You are on page 1of 15

Universidad Nacional del Centro del Perú

VICE RECTORADO ACADÉMICO

Centro de Idiomas
EL TRABAJO DE TRADUCCIÓN

ACREDITACIÓN DEL IDIOMA INGLÉS

FITORREMEDIACION: CAPACIDAD
ACUMULADORA DE PLOMO EN LAS ESPECIES
VEGETALES lemna minor (lenteja de agua) y
Eichornia crassipes(Jacinto de agua) EXPUESTAS A
DIFERENTES CONCENTRACIONES DE NITRATO DE
PLOMO A ESCALA LABORATORIO

Maestro Magisters Ciencias: José E. Pomalaya


Valdez
Estudiante: BALTAZAR CHACON, Anina Raquel

HUANCAYO - 2018

1
INDICE
1. TITLE 3
2. RESEARCH THEME 3
3. RESEARCH PROBLEM 3
3.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT 3
3.2. PROBLEM FORMULATION 3
4. OBJETIVES 4
4.1 GENERAL OBJETIVE: 4
4.2 OBJETIVOS ESPECIFICOS: 4
5. JUSTIFICATION 4
6. THEORETICAL REFERENCE 4
6.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (teory and/or model) 5
6.3 Conceptual framework 6
7. HYPOTHESIS SYTEM 7
7.1. HYPOTHESIS 7
7.2 OPERATION OF VARIABLES AND INDICATORS OF THE HYPOTHESIS 7
8. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN 8
8.1. TYPE OF INVESTIGATION 8
8.2. METHODS TO BE USED 8
8.3. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING 10
9. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES 12
10. BUDGET 13
10.1 Amount and source of financing 13
BIBLIOGRAPHY 14

2
1. TITLE
FITORREMEDIATION: LEAD ACCUMULATOR CAPACITY IN
VEGETABLE SPECIES lemna minor (lenteja de agua) and Eichornia
crassipes (Jacinto de agua) EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT
CONCENTRATIONS OF LEAD NITRATE TO LABORATORY SCALE

2. RESEARCH THEME
Phytoremediation of heavy metals

3. RESEARCH PROBLEM
3.1. PROBLEM STATEMENT
The pollution of water sources generated by heavy metals from
mining, industrial waste, domestic activities, among others, is one
of the most serious environmental problems in our country, mainly
due to lead (Pb). Lead is a xenobiotic that is not necessary for the
human organism, for any known physiological function, but its
adverse effects affect different essential biochemical processes,
and it is even toxic at low levels of exposure (Wang and
Ademuyiwa 2010). Lead in water sources kills the lives of fish and
aquatic animals, thus altering the food chain and destroying
aquatic ecosystems.

Lead not only affects the growth of plants and their productivity,
but also enters the food chain, causing damage to human and
animal health (Seaward and Richardson, 1991).

3.2. PROBLEM FORMULATION


- Plant species Lemna minor (lenteja de agua) and Eichornia
crassipes (Jacinto de agua) have the capacity to
phytoremediate a water with lead content.
- The growth, tolerance and accumulation capacity of the plant
species lemna minor (lenteja de agua) and Eichornia
crassipes (Jacinto de agua), are influenced to different
concentrations of lead.

3
4. OBJETIVES

4.1 GENERAL OBJETIVE:


 Decrease the concentration of lead nitrate by using plants that act
as bioaccumulators of the same

4.2 OBJETIVOS ESPECIFICOS:


 Establish the absorption capacity of the plants Lemna minor
(lenteja de agua), and Eichhoria crassipes (jacinto de agua).
 Determine the concentration of bioaccumulated lead in the root,
stem and leaves in the Lenma minor (lenteja de agua) plants, and
Eichhoria crassipes (jacinto de agua).
 Determine the percentage of decrease in lead nitrate in the water.
5. JUSTIFICATION

Pollution of water sources in Peru, in recent decades has been


increasing, causing damage to the environment as destruction of food
chains, aquatic life and natural ecosystems, due to lack of control,
oversight and poor laws , so that in the last one the pollution of the water
sources has been accentuated, due to the inadequate handling of the
residual waters coming from the industrial, mining and anthropogenic
activities.

The use of technologies to remedy the contamination of water sources


can be efficient but generally their costs are high, due to this it is
necessary to implement new natural systems (phytoremediation) to
reduce contamination by the mining activity of water sources.

