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The essential guide to small scale February 2018

combined heat and power


The answer to all your combined heat and power
questions in one, easy to read guide...
Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Contents
What is combined heat and power? 4
• About Centrica Business Solutions
• Introduction to combined heat and power
• Combined heat and power applications
• Fuel options
• Benefits of combined heat and power

Economics of combined heat and power 6


• Stages of feasibility
• CHP quality index
• CHP selection
• Site review to determine actual installation costs

Financing the CHP project 10


• Discount energy purchase (DEP)
• Capital purchase scheme
• Energy savings agreement (ESAs)

Integrating CHP into a building 11


• Low temperature hot water systems
• Steam systems
• Absorption cooling systems

CHP technology 12
• The equipment
• E-POWER

Typical case studies 15


• Alton Towers
• Newcastle United
• Royal Stoke University Hospital

Glossary of terms 18

CIBSE accredited CPD courses 19

Useful contacts and further information 20

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Centrica Business Solutions
Solutions  The
Panoramic
essential
Power
guideinto
action
combined heat and power

About Centrica
Business Solutions
With over 30 years’ experience, more than 3,000 units
manufactured and an amazing 27 millions tonnes of
CO2 saved by our customers, Centrica Business Solutions
are the largest provider of small scale CHP units in the U.K.
We understand the power of power. As new energy
sources and technologies emerge, and power becomes
decentralised, we’re helping organisations around the
world use the freedom this creates to achieve their
objectives. We provide insights, expertise and solutions
to enable them to take control of energy and gain
competitive advantage – powering performance,
resilience and growth.
As businesses struggle to balance the demands of
growth, cost control and risk with a complex competitive
environment, they are under pressure like never before.
At the same time, the energy landscape is changing.
New energy sources are emerging, from wind and solar
to high efficiency batteries, while supply is becoming
decentralised, driven by new technology. These changes
are putting power in the hands of customers, turning
energy from a simple commodity into a critical source
of competitive advantage.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

What is combined heat and power?


Introduction to combined heat and power
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) converts a With CHP, an engine which is normally CHP should always be considered when:
single fuel into both electricity and heat fuelled by natural gas, is linked to an • Designing a new building
in a single process at the point of use. CHP alternator to produce electricity. CHP
• Installing or replacing a new boiler plant
is highly energy efficient and as well as maximises the fuel and converts it into
supplying heat and power, it can deliver a electricity at around 35% efficiency and • Replacing or refurbishing an existing plant
number of positive financial, operational heat at around 50%. Heat is recovered from • Reviewing electricity supply
and environmental benefits. the engine by removal from the exhaust, • Reviewing standby electricity
water jacket and oil cooling circuits. generation or plant
CHP is a well-proven technology, recognised
worldwide as a viable alternative to Typically a good CHP scheme can deliver an • Considering energy efficiency in general
traditional centralised generation. efficiency increase of anything up to 25% • Exploring options towards building
compared to the separate energy systems regulation compliance
it replaces. • Reducing CO2 emissions and
environmental impact.

Typical case
Conventional Electrical
Power Generation
60%
Waste

100% Natural
Gas 40% Power

This Facility
100% Natural
Gas 70% Hot
water

30%
Waste
Boiler

Cogeneration
Cogeneration

35% Power

100% Natural
Gas
This Facility

15% 50% Heat

Waste

Combined heat and power applications


• Leisure centres • Manufacturers • District heating schemes i.e.
• Hotels • Commercial premises offices, residential
• Hospitals • Horticulture • Pharmaceutical
• Universities • Airports • Anaerobic Digestion i.e. dairy, onfarm.
• Military bases • Waste water treatment works
• Prisons • Municipal buildings

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

What is combined heat and power?


