T206, Aigars Bruvelis, TMA 06, ID X4043465

Saving energy and Going solar

energy. scope and organisation The area. economical. disadvantages. reasons for recommending the scheme Options other than ones proposed. Aigars Bruvelis. Financial implications for the village The potential response of the electorate Effects on the local environment and employment Ideas for becoming more forward-thinking and responsive Conclusions and recommendations References 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 12 . Project Report. population and housing that will be affected by the scheme The immediate surroundings Involving local people Sustainability issues . aims. social An estimate of the present annual CO2 emissions Energy consumption at the level of the individual household Aims of the scheme A proposal for reducing energy consumption A proposal for using energy from a sustainable source Technical feasibility. ID X4043465 Contents list A project brief Background. funding and cost effectiveness Advantages.T206. and the reasons for rejecting them.

Aigars Bruvelis.improvements implemented by the contractors chosen by council or by residents themselves . the economical and the environmental sustainability issues through adjusting two of the locally most energy intensive activities . Organisationally these will be offered as stimuli for residents to participate in the scheme financed and set up by the village council: . aims.T206. health effects from particles and chemical substances emitted from car engines and gas boilers and possibly contributing to and being exposed to the effects of theoretical human induced climate change (be it warming of cooling). All technical aspects are achievable and significant reductions of energy demand and CO2 emissions are practicable.assessment of the monthly household energy used and money spent on fuel will be made in relation to the local car use and household heating. A flexible repayment schedule will be worked out individually for every household deciding to participate. . Background. beyond peak oil fuel scarcity. With the support of parish council the scheme will provide an interest free repayable financial assistance for residents to implement any of the measures supported by the council until most of the residents will join the scheme.potential energy reduction calculated. Project Report ID X4043465 A project brief Aims The aim of the project is to propose to the parish council an opportunity to support a scheme which will allow all village households to become users of adequate and sustainable sources of energy and allow energy and money savings for the residents.reducing heating energy demand and using renewable energy for local travelling.provision of incentives for switching to renewable energy sources when travelling locally by acquisition and usage of electric bikes and domestic solar PV charging systems/kits. . The aim is to minimise the reliance on fossil fuels while sustaining the same quality of life. . Basic methods Technically the proposal will address the social.incentives for lowering household heating energy demand by insulating ceilings or the loft area and installing triple glazed E-coated windows. The procedure will be as follows: .repayment schedule calculated and contract signed . Therefore residents are vulnerable to fluctuations of fossil fuel prices. Results and conclusions of investigation The results show that the greatest challenge of the proposed scheme will be related to securing sufficient funding. The reduction of CO2 emissions by 10% in next ten years is initial target and should not stop there. scope and organisation The village primary energy is mainly derived from fossil fuels. fuel source and technology targets set and estimate of investment defined.

This will be an opportunity to receive feedback from residents about their concerns and take them into consideration. traffic congestion at peak hours. becoming a showcase/leader and example to other urban areas. Involving local people The initial part of the scheme will be related to informing village residents about the local issues – shortage of parking spaces. The estimate of the total monthly household costs in relation to the scheme and their energy bill will be consisting of two parts: . The village is in the middle of a busy route and the shopping square is often used by the passers-by for a quick stop if there is a free car park space. The immediate surroundings In order to implement the scheme. Aigars Bruvelis. for the scheme to become success. The only visual difference will be made by solar PV panels installed on rooftops in the village. The scheme will affect village by reducing local traffic and a need for car par spaces in the centre. The scheme will aim to financially reduce the average monthly energy bill by 10-15% for every village household. ID X4043465 An assumption of the scheme in regard to any changes in society or community is this: there is a resistance to change unless the change is beneficial to the individual. Project Report.T206. The shopping/office square in the middle of the village is often short of car park spaces. population and housing that will be affected by the scheme The village has 1500 households with 3500 people residing in them. the surrounding areas of farmland and hills will not be affected visually or by noise. it is crucial to make it attractive financially. There are in total 1600 cars kept and used in the village territory. Most of them are petrol powered.a certain amount repayable to the council over a set period of time until investment is repaid The exact amount repayable to council and length of payments will depend on individual household circumstances. Hills and farmland will remain intact. environmental and health issues of intensive traffic.the MLEB will be at least 10% lower than what it would have been if the scheme was not implemented. Therefore. . After the last amount payable to the council. All the residents heat their houses either by burning natural gas or with the heat batteries charged by off-peak electricity.a Monthly Lowered Energy Bill (MLEB) after implementation of the scheme measures . There are 150 residents using bicycles to get around the village. The area. but will follow the general rule . the MLEB will lower the cost of energy bill even further.

