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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 8, Issue 4, April 2017, pp. 1012-1025, Article ID: IJCIET_08_04_115


Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=4
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF HIGH RISE


BUILDING WITH STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL
Anjana R K Unnithan
Post Graduate Student, Structural Engineering, School of Mechanical and Building Sciences,
VIT University, Chennai, India

Dr. S. Karthiyaini
Assistant Professor (S G), Structural Engineering Division, School of Mechanical and
Building Sciences, VIT University, Chennai, India

ABSTRACT
Structural design and analysis produces the capability of resisting all the applied
loads without failure during its intended life. The design of high rise buildings is
governed by lateral loads mainly due to earthquake. The interior structural system or
exterior structural system provides the resistance to lateral loads in the structure. The
present paper describes the analysis and design of high rise buildings with Steel Plate
Shear Wall (SPSW) for (G+9) stories. The properties of Steel plate shear wall system
include the stiffness for control of structural displacement, ductile failure mechanism
and high energy absorption. The design and analysis of the composite building with
steel plate shear wall is carried out using software ETABS. The present study is to
carry out the response spectrum analysis of a high rise composite building by
optimizing the thickness of steel plate shear wall and to compare the results of
displacement, story drift, overturning moment and story shear. The models are
analysed by Response Spectrum analysis as per IS 1893:2002. All structural members
are designed as per IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations.
Key words: High Rise Composite Building, Response Spectrum Analysis, Steel Plate
Shear Wall, Story Drift, Story Shear.
Cite this Article: Anjana R K Unnithan and Dr. S. Karthiyaini, Design and Analysis
of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall. International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 8(4), 2017, pp. 1012-1025.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=4

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. General
In the latest decades, the steel plate shear wall (SPSW) system has emerged as a promising
lateral load resisting system for both construction of new buildings and retrofit of the existing
buildings (especially in high rise building).This system has acceptable stiffness for control of
structure displacement, ductile failure mechanism and high energy absorption. The main
function of steel plate shear wall is to resist horizontal storey shear and overturning moment

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

due to lateral loads. In general, steel plate shear wall system consists of a steel plate wall, two
boundary columns and horizontal floor beams. Together, the steel plate wall and the two
boundary columns acts as a vertical plate girder. The columns act as flanges of vertical plate
girder and the steel plate wall acts as its web. The horizontal floor beams act, more or less, as
transverse stiffeners in a plate girder. Steel plate shear walls possess properties that are
fundamentally beneficial in resisting seismically induced loads. These include superior
ductility, a resistance to degradation under cyclic loading, high initial stiffness and when
moment resisting beam-column connections are present, inherent redundancy and a capacity
for significant energy dissipation. Moreover, the low mass of a steel plate shear wall as
compared with an equivalent reinforced concrete shear wall reduces both the gravity loads
and the seismic loads transmitted to the foundation. This can lead to considerable cost savings
in construction. In steel framed building, the use of a steel system for resisting lateral loads
can lead to significant cost savings as compared to systems that use a steel frame in
conjunction with a concrete shear core.
The models are analysed by Response Spectrum analysis as per IS 1893:2002.All
structural members are designed as per IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations. A
response spectrum is simply a plot of the peak or steady-state response (displacement,
velocity or acceleration) of a series of oscillators of varying natural frequency that are forced
into motion by the same base vibration or shock. The resulting plot can then be used to pick
off the response of any linear system, given its natural frequency of oscillation. One such use
is in assessing the peak response of buildings to earthquakes. The science of strong ground
motion may use some values from the ground response spectrum (calculated from recordings
of surface ground motion from seismographs) for correlation with seismic damage. If the
input used in calculating a response spectrum is steady-state periodic, then the steady-state
result is recorded. Damping must be present, or else the response will be infinite. For
transient input (such as seismic ground motion), the peak response is reported. Some level of
damping is generally assumed, but a value will be obtained even with no damping.
Response spectra can also be used in assessing the response of linear systems with
multiple modes of oscillation (multi-degree of freedom systems), although they are only
accurate for low levels of damping. Modal analysis is performed to identify the modes, and
the response in that mode can be picked from the response spectrum. This peak response is
then combined to estimate a total response. A typical combination method is the square root
of the sum of the squares (SRSS) if the modal frequencies are not close. The result is
typically different from that which would be calculated directly from an input, since phase
information is lost in the process of generating the response spectrum.