Fuel options
The most common fuel option for a CHP is Developers can choose to fund capital costs Biomass boilers and biogas applications
natural gas. This is widely available in many of projects claiming Feed-in Tariffs (FiTs) on that do not have a RHI emission certificate
countries through the mains gas network electricity generated from CHP engines and or an environmental permit will not be
and offers straight forward and sustainable exported to the grid as well as benefiting eligible for the RHI.
access to Combined Heat and Power. from enhanced capital allowances. There
Centrica Business Solutions can offer
is also potential for additional income via
Alternatives to natural gas include biogases, pre-treatment technology required to clean
the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI).
bioliquids and biofuels. Using alternative and dry biogas from digestion processes,
fuels has its advantages. Payback on Biomass and biogas CHP is eligible for such as effluent and AD this would include
anaerobic digestion (AD) and other Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) support. Siloxane and H2S treatment, and a chiller
biogas CHP projects, such as wastewater Any new application for RHI with a biomass to clean/treat gas prior to the engine,
applications, can be rapid. Wastewater boiler (including CHP systems) or a biogas depending on the gas quality and feedstock.
CHP projects can provide rapid payback CHP (such as part of an anaerobic digestion
on investment – usually within 10 to 18 plant or at a waste water treatment works)
months. Considering that the lifespan of a must have either an RHI emission certificate
typical CHP system is 10-15 years, this can or an environmental permit certifying that
provide a significant cash surplus, as well Particulate Matter (PM) and NOx emissions
as improving environmental performance. from the site do not exceed maximum
permitted levels.

Benefits of combined heat and power

Reduces running costs Security of supply Reduces CO2


• Reduces sites actual energy costs • Acts as back-up generator • Points for BREEAM assessment
• Avoidance of Climate Change Levy • Back-up heat supply • Meet CSR requirement
• Claimable Enhanced Capital • Reduces grid dependency • Legislative compliance with part
Allowances L2 of building regulations
• Stabilises energy costs over
a period of time

Financial benefits Emission benefits


CHP represents a highly efficient use of fuel, which means In the UK, the recent amendments to the Building
lower energy costs for the user. In the UK, taxation benefits Regulations, Part L2A and Part L2B seek to reduce both
can be obtained through avoidance of Climate Change Levy energy consumption and CO2 emissions by up to 28%
(Good Quality CHP) and the possibility of Enhanced Capital compared to the 2002 regulations. All CHP schemes
Allowances for eligible organisations. In other countries, a produce reduced emissions compared to the separate
range of fiscal support measures also enhance the financial supply of mains electricity and traditional means of site
benefit of CHP. Third party or supplier funding options for CHP heat production. A well designed and operated CHP plant
means an organisation has the option of outsourcing the CHP can contribute significantly towards Part L compliance.
system without capital outlay giving an immediate payback. Impacts can be readily assessed through SBEM or other
energy performance modelling software packages.

C02 savings are calculated using the following formula:


Grid electricity CO2 abated + Boiler fuel CO2 abated - CHP fuel CO2 released = Net CO2 saving
The figures to use in this calculation are found in the Building Regulations 2000, Part L2A (2006 Edition) which are:
• 0.184kg CO2/kWh for combusted natural gas
• 0.483kg CO2/kWh mains electricity displaced
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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Economics of combined heat and power


Stages of feasibility
There are generally three stages to Over the last few years, the availability of Initial feasibility study
completing the economic viability for half-hourly utility data is becoming more Having collected and validated the data,
CHP once the project has been scoped: and more common. Availability of such data a simple evaluation of whether a CHP
can improve the accuracy of a feasibility scheme is likely to be feasible or not can be
• Data Collection study since it can provide a greater insight conducted. This is calculated by working out
• Initial Feasibility Study – into the operation of the site. the “spark spread” - the difference between
desktop calculation the grid electricity tariff and the natural gas
Whilst the utility consumption and tariffs
• On-site Review – to determine tariff. If the grid electricity tariff is 9p/kWh
are the most important pieces of data in a
installation options and cost. and the natural gas tariff is 3p/kWh, then
CHP desktop feasibility analysis, other site
the spark spread is 3.0.
Data Collection conditions can have a major effect on the
Before a CHP unit can be correctly sized and CHP savings. Examples include the
Grid Electricity Tariff 9p /kWh
the associated savings accurately calculated, distribution of the consumed natural gas = = 3.0
and the boiler efficiency. The thermal energy Natural Gas Tariff 3p /kWh
the appropriate site data needs to be
collected and validated. The minimum data recovered by a CHP unit can only displace
thermal energy generated by the boilers, As a rule of thumb a spark-spread of
requirement centres around the utility
therefore if any gas is used in any direct at least 2.5 is required to make a CHP
consumption of the site (grid electricity
gas-fired plant (e.g. ovens) then this gas scheme viable, however this is not a
and natural gas) and the associated tariffs.
needs to be deducted. The boiler efficiency is strict figure. Within the table below,
Natural gas consumption doesn’t have a
used to convert the natural gas consumed an example set of data is used to
graded tariff system. The most common
by the boilers into useful thermal energy. help determine a CHP unit size.
source of this data is simply found on the
site utility bills.

