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CHAPTER – 1

INTRODUCTION

1
CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION

Snacks can be consume by children, adolescents, adults and senior citizens as these are small
portion for a quick meal to enable them to satisfy their hunger between lunch and dinner. It can
be termed as a small portion, light and quickly consumable food or drink and it is consumed
between the regular meals. (BAERTLEIN, 2016)

Eating healthy snacks fuels the body with energy, improves the brain power, regulates weight
management, boosts up mood and makes the day pleasant. (ASHAKIRAN AND DEEPTHI R.,
2012) Due to the presence of body healing chemicals, dietary fibres, high vitamins and mineral
content in our Indian traditional foods have been recognized as the functional
foods. Adolescents as per the deed consume more snacks than the other age groups. Nowadays
our healthy traditional snacks have been replaced by the modern junk food. These junk snacks
contain more sugar, fat and calories that are the origin for all major health problems. Consuming
these unhealthy junks makes the adolescents to skip their regular meals, overeating and inactive
life styles leads to overweight and obesity. (ANUPAMA, 2015)

Thus to meet the nutritional requirements of adolescent and save them from side effects of junk
food, there is the need to incorporate some healthy traditional ingredient like flax seeds, aloe
Vera, red rice which is the healthy traditional ingredient with high nutritious value and easily
digestible form of rice variety commonly available across India in the snack products.

Rice being the main staple food, major part of the nutrient requirement is
being derived from this food source and is dependent on the quality of the rice
consumed. Farmers in every part of the country have a deep knowledge of their own
rice varieties, of their environmental and nutritional requirements and their unique
properties. This has enabled them to harvest a crop even under the most severe stress
situations. The ancient literatures of rice-growing Asian countries such as Thailand,
Myanmar, China, Malaysia, Indonesia and India have attributed some medicinal
properties to rice in addition to it being the mainstay as food. Before the advent of
high-yielding varieties which are mostly white, red rice formed an important group in
almost all the rice-growing Asian countries such as Sri Lanka, Philippines, Korea,
China, Japan and India. Of the various species of wild rice, Oryza granulata L., Oryza
officinalis L., Oryza rufipogon L. and Orzya nivara L. occur in India and the later two
are used as food and medicine. In an evaluation program for biotic stresses conducted
on around 12,750 entries under the auspices of the Directorate of Rice Research
(Hyderabad, India) 28.31% of the entries were colored rice. Of these, 10.48%, 9.41%,
and 8.40% had red, brown, and purple pericarp. In India, red rice are prevalent in the
south, east and the hilly tracts of the northeast and west, few from the plains of

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Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat and in Kerala, Tamil
Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and the northeastern states
with areas having unfavorable conditions such as deep water, drought, sandy soils,
salinity and cold conditions and show high tolerance to unfavorable environments as
infertile soils, deep water and mountain lands. Most of the red rice varieties are coarse
grains and glutinous and is eaten on the traditional days of fasting and considered
highly nutritive and medicinal. The indigenous paddy variety in India contributes
tremendously to the health with its high nutritional and medicinal qualities. (HEGDE S., 2012)

Colored rice in which the kernel colour (black, red or purple) formed by
deposits of anthocyanin in different layers of the pericarp, seed coat and aleurone
(Chaudhary,2003) have been preferred in the past for their special features such as
medicinal value and exclusive taste. Rice with a red bran layer (red rice) occur as
wild, weedy or cultivated types and the red kernels are covered with dark or light colored husk.
Colored rice and flavored, black rice were the favorites of the royals of
China, while red rice were preferred by people in many parts of India, Sri Lanka and
Bhutan. Other than its main stay as food in recent times, interest in red rice has been
revived because of the potent source of antioxidants, minerals and iron and is
promoted as a functional food (Yawadio et al., 2007).

