6 views

Uploaded by Muliati

Yghhfv

- Abstract
- Bernoulli Newton Lift
- Control Valve Characteristic PPT
- Aerodynamics in Racing - F1technical
- Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Stall of a Wind Turbine Airfoil Cfd Corrected 3
- Analysis of Curvature Effects on Boundary Layer Separation and Tu
- MW19_mid-term-exam2017.pdf
- Bernoulli.pdf
- rr312102-aircraft-performance
- 429-1170-1-PB
- Zero Thrust Glide Testing
- Design and Implementation of Swimming Robot Based on Carp Fish Biomimetic _ 2016
- A DESIGN APPROACH & SELECTED WIND-TUNNEL RESULTS AT HIGH SUBSONIC SPEEDS FOR WING-TIP MOUNTED WINGLETS.pdf
- Wind Tunnel Tests on a Model Cessna
- ezalt
- Flight Control. How airplanes are controlled.
- Aero2Exam1
- dyn lab report
- Schroeder Umi Umd 3015
- Chapter 7

You are on page 1of 13

Dr. M. Turner

Spring Semester

Aims of Lecture

Part 1

2. To introduce lift and drag coefficients

3. To derive simple expressions for aircraft speed in straight-level flight

Part 2

Before anything else: some crucial equations

Lift on a wing (body) Drag on a wing (body)

1 1

L= ρSCL V 2 D= ρSCD V 2

2 2

V (True) Airspeed m/s

S wing area m2

Lift

◮ Lift makes aircraft fly

◮ Primarily generated by the wings

◮ We consider a “lumped” lift model: L = Lwing + Lbody + Ltail + . . .

◮ In principle can calculate lift using wing geometry etc....

◮ ...Often convenient to characterize lift in a simpler, experimental

way, using lift coefficient, CL

L 1 2

CL = 1 2 L= ρV SCL

2 ρV S 2

L Lift (Newtons)

ρ air density (kg /m3 )

V (true) velocity of aircraft (m/s)

S total wing area (m2 )

Lift coefficient CL

◮ CL depends on several different factors (Mach number) but one of

the most important is the angle of attack, α

◮ α is the angle of incidence to the on-coming airstream.

CL CL

STALL

lift coefficient

decreases

Increase in incidence after critical Increase in incidence STALL

gives increase in lift angle reached gives increase in lift Stall point

coefficient in coefficient in higher than

linear region linear region

on symmetric

wing

α α

zero lift postive lift

◮ At stall point, lift coefficient is maximum: CL = CL,max

◮ For small α (in linear region):

∂CL

CL = CL0 + α

∂α

Lift coefficient CL

Comparison of CL,max at take off for different aircraft

◮ CL,max typically corresponds to ≈ 16◦ α

SAAB Viggen Delta-Canard ≈ 1.2

F16 ≈ 1.3

P51-Mustang WW2 Fighter-Bomber ≈ 1.4

Boeing 747 ≈ 2.5

Drag

◮ Drag impedes motion of aircraft

◮ Contributed by wings, body, tailplane, engines...

◮ We consider a “lumped” drag model:

D = Dwing + Dbody + Dtail + . . .

D 1 2

CD = 1 2 D= ρV SCD

2 ρV S 2

CL2

CD = CD0 + (e efficiency factor = constant)

πeA

= CD0 + ǫCL2

◮ ǫCL2 responsible for lift induced (or simply induced) drag

Drag variation with speed

“Lumped” model of drag is given by

1 2

D= ρV SCD

2

Approximately:

CD = CD0 + ǫCL2 CD0 , ǫ const

Thus

1 2 1 1

D = ρV S(CD0 + ǫCL2 ) = ρV 2 SCD0 + ρV 2 SǫCL2

2 2 2

Using expression for CL then gives

!2

1 2 1 L

D = ρV CD0 S + ρV 2 Sǫ 1

2 2 2

2 ρV S

1 2 ǫL2

= ρV CD0 S + 1

|2 {z }

2

2 ρV S

| {z }

no lift drag

lift dependent drag

Drag variation with speed

AIRCRAFT

DRAG

TOTAL DRAG

NO−LIFT

DRAG

AIRSPEED

VS VMD

Plot is shown for a height corresponding to a certain air density ρ

Drag polar

◮ Drag coefficient is a function of lift coefficient

CD = CD0 + ǫCL2

◮ Lift coeeficient is a function of α

CL = CL0 + CLα α

◮ “Drag polar” plots lift and drag coefficient as functions of α

Point-mass approximation of aircraft performance

Straight and level flight

L

V

D T

mg

T thrust

dV

m = T −D D drag

dt m aircraft mass

d 2z L lift

m 2 = L − mg

dt

T = D (1)

L = mg (2)

Velocity in straight-and-level flight

Lift is given by

1 2

L= ρV SCL

2

Using equation (2), this means

1

CL ρV 2 S = mg

2

2mg

V2 =

ρCL S

s

2mg

V =

ρCL S

−1/2

V ∝ CL

Stall speed

◮ Maximum value of CL is therefore

−1/2

◮ Because V ∝ CL , this defines a minimum airspeed....