Day kWh Night kWh Natural Mean Day Mean Night Mean LTHW
Electricity Electricity Gas kWh kWe kWe kWth
January 101,569 21,657 483,832 192.7 99.8 520.2
February 93,524 19,081 415,009 196.5 97.4 494.1
March 101,437 20,873 388,279 192.5 96.2 417.5
April 101,006 20,189 331,167 198.1 96.1 368.0
May 104,762 21,233 265,264 198.8 97.9 285.2
June 101,939 20,897 229,530 199.9 99.5 255.0
July 100,425 21,442 187,109 190.6 98.8 201.2
August 100,789 21,064 206,916 191.3 97.1 222.5
September 99,802 20,297 239,345 195.7 96.7 265.9
October 100,868 21,238 300,171 191.4 97.9 322.8
November 101,556 20,441 366,487 199.1 97.3 407.2
December 100,457 20,767 450,435 190.6 95.7 484.3
Total 1,208,133 249,179 3,863,544 Mean 194.8 97.5 353.7

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Centrica Business Solutions 
Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Economics of combined heat and power


CHP quality index
When determining the best CHP unit for a site, both the The utilisation of the recovered These incentives have two
electrical and thermal utilisation of the CHP outputs thermal energy drives the economics primary benefits:
need to be maximised in order to deliver the best of a CHP project. However this doesn’t
• Climate Change Levy (CCL) can
return on investment. If the selected CHP unit is too mean that sizing the CHP to match the
be claimed back on the electricity
small then the maximum savings aren’t being delivered. summer thermal baseload will always
generated by the CHP unit.
If the selected CHP unit is too large then the CHP unit provide the best overall solution.
will be operating inefficiently at part-load, have fewer Depending on the individual site • CCL can be claimed back on the
run hours and lower utilisation figures. circumstances it may be more fuel consumed by the CHP unit.
cost-effective to operate the CHP Additionally the scheme will
With smaller projects, it’s likely that the site energy
with some of the thermal energy become eligible for Enhanced
demands are lower during the night-time than the
being dissipated rather than to switch Capital Allowances (ECAs).
daytime. Therefore consideration is required to either
the CHP unit off. It is for this reason
select a CHP based on the lower night-time baseloads The minimum CHPQI figure required
that the CHP Quality Index (CHPQI)
so it can run 24 hours per day or to size a larger CHP to achieve ‘Good Quality CHP’ and
metric has been designed.
to run during the daytime operational hours only. receive the full benefits is 105
This is designed to incentivise CHP during the design stage and
design, to prevent excessive heat being 100 during scheme operation.
rejected and discourage CHP units
being operated as gas generators only.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Economics of combined heat and power


CHP selection
CHP selection will be exemplified using However if the requirement is for the If the unit was selected based on the
the table below. CHP unit to offset as much of the more thermal baseload of the site then a
expensive daytime electricity as possible 125kWe and 200kWth unit (ENER-G 125)
If the requirement for the CHP unit was then the a 185kWe and 309kWth unit would be a more prudent selection.
to operate for 24 hours per day, then (ENER-G 185) would be a better selection.
a 90kWe and 161kWth unit (ENER-G This selection is based on the daytime load This will be the biggest unit that could be
90) would be an ideal selection. This is of the unit being approximately 190kWe. installed with no heat rejection, however
because the night-time load of the unit the unit would only be able to operate
is approximately 95kWe. It is likely that there will be some rejection correctly during the daytime period as
of thermal energy during the summer it is slightly too large for the night-time
The other key advantage is the much baseload period so a CHPQI calculation electrical load.
lower chance of any rejection of will need to be conducted to ensure
recovered thermal energy so the this is a ‘Good Quality’ CHP scheme. The savings for all three units selections
CHPQI figure will be healthier. are presented in the following table.

