T206, Aigars Bruvelis, TMA 06, ID X4043465

Saving energy and Going solar

social An estimate of the present annual CO2 emissions Energy consumption at the level of the individual household Aims of the scheme A proposal for reducing energy consumption A proposal for using energy from a sustainable source Technical feasibility. funding and cost effectiveness Advantages.energy. economical. Financial implications for the village The potential response of the electorate Effects on the local environment and employment Ideas for becoming more forward-thinking and responsive Conclusions and recommendations References 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 6 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 12 .T206. aims. reasons for recommending the scheme Options other than ones proposed. ID X4043465 Contents list A project brief Background. and the reasons for rejecting them. scope and organisation The area. population and housing that will be affected by the scheme The immediate surroundings Involving local people Sustainability issues . disadvantages. Aigars Bruvelis. Project Report.

repayment schedule calculated and contract signed .incentives for lowering household heating energy demand by insulating ceilings or the loft area and installing triple glazed E-coated windows. . The aim is to minimise the reliance on fossil fuels while sustaining the same quality of life. scope and organisation The village primary energy is mainly derived from fossil fuels.assessment of the monthly household energy used and money spent on fuel will be made in relation to the local car use and household heating. A flexible repayment schedule will be worked out individually for every household deciding to participate. With the support of parish council the scheme will provide an interest free repayable financial assistance for residents to implement any of the measures supported by the council until most of the residents will join the scheme. Basic methods Technically the proposal will address the social.reducing heating energy demand and using renewable energy for local travelling.potential energy reduction calculated. the economical and the environmental sustainability issues through adjusting two of the locally most energy intensive activities . Background. beyond peak oil fuel scarcity.improvements implemented by the contractors chosen by council or by residents themselves . . All technical aspects are achievable and significant reductions of energy demand and CO2 emissions are practicable. Results and conclusions of investigation The results show that the greatest challenge of the proposed scheme will be related to securing sufficient funding. aims. Project Report ID X4043465 A project brief Aims The aim of the project is to propose to the parish council an opportunity to support a scheme which will allow all village households to become users of adequate and sustainable sources of energy and allow energy and money savings for the residents. fuel source and technology targets set and estimate of investment defined. The reduction of CO2 emissions by 10% in next ten years is initial target and should not stop there. Aigars Bruvelis.provision of incentives for switching to renewable energy sources when travelling locally by acquisition and usage of electric bikes and domestic solar PV charging systems/kits. . Organisationally these will be offered as stimuli for residents to participate in the scheme financed and set up by the village council: . health effects from particles and chemical substances emitted from car engines and gas boilers and possibly contributing to and being exposed to the effects of theoretical human induced climate change (be it warming of cooling). The procedure will be as follows: . Therefore residents are vulnerable to fluctuations of fossil fuel prices.T206.

the MLEB will lower the cost of energy bill even further. The scheme will affect village by reducing local traffic and a need for car par spaces in the centre. Aigars Bruvelis. Involving local people The initial part of the scheme will be related to informing village residents about the local issues – shortage of parking spaces. Most of them are petrol powered. it is crucial to make it attractive financially. the surrounding areas of farmland and hills will not be affected visually or by noise. The scheme will aim to financially reduce the average monthly energy bill by 10-15% for every village household. for the scheme to become success. All the residents heat their houses either by burning natural gas or with the heat batteries charged by off-peak electricity. environmental and health issues of intensive traffic. Hills and farmland will remain intact. population and housing that will be affected by the scheme The village has 1500 households with 3500 people residing in them.a certain amount repayable to the council over a set period of time until investment is repaid The exact amount repayable to council and length of payments will depend on individual household circumstances. becoming a showcase/leader and example to other urban areas. The shopping/office square in the middle of the village is often short of car park spaces. Project Report.T206. The only visual difference will be made by solar PV panels installed on rooftops in the village. The estimate of the total monthly household costs in relation to the scheme and their energy bill will be consisting of two parts: . traffic congestion at peak hours. The area. This will be an opportunity to receive feedback from residents about their concerns and take them into consideration. Therefore. ID X4043465 An assumption of the scheme in regard to any changes in society or community is this: there is a resistance to change unless the change is beneficial to the individual. .the MLEB will be at least 10% lower than what it would have been if the scheme was not implemented. The village is in the middle of a busy route and the shopping square is often used by the passers-by for a quick stop if there is a free car park space.a Monthly Lowered Energy Bill (MLEB) after implementation of the scheme measures . There are in total 1600 cars kept and used in the village territory. There are 150 residents using bicycles to get around the village. After the last amount payable to the council. The immediate surroundings In order to implement the scheme. but will follow the general rule .