◮ Stall speed: the lowest speed at which the aircraft can maintain

steady flight r

mg

Vs =

ρCL,max S

- AbstractUploaded byMuchammad Holilulloh
- Bernoulli Newton LiftUploaded byMartin Schweighart Moya
- Control Valve Characteristic PPTUploaded bySera Seraphina
- Aerodynamics in Racing - F1technicalUploaded byaslan006
- Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Stall of a Wind Turbine Airfoil Cfd Corrected 3Uploaded byJallal Arramach
- Analysis of Curvature Effects on Boundary Layer Separation and TuUploaded byAhmed Hassan
- MW19_mid-term-exam2017.pdfUploaded byahndrash
- Bernoulli.pdfUploaded byEr Mayur Patil
- rr312102-aircraft-performanceUploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- 429-1170-1-PBUploaded byNaga Raju
- Zero Thrust Glide TestingUploaded byWade Langford
- Design and Implementation of Swimming Robot Based on Carp Fish Biomimetic _ 2016Uploaded byAmmar Al-Kindy
- A DESIGN APPROACH & SELECTED WIND-TUNNEL RESULTS AT HIGH SUBSONIC SPEEDS FOR WING-TIP MOUNTED WINGLETS.pdfUploaded bysubha_aero
- Wind Tunnel Tests on a Model CessnaUploaded byLuis Guillermo
- ezaltUploaded byFrancisco Santiago
- Flight Control. How airplanes are controlled.Uploaded bydoctrek
- Aero2Exam1Uploaded byKrishna Pd Bhurtel
- dyn lab reportUploaded byapi-282206384
- Schroeder Umi Umd 3015Uploaded byAlexandreSidant
- Chapter 7Uploaded byxtenis87
- Boundary Layer Theory PptUploaded byVITAL
- Aurora Evtol Aiaa AviationUploaded byLeap Aeronautics
- Moffett MonoplaneUploaded byAviation/Space History Library
- pap1Uploaded bynileshsaw
- AircraftFlight.pdfUploaded byAnonymous TedqS0h6Zk
- 4-3 Friction and GravityUploaded byKelli McDaniel Marchbanks
- 203990781Uploaded byHyekyung Sin
- 8B_1_kosikUploaded bypedjavaljarevic
- Stanford E14 PSET 1 solutionsUploaded bylukethepirate98

- MAE4242_Ch02_Nomenclature and Aero ReviewUploaded byMatthew Austin
- Chapter 5Uploaded bymanikandan_murugaiah
- 09a52101 - Flight Mechanics - IIUploaded byMoin Khan
- 009_Chapter 3_L6_(02-10-2013)Uploaded bySachin Petle
- Aero Lect2 2017Uploaded byMuliati
- AAA 3.5 ModulesUploaded byMiguel Sebastian Rincon Ortega
- problemset2Uploaded byapi-314727764
- AirpowerUploaded byNick Rosati
- Using Drag PolarUploaded bybrufpot
- Cruise PerformanceUploaded byÁlvaro Arroyo Parejo
- 11889_2018_00_PRO_00_DEFINITIONS.pdfUploaded byAndreu Gimenez
- Chapter3 Lecture 6_12 Drag PolarUploaded byChegrani Ahmed
- 11889_2018_00_PRO_05_NONCLEANPOLAR.pdfUploaded byAndreu Gimenez
- Bridges 2007Uploaded byDiego GR
- Morphing Wing HALE UAVUploaded byYoungmin Park
- Aircraft Performance and Design Anderson Jr Part I and IIUploaded byalexis juarez
- bada-aircraft-performance-modelling.pdfUploaded bytcalith
- Aircraft Design ReportUploaded byjunaidmyousuf
- Torenbeek Optimum Cruise Performance of Subsonic Transport AircraftUploaded byomga747
- 2018-1-X-Y-HamadaUploaded byGaurav Kumar Thakur
- Chapter 5 Lecture 19 Engine Characteristics-3Uploaded byChegrani Ahmed
- 3310 Chapter 2Uploaded byMuhammad Ishaq Khan
- Accelerometer Methods of Obtaining Performance from Flight Test DataUploaded byDavid Russo
- chapter 5 Lecture 17 21-12-2011.pdfUploaded byVimal Chand
- ClimbUploaded bymajidzarea20
- multi disciplinary optimisationUploaded byismailovic2
- Performance Analysis of a Piston Engined AirplaneUploaded byA
- Wind Tunnel Tests on a Model CessnaUploaded byLuis Guillermo
- Aerodynamic Analysis of a Class II High-Performance Hang GliderUploaded bybillnye1250
- Aircraft Design Project – Phase 2 PptUploaded bySultan Badhusha