estimators in Nonparametric Regression: A


Comparative Simulation Study by Anestis Antoniadis, Jeremie
Bigot,et al. Journal of Statistical Software, 6, Issue 6, 1–83
(2001).(Available from http://www.jstatsoft.org/v06/i06/paper.)]

— Sqtwolog: The strategy adopted consists of thresholding the


coefficients of wavelet transform, not according to the coefficients of
the data with the threshold σ, but directly with a threshold T suitably
determined according to the noise model. We assume Gaussian white
noise; the estimator is obtained by preserving only the coefficients of
data that cross the threshold. T= σ and replacing the others
with 0 is satisfactory since it leads to almost as good results (up to a
logarithmic factor). (See the second reference, pg.228.)

• [Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/
wavelet/ch06_a44.html ]

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 25


3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Denoising

• [Ref: Wavelets and their Applications; Edited by Michel


Misiti,Yves Misiti,Georges Oppenheim]

— Heursure: The 'Heursure' selection is a mixture of the two previous


options. As a result, if the signal-to-noise ratio is very small, the
RIGSURE estimate is very noisy. If such a situation is detected, the
fixed form threshold obtained from a universal thresholding method
like RIGSURE is used for lower levels of wavelet analysis where the
noise content is not appreciable, and Square2log is used for higher
levels where noise content is appreciable.

• [Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/
wavelet/ch06_a44.html ]

• [Ref: Discrete Wavelet-Based Thresholding Study On Acoustic


Emission,
www.engg.le.ac.uk/fss/DWT%20THRESHOLDING%20STUDY%
20ON%20AE%20TO%20DETECT%20BEARING%20DEFECT.pdf
]

— Minimax: The 'Minimax' selection uses a fixed threshold chosen to


yield minimax (that is to minimize errors in the worst case scenario)
performance for mean square error against an ideal procedure. The
minimax principle is used in statistics in order to design estimators.
Since the denoised signal can be assimilated to the estimator of the
unknown regression function, the minimax estimator is the one that
realizes the smallest of the maximum mean square errors obtained
for the worst function in a given set.

• [Ref:
http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/
wavelet/ch06_a44.html ]

• [Ref: Wavelet Estimators in Nonparametric Regression: A


Comparative Simulation Study by Anestis Antoniadis, Jeremie
Bigot, et al; Journal of Statistical Software, 6, Issue 6, 1–83
(2001).(Available from http://www.jstatsoft.org/v06/i06/paper)]

26 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Event Detection 3
— Thresholding Type: Select a threshold type: Hard or Soft.

• Hard Thresholding: A Hard thresholding can be described as the


usual process of setting to zero the elements whose absolute
values are lower than the threshold. The hard threshold signal is
x if x > threshold, and is 0 if x ≤ threshold.

• Soft Thresholding: A Soft thresholding is an extension of hard


thresholding, first setting to zero the elements whose absolute
values are lower than the threshold, and then shrinking the
nonzero coefficients towards 0.

— Denoised Data set name: This will be the name of the dataset if “Add
denoised data as TPR” has been checked.

Figure 10: Noisy data versus denoised data (blue) using sym8, Rigrsure
and Soft thresholding

Event Detection
Event detection is a wavelet-based algorithm to find out the start of ‘events’
(buildups and drawdowns) in the dataset. The terms ‘buildup’ and
‘drawdown’ correspond to sudden changes in the pressure in response to a
change in flow rate, and this behavior can be recognized by applying
appropriate wavelets.

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3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Event Detection

Note: Unless the Multiple Step option is switched on, each new run will
restart from the original denoised data that came through to this stage.

• Shortest Transient Interval: This is the length of the shortest transient in


the dataset and is used to determine the level of wavelet decomposition.
The wavelet modulus maxima at different levels of decomposition
provide different types of information. Specifically, at intermediate levels,
the singularities caused by noise disappear while the signal singularities
are still present. From this characteristic, the beginning of a new transient
can be detected at an intermediate level of decomposition. This
intermediate level of decomposition depends on data spacing as well as
the length of the shortest transient in the data set. Zoom into various parts
of data set to estimate this value.

Note: Shortest transient interval should be greater than or equal to two


times the interpolation interval.

• Show Coefficients Plot: This shows the wavelet coefficients plot at the
intermediate level. There will be spikes in the coefficient plot
corresponding to the events in the data set. By applying a threshold, the
approximate location of these events can be determined.

Figure 11: Wavelet coefficients plot along with denoised data

28 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Event Detection 3
• Noise Threshold: Noise is an inherent characteristic of the signal.
Although we have de-noised the signal in the previous step, there is still
some residual noise left in the signal. Enter a value for the noise level in
the denoised signal. A pressure change up to this value between two
points will not be considered as the start of an event.