Ref Parameter Equation ENER-G 90 ENER-G 185 ENER-G 125


A Electrical (kWe) - 90 185 125
B Thermal (kWth) - 161 309 200
C Fuel (kW) - 308 603 399
D Day Hours Run 17h/day * 365day/yr * 90% 5,585 5,585 5,585
E Night Hours Run 7h/day * 365day/yr * 90% 2,300 - -
F Day Elec Util. - 100% 100% 100%
G Night Elec Util. - 100% - -
H Thermal Util. - 100% 91% 100%
I Day Electricity (kWhe) A*D*F 502,605 1,033,133 698,063
J Night Electricity (kWhe) A*E*G 206,955 - -
K Thermal Utilised (kWhth) B * (D + E) * H 1,269,324 1,577,208 1,116,900
L Gas Consumed (kWh) C * (D + E) 2,428,272 3,367,454 2,228,216
M Day Elec Tariff (p/kWhe) - 9.000
N Night Elec Tariff (p/kWhe) - 6.000
O Electricity CCL (p/kWhe) - 0.541
P Gas Tariff (p/kWhgas) - 3.000
Q Natural Gas CCL (p/kWhgas) - 0.182
R Boiler Efficiency - 80%
S Day Electricity Savings I*M £45,234 £92,982 £62,826
T Night Electricity Savings J*N £12,417 £- £-
U Boiler Gas Savings K * (P + Q) / R £50,487 £62,733 £44,425
V CHP Fuel Cost L * -(P + Q) (£77,268) (£107,152) (£70,902)
W Total Utility Savings S+T+U+V £30,871 £48,563 £36,349
X CHPQI [(249 * (I + J)) + (115 * K)] / L 132.9 130.3 135.7
Y CCL Exemptions [(I + J) * O] + [L * P] £8,258 £11,718 £7,832
Z Total GROSS Savings W+Y £39,130 £60,281 £44,180

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Economics of combined heat and power


Based on the ‘Total GROSS Savings’ alone, The table also shows that the previous CHP Quality Index:
the ENER-G 185 offers a substantial assertion regarding the balance betweeen
(249*1,033/3,367)+(115*1,577/3,367)
increase in savings over the two smaller the gas costs and the electricity savings
=130.3
options, even though the unit is rejecting are broadly applicable in this case. For
some of the recovered heat during the the ENER-G 185 and the ENER-G 125 Based on the above Quality Index
summer period. However in order to make the ‘Boiler Gas Savings’ (Ref U) and Calculation the proposed unit will
the final decision over the suitability of the ‘Total GROSS Savings’ (Ref Z) are qualify for 100% exemption from CCL.
the CHP unit for the site, the installation approximately equal. This means that if
costs and the annual maintenance costs there is poor utilisation of heat then the
need to be considered. savings will be less than anticipated.

Site review to determine actual installation costs


If the desktop calculation modelling Plant optimisation There are instances where it maybe
demonstrates a saving, it is imperative to beneficial to export electricity onto the
In order to optimise the CHP system,
understand the site to ensure suitability grid, provided the full economics behind
sizing the unit is critical to the success
regarding interfacing the CHP, to establish the scheme are identified and addressed.
of the project. The aim of the process
the connective loads are achievable. Electrical modulation is also a possibility
is to maximise the potential financial
to reduce the electrical output of the CHP
Installation costs can vary dramatically savings and ensure compliance with
of periods of low demand on-site.
from site to site depending on several current legislation.
key factors: Other factors
The most suitable sites for CHP generally
• Location of CHP plant have year round demand for heat or cooling, Other local influences that need to be
• Gas availability where the unit will be run as “lead boiler”. established are site occupancy and the
operational hours for the proposed plant,
• Space allocation Viability further improves if you consider
existing boiler efficiencies and future energy
• Planning implications the CHP unit as a standby generator for
requirements that could be provided for.
noncritical loads or boiler replacement
• Noise issues
is considered. For units sized just above
• Local regulations baseload, thermal modulation is possible
• Maintenance restrictions where the unit is run at reduced output for
• Electrical connections i.e. LV, HV, short periods.
network restrictions The baseload electrical demand of the site
• Thermal integration. is the level that the sites electrical demand
Once these are established, another more never falls below. It is generally the norm to
detailed feasibility review is required to provide a CHP unit that meets this criteria
ensure suitability and compliance. Centrica so that all the electricity generated by the
Business Solutions can support this by CHP will be utilised by the site and any top-
providing applications engineering guidance up will be provided from the grid.
and budget costings.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Financing the CHP project


There are a number of
financing options that can Discount energy purchase (DEP)
be specifically tailored to Centrica Business Solutions can offer to DEP benefits include:
fund either all of, or any proportion there
the individual requirements of, the costs associated with the
• No capital outlay/lower risk
• No ongoing maintenance costs
of each project regardless implementation of the CHP project. This
• Faster implementation/
of project size, cost includes the design, supply, delivery,
immediate savings
installation, commissioning and on-going
or complexity. operation of the scheme. Centrica • Long term, capped energy costs
Business Solutions would recover both the
initial capital costs and the ongoing
maintenance charges over a contractually
agreed period, usually 10 years, by
charging a p/kWh rate for the electricity
generated by the CHP plant.