In India, red rice occupied a special position


since time immemorial and the founding fathers of ancient Ayurveda- Susruta (c.400
BC), Charaka (c. 700 BC) and Vagbhata (c.700 AD) in their respective treatises
considered red rice (Rakta sali) the best among the sali varieties of rice. Charaka, the
author of Charaka Samhita classified the Rakta sali or Lohit sali rice (with red husk
and grain) as the best. This variety was considered the most efficacious and subdued
the three deranged doshas. In Garuda Purana red sali is quoted to be a destroyer of the
tridoshas - the vata, the pitta, and the kapha which also delays thirst and arrests
perspiration. The medicinal value of rice such as Sashtika, Sali and parched rice have
been documented in the Charaka Samhita (c.700 BC) and the Susruta Samhita (c.400
BC) in the treatment of various ailments such as diarrhea, vomiting, fever,
haemorrhage, chest pain, wounds and burns. These rice cultivars have been used as
food in India, China, Korea and Japan since more than 3,000 years. (Ahuja et al.,2008)

In Bhavaprakasha Neghantu red rice is attributed with the following qualities:


Balya ; Inner strength, Varnya; Improves complexion, Asradoshgith ; Removes blood
impurities ,Chakshushya ; Good for eyes , Muthrala; Increases urination , Swarya ;
Good for voice , Shukrala ; Improves seminal qualities, Thrithjyarupala; Clears thirst
and fever (Ahuja et al, 2007). Rice based ORS is reported to be better than glucose
based ORS and has been included in WHO (World Health Organization)
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recommendations.. Red rice has also been used as medicine and in therapy by the traditional
practitioners mainly for allergies, skin ailments, uterus related problems like excessive
and irregular menstruation, white discharges, odema, nerve disorders such as paralysis
and muscular weaknesses, intestinal and digestive problems such as diarrhea,
vomiting, indigestions, liver and kidney disorders, fever and infection. Red rice yeast
is used for medicinal purpose and is prepared by fermenting yeast Monascus purpurea
over red rice. It is said to promote blood circulation and is used in treating stomach
upset, indigestion, bruised muscles and hangovers; and it is a cholesterol-lowering
product that is commercially marketed the world over (Chaudhary and Tran,
2001).The red rice bran layer contains polyphenols and anthocyanin and possesses
antioxidant properties and rich in iron and zinc (Ling et al., 2001). Hence this has
gained popularity in Japan as a functional food .The zinc and iron content of red rice
is higher than that of white rice. Oki et al. (2005) found that the radical scavenging
activity is higher in red rice than in black and white rice, and this activity is correlated
with polyphenol and pro anthocyanidin content.

Keeping in view the present study entitled “DEVELOPMENT, NUTRITIONAL AND


SENSORY EVALUATION OF RED RICE (ORYZA SATIVA) INCORPORATED
SNACKS FOR ADOLESCENTS” was under taken to utilize the nutritional qualities of red rice
in preparation of snacks products for adolescents. Four nutritionally rich snacks products were
developed using red rice and other ingredients with following objectives:

1.2 OBJECTIVES

1.2.1 To develop and standardized nutritious snacks products incorporated with red rice.

1.2.2 To determine the acceptance of prepared products through sensory evaluation.

1.2.3 To carry out the analysis of most acceptable products in terms of nutrients i.e. energy,
protein, carbohydrates, fat, fibre and iron.

1.2.4 To assess the shelf life or the keeping quality of the developed products.

4
CHAPTER – 2

REVIEW
OF LITERATURE

5
CHAPTER -2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Research conducted in the past on the aspects relevant to the present investigation in the country
and abroad is presented in this chapter

Under following heads:

2.1 Snacks and adolescents.


2.2 Nutritional needs during adolescence stage
2.3 Nutritional profile of red rice.
2.4 History of red rice
2.5 Health benefits of red rice.
2.6 Various applications of red rice.

2.1 SNACKS AND ADOLESCENTS.

 DR. VAIDA NAHEED (2013) conducted a study on Prevalence of Fast Food Intake
among Urban Adolescent Students to know how students are attracted by fast foods that
has assumed importance in recent times. For the result he found that all of the
respondents in the age group of 14-18 years eat fast foods. It was only in the age group of
19 years that 4.16 percent respondents were not eating fast foods. Majority of the
respondents do not skip lunch. However, in the age group of 15 and 18 years, around 50
percent of the respondents skipped lunch.