then after 40 months (3 years and 4 months) it will be repaid. which will lead to less hours spent at work and more hours with family. Aigars Bruvelis. For the convenience it is assumed that all the vehicles are run with petrol engines. ENVIRONMENT The immediate surroundings of village will not be affected by new infrastructure. less NOx and SO3 pollution.6kg of CO2 per household annually (see more calculations/assumptions below) .sustainable lifestyle.that is. the total respective annual energy cost is 1500£.2 TJ) for the heating (see more detailed calculation in next chapter).5 = 650kg CO2i (electricity) (19 040 (km) * 0. If we assume that the annual heating energy bill for a household is 1200£ and annual cost of travelling with a car within the boundaries of village is 300£. Project Report.energy. The scheme should aim at being the first step towards even greater improvements . .less particles in air. SOCIAL ASPECTS The scheme will give an opportunity for residents to associate with a new identity . 10% with off peak electricity heat storage.19 = 2223kg CO2 (gas) (13 000 / 100 * 10) * 0.3 TJ) and for the transport and 70 200 000 MJ (70. if taken into account the promise of lowering annual respective energy bill by 10% (1500 / 100 * 10 = 150£ household savings). The natural gas.based on an average household energy demand the total energy used for heating and travel with a personal car in the village is 83 686 512 MJ (83. Then the annual cost of energy will be reduced from 1500£ to 1100£. . social ECONOMY Here is an example of economical aspects for a single household. The implication of energy neutral households is that of improved social life in a long run. increased noise levels or visual intrusions. An estimate of the present annual CO2 emissions . friends and at home.39) = 7425. economical. petrol and diesel will be used less than before leading to improved air quality in the village and surroundings . Because less money will be spent on paying for fuel. the total amount of annual energy cost is lowered to 1100£.the village fully powered by renewable energy.T206. ID X4043465 Sustainability issues . If after implementation of the energy saving and renewable energy measures. potentially less income will be needed. then the annual amount repayable to the council will be 250£ .90% of fossil heat energy is obtained by burning gas.CO2 emissions related to each household heating and transport energy are calculated below: (13 000 / 100 * 90) * 0.6kg CO2ii (petrol) Total = 10298. If the total council investment was 10 000£.

For the convenience of further calculations he average cost will be assumed 10 000£.Household heating energy calculations will be based on assumption that a household has a net energy demand of 13 000kwhiv. Project Report.2 (MJ per litre of petrol) / 1500 (households) = 2 598 960 litres * 32. .20 000£.8 GJ per year per household Aims of the scheme : 1) reduction of total greenhouse gas emissions resulting from household energy use in the village by at least 10% within the next 10 years. ID X4043465 Energy consumption at the level of the individual household The following is a breakdown of an average fossil energy use at household level (based on national average): . Aigars Bruvelis.091 (litres of fuel consumed per 1km) * 32.8 GJ or 15 500 kWh per year per household .T206.Total energy used for the average household for mobility purposes is calculated belowiii: 600 (car journeys per year) * 3500 (individuals) 13. b) an estimate of the likely cost Will differ from household to household depending on the size of the household and investments needed and will vary between 5 000£ . 13 000kWh or 46.6 (average length of journey in km) * 0. 2) reduction of energy demand at household level by 10% within the next 10 years 3) increasing a component of renewable energy sources in total energy use within next 10 years at a household level by 10% 4) cutting the household energy bill in the long run by at least 10% within next 10 years 5) securing alternative energy supplies and reductions of energy demand 6) setting up a foundation for a sustainable energy system in the village A proposal for reducing energy consumption: a) a description of proposed measure 20 -30 cm thick loft insulation and replacement of single or double glazed windows with triple glazed low-E coated windows. This is appropriate because most of the houses in the village were built in 1970ies.2 / 1500 = = 55.