Capital purchase
Centrica Business Solutions can provide greater operational flexibility is available. Capital Purchase benefits include:
a fixed cost for the complete turnkey If the capital purchase option is being • Customers receive the full financial
package, including project design, considered and the customer is making a benefit of the energy savings
supply, delivery, installation and taxable profit (paid to HMRC), the project • The equipment is owned by
commissioning. In addition to this, a will likely be eligible for an Enhanced the customer
service package can be offered that will Capital Allowance. This mechanism
operate and maintain the system • Unit can be used as a standby generator
allows businesses to claim a 100% first
throughout its lifetime. The main year capital allowance on investments • Run profile can be more easily
advantages of the capital purchase route on energy efficiency investments (such modified to suit customer needs.
are that the greater savings will be as CHP) against taxable profits during
achievable over the product lifetime and the period of investment.

Energy savings agreements (ESA)


This process would begin with an • CHP - Once the new site demand ESA benefits include:
Investment Grade Audit (IGA) of a and plant has been considered a • Guaranteed savings and levels
customer’s site, and identify potential CHP opportunity be evaluated. of service delivery
opportunities covering the following Following the audit, a comprehensive • Zero capital outlay
aspects: report and savings calculation is
• Proven method to reduce a sites
• Demand Side Measures (also known presented to the customer.
energy consumption
as Energy Conservation Measures) Typical contract length of this agreement
- These centre on opportunities that • EUETS (EU Emissions Trading
is 10 years. An agreed fixed monthly
reduce the energy demand on site, Scheme) and carbon reductions
fee is paid by the customer to Centrica
e.g. new lighting, pumps, pipework Business Solutions, and this fee is actually • Incorporate additional low/zero
insulation etc. covered via the savings generated from carbon technology.
• Plant Upgrades - These opportunities the introduction of the upgraded
look at generating the same energy equipment. As a result, the net cost to the
demand but by using less fuel, e.g. customer is typically zero.
new boilers, chillers etc.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Integrating CHP into the building


Low temperature hot water (LTHW) systems Steam systems
The most common and simplest form of An in-series configuration ensures that The thermal integration of any CHP
heat recovery from a CHP unit is in the the CHP heat is utilised to its maximum unit should be carefully considered
form of LTHW (typically 90°C/80°C). capacity. This offers a number of additional and investigated in order to achieve
This enables heat recovery from the oil benefits such as; reduction of on-site the maximum possible savings.
cooler, engine jacket and the exhaust boiler dependency, which in turn, reduces
gas heat exchanger, in a common boiler maintenance costs, and any If the user requires a heat source in
primary water circuit. potential backlog maintenance issues the form of steam then the exhaust
which potentially extends the life of the gases (350°C – 450°C) from the CHP
CHP units can also be designed to operate incumbent boiler set. can be diverted directly into a waste
at lower return temperature. There are heat recovery boiler.
a number of potential configuration In some circumstances, it can be possible
options where the CHP can be integrated to use the CHP heat for domestic hot water Steam generation from CHP is best suited
within the LTHW system, such as in-series use. This can be to supplement times then for units greater than 500kWe as the
or in-parallel. there is no or little LTHW load, such as quantity of recovered energy below this
summer months. value is small. The CHP provider would
usually work with the boiler manufacturer
to design the boiler using the details of
the exhaust gas flow rates, temperature
and pressure conditions of the required
heat output.