 D THIRUSELVAKUMAR et.al. (2014) conducted study on the factors affecting food


choices and attitude of choosing food items among adolescents in SOUTH INDIA and
for that almost all of them have three divided meals given in a day including snacks also.
By this study they found that three fourth (74%) of the children were already deciding on
what food they consume with two third of them not consuming any fruits in the previous
one week of the study and many children’s preferred the snacks as their first meal.

 NCAER-New Delhi (2014) conducted study on an analysis of changing food


consumption pattern in india over the past two decades due to income induced diet
diversification, impact of globalization, increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle of
people. Because of this study they found that the diet pattern in india is changing day by
day and despite the changing diet pattern in India over the years, the overall calorie intake

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has registered only a modest increase from an average 2250 K Calories during 1987-1993
to 2310 K Calories during 2005-2010. A decline in calorie intake from vegetable–based
food, more importantly from cereal-based food, was more than offset by increased calorie
intake from animal based food products.

 GUPTA et.al. (2015) conducted study on Unhealthy Fat in Street and Snack Foods in
Low-Socioeconomic Settings in India which is based on food environments of rural
villages and an urban slum with reference to commercially available unbranded packaged
snacks and street foods sold by vendors, and to analyze the type and quantity of fat in
these food. They found the result that a variety of snacks were sold, including those in
unlabeled transparent packages and open glass jars. Mean fat content in snacks was 28.8
g per 100-g serving in rural settings and 29.6 g per 100-g serving in urban settings.
Sampled oils contained high levels of saturated fats (25% to 69% total fatty acids) and
trans fats (0.1% to 30% of total fatty acids).

 YADAV HARIKA et.al. (2015) conducted study on dietary pattern of college going
adolescents (17-19 years) in urban area of Belagavi, Karnataka, India to assess the poor
eating habits that are a major public health concern among college students who
experience transition into university life, during which they are exposed to stress and lack
of time. By the study they found that mean calorie consumption among boys was 1472
±417 Kcal and in girls was 1360 ± 380 Kcal. 45.5% of boys and 51.5% of girls were
underweight. Majority had regular meals and breakfast (72% &, 80.8% respectively).
46.8% consumed fruits less than three times per week, 58% had fried food twice or more
per week and 40.5% consumed less than 2 liters of water a day.

 RATHI et.al. Nutrition Journal (2017) conducted study on Food consumption patterns
of adolescents aged 14–16 years in Kolkata, India to figure out the food consumption
patterns and to prefer the intake of healthy foods over unhealthy foods. The result found
that the adolescents reported poor dietary intakes over one quarter (30%) reported no
consumption of vegetables and 70% reported eating three or more servings of energy-
dense snacks, on the previous day. Nearly half of the respondents (45%) did not consume
any servings of fruits and 47% reported drinking three or more servings of energy-dense
beverages. The mean consumption of food groups in serves/day varied from 0.88 (SD =
1.36) for pulses and legumes to 6.25 (SD = 7.22) for energy-dense snacks. In general,
girls had more nutritious dietary intakes than boys.

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2.2 NUTRITIONAL NEEDS DURING ADOLESCENT STAGE

 WHO (2006) conducted study on Adolescent Nutrition and founds that the growth
during adolescence is faster than at any other time in an individual’s life except the
first year. Necessary nutrients are required to meet the demands of physical and
cognitive growth and development.

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES FOR ADOLECENT

Source: NIN, 2010.