• Pressure Threshold: This is the wavelet coefficients threshold that will be


used to determine the approximate location of events in the data set. A
suitable threshold should be entered by looking at the coefficients plot. In
order to determine small pressure changes that are responses to small
variations in flow rate, the pressure threshold should also be small.
However, the threshold should not be too small otherwise all minor
variations such as noise may be misinterpreted as new transients.

• Multiple step mode: Sometimes the pressure signal contains small


transients as well as big transients. The small transients generally occur
due to small variations in flow rate while big transients are the response
to major rate changes. These transients cannot all be detected by entering
one single set of values for shortest transient interval and pressure
threshold. So the process needs to be repeated with different sets of
configuration values. Switch on the Multiple Step Mode option to enter a
new set of configuration values and to identify new events, which can, if
desired, be added to existing events using the Keep button.

• Keep: This button will only be enabled if new events are detected in
Multiple Step Mode. Click the Keep button to save the new events
identified in the current pass. The events identified in the current pass
will be added to the previously identified events.

• Clear: Click the Clear button to clear the new events identified in the
current pass.

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3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Data Reduction

Figure 12: Events detected (blue markers) in the de-noised data

If you make a number of passes in Multiple Step Mode and you Keep the
results, then switch off the Multiple Step Mode option. To clear all kept events
and replace them with a new set, click Run & Plot.

Data Reduction
The size of data sets acquired with permanent pressure gauges is enormous.
A gauge system with a 10-second recording interval registers more than three
million data points a year. It is cumbersome even to plot the data to see the
general behavior, not to mention analyzing them. Data reduction using
wavelets reduces the data in such a manner that the events are preserved in
the reduced data set. The reduction is applied in the region where pressure
changes slowly.

Data reduction uses event information obtained from the previous step. Each
event has two phases, one is rapid phase (or transient region) and other is
gradual phase.

• Rapid phase: The initial part of the event where pressure changes rapidly.
In this region the slope will be steep. The rate of change of pressure
decreases slowly and reaches a threshold at a certain point. The region
from the start of the event until this point is referred to as the ‘rapid
phase’.

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DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Data Reduction 3
• Gradual phase: The rate of change of pressure with time is below the
threshold. The region from the end of the rapid phase to the start of the
next event is referred to as the ‘gradual phase’.

The data in the rapid phase is not reduced, thereby preserving the early-time
detail required in transient analysis. The data in the later (and often longer)
gradual phase is reduced.

In order to determine the end of the rapid phase and start of the gradual
phase, a slope detection algorithm is applied for each event. The user inputs
the following parameters.

• Slope Threshold: This is the maximum change in pressure per hour. If the
slope goes below this value at a certain time, then that point can be taken
as the start of the gradual phase.

• Average Window Size: The slope is measured between two points a


certain time apart (see Moving Window Size). The slope between two
points can be spuriously high or low if there is noise or disturbance in the
data, so rather than use the actual time and pressure values at the two
points, an average is calculated for each, over a number of consecutive
points that lie on either side in the averaging window.

• Moving Window Size: In order to avoid taking the slope between two
points that lie in noise or a disturbance, minimum time spacing can be
specified between the points.

• Maximum Interval: Since the data is reduced logarithmically, the spacing


between consecutive points increases with time. The Maximum Interval
caps the time spacing between points in the reduced data. Once this
spacing is reached all the reduced points coming after this shall be
separated by this interval. This can be used to control the amount of
reduction in the gradual phase.

• Reduced Data set name: Name of the reduced data set.

A logarithmic reduction is applied to the data in the gradual phase. The


reduced data here is therefore equally spaced in the log time domain, and
logarithmically spaced in the normal time domain.

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3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Abort Functionality

Figure 13: Reduced data set (Zoomed in this picture of a buildup)

Abort Functionality
A progress bar is displayed when Run & Plot or Run All is clicked. The
progress bar displays the current step that is being processed. An Abort
button is provided on the progress bar to abort the processing at any time.

• On aborting the Run & Plot command, the current operation will be
cancelled, and the data will be cleaned up and returned to the state it was
in before starting the current process.

• On aborting the Run All command, all processing will be cancelled, and
the user will be returned to the preprocessed data screen (Figure 6).

You will not be able to do anything after Abort is invoked until it completes.
This might take some time – be patient!

Figure 14: The progress bar

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DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Addition of Reduced Data to Data Edit Plot Window 3
Addition of Reduced Data to Data Edit Plot Window
Once you click Finish or Run All on ADC, any pending workflow steps will be
performed and the reduced data added as a new dataset. The Rate Changes
Table will be populated with the event data obtained in the ADC (if selected
to add).

The reduced data, along with flow periods if saved, is plotted in the Data Edit
Plot window. The previously plotted (raw) data, and rate changes (if any),
will be removed from the plot window.