2 TJ) for the heating (see more detailed calculation in next chapter). . increased noise levels or visual intrusions.CO2 emissions related to each household heating and transport energy are calculated below: (13 000 / 100 * 90) * 0. If after implementation of the energy saving and renewable energy measures. If the total council investment was 10 000£. SOCIAL ASPECTS The scheme will give an opportunity for residents to associate with a new identity . If we assume that the annual heating energy bill for a household is 1200£ and annual cost of travelling with a car within the boundaries of village is 300£. . potentially less income will be needed.3 TJ) and for the transport and 70 200 000 MJ (70. then after 40 months (3 years and 4 months) it will be repaid.6kg of CO2 per household annually (see more calculations/assumptions below) . The implication of energy neutral households is that of improved social life in a long run. ID X4043465 Sustainability issues . An estimate of the present annual CO2 emissions .energy. if taken into account the promise of lowering annual respective energy bill by 10% (1500 / 100 * 10 = 150£ household savings). petrol and diesel will be used less than before leading to improved air quality in the village and surroundings . then the annual amount repayable to the council will be 250£ . less NOx and SO3 pollution. Then the annual cost of energy will be reduced from 1500£ to 1100£.the village fully powered by renewable energy.90% of fossil heat energy is obtained by burning gas. 10% with off peak electricity heat storage. the total amount of annual energy cost is lowered to 1100£.5 = 650kg CO2i (electricity) (19 040 (km) * 0.sustainable lifestyle. Project Report.less particles in air. The scheme should aim at being the first step towards even greater improvements . economical.19 = 2223kg CO2 (gas) (13 000 / 100 * 10) * 0.39) = 7425.based on an average household energy demand the total energy used for heating and travel with a personal car in the village is 83 686 512 MJ (83. which will lead to less hours spent at work and more hours with family. Aigars Bruvelis. social ECONOMY Here is an example of economical aspects for a single household. friends and at home. ENVIRONMENT The immediate surroundings of village will not be affected by new infrastructure. The natural gas.6kg CO2ii (petrol) Total = 10298. Because less money will be spent on paying for fuel. the total respective annual energy cost is 1500£. For the convenience it is assumed that all the vehicles are run with petrol engines.T206.that is.

ID X4043465 Energy consumption at the level of the individual household The following is a breakdown of an average fossil energy use at household level (based on national average): .T206. 13 000kWh or 46. . This is appropriate because most of the houses in the village were built in 1970ies.8 GJ or 15 500 kWh per year per household .8 GJ per year per household Aims of the scheme : 1) reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from household energy use in the village by at least 10% within the next 10 years.Total energy used for the average household for mobility purposes is calculated belowiii: 600 (car journeys per year) * 3500 (individuals) 13.Household heating energy calculations will be based on assumption that a household has a net energy demand of 13 000kwhiv.20 000£.2 / 1500 = = 55. Project Report.091 (litres of fuel consumed per 1km) * 32. Aigars Bruvelis.6 (average length of journey in km) * 0. b) an estimate of the likely cost Will differ from household to household depending on the size of the household and investments needed and will vary between 5 000£ . 2) reduction of energy demand at household level by 10% within the next 10 years 3) increasing a component of renewable energy sources in total energy use within next 10 years at a household level by 10% 4) cutting the household energy bill in the long run by at least 10% within next 10 years 5) securing alternative energy supplies and reductions of energy demand 6) setting up a foundation for a sustainable energy system in the village A proposal for reducing energy consumption: a) a description of proposed measure 20 -30 cm thick loft insulation and replacement of single or double glazed windows with triple glazed low-E coated windows. For the convenience of further calculations he average cost will be assumed 10 000£.2 (MJ per litre of petrol) / 1500 (households) = 2 598 960 litres * 32.