GROUP CATEGOR BODY ENERGY PROTEIN FAT(GM/DAY) IRON


Y WEIGHT(KG) (KCAL/DAY) (GM/DAY) (MG/
DAY)

BOYS 16-17 YRS 55.4 3020 61.5 50 28

GIRLS 16-17 YRS 52.1 2440 55.5 35 26

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2.3 NUTRITIONAL PROFILE OF RED RICE

NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF RED RICE

ENERGY 216 KCAL


TOTAL FAT 2 gm
 SATURATED 0 gm
 POLYUNSATURATED 0 gm
 MONOUNSATURATED 0 gm
 TRANS 0 gm

CHOLESTEROL 0 gm
TOTAL CARBS 45 gm
DIETARY FIBRES 2 gm
SUGARS 1 gm
PROTEIN 7 gm
IRON 5.5 gm
POTASSIUM 0 gm
SODIUM 10 gm

Source:-FAO, 2004

TAXONOMY OF RED RICE-

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family


Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Poales Poaceae

Scientific Name: Oryza rufipogon Griff.


Common Name(s):
English – Red Rice, Wild Rice
Oryza fatua J. Koenig ex Trin., nom. nud.
Synonym(s):
Oryza sativa L. var. fatua Prain

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Source- (http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/176902/0)

 PENGKUMSRI et.al.(2015) conducted study on physicochemical and antioxidative


properties of black, brown, red rice varieties of northern Thailand. This study was aimed
to assess the physicochemical l and antioxidative properties of three rice varieties
(Chiang Mai Black rice, Mali Red rice and Suphanburi-1 Brown rice) of different
cultivars of northern Thailand. Rice bran extracts of these three cultivars were prepared
with different solvents (polar and non-polar) for the evaluation of total phytochemical
content and anti-oxidant free-radical scavenging properties. Chiang Mai Black rice
contained higher concentration of phenolic acid, flavonoids, and anthocyanins (Cyanidin
3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin chloride). For result the high extract recovery
was recorded for CBlR by the 0.1 N HCl solvent in methanol (21.30 ± 3.20%) and least
recovery (4.88 ± 0.73%) was noticed for SBrR, but with 80% ethanol as solvent.
Approximately, all the rice varieties were sourced for equal amount of extract recovery
with hexane and the percentage of yield was varied based on the extraction solvent even
for same cultivar variety. The study demonstrated that there is a high content of cyanidin
3-glucoside, and peonidin 3-glucoside among black rice variety, but there is no notable
amount of anthocyanin detected in red rice variety which was tested in the current study.

 M.D.W.Samaranayake et.al.,(2017) conducted study on nutritional and antioxidants


properties of selected traditional rice (oryza sativa l.)varities of SRILANKA. The
nutritional properties of the selected Sri Lankan traditional rice were observed.
Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among the varieties for the tested
nutritional properties. Maa Wee had the highest (P < 0.05) crude protein (11.16 ± 0.37%)
and sugar (5.86 ± 0.15%) contents while Heeneti had the highest (P < 0.05) ash (1.68 ±
0.02%) content among the varieties tested. Highest (P < 0.05) dietary fiber content was
observed for the variety Suwadal (6.28 ± 0.06%) while both Suwadal (3.28 ± 0.04%) and
Kurulu Thuda (3.14 ± 0.06%) contained the highest fat contents. Among the varieties
tested Suwadal had the least available carbohydrate (80.80 ± 0.36%) content.Fatty acid
composition of bran oils of selected rice varieties were also observed. Kurulu Thuda rice
variety exhibited the highest oleic (49.48 ± 0.58%) and palmitic acid (22.16 ± 0.89%)
contents while Maa Wee showed the highest linoleic acid (31.86 ± 0.76%) content. The
most predominant fatty acid in all rice bran oils was oleic acid. The antioxidant
properties of brans of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties were observed.
Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed for the antioxidant properties among
rice varieties and between red and white rice tested in this study.

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2.3 HISTORY OF RED RICE

 In 2008, AHUJA et al conducted study on the historical perspective of red rice and
found that Red rice occupied a special position
since time immemorial and the founding fathers of ancient Ayurveda- Susruta (c.400BC),
Charaka (c. 700 BC) and Vagbhata (c.700 AD) in their respective treaties considered red
rice (Rakta sali) the best among the sali varieties of rice in the treatment of various
ailments such as diarrhea, vomiting, fever,
haemorrhage, chest pain, wounds and burns. These rice cultivators have been used as
food in India, China, Korea and Japan since more than 3,000 years.