Figure 15: Reduced data plotted in the Data Edit Plot window along with
flow periods

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 33


3 DATA CONDITIONING WORKFLOW
Addition of Reduced Data to Data Edit Plot Window

Figure 16: Rate change table after ADC

34 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


Chapter 4
TUTORIALS

This chapter contains the following topics:

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 35


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

EXAMPLES
Let’s take an example data set and perform advanced gauge data
conditioning on it. Load test2.tpr from the installation data folder and plot it
in PanSystem. The pressures in this file are psia, and the tutorial is described
using oil field (absolute) units. After import, you may work through this
tutorial using an alternative units system if you prefer, making the necessary
conversions to the cited threshold values, etc. as you go.

Figure 17: Example: Pressure plot

Go to the Data Preparation menu option and select Adv Gauge Data
Conditioning. Click No when asked about loading a configuration file.
Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning opens up the following screen
displaying the pre-processed data.

36 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 18: Example: Pressure plot pre-processed data

Observe outliers in the data. Click the Show Coefficients plot button.

Figure 19: Example: Pressure plot with outliers

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4 TUTORIALS
Examples

The first two peaks are of opposite sign and correspond to an outlier point.
Specify a Threshold value of 1340.00 (as read from the coefficients plot) and
then click Run & Plot to remove this outlier.

Figure 20: Example: Pressure plot with selective removal of outliers

Make sure that the Recursive check box is checked. Now specify a lower
threshold of 500 psi and then click Run & Plot.

38 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 21: Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (100
psi)

Click Show Coefficients Plot to determine a new Threshold value.

Specify 400 psi as the Threshold and then click Run & Plot.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 39


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

Figure 22: Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (50
psi)

Again check the coefficients plot and enter a Threshold of 100 psi and then
click Run & Plot to remove the remaining outlier.

40 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 23: Example: Removal of outliers with a new threshold value (10
psi)

Click Next to go to “Interpolation” workflow.

Default coefficient values are suggested based on a preliminary analysis of


data.

Interpolation Interval should not be too small; otherwise, it will introduce


many points resulting in a huge data set. On the other hand, if the
Interpolation Interval is large, then it may end up losing data points. The
Interpolation Interval must be less than the total time range.

The Tolerance Factor should be selected such that it is less than 10% of the
interpolation interval.

Select Type of Interpolation as “Linear”, Interpolation Interval as 720 seconds,


and Tolerance Factor as 36 seconds. Click Run & Plot to interpolate the data.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 41


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

Figure 24: Example: Data interpolation

Click Next to go to the “Denoising” workflow.

Figure 25: Example: Denoising

42 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
The default coefficient values are suggested based on the preliminary
analysis of data for denoising. You can choose other values and see the effect
on the processing. Select the Decomposition Level such that it satisfies the
equation for Maximum level (LMAX): 2LMAX ≤ number of interpolated points.

The level of decomposition represents the frequencies that will be smoothed


out. If “Smooth all levels…” is on then smoothing will be applied to all the
levels starting from level 1 up to the selected level: that is, all the frequencies
that lie between fmax and fmax/ (2LMAX) will be smoothed out.

Click Next to go to the “Event Detection” workflow.

Figure 26: Example: Event detection

Specify the Shortest Transient Interval parameter and then click Show
Coefficients Plot for plotting event detection coefficients.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 43


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

Figure 27: Example: Plotting event detection coefficients

By specifying a Pressure Threshold (read from the Pressure Coefficient Plot)


and the Shortest Transient Interval time, the approximate location of these
events can be determined. Set the threshold such that it is greater than or
equal to two times the interpolation interval and less than the total time
interval, and then click Run & Plot to detect the events.

44 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 28: Example: Detecting event locations

In some datasets, some transients cannot be detected by entering one single


set of configuration values. The process can be repeated with different sets of
Pressure Threshold and Shortest Transient Interval times by switching ON the
Multiple Step Mode.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 45


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

Figure 29: Example: Process repetition for event detection

Enter new values for the configuration parameters. If more Events are
detected, click Keep to keep these events, or else click Clear to clear the newly
detected events from memory. For this tutorial, click Clear because the new
events are not needed.

Click Next to go to the “Data Reduction” workflow.

The default values are suggested based on the preliminary analysis of data for
data reduction. You can choose other values and see the effect on reduction.
Set the appropriate parameters and then click Run & Plot to see the reduced
data.

46 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 30: Example: Plot with reduced data

Click OK. The reduced data can be seen in the plot with the denoised data.

Figure 31: Example: Reduced data with denoised data

Zoom in to observe the reduction achieved.

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 47


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

Figure 32: Example: Zoom-in on the plot

Click Finish to close the Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning dialog box and
to return to the Data Edit Plot from where further preparation of the data can
be carried out if desired.

48 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning


TUTORIALS
Examples 4
Figure 33: Example: Return to the Data Edit plot

Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning | User Guide 49


4 TUTORIALS
Examples

50 User Guide | Advanced Gauge Data Conditioning