depending on if contracted or DIY. Project Report. The minimum necessary investment will be determined at each household separately. v c) an assessment of the reduction in CO2 emissions Reduction of energy demand to at least 10 000 kWh per household will reduce CO2 emissions by the following””: (10 000 / 100 * 90) * 0.blogspot.19 = 1710kg CO2 (gas) (10 000 / 100 * 10) * 0. Aigars Bruvelis. ID X4043465 Picture 1.T206.5 = 500kg CO2vi (electricity) Savings from 2873kg of CO2 to 2210kg of CO2 per year. The exact savings of energy and CO2 will depend on ventilation loss. wall insulations levels and location (terraced or detached house) as well as size of the house. That is 23% or 663kg of CO2 saved.com/2008/01/adrian-you-mean-like-this.html Insulating loft will cost between 250£ and 500£. source http://markbrinkley. .

funding and cost effectiveness The solar bike method has innovative aspects and it offers convenience – it incorporates two technologies (solar and electrically powered bike) into one solution. residents should be encouraged to do it themselves.electric bike. Since battery will need to be replaced after certain time at a cost of few hundred sterling. then one third of the initial CO2 emissions can be eliminated. To lower the cost of insulating the loft. Project Report.5kg of CO2 Technical feasibility. All triple windows should be low-E coating. Bikes cost around 500£viii. Aigars Bruvelis. residents should be allowed to opt for grid linked solar PV modules.63£ million. Older residents should be offered the assistance from contractors. because of the battery system which will store the solar electricity generated during the day (for the recharge of bike's battery at night) in a chemical battery. In this scenario electric bike would be recharged at night from the grid. because solar bike will be using only renewable resources . The minimum thickness of insulation should be 300mm. solar PV panels and electric bikes. will cost around 2500£vii.human and solar power: Savings 7425 / 100 * 30 = 2227. this approach has one disadvantage. . ID X4043465 A proposal for using energy from a sustainable source a) a description of proposed measure A 300W domestic solar PV charging system/kit for powering personal transport . Council presumably will be able to negotiate discounts for bulk orders of windows. it will cost council in total: ((500 * 3000(bikes for adults)) + (2500 * 1500 (solar panels)) + (10 000 * 1500 (average cost of windows)) + (500 * 1500) = 1 500 000 + 3 750 000 + 15 000 000 + 450 000 = 20. the amount needed for the scheme to be implemented will be 18.7£ million. c) an assessment of the reduction in CO2 emissions If assumed that one third of journeys are within boundaries of the village.07 million) reduction can be negotiated. However.T206. insulation materials. therefore avoiding potential engineering and installation costs associated with feeding solar electricity into the grid. If all the households will adapt both measures. If 10% (2. b) an estimate of the likely cost Ready to use solar charging system appropriate for charging a bike at a winter time when days are shorter.