 HEGDE S., 2012 conducted study on red rice history in India and found that in India, red
rice are prevalent in the
south, east and the hilly tracts of the northeast and west, few from the plains of
Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Western Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat and in Kerala,
TamilNadu, Karnataka, Bihar, Orissa, Bengal, Madhya Pradesh and the northeastern
states with areas having unfavorable conditions such as deep water, drought, sandy soils,
salinity and cold conditions and show high tolerance to unfavorable environments as
infertile soils, deep water and mountain lands. Most of the red rice varieties are coarse
grains and glutinous and is eaten on the traditional days of fasting and considered highly
nutritive and medicinal. The indigenous paddy variety in India contribute tremendously
to the health with its high nutritional and medicinal qualities.

2.4 HEALTH BENEFITS OF RED RICE

 Chaudhary and Tran,2001 conduction study on medicinal qualities of red rice and
found that Red rice has also been used as medicine and in therapy by the traditional
practitioners mainly for allergies, skin ailments, uterus related problems like excessive
and irregular menstruation, white discharges, odema, nerve disorders such as paralysis
and muscular weaknesses, intestinal and digestive problems such as diarrhea, vomiting,
indigestions, liver and kidney disorders, fever and infection. Red rice yeast
is used for medicinal purpose and is prepared by fermenting yeast Monascus purpurea
over red rice. It is said to promote blood circulation and is used in treating stomach upset,
indigestion, bruised muscles and hangovers; and it is a cholesterol-lowering product that
is commercially marketed the world over .

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 LING et al 2001, conducted study on red rice as functional food and found that the red
rice bran layer contains polyphenols and anthocyanin and possesses antioxidant
properties and rich in iron and zinc . Hence this has gained popularity in Japan as
functional food.

2.5 VARIOUS APPLICATIONS OF RED RICE

 NAKAMURA SUMIKO et.al. (2012) conducted an study on Quality Evaluation of Rice


Crackers Based on Physicochemical Measurements. The processing suitability as a
material for rice crackers was characterized in the present study, based on
physicochemical measurements and sensory testing of high-quality premium rice, low-
amylose rice, JaponicaIndica hybrid rice, and red rice as the rice cultivar samples. Puffed
rice crackers were prepared and the relationship between the physicochemical properties
of the rice grains and the quality of the resulting products was investigated. The result
that came out was rice and processed rice quality is greatly affected by the moisture
content; the higher the amount of moisture, the faster the quality of a rice crackers
deteriorates. The moisture content of rice and processed rice therefore needs to be kept at
a low level. Hoshiyutaka, the Japonica and Indica hybrid rice, had a low moisture content
(11.2%), while the other rice samples had a moisture content the range of 12.3%– 13.8%.
The moisture content of the constituent rice was adjusted to about 10% before baking and
the moisture content of the rice cracker was kept at about 3%–5% after baking as
reported in the previous references.

 WIDODO SLAMET et.al.(2017) conducted an study on Improving Macro Nutrition


Content on Nutritional Biscuits with Substitution of Tilapia Fish Flour, Sardine Fish
Flour, and Red Rice. The research is focused on the utilization of fish and red rice in the
biscuit production, with the expectation that it will be well received. The more the public
like the biscuit product, the more the nutrition of biscuit is absorbed. Based on this, it is
urgent to conduct research to study the biscuit production process by utilizing those three
ingredients. Therefore, the objective of this research is to produce biscuit formula with
additional tilapia fish flour and red rice flour. They found the result that the process of
making biscuits based on tilapia fish flour and red rice flour begins with the preparation
of ingredients and equipment used. Then, the ingredients are weighed according to the
formula. The ingredients are mixed into biscuit dough, weighing 6 grams or 12 grams per
ingredients. Further, molding each piece, baking/oven until cooked, and then colling and
packing. The biscuit formulations are all formulation produced in the process of tilapia
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fish flour and red rice flour based nutritious biscuits. The nutritional content studied are
the macronutrient content, which includes energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, water, ash,
and crude fiber.