html Insulating loft will cost between 250£ and 500£. source http://markbrinkley. depending on if contracted or DIY. v c) an assessment of the reduction in CO2 emissions Reduction of energy demand to at least 10 000 kWh per household will reduce CO2 emissions by the following””: (10 000 / 100 * 90) * 0. ID X4043465 Picture 1. The minimum necessary investment will be determined at each household separately. The exact savings of energy and CO2 will depend on ventilation loss.19 = 1710kg CO2 (gas) (10 000 / 100 * 10) * 0.com/2008/01/adrian-you-mean-like-this. wall insulations levels and location (terraced or detached house) as well as size of the house. Aigars Bruvelis.5 = 500kg CO2vi (electricity) Savings from 2873kg of CO2 to 2210kg of CO2 per year. That is 23% or 663kg of CO2 saved. Project Report.T206.blogspot. .

b) an estimate of the likely cost Ready to use solar charging system appropriate for charging a bike at a winter time when days are shorter. . it will cost council in total: ((500 * 3000(bikes for adults)) + (2500 * 1500 (solar panels)) + (10 000 * 1500 (average cost of windows)) + (500 * 1500) = 1 500 000 + 3 750 000 + 15 000 000 + 450 000 = 20. To lower the cost of insulating the loft. In this scenario electric bike would be recharged at night from the grid. Council presumably will be able to negotiate discounts for bulk orders of windows. Older residents should be offered the assistance from contractors. residents should be encouraged to do it themselves.5kg of CO2 Technical feasibility. funding and cost effectiveness The solar bike method has innovative aspects and it offers convenience – it incorporates two technologies (solar and electrically powered bike) into one solution.T206. because solar bike will be using only renewable resources . this approach has one disadvantage. If all the households will adapt both measures. Bikes cost around 500£viii. The minimum thickness of insulation should be 300mm. ID X4043465 A proposal for using energy from a sustainable source a) a description of proposed measure A 300W domestic solar PV charging system/kit for powering personal transport .human and solar power: Savings 7425 / 100 * 30 = 2227. will cost around 2500£vii. Project Report. because of the battery system which will store the solar electricity generated during the day (for the recharge of bike's battery at night) in a chemical battery. therefore avoiding potential engineering and installation costs associated with feeding solar electricity into the grid. Since battery will need to be replaced after certain time at a cost of few hundred sterling. insulation materials. residents should be allowed to opt for grid linked solar PV modules.63£ million. All triple windows should be low-E coating. the amount needed for the scheme to be implemented will be 18. c) an assessment of the reduction in CO2 emissions If assumed that one third of journeys are within boundaries of the village.electric bike.7£ million. Aigars Bruvelis. solar PV panels and electric bikes. then one third of the initial CO2 emissions can be eliminated. However.07 million) reduction can be negotiated. If 10% (2.