The treatment of mining wastewater by means of aquatic plants called


phytoremediation, offers an economical alternative for the purification of
waters contaminated by mining activity, offering reusable water sources.

6. THEORETICAL REFERENCE

Accelerated growth and development are directly proportional to the


environmental impact, especially on water bodies, due to inadequate
management of wastewater of industrial, agricultural and urban origin, as
well as mining, artisanal and industrial activities (Carrasquero 2002).

4
In our country among the main pollutants identified we have: lead,
mercury, aluminum, arsenic, magnesium, manganese, iron, copper,
cyanide. Adding to these heavy metals sulfur dioxide, and sulfuric acid
(R.M. No. R.M. No. 525-2005 / MINSA),
Aquatic macrophytes have been considered a pest due to their rapid
growth, since they sometimes invade lagoons and generate several
problems. However, if aquatic plants are properly managed, their power of
proliferation, their ability to absorb nutrients and bioaccumulate other water
compounds, make them a useful tool in the treatment of wastewater, the
use of aquatic plants has been Developed as an alternative secondary or
tertiary wastewater treatment, and has proven to be efficient in the removal
of a wide range of organic substances as well as nutrients and heavy
metals as well as metabolizing and degrading organic compounds,
macrophytes have the ability to absorb compounds toxic inorganics,
immobilizing it, as well as inhibiting or catalyzing various redox reactions.

6.1 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK (teory and/or model)


THE WATER
Water is a very stable chemical compound, formed by hydrogen
and oxygen atoms, formula H2O. The water is odorless, insipid and
colorless, and its enormous presence on Earth (71% of it is covered
with water) determines in large part the existence of life on our
planet. Water is the only substance that exists at ordinary
temperatures in all three states of matter. It exists in a solid state
like ice, found in glaciers and polar ice caps, and in the form of
snow, hail and frost. As a liquid it is found in rain clouds formed by
drops of water, in the form of dew on vegetation, and in oceans,
seas, lakes, rivers, etc. As gas, or water vapor, it exists in the form
of fog, steam and clouds.
THE LEAD
Lead is one of the heavy metals known since ancient times and is
gaining considerable importance as a powerful environmental
pollutant, highly toxic to man. Its presence in the environment is
mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as industry, mining and
the use of leaded gasolines and disposal of certain industrial

5
wastes (Chaney and Ryan, 1994, Cooper et al., 1999). The Pb
originating from these activities can remain as waste for 1000 to
3000 years in temperate climate soils (Bowen, 1979). Said metal
accumulates in the superficial layers of the soil and, therefore, it is
difficult to reliably measure its concentration. Its availability
depends on soil conditions, such as particle size, cation exchange
capacity and plant factors, such as surface and exudates from
roots and transpiration (Davies, 1995).
Lead not only affects the growth of plants and their productivity, but
also enters the food chain, causing damage to human and animal
health (Seaward and Richardson, 1991). This metal has toxic
effects on many organs, systems and physiological processes,
including the development of the red blood cell line, the kidneys,
the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system and, probably
the most serious aspect, the development of the central nervous
system. The nature of the manifestations of toxicity depends not
only on the magnitude of the exposure but also on the
characteristics of the exposed person; the neurotoxicity of Pb is
more critical for the developing fetus and the growing child than for
adults (Sanin et al., 1998).

Heavy Metal Hyperaccumulator Plants

All plants have the potential to absorb a wide variety of metals from
water, but most plants tend to absorb only those that are essential
for their survival and development. There is a notable exception to
this rule of a small group of plants that can tolerate, absorb and
translocate high levels of certain metals, these plants are called
hyperaccumulators (Chen et al., 2001).

6.3 Conceptual framework


- Absorption: The absorption of a toxic is defined as the process by
which it crosses membranes and layers of cells
- Bioaccumulation: Accumulation of substances within organisms.
In them, concentrations will be very high despite being low in the
middle.Biodisponibilidad.

6
- Highly toxic metals: Those that have no known biological function
for which their presence in living organisms is harmful, in this group
is commonly found cadmium, mercury, lead, nickel, antimony, etc.
- Heavy metals: Group of chemical elements that have a relatively
high density (greater than 5 g / cm³ when in elemental form) or
whose atomic number is greater than 20 (excluding alkaline and
alkaline-earth metals) also have some toxicity for human beings.
- Metalloids: Each of the chemical elements whose properties are
intermediate between those of metallic elements and those of non-
metallic elements, such as cadmium, antimony, boron.
- Toxic: Capable of poisoning or damaging an organism. Toxic
substances can cause adverse effects.