 In 2017, KANCHANA et.al. Developed snacks recipes incorporated with red rice flakes
and the study confirmed that red rice contains various healthy nutrients; it is gluten free,
provides immediate energy to our system, improves the bowel movements and stabilize
blood sugar level.

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CHAPTER – 3

METHODOLOGY

14
CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

This study was an attempt has been made to develop four snacks using red rice and other various
ingredients. A detailed description of the methodology followed in the development of products
is discussed in this chapter under following headings:

3.1 Product development

 Location of the study


 Procurement of sample
 Processing of sample
 Development of products

3.2 Sensory evaluation of the developed products

3.3 Nutrient analysis of the developed products


3.4 Shelf life study
3.5 Statistical analysis

3.1 PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

 PROCUREMENT OF SAMPLE: Red Rice samples were procured from the local
market. The rice was sorted and all broken and infested rice were removed from the
sample.

 PROCESSING OF SAMPLE: the samples were then proceed to make flour. Steps
involved in processing were:
I. Washing : the sample was washed in tap water 2 to 3 times till clear
water runs from the sample
II. Drying : the rice were then spread in tray and kept for drying in shade
for 2 days
III. Milling: the dried rice were then milled to form fine flour in a grinder.

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 PREPARATION OF PRODUCT :

RECIPES WERE PREPARED USING RED RICE IN TRIPLICATE.THEY WERE AS


FOLLOWS:

A. RED RICE CRACKERS


B. RED RICE KURKURE
C. RED RICE BALLS
D. RED RICE BITES

A. RED RICE CRACKERS

INGREDIENTS: FOR 150 GM

TABLE 3.4 (1)

INGREDIENTS AMOUNT
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT
1 2 3
RED RICE FLOUR 50gm 75gm 100gm
ALL PURPOSE FLOUR 50gm 25gm -
OIL 50 ml 50ml 50ml
SPICES 1 tsp 1tsp 1tsp
BAKING SODA 1/2 tsp 1/2tsp 1/2tsp
SALT As per taste As per taste As per taste

METHOD:

 In a wide bowl, combine all the flours, oil, spices, baking soda, salt and mix well.
 Add enough water and kneed into firm dough. Keep aside for 10 to 15 minutes.
 Make small balls of dough and flattened them in round shape. Prick the surface of
crackers with the help of fork. Deep fry and cool them, then store in air tight
container.

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B. RED RICE KURKURE

INGREDIENTS: FOR 150GM

TABLE 3.4 (2)

INGREDIENTS AMOUNT
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT
1 2 3
RED RICE FLOUR 50gm 75gm 100gm
ALL PURPOSE FLOUR 50gm 25gm -
OIL 50 ml 50ml 50ml
SPICES 1 tsp 1tsp 1tsp
BAKING SODA 1/2 tsp 1/2tsp 1/2tsp
SALT As per taste As per taste As per taste

METHOD:

 In a wide bowl, combine all the flours, oil, spices, baking soda, salt and mix well.
 Add enough water and kneed into firm dough. Keep aside for 10 to 15 minutes.
 Fill small portion of dough in the machine make kurkure on the flat greased plate.
 Deep fry and cool them, then store in air tight container.

C. RED RICE BALLS

INGREDIENTS: FOR 175 GM

TABLE 3.4 (4)

INGREDIENTS AMOUNT
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT
1 2 3
RED RICE FLOUR 50gm 50gm 100gm
WHITE RICE FLOUR 50gm 20gm -
SUGAR 75gm 75gm 75gm
SESAME SEEDS 10gm 10gm 10gm
OIL 40gm 40gm 40gm

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METHOD:

 In a wide bowl, combine sugar syrup, all flours and water and mix well.
 Now cook the mixture at low flame till it cooks properly.
 Add sesame seeds in the mixture.
 Make small balls of the mixture and deep fry them.