get their feedback. Advantages. Any other energy improvements or methods should be investigated as well as feedback from residents should be taken into account.T206. The involvement of public will prepare the ground for further advancements in appropriate energy use in the village if the scheme will prove to be successful. ID X4043465 If this is equally spread over 10 years. and the reasons for rejecting them.63 / 1000 * 163 * 10 = 30. and they will be happy to invest in the technology of renewable energy. The amount very likely will not be available to the council and one might consider opting for a loan taken out from the government or banks.34 = 48. the rest of the finances needed for the scheme will be diverted from when residents of households will start making their repayments. village residents will be more than happy to have large amount of wind generators near their dwellings. disadvantages. Project Report. negotiate better contracts with suppliers and do full energy surveys in every household. the greatest disadvantage is the length of time needed to acquire an interest free funding for the project to take off. At the same time this is also advantage. inform residents. A village wide travel plan integrated and based on the needs of the village residents Insulation of walls and floors in households Installing “windmills” in surrounding hilly areas All options should be open for consideration. dwelling) + nomos (to manage)x.86mil sterling a year to fund the scheme.34 18. Keeping that in mind. Biofuel CHP station would provide economic incentives for local farmers to produce straw or fast growing timber. The most viable of approaches for the council would be saving up money and rising funds for the following years till nearly all the amount needed (18£ million) is acquired before introducing the scheme.wic (village. If the repayment period is 10 years at a real discount rate of 10%. Aigars Bruvelis. This would take off the burden of securing the finances from the village budget. This will increase the cost of the project. that.63 + 30. a penalty on sustainable local policies and schemes. every 1000£ will cost 163£ix. If few million short. because it gives a lot of time to prepare for the scheme.97£ million It is not feasible to pay more than a double of the “real” cost and can be considered from a perspective of someone. Options other than ones proposed. The total cost of the project is calculated below: 18. Other options for working on sustainable energy future for the village: − − − − construction of a combined heat and power station powered by biofuels. . It is possible. council will need 1. who seeks financial support from government and banking industry. unlike most of the public around UK. reasons for recommending the scheme The word “economy” in early days meant cheaper and comes from . Therefore I am advising the members of council to allocate as much funds as possible from their annaul budget for the scheme.

The positive effect will be improved air quality and less health issues. this will improve village finances in a long term. Ideas for becoming more forward-thinking and responsive The vision of the future of the village should include following key points: − − − − − energy self sufficiency. The implications of the scheme of the residents will become apparent straight after the implementation – the annual energy bill will be lower than before. the scheme should reflect well on council members. Some will identify with sustainability issues council is trying to address. will appeal to many. Effects on the local environment and employment The scheme will have little negative impact (if any) on environment. because for the implementation of the scheme. Project Report. Aigars Bruvelis. The short term employment might benefit as soon as scheme will start off. Many will be happy about not getting village into debt and continuing the rest of the services. the environment does no need to be altered. because the budget of the village will be debt free. if those who are employed in construction industry will participate and provide their services. The potential response of the electorate The long term commitment and vision by the council members as well as a scheme. If clearly communicated and taken into account feedback from residents received after initial proposal. which puts at the centre of concern the residents and their expenses. ID X4043465 Financial implications for the village If followed the advice of saving the funding needed rather than borrowing. diversity of renewable fuel sources Zero energy houses infrastructure for mobility inspired by enabling the use of renewable energy sources economical principles – efficiency (financial as well as energy) and no debt .T206.

involve residents and prepare for the implementation. Project Report. References . The borrowing at interest can double the cost of implementation of the scheme and therefore is unfavourable. inform. improving human habitat and financially tricky. Instead council should plan long term strategies and get funding from internal sources and if necessary build capital over the years and gain time to educate.T206. ID X4043465 Conclusions and recommendations The initiation of sustainable practises in energy sector are technically feasible. environmentally beneficial. particularly solar PV. Renewable energy technologies. are expensive and energy saving measures need large capital investments. Aigars Bruvelis.


thinkinsulation.everything-ev.1 Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).com/electric-bicycles-c-87.htm – accessed on 15th September 2010 Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).etymonline.2 and 2.com/index. box 1. box 1.html?zenid=k6uh3uhisrd4c7fd2gu2jpv7o6 – accessed on 15th September 2010 ix Energy systems and sustainability.8 http://www.co.uk/how-much-will-i-save.8 Managing transport energy (edited by James Warren).com/Application/Products/solar-powered/Solar-Mains-Power-150W-GB. page 31 http://www.eurocosm.asp – accessed on 15th September 2010 viiihttp://www. Table 1.9 Managing transport energy (edited by James Warren). page 24 x http://www. Bob Everett. Table 1.php?term=economy – accessed on 15th September 2010 .i ii iii iv v vi vii Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).

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