7. HYPOTHESIS SYTEM
7.1. HYPOTHESIS
7.1.1 General hypothesis
- The presence of the two plant species Lenma minor
(lenteja de agua) and Eichhornia crassipes (Jacinto de
agua) in wastewater influence the concentration of
dissolved metals as lead compounds.
7.1.2 Specific hypothesis
- The two plant species Lenma minor (lenteja de agua)
and Eichhornia crassipes (Jacinto de agua) have the
capacity to accumulate lead, on a laboratory scale.
7.2 OPERATION OF VARIABLES AND INDICATORS OF THE
HYPOTHESIS
Independent variables:

Independent variable Indicator measure

Water pollution Concentration Pb ppm

7
Dependent variables

Dependent variable Indicator measure

Independent variable Concentración Pb Ppm

Indicador:
Lead reference level for waters ECA 0.05 mg/L y LMP 0.2 mg/L .
8. METHODOLOGICAL DESIGN
8.1. TYPE OF INVESTIGATION
The type of research that is proposed is of the correlational-
experimental quantitative type.
8.2. METHODS TO BE USED
8.2.1 BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL
Two plant species Lenma minor (lenteja de agua) and Eichhornia
crassipes (Jacinto de agua) will be used.

8.2.2 METHODS

Location of the study area

- The work methodology will consist of making a diagnosis of the


current state of the literature, based on the study proposed.
- The experiments will be carried out in one of the Laboratories
at the Faculty of Chemistry of the National University of the
Center of Peru (UNCP)

Collection of biological material

- Copies of one of the springs of the district of December 3 -


Chupaca are collected, taking into account their appearance,
similarity in size, color of leaves and the appearance of the
roots.
- To propagate the plant species, both species will be collected
from aquatic sources of contaminated environments (plants
adapted to high concentrations of lead), then these plants will
be sown until they reach half of the vegetative state.

8
Acclimatization of macrophytes
- The macrofitas collected will be washed with
distilled water and transferred to buckets with
potable water

- They will be grown in the laboratory until they


develop new shoots and reach their young age.

- The factors involved in the lead absorption


capacity (pH and electrical conductivity) of the
two plant species Lenma minor (lenteja de
agua) and Eichhornia crassipes (Jacinto de
agua) will be adequately selected.

Preparation of dilutions

- Prepare standard solutions from the lead nitrate solution at


different concentrations 0.0 ppm, 0.5 ppm, 1.0 ppm, 1.5 ppm and
2 ppm which will be the means of intoxication for the two plant
species, with 05 replicates of each.

Acute toxicity test of macrophytes

- For the treatments, buckets of 5 liters per treatment will be used.


The evaluations will be every 24 hours (every day) within which
the phytotoxic effects will be evaluated. Likewise, the recipients
will be evaluated twice a day during the whole testing period in
order to determine if they show signs of phytotoxicity and / or
loss of solution by evaporation.

Phytoremediation capacity

- The phytoremediation capacity of the plants will be evaluated


by measuring the final content of lead in both roots, stems and
leaves using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry method
(graphite furnace). The measurements of the concentration of
the metals in the culture solution will be made before and after

9
the treatment with the plants using analytical techniques of
atomic absorption.
- In addition, each one of the specimens that show certain
physiological damages such as change of leaf coloration and
root detachment will be registered.
Analysis of data
The generated data will be statistically analyzed by means of the
statistical program SPSS 20 for Windows, where the ANOVA
variance analysis test will be applied, then the coefficient of
variation is determined to determine the Duncan or Tukey multiple
delay test.
8.3. DATA COLLECTION AND PROCESSING
a. Information sources
Primary sources
Secondary sources, review of existing literature related to the
subject of study and experimental data generated.
b. Experiment design

10
Figure N°1. Experimental design of the thesis project FITORREMEDIATION: LEAD ACCUMULATOR CAPACITY IN VEGETABLE
SPECIES lemna minor (duckweed) and Eichornia crassipes (water hyacinth) EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF LEAD
NITRATE TO LABORATORY SCALE

