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ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 9.

In an attempt to preserve its fishing industry, one country


has recently announced that foreign ships will no longer be
permitted to sail within the 80 kms. of its coast. The only way
this proposal will succeed is to increase the:
1. All of the following are forms of adaptation through natural
a. amount of plankton in which fish feed.
selection except…
b. number of fish surviving to a sexual maturity.
a. desert rats having kidneys that concentrate urine
c. average quantity of fish caught.
b. fishes having gills best adapted for marine life
d. number of fish surviving in ground beyond the 80 km limit.
c. birds having wings for flight
d. human beings having fever when attacked by bacteria
10. In many of the fresh water lakes of the world, considerable
number of closely related organisms occurs with no relatives
2. Moisture and concentration of oxygen
elsewhere. Which of the following best explains such species
a. are abiotic parts of an organism's environment.
swarms?
b. have no effect on the physiology of an organism.
a. Mimicry c. adaptive radiation
c. are biological conditions that impact an organism's survival.
b. Speciation d. convergent evolution
d. do not vary in the environment.
11. Which of the following about the process of ecological
3. In the process of biological magnification, toxins that are
succession is true?
harmful become more concentrated in the successive trophic
a. as the ecosystem matures, there is a decrease in biomass
levels of a food web. The pesticides
b. ecological succession is carried out by abiotic factors in the
dicholorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and polychlorinated
environment
biphenols (PCBs) are well-known examples of this. Which of
c. a deciduous forest is a more stable community than a
the following organisms will receive the most concentration of
recently abandoned field
these harmful substances in their body system?
d. the type of organism in a given area determines the nature
a. snakes c. zooplanktons
of the climax community
b. small fishes d. fish-eating birds
12. According to the modern theories of evolution, which of
4. Arrange the following events according to sequence during
the following factors would be LEAST effective in bringing
a primary ecological succession.
about species change?
I. Spruce-Hemlock forest
a. geographical isolation c. changing environments
II. A rubble left behind by a retreating glacier
b. genetic recombination d. asexual reproduction
III. Alders form dense strands
IV. Accumulation of mosses and lichens
13. The Philippine eagle lays a single egg once every two
V. Formation of dwarf willows
years, which is then incubated by parents for 60 days. Which
of the following parameters of population change characterize
a. I, II, III, IV, and V
the situation above?
b. V, IV, III, II, and I
a. survivorship c. age distribution
c. I, III, II, IV, and V
b. biotic potential d. carrying capacity
d. II, IV, V, III, and I
14. What is the major role of decomposers in an ecosystem?
5. Homologous structures are
a. recycle nutrients c. clean the environment
a. similar in function but not in origin
b. make the soil fertile d. act as pollutants
b. similar in origin but not necessarily in function
c. completely dissimilar
15. Which of the following of an example of interaction
d. found only in mammals
between the biotic community and the physical environment?
a. the struggle between two male moose over a female
6. As the ocean became saltier, whales and fish independently
b. the death of cattle due to heavy snow on the grazing land
evolved mechanisms to maintain the concentration of salt in
c. a change in the course of a river as a result of rockslide
their bodies. This can be explained by
d. the struggle between members of a flock of bird for suitable
a. homologous evolution c. convergent evolution
nesting sites
b. analogous evolution d. parallel evolution
16. Which of the following statements shows biological
7. Which of the following was NOT a belief of Darwin’s?
magnification?
a. Evolution of species occurs gradually and evenly over time.
a. Many pesticides have spread throughout ecosystem and are
b. There is a struggle for survival among organisms.
found in almost every organism.
c. Genetic mutation and recombination are the driving forces
b. Places near the polar regions are most affected by the
of evolution.
greenhouse effect.
d. Those individuals with fitter variants will survive and
c. Energy is significantly lost at each trophic level of a food
reproduce.
chain.
d. Top level carnivores may be most harmed by the toxic
8. The proposed “primordial soup” was composed of organic
environmental chemicals
precursor molecules formed by interactions between all of the
following gases EXCEPT:
17. Members of this kingdom live either as parasites on other
a. Oxygen c. Nitrogen
living things or as decomposers of dead matter.
b. Helium d. Hydrogen
a. animalia b. plantae c. protista d. fungi
25. If two animals mate and produce viable, fertile offspring
under natural conditions, we can conclude that
a. they both have diploid somatic cells
b. they are both from the same species
c. for any given gene, they both have the same allele
d. their blood types are compatible