D. RED RICE BITES

INGREDIENTS: FOR 150GM


FOR 250 GM OF TREATMENT 3
TABLE 3.4(3)

INGREDIENTS AMOUNT
TREATMENT TREATMENT TREATMENT
1 2 3
RED RICE FLOUR 20gm 20gm 20gm
DATES 100gm 100gm 100gm
NUTS 30gm 30gm 30gm
GHEE 10ml 10ml 10ml
SESAME SEEDS 5gm - 5gm
WATERMELON SEEDS 5gm - 5gm
DARK COMPOUND - - 100gm
CHOCOLATE

METHOD:

 In a mixer jar, take rice flour, dates n nuts and grind well
 Pour the mixture in the plate and add rosted seeds and form a dough
 Flattend the dough on butter paper and cut into small pieces.
 For chocolate coating , melt the chocolate n dip one by one pieces of bites into it and
place it on butter paper till they dry.

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3.2 SENSORY EVALUATION OF DEVELOPED PRODUCTS

 In this phase, the prepared samples and their three treatments were analyzed for their
acceptance among the target group and trained penalist member. For this the following
criteria were decided-
 SAMPLE AREA- The study was covered the major “ ALL MAJOR” colleges of
the city like I. T. COLLEGE and MMAHILA VIDYALAYA P.G. COLLEGE.

 SAMPLE SIZE- The sample size decided was 53 subjects. This was done to get an
impartial and a large opinion about red rice snacks products.

 SAMPLING- The population being large, the method of purposive sampling has been
found to be appropriate and accurate. It is a non- probability sampling procedure. In this
type of sampling, items of sample are selected purposively by the researching the choice
concerning items.

 PERIOD OF STUDY- The development of the snacks products was done in the month
of january 2018. The sensory evaluation of all four samples and their three treatments
were conducted in month of march 2018 and nutrient analysis of the most acceptable
treatment of every snack sample was done in the month of march.

 MEHOD OF DATA COLLECTION- for this purpose a questionnaire was prepared


and these were distributed to the subject with the samples of four snacks products.
Structured questionnaire was preferred ,in this questions are presented with exactly the
same wordings and in the same order to all respondents. They then filled in the
questionnaire on the basis of what they felt after the consumption of developed snacks
products.

 TYPE OF SENSORY TEST- Hedonic rating scale was used for sensory evaluation of
the developed product. It is considered to be a valuable tool in solving problems
involving food acceptability. It is useful in product improvement, quality maintenance
and more important in a new product development. Developed products should possess
desired quality, representing the dominant flavor and aroma of the ingredients used. It is
desirable that the product be free from off flavor, off taste, unacceptable aroma and
faulty.

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 HYPOTHESIS USED-

NULL HYPOTHESIS – The developed snacks products is not nutritionally adequate and has
sufficient shelf life.

H₀ ≠ µ

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS- the developed snacks products is nutritionally adequate and


has sufficient shelf life.

H₀ = µ.

3.3 NUTRIENT ANALYSIS

The nutrient analysis of more acceptable treatment of snacks product samples was
done through test method.

TEST RESULTS

SAMPLE 1

S. NO. PARAMETER RESULTS


1. CALORIFIC VALUE
2. PROTEIN
3. CARBOHYDRATE
4. FAT
5. FIBRE
6. IRON

SAMPLE 2

S. NO. PARAMETER RESULTS


1. CALORIFIC VALUE
2. PROTEIN
3. CARBOHYDRATE
4. FAT

20
5. FIBRE
6. IRON

SAMPLE 3

S. NO. PARAMETER RESULTS


1. CALORIFIC VALUE
2. PROTEIN
3. CARBOHYDRATE
4. FAT
5. FIBRE
6. IRON

SAMPLE 4

S. NO. PARAMETER RESULTS


1. CALORIFIC VALUE
2. PROTEIN
3. CARBOHYDRATE
4. FAT
5. FIBRE
6. IRON

3.4 SHELF LIFE-

Most acceptable snacks products were studied for their storage stability after packing in different
packing materials i.e. LDPE, HDPE covers and aluminium foil. The products were initially wrapped in
layer of butter paper and then packaged in different packaging materials. The packaged products were
stored at room temperature and refrigerator as per products demand for one month. Sensory evaluation
was carried out for the stored products periodically at 0th day 15th and 30th days.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