get their feedback. who seeks financial support from government and banking industry. Any other energy improvements or methods should be investigated as well as feedback from residents should be taken into account. every 1000£ will cost 163£ix. the rest of the finances needed for the scheme will be diverted from when residents of households will start making their repayments. council will need 1. Project Report. disadvantages.T206. The amount very likely will not be available to the council and one might consider opting for a loan taken out from the government or banks. village residents will be more than happy to have large amount of wind generators near their dwellings. dwelling) + nomos (to manage)x. .34 18. negotiate better contracts with suppliers and do full energy surveys in every household.63 / 1000 * 163 * 10 = 30. Other options for working on sustainable energy future for the village: − − − − construction of a combined heat and power station powered by biofuels. that. At the same time this is also advantage. Biofuel CHP station would provide economic incentives for local farmers to produce straw or fast growing timber. If few million short. unlike most of the public around UK. Aigars Bruvelis. Keeping that in mind. The total cost of the project is calculated below: 18. This will increase the cost of the project. inform residents. A village wide travel plan integrated and based on the needs of the village residents Insulation of walls and floors in households Installing “windmills” in surrounding hilly areas All options should be open for consideration. This would take off the burden of securing the finances from the village budget. and the reasons for rejecting them. If the repayment period is 10 years at a real discount rate of 10%.34 = 48. reasons for recommending the scheme The word “economy” in early days meant cheaper and comes from .97£ million It is not feasible to pay more than a double of the “real” cost and can be considered from a perspective of someone. and they will be happy to invest in the technology of renewable energy. It is possible. Advantages. ID X4043465 If this is equally spread over 10 years.wic (village. a penalty on sustainable local policies and schemes. The involvement of public will prepare the ground for further advancements in appropriate energy use in the village if the scheme will prove to be successful. Therefore I am advising the members of council to allocate as much funds as possible from their annaul budget for the scheme. the greatest disadvantage is the length of time needed to acquire an interest free funding for the project to take off.63 + 30.86mil sterling a year to fund the scheme. because it gives a lot of time to prepare for the scheme. Options other than ones proposed. The most viable of approaches for the council would be saving up money and rising funds for the following years till nearly all the amount needed (18£ million) is acquired before introducing the scheme.

diversity of renewable fuel sources Zero energy houses infrastructure for mobility inspired by enabling the use of renewable energy sources economical principles – efficiency (financial as well as energy) and no debt . The implications of the scheme of the residents will become apparent straight after the implementation – the annual energy bill will be lower than before. the environment does no need to be altered. the scheme should reflect well on council members. because for the implementation of the scheme. Project Report. because the budget of the village will be debt free. If clearly communicated and taken into account feedback from residents received after initial proposal. Some will identify with sustainability issues council is trying to address. ID X4043465 Financial implications for the village If followed the advice of saving the funding needed rather than borrowing. will appeal to many. Aigars Bruvelis. Effects on the local environment and employment The scheme will have little negative impact (if any) on environment. The potential response of the electorate The long term commitment and vision by the council members as well as a scheme. The positive effect will be improved air quality and less health issues. this will improve village finances in a long term. Many will be happy about not getting village into debt and continuing the rest of the services. Ideas for becoming more forward-thinking and responsive The vision of the future of the village should include following key points: − − − − − energy self sufficiency.T206. The short term employment might benefit as soon as scheme will start off. if those who are employed in construction industry will participate and provide their services. which puts at the centre of concern the residents and their expenses.

environmentally beneficial. References . particularly solar PV. improving human habitat and financially tricky. involve residents and prepare for the implementation. ID X4043465 Conclusions and recommendations The initiation of sustainable practises in energy sector are technically feasible. Project Report. Instead council should plan long term strategies and get funding from internal sources and if necessary build capital over the years and gain time to educate. are expensive and energy saving measures need large capital investments. Aigars Bruvelis.T206. The borrowing at interest can double the cost of implementation of the scheme and therefore is unfavourable. inform. Renewable energy technologies.

.

htm – accessed on 15th September 2010 Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).9 Managing transport energy (edited by James Warren). page 24 x http://www.8 Managing transport energy (edited by James Warren).etymonline.i ii iii iv v vi vii Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).php?term=economy – accessed on 15th September 2010 .eurocosm. Bob Everett.com/index.everything-ev.uk/how-much-will-i-save. box 1. Table 1. box 1.8 http://www.co. Table 1.html?zenid=k6uh3uhisrd4c7fd2gu2jpv7o6 – accessed on 15th September 2010 ix Energy systems and sustainability. page 31 http://www.asp – accessed on 15th September 2010 viiihttp://www.com/Application/Products/solar-powered/Solar-Mains-Power-150W-GB.com/electric-bicycles-c-87.thinkinsulation.1 Energy saving in buildings (Bob Everett and Horace Herring ).2 and 2.