COLLECTION OF BIOLOGICAL Jacinto de agua ACCLIMATIZATION OF


LOCATION OF THE STUDY AREA
MATERIAL MACROPHITES

Lenteja de agua

pH

MACROPHYTES TOXICITY TEST


FITREMEDIATORY CAPACITY ANALYSIS OF DATA
0.0 ppm

0.5 ppm

1.0 ppm
The generated data will be statistically
analyzed by means of the statistical
1.5 ppm
program SPSS 20 for Windows, where the
2.0 ppm
ANOVA variance analysis test will be
0.0 ppm STEM applied, then the coefficient of variation is
0.5 ppm determined to determine the Duncan or

11
LEAF COLOR Tukey multiple delay test.
1.0 ppm
ESTATE ROOT DETACHMENT
1.5 ppm
PHYSICALLY e en el programa estadístico SPSS 20
2.0 ppm para Windows, donde se aplicara la
prueba de análisis de varianza ANOVA,
9. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES
9.1 Table N °1. Schedule Of Activities
ACTIVIDADE Set Oct Nov Dic En Feb Ma Ab Ma Ju Ju
S . . . . e . r r y n l

Search for X x
information
Preparation X x
of thesis plan
Sustaining x
the thesis
plan
Advance of x x x x
the thesis
Theoretical
framework
Experimental x x x x
part
Water x x x
sampling
Analysis of x x x
samples
data x x x
processing
Interpretation x x
of results
Writing of the x x x x
thesis
Sustaining x
the thesis
Source: Self made.

12
10. BUDGET
Table N° 2. Detailed expense
Total
CONCEPT Quantity Unit cost cost

TOTAL COST PROJECT


THESIS PLAN 1 500.00 500.00

TOTAL PURCHASE OF
MATERIALS 1 400.00 400.00

Field work 3 300.00 900.00

WATER CHEMICAL
ANALYSIS

Chemical analysis metals 12 400.00 4800.00

Control analysis 12 250.00 3000.00

TOTAL COST PROJECT


THESIS 1000.00

TOTAL COST S/. 10600.00

Source: Self made.


10.1 Amount and source of financing
Amount: S/. 10600,00
Own financing: 100%.

13
BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. 1. IBM (s.f.) IBM.COM. Retrieved on DECEMBER 15, 2017, from


WWW.IBM.COM: https://www.ibm.com/analytics/en/en/technology/spss/

2. 2. Rubio C, Gutiérrez AJ, Martin RE, Revert C, Lozano G, Hardisson A,


et al. Lead as a food contaminant. Toxicology Journal [Internet]. July
2004 [cited February 2015]; 21 (2-3): [approx. 20 p.]. Available at:
http://www.fmed.uba.ar/depto/toxico1/articulos/7.pdf

3. 3. Wang Q, Zhao H, Chen J, Hao Q, Gu K, Zhu Y, et al. delta-


Aminolevulinic acid dehydration activity, urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid
concentration and zinc protoporphyrin level among people with low level
of lead exposure. Int. J. Hyg. Environ Health. 2010 Jan; 213 (1): 52-8.

4. Carrasquero Tomas, Alexander Michael. Effects of sub-chronic low-level


lead exposure on the homeostasis of copper and zinc in rat tissues.
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. PubMed. 2002; 24
(3): 207-11.

5. Bowen, H. J 1979 Environmetal chemistry of the elements. Academic


Press, New York 333p.

6. Harvey, P. J, Campanella B. F, Castro P. M., Harms H, Lichtfouse E,


Schäffner A. R, Smrcek, S. and Werck-Reichhart D. 2002.
Phytoremediation of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons, Anilines and Phenols.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research 9, 29-47.

7. Sanin, L. H., Gonzalez-Cossio, T., Romieu, I., Hernandez-Avila, M. 1998


Accumulation of lead in bone and its effects on health. Public Health
Méx.40, 4, p.359-368. ISSN 0036- 3634

8. Sanin, L. H., Gonzalez-Cossio, T., Romieu, I., Hernandez-Avila, M. 1998


Accumulation of lead in bone and its effects on health. Public Health
Méx.40, 4, p.359-368. ISSN 0036-
3634uba.ar/depto/toxico1/articulos/7.pdfChaney Martinez, Juan & Ryan
1994 Evaluation of Levels of Lead and Cadmium Pollution in Soil
samples and Agricultural Products From the region near the Carrasquero
metallurgical complex. of Chemical Investigations, Career of Chemical
Sciences, Greater University of San Andres of La Paz - Bolivia, Bolivia.
Rev. Bol. Quim v.26 n.2 La Paz oct. 200.

14
15