1.2. Objective and Scope


This project is concerned with the study of high rise buildings with steel plate shear wall. The
structural analysis of the G+9 storeyed composite building is done with the help of ETABS
software. Response Spectrum Analysis is carried out and the final comparison of the results
are obtained. The objectives of this study are:
 To analyze and design the high rise building with steel plate shear wall using ETABS.
 To compare the displacement, story drift, overturning moment and story shear by varying the
thickness of steel plate shear wall.
 To carry out the response spectrum analysis of a high rise composite building.
 The models are analyzed by Response Spectrum analysis as per IS 1893:2002.
 All structural members are designed as per IS 800:2007 considering all load combinations.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW
Carlos E. V et.al [1] studied simplified and detailed analytical models of a 4-storey specimen
at the University of British Columbia (UBC) were generated to assess the ability of current
analysis techniques to reasonably describe the behaviour observed during the experiment. The
results of this investigation showed that the simplified and detailed analytical models over
predicted the elastic stiffness of the test specimen. The orthotropic model representation of a
SPSW system produced stresses in the beams, columns and infill plates consistent with the
results obtained from a detailed explicit finite element formulation.
Jeffrey W. Berman. et.al [2].assessed the behaviour of code designed SPSWs. A series of
walls are designed and their behaviour is evaluated using nonlinear response history analysis
for ground motions representing different hazard levels. It is found that designs meeting
current code requirements satisfy maximum inter story drift requirements considering design
level earthquakes and have maximum inter story drifts of less than 5%for maximum
considered earthquakes. The percentage of story shear resisted by the web plate relative to the
boundary frame is found to be between60% and 80% and is relatively independent of panel
aspect ratio, wall height, or hazard level, but is affected by transitions in plate thickness.
Gangisetty Sri Harsha, Dr. H. Sudarsana Rao [3] analyzed a residential building with 19
floors is analyzed with and without shear walls for wind and earthquake loads. For this
system of wall and cores they were checked for displacement, Internal Stresses and Intensities
when subjected to various loadings. Bending Moments, axial force and storey drift of
columns in both directions were reduced at each floor level by using shear walls for a
building. Reduction in bending moments for columns with shear walls is more comparable to
columns away from shear walls. Torsional Moments were reduced by using shear walls for a
building.
Kai Hu, Yimeng Yang et.al[4] conducted the response spectrum, time history and linking
slab in-plan stresses analysis combined with a practical project with inclined columns by
several programs such as ETABS, SAP2000, MIDAS/gen and SATWE. All the results of
response spectrum analysis calculated by different programs are basically similar, while
ETABS may miss the statistic of oblique columns. As for the slab stress analysis, ETABS and
MIDAS/Gen have their respective advantages: ETABS good at pre-processing with
automatically line constraint and area division; and MIDAS/Gen does well in the post-
processing such as the stresses combinations.
Khushbu Jani, Paresh V. Patel. et.al [5] conducted analysis and design of 36 storey diagrid
steel building is presented in detail. A regular floor plan of 36 m ×36 m size is considered.
ETABS software is used for modelling and analysis of structure. Lateral and gravity load are
resisted by axial force in diagonal members on periphery of structure, which make system
more effective. Diagrid structural system provides more flexibility in planning interior space
and façade of the building.
Pundkar R. S, Alandkar P. M. et.al [6]. Described the analysis and design of high-rise steel
building with and without Steel Plate Shear Wall (SPSW).Results indicate that steel plate
shear walls have a large effect on the behaviour of frames under earthquake excitation. In
general, infill steel plate increases stiffness of the structure. Deflection in case of without
SPSW is large as compared with SPSW.
Mohammad Anwar-Us-Saadat, MahmudAshraf, ShameemAhmed. et.al [7]. A numerical
study has been presented in the current paper to develop rational design rules for slender
stainless steel subjected to combined loading. Developed FE models were thoroughly
validated using available test results for compression, four-point bending, and uniaxial and
biaxial eccentric loading. Results clearly showed conservative nature of code predictions

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

largely originating from the adoption of the traditional effective width approach for stainless
steel. Recently proposed guidelines for the Continuous Strength Method (CSM),
predominantly targeted for stocky cross-sections, can produce comparatively better
performance in uniaxial bending and compression loading cases.
Masoumeh Gholipour, Mohamad Mehdi Alinia et.al [8] considered eighteen SPSW frame
models to investigate the effects of bay width on the design and the overall behaviour of
SPSW structures. The models consisted of 4- to 19-story frames and 3 to 9 m bay widths.
The maximum increase in the stiffness and load capacity of moment frames due to the
employment of infill plates are obtained in the suitable design bay width. With the increase of
bay width, the deformation mode of SPSW frame changes from a flexure-dominant mode to a
combined flexure–shear mode.
Mohammad hossein Akhavan, Abdolreza Joghataie, NaderK.A.Attari.et.al[9] presented the
procedure and results from analytical investigation on seismic behaviour of diagonally
stiffened steel plate shear walls. Studies were based on two 1/3-scaled one story single bay
specimens denoted by SPW-1 and SPW-2 with different diagonal stiffener's configurations
and one unstiffened steel plate shear wall denoted by SPW-0 which were designed and built
for the testing program. Triangular plates were used at the column base connection to prevent
failure due to high axial force and in the analytical models it was clear that by using these
plates stress concentration was distancing from the column base.
Ricky Chana, Faris Albermanib and S. Kitipornchai. et.al [10] for typical frame
configurations, very thin panels are often required to limit such demand but sometimes result
in construction difficulties. This paper attempts to reduce such demand by introducing
perforations to thicker panels. The effect on stiffness and strength is investigated through
nonlinear finite element technique. Results demonstrated that under monotonic loading
perforations reduce strength and stiffness of the system. In particular, perforations on panel
promote more uniform stress on panels and reduce deformation demand on surrounding
frame elements.

3. DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS


The analysis and design of G+9 high rise composite building with steel plate shear wall are
done using ETABS software. The structure is assumed to be located in seismic zone III in
India on a site with medium soil. The details of building considered for the analysis are given
in Table 1
Table 1 Building Details
Sl. No. Parameter Value
1 Number of storey 10
2 Seismic zone Zone-III
3 Zone factor 0.36
4 Response reduction factor 5
5 Importance factor 1.5
6 Floor area 625 m2
7 Height of building 30m
8 Column section ISMB 600 with M30 encasement
9 Beam section ISMB 600
10 Slab 150mm
11 Shear wall Steel Plate (Fe345)
12 Live load 3kN/m2
13 Wind load IS 875-Part 3-1987
14 Grade of concrete M30
15 Grade of steel Fe345

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Anjana R K Unnithan and Dr. S. Karthiyaini

4. ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION
4.1. Model of the Study
Modelling of the building is done in ETABs software with the following steps:
 Selection of a grid pattern
 Defining beams, columns, slabs and shells
 Modelling the structure
 Modelling steel plate shear wall
 Defining load and load combinations
 Assigning loads

Figure 1 Plan of the structure

Figure 2 Elevation of the structure


The model has been analysed and designed using ETABS software. The results found to
be are shown with the help of graph for the parameters deflection, shear force and storey
drifts.

4.2. Loading Details


The gravity loads, wind loads and earthquake loads will be taken for analysis. According to
IS 1893-2002 the following load combinations shall be accounted. Total 14 load

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

combinations are used for the analysis which is given below. Out of it the last load
combination is automatically generated by the ETABS software.
 1.5(DL+ IL)
 1.2(DL+IL + EL along X direction)
 1.2(DL+IL + EL along Y direction)
 1.2(DL+IL - EL along X direction)
 1.2(DL+IL - EL along Y direction)
 1.5(DL + EL along X direction)
 1.5(DL + EL along Y direction)
 1.5(DL - EL along X direction)
 1.5(DL - EL along Y direction)
 0.9DL + 1.5EL along X direction
 0.9DL + 1.5EL along Y direction
 0.9DL - 1.5EL along X direction
 0.9DL - 1.5EL along Y direction
 1.5DL
Where DL-dead load, IL-imposed/live load and EL-earthquake/seismic load.

5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


5.1. Story Displacements
Various load combinations are used in the design as per IS 1893-2002, it is found that the
load combination (EQ-X) is responsible for maximum displacement for all models.

Story Displacement
80
Story displacement in mm

60

40

20

32mm 24mm 16mm 8mm

Figure 3 Maximum Displacements for 8mm, 16mm, 24mm, 32mm thick SPSW

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Anjana R K Unnithan and Dr. S. Karthiyaini

Figure 4 Maximum Displacement for 40mm, 48mm, 56mm thick SPSW

Story Displacement
60
Story displacement in mm

40

20

80mm 72mm 64mm

Figure 5 Maximum Displacement for 64mm, 72mm and 80mm thick SPSW

Story Displacement
80
Story displacement in mm

60

40

20

80mm 8mm

Figure 6 Comparison of story displacement for 8mm and 80mm thick SPSW
 When the thickness of the plate increases, the story displacement decreases.
 The maximum story displacement is found to be in 8mm thick SPSW i.e, 74mm.
 The minimum story displacement is found to be in 80mm and 72mm thick SPSW i.e,
52.2mm

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

5.2. Story Drift

Story Drift
0.004
0.003
Story drift

0.002
0.001
0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base

32mm 24mm 16mm 8mm

Figure 7 Maximum Story Drift for 8mm, 16mm, 24mm, 32mm thick SPSW

Story Drift
0.003
0.002
Story drift

0.001
0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base

56mm 48mm 40mm

Figure 8 Maximum Story Drift for 40mm, 48mm, 56mm thick SPSW

Story Drift
0.003
Story drift

0.002

0.001

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base
80mm 72mm 64mm

Figure 9 Maximum Story Drift for 64mm, 72mm and 80mm thick SPSW

0.004
Story Drift
0.003
Story drift

0.002

0.001

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base
80mm 8mm

Figure 10 Comparison of story drift for 8mm and 80mm thick SPSW

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Anjana R K Unnithan and Dr. S. Karthiyaini

 Story drift is the lateral displacement of one level of the building relative to the other.
 Whereas the story drift is maximum in the 7th floor for 64mm, 72mm and 80mm thick SPSW.
 As per IS 1893-2002, the storey drift in any storey due to the minimum specified design
lateral force, shall not exceed 0.004 times the storey height.