26. Which of the following statements regarding evolution is


true?
a. Certain phenotypes are more fit in certain environments
Diagram for Question Number 18 than others.
b. Natural selection creates new alleles.
18. Bodies of water, K, L, M, & N form a system of flowing c. Genotype, not phenotype, influences fitness.
water which finally empties into the ocean. Which condition is d. Mutations always affect the fitness of an organism.
found in region K?
a. Relatively cool water & abundant planktons 27. In a climax community, which of the following will be
b. Rapid flowing waters which result in the absence of observed?
planktons a. The nitrogen cycle ceases to be important for primary
c. High carbon dioxide content of the water because of existing producers.
stagnant conditions b. There are no changes in seasonal population in sizes in the
d. Much organic material because of deposited sediment community.
c. Predatory-prey relationships between trophic levels in the
19. When species of plant and animals are introduced into a new food web remain constant from one generation to the next.
habitat, they often become pests in their native habitat. The d. There is no loss of energy from one trophic level to the
most probable reason for this is that in the new habitat, the next.
species:
a. have a fewer natural enemies 28. A population of horses is split into two populations by a
b. learn to use different foods new riverbed that forms after a flood. After many generations,
c. have much lower mutation rate the river changes course and the populations mix again. Which
d. develop better resistance to climate of the following indicates that the two populations have
formed two separate species?
20. Suppose that the plant life in a given ecosystem contained a. The populations refuse to cross the dry riverbed to
1,000,000 units of energy. What would be the best estimate of interbreed.
the unit amount of energy contained in the primary b. The populations mix and mate and offspring are produced,
consumers? although they are sterile.
a. 900,000 b. 100,000 c. 10,000 d. 1,000 c. One population has twice as many horses with white spots
as the other.
21. The finches on the Galapagos Island were similar in form d. Both populations are primary consumers.
except for variations of their beaks. Darwin observed that
these variations were useful for: 29. Scientists study a pond and found water skimmers and
a. attracting a mate c. gathering food minnows. Fifteen years later, the pond had filled in, resulting in
b. building nests d. defending territory swampy land; frogs and snakes were prevalent. This is a result
of
22. Over the course of vertebrate evolution, the position of the a. Predation
chief control centers has shifted from the… b. Succession
a. Hindbrain to Midbrain c. Cerebrum to Cerebellum c. Speciation
b. Midbrain to Forebrain d. Hindbrain to Forebrain d. Natural disaster

23. The climate with the shortest growing season would be 30. Introduced species
located in the a. Can disrupt the balance of the natural species with which
a. taiga they become associated with
b. tropical rain forest b. Often fail to colonize the new area
c. deciduous forest c. Can become common enough to become part of the natural
d. savannah species
d. Often become sterile due to not being able to adapt.
24. Salmon return to their specific home stream to spawn. This
is an example of
a. pheromones
b. a reflex
c. imprinting
d. classical conditioning
31. A volcanic eruption deposits a thick layer of ash over a 36. The structure of the age pyramid below shows that this
wide area, obliterating the old landscape. In a field beyond the population is
affected zone, a dandelion flower grows and releases its wind- a. stable, because there are plenty of individuals in each age
borne seeds, some of which land on the ash. Most do not group
grow, but two of the dandelion seeds sprout and produce a b. growing, because there are large number of adults, who can
new crop of seeds. reproduce
c. growing, because there are few immature individuals, who
Which of these predictions is LEAST likely to be correct about take up more than the share of resources
the years following the dandelions growing on the volcanic d. declining, because mortality is below replacement rate
ash?
a. The dandelion population will eventually reach carrying
capacity and stabilize
b. The dandelions may soon be joined in the devastated area
by lichen and mosses.
c. Decomposers will move in shortly, and the ash will be
transformed into fertile soil.
d. A graph of the number of dandelion individuals over the
next 10 years would show an exponential curve.