21
CHAPTER – 4

RESULT
AND DISCUSSION

22
CHAPTER – 5

SUMMARY
AND CONCLUSION

23
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

This is a well known fact that snacks are considered as a source of energy. In India, snacks can
be termed as a small portion, light and quickly consumable food or drink and it is very common
among adolescent to consumed snacks to satisfy the hunger between lunch and dinner but these
modern junk snacks are nutritionally unhealthy for them. It is well known fact that red rice is
very nutritious traditional grain. By keeping the nutritional qualities in the mind- here through
studies have designed to develop snacks products incorporated with red rice. In these snacks
products, important nutrients like protein, carbohydrate, fibre, and iron is present in rich amount
which is very healthy for fulfilling nutritional needs of adolescents .

This study was conducted into four main parts:- development, sensory evaluation, nutrient
analysis and estimation of shelf life of products. After development the conclusion from this
study is that the sensory evaluation of red rice snacks products are most acceptable among
adolescents and other age groups as well which shows in results its high nutritive value and its
acceptable taste and flavor among adolescent. So this study was successfully completed and we
obtained snacks products of red rice which are not only tasty but also nutritious and very much
helpful in the growth years of adolescents.

In market these are much availability of snacks products but we should prefer the snacks which
are healthy and helpful in order to meeting the nutritional needs.

24
SUGGESTION

25
SUGGESTION

The evaluating the effectiveness of developed product, it can be provided for all age group
especially adolescents.

Adolescents are one of the vulnerable group because of their unhealthy snacking habits in their
growth years which is gaining the attention of the nutritionals day by day. The traditional
ingredients like red rice which are full with nutrients are nutritionally adequate for adolescents.
The incorporation of red rice in the snacks products of adolescents stands suitable and helpful in
their mental and physical development. Red rice is traditionally used in Indian homes from
ancient times but its incorporation in snacks products increases its consumption and prevents
adolescents from inactive life style, over weight and obesity.

Different type of products can be made by incorporating red rice to enjoy whole some and
nutritionally adequate meal.

Other products incorporated with healthy traditional ingredient like ragi, flax seeds etc should be
develop to meet the nutritional demand of adolescents.

26
BIBLIOGRAPHY

27
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 Ahuja Uma , Ahuja S.C. Chaudhary N., Thakrar R. Red Rices- Past,Present and
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 Oki, T., Masuda, M., Nagai, S., Take’ichi, M., Kobayashi, M., Nishiba, Y.,
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and black rice. In: Rice is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century.
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Tokyo and Tsukuba, Japan (Toriyama, K., Heong, K.L., and Hardy, B.,
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IN SELECTED SOUTH-EAST ASIAN COUNTRIES,MARCH2006.
 RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOWANCES NIN, 2010.
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AVAILABLE AT: http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/full/176902/0)

28
 WIDODO SLAMET et.al.(2017). Improving Macro Nutrition Content on
Nutritional Biscuits with Substitution of Tilapia Fish Flour, Sardine Fish Flour,
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 Kothari,C.R, Resarch Methodology methods and techniques, 2004

29
APPENDIX

30
SCORE CARD

 Name of the judge:


 Name of the product:

You are requested to evaluate the given samples and score the qualities of the given samples.
Express the acceptability numerically given score point. Score Point Reaction.

 9. Like extremely
 8. Like very much
 7. Like moderately
 6. Like slightly
 5. Neither like nor dislike
 4. Dislike slightly
 3. Dislike moderately
 2. Dislike very much
 1. Dislike extremely

SAMPLE COLOR FLAVOUR TASTE TEXTURE OVER ALL


NO. ACCEPTIBILITY
Sample A
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Sample B
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Sample C
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3
Sample D
Treatment 1
Treatment 2
Treatment 3

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