5.3. Story Overturning Moment

Overturning Moment
0.3
Overturning moment in

0.2
kN-m

0.1

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base

32mm 24mm 16mm 8mm

Figure 11 Story Overturning Moment for 8mm, 16mm, 24mm, 32mm thick SPSW

Overturning Moment
Overturning moment in

0.6

0.4
kN-m

0.2

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base
56mm 48mm 40mm

Figure 12 Story Overturning Moment for 40mm, 48mm, 54mm thick SPSW

Overturning Moment
Overturning moment in

1
0.8
kN-m

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base
80mm 72mm 64mm

Figure 13 Story Overturning Moment for 64mm, 72mm and 80mm thick SPSW

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

1
Overturning Moment
Overturning moment in
0.8

0.6
kN-m

0.4

0.2

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6
80mm Story5
8mm Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base

Figure 14 Comparison of overturning moment for 8mm and 80mm thick SPSW
 Story overturning moment of a building is the moment of energy capable of upsetting the
story, the point where the story has been subjected to enough disturbances that it ceases to be
stable or collapses resulting in damage and hence the structure fails.
 Maximum overturning moment is 0.8kN-m which is for 80mm thickness.

5.4. Story Shear

Story Shear
20
Story shear in kN

10

-10

-20
32mm 24mm 16mm 8mm

Figure 15 Maximum Story Shear for 8mm, 16mm, 24mm, 32mm thick SPSW

Story Shear
0
Story shear in kN

-5
-10
-15
-20
56mm 48mm 40mm

Figure 16 Maximum Story Shear for 40mm, 48mm, 56mm thick SPSW

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Anjana R K Unnithan and Dr. S. Karthiyaini

Story Shear
0
Story shear in kN
-10

-20
80mm 72mm 64mm

Figure 17 Maximum Story Shear for 64mm, 72mm and 80mm thick SPSW

Story Shear
20
Story shear in kN

0
Story10 Story9 Story8 Story7 Story6 Story5 Story4 Story3 Story2 Story1 Base
-20

-40

80mm 8mm

Figure 18 Comparison of story shear for 8mm and 80mm thick SPSW
 Figure 5.10, 5.11 and 5.12 shows the story shear at different storey levels where the shear is
minimum at the base and the top storeys.
 Story shear is a force that acts on any storey in a direction perpendicular to its extension
which is measured in kN.
 Here the story shear is maximum for 8mm thick steel plate.

5.5. Response Spectrum Curve

Figure 19 Spectral Displacement Curve

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

Figure 20 Spectral Velocity Curve

Figure 21 Spectral Acceleration Curve


Figure shows the response spectrum curve for 80mm thick steel plate shear wall. The
displacement, velocity and acceleration spectra are shown in the Figures 5.17, 5.18 and 5.19.
Response spectrum shows the peak oscillation of the building during earthquake. Damping
ratios of 0, 0.05, and 0.1 are provided to reduce the amplitude of vibrations.

6. CONCLUSION
On the basis of work done so far and analytical results of this study, the following general
conclusions were drawn:
 The obtained results indicate that steel plate shear walls have a large effect on the behaviour
of frames under earthquake excitation. In general, steel plate increase stiffness of the
structure.

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 It was found that the displacement increases with the storey height and decreases as the
thickness of steel plate shear wall increases. Here the minimum displacement obtained in
80mm thick steel plate shear wall.
 Story drift varies for different thickness, maximum drift occurs at 6 th storey. For 80mm thick
steel plate shear wall, maximum story drift occurs at 7th story and for 16mm thick steel plate
shear wall, maximum story drift occurs at 5th story.
 Storey overturning moment decreases with increase in thickness of the plate. Here the
overturning moment is approximately zero.
 Storey shear varies for different thickness of plates. Story shear remains zero at the base and
the top storey.
 From the response spectrum curve, spectral displacement, velocity and acceleration reduces
as the damping increases and finally sets to zero.
 Maximum spectral displacement occurs at a time period of 3.33 sec.
 Maximum spectral velocity occurs at a time period of 0.416 sec.
 Maximum spectral acceleration occurs at a time period of 0.427 sec.

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Design and Analysis of High Rise Building with Steel Plate Shear Wall

[11] IS 1893 (Part 1):2002, Indian Standard, “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of
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