32. A culture of algae is inoculated with small numbers of two


different species of protozoan ciliates, Protozoans A and C,
that feed on the algae. Protozoan A replicates asexually once
every hour and Protozoan C replicates asexually once every 1.5
hours under this conditions, as long as the algae is not limiting.
Which of the following is MOST likely to be observed?
a. The protozoans will evolve to have a mutualistic
relationship.
b. Both populations of protozoans will increase in size initially,
but then protozoan C will die off from the culture
c. The algae will rapidly evolve to avoid predation
d. The algae will die off from the culture due to overfeeding. 37. Damselflies and dragonflies can live in the same ecosystem
because
33. If two animals mate and produce viable, fertile offspring a. They occupy different niches.
under natural conditions, we can conclude that b. They are commensal.
a. they both have diploid somatic cells c. They are both insects.
b. they are both from the same species d. Dragonflies have stronger wing muscles than damselflies.
c. for any given gene, they both have the same allele
d. their blood types are compatible 38. Which of the following is/are an example(s) of a
scavenger?
34. Jewel beetles can breed only in recently-burned wood. I. Fungi II. Vulture III. Hyena
What type of dispersal pattern would most likely be seen in
jewel beetles? a. I only c. II only
a. random b. I and II only d. II and III only
b. mixed
c. clumped 39. Which of the following is/are likely to result in more PO 43-
d. cannot tell from information given being available to primary producers?
I. Burying beetles find a mouse carcass and lay eggs near it
35. Gypsy moths were brought to the United States about 150 after burial.
years ago, in a misguided attempt to produce silk more II. In a forest, an elk is killed and partially eaten by wolves.
cheaply. A few gypsy moth caterpillars were accidentally III. Thick moss mats develop on bare rock to serve as
released in Massachusetts, and within 20 years they had anchorage for larger plants.
infested local woodlands. Their descendants have since a. I only c. III only
munched their way through forests across most of the country. b. I and II only d. I and III only
Which factors listed below did NOT contribute to the success of
gypsy moths in their new environment? 40. Which of the following is NOT true of energy flow through
a. Gypsy moths have no indigenous predators ecosystems?
b. Gypsy moths evolved over time to be successful in their new a. Energy is conserved and stays in an ecosystem, to be used
environment by organisms again and again.
c. Gypsy moths found an ample supply of food in native b. Solar radiation is the original energy source for the vast
deciduous forests. majority of organisms on Earth.
d. Trees have no natural defences against gypsy moths. c. Energy flow is one-way, from autotrophs to progressively
higher trophic levels.
d. Energy flow is inefficient; a lot is lost in each transfer from
one organism to another.
41. The environment of paramecia can be changed by the Parts per million
gradual addition of salt to the pond water in which they live, DDT Residues
such that they can live at salt concentrations which would kill Water 0.0005
other paramecia and die if they are put back in the pond water. Plankton 0.04000
This phenomenon is called: Heron (feeds on small animals) 3.57000
a. evolution b. tropism c. adaptation d. taxis
Herring gull (scavenger) 6.00000
42. You and your friend carved your initial 5 feet above the Fish hawk (asprey egg) 13.00000
ground on a tree in a campus. The tree is now 40 feet tall. When
Merganser (fish-eating duck) 22.80000
you come back for your 25th reunion, the tree will be 100 feet
tall. How many feet high above the ground should you look for
your initials? 48. The table above shows the concentration of DDT in a given
a. 5 b. 40 c. 60 d. 100 food chain. It illustrates the phenomenon of:
a. Eutrophication
b. Biological magnification
c. Biodegradability
43. Which biome has the highest annual rainfall?
d. Microbiological decomposition
a. tundra b. taiga c. desert d. rain forest
49. A long enduring steady-state community is known as
44. Fast rate of population growth and widespread malnutrition a. a climax community c. an ecosystem
are common in India and the Philippines. This proves that… b. a barren community d. a prairie
a. Malnutrition is an effect of fast population growth
b. Extreme poverty among people results in malnutrition
c. Malnutrition is characteristic of developing countries
50. A certain brand of pesticide was used to eliminate the fly in
d. When population increase, food supply decrease
a dairy farm. Graph A shows the result of the first spraying
while Graph B shows the result of the second spraying after 2
45. In an area of 50 hectares, the tamaraw population was 40. weeks. What is the possible explanation for the results shown
Two months later in the same area, the population was halved. in the two graphs?
Which of the following is LEAST likely to account for the rapid
population size?
a. The tamaraw stopped breeding. 20
(in hundreds)

b. Predators become more numerous.


Population

15
c. Emigration had occurred.
d. A new disease-causing organism was brought into the 10
community. 5
0
46. Which of the following graphs accurately illustrates the
change in the biomass of anaerobic organism in aquatic
Before After
system that changes from oligotrophic to eutrophic? Group A
a. The environment favored reproduction of flies
a. c. b. The pesticide used was not effective
Biomass

Biomass

c. Flies developed resistance to the pesticide


d. Flies were sensitive to the pesticide

Time Time

b. d.
Biomass
Biomass

Time Time

47. The members of the given species are rarely, if ever,


uniformly distributed throughout their range. Instead, their
collected into smaller groups called populations. Which of the
following best explains this phenomenon?
a. Members of species cannot tolerate overcrowding.
b. The physical factors in the environment upon which they
depend are themselves not uniformly distributed.
c. The environment can support more organisms if they are
grouped into populations.
d. Organisms interfere with their habitats.