Absorption cooling systems (trigeneration systems)


Absorption cooling is a technology that Absorption chillers can also be successfully The additional heat load would allow
allows cooling to be produced from waste incorporated into schemes that have a the plant to operate more efficiently,
heat rather than traditional methods large electrical demand but may only removing the seasonal variation element
such as a vapour condensing chiller have a relativity small thermal demand. and improve the operational hours of the
that uses electricity. Some sites that scheme. Most standard absorption chillers
consider using this method will have a The size of the CHP unit could be operate on either LTHW, MTHW or steam.
large continuous cooling demand, for maximised to meet the sites electrical Absorption chillers also require some form
example air-conditioning or process load profile with the thermal energy of heat rejection.
cooling. Typically these systems require a being used to drive an absorption chiller.
system temperature of 6°C–12°C which is This would lower the sites electrical load
particularly suitable for absorption chillers. by displacing the electrical demand of a
conventional chiller.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

CHP technology
The equipment
Gas recipricating engine Due to the lower electrical efficiency, Gas turbine
more thermal energy can be recovered
The most common form of smallscale CHP The most common alternative prime
from these units.
contains spark-ignition gas reciprocating mover is a gas turbine. Within the small
engines. These prime movers are suited Larger units above 250kWe tend to be scale CHP sector, gas turbines are a niche
to smaller, simpler cogeneration systems turbocharged units which compress the product due to their much higher heat-to-
of up to typically 2.5MWe in size, although combustion air before going into the power ratios (about 3:1) and are relatively
multiple units can be used to deliver cylinders. Turbocharged engines offer expensive at this size.
greater capacity. improved electrical efficiencies which
can be as high as 40%.
There are two types of spark-ignition
engines; naturally aspirated and Typically heat is recovered in the form
turbocharged. Naturally aspirated engines of Low Temperature Hot Water (LTHW)
are a simpler technology where the with a flow temperature of up to 90°C.
combustion air delivered to the engine This is achieved through the recovery of
is at atmospheric pressure. This is most heat from the engine block itself and an
commonly found on units under 250kWe Exhaust Gas Heat Exchanger (EGHE) which
due to the lower costs but at the expense recovers heat through the cooling of the
of electrical efficiency which is around exhaust gases. On large-scale systems the
30% (based on HHV). exhaust is sometimes diverted directly
into a waste heat boiler to generate steam.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

CHP technology
Gas engine and alternator The base frame and enclosure Principal areas of control are:
The engine and alternator are assembled The CHP enclosure comprises a steel • Electric output
as a unit with the drive from the engine frame with sound insulated closure • Heat
transmitted to the alternator through a panels and doors. Removable/openable
• Import and export interface with grid
flexible power coupling. This assembly is enclosure doors allow easy access for
attached to a steel sub-frame by flexible repair and maintenance. Ventilation air • Electrical isolation.
mounts with flexible connections to other is drawn through a sound attenuator A Remote Monitoring System collects data
mechanical equipment installed within in the air inlet and pulled through the continuously and would be connected to
the enclosure. enclosure by an enclosure mounted fan. a central control desk. This allows remote
Combustion air is drawn independently operation and adjustment of settings when
Heat recovery system
into the engine through a dedicated needed. The unit is usually controlled and
The closed primary water circuit recovers combustion air attenuator located protected by a remote monitoring and
heat from the engine jacket, oil cooler on the top of the enclosure. control system called E-POWER.
and the exhaust gas heat exchanger. A
Control and protection
thermostatic valve controls the temperature
of the primary cooling system. This valve The unit is primarily designed to
manages the warm up and cool down of operate as a ‘stand-alone’ package with
the engine avoiding any thermal shocks. automatic control that requires minimal
CHP heat is transferred to the customer’s or no supervision. In exceptional cases,
secondary water systems through a high manual intervention or supervision can
efficiency plate heat exchanger. This plate be advantageous. The unit control and
heat exchanger hydraulically separates the electrical system is installed in a cabinet
primary and secondary water circuits. This that forms part of the enclosure. It is
hydraulic separation prevents either primary specially designed to control and protect
or secondary circuit contamination from the CHP unit.
the other water circuit and permits ease of
maintenance and security of heat supply.

The Heat The Control,


Recovery Protection
System and Monitoring
System

The Gas
Engine

The Base
The
Frame and
Alternator
Enclosure

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

CHP technology
E-POWER
E-POWER is a unique controller specifically E-POWER is different from other E-VISION
designed for CHP and its related plant. Genset system controllers as
E-VISION is the platform that collects,
It allows you to monitor over 200 it is specifically designed with
collates and reports all the energy
parameters on your CHP system optimum functionality including:
generated from the CHP system
and many more on your energy plant.
• Sophisticated data logging: and any connected related plant.
The flexible integrated controller offers - Trip counter It is a fully integrated platform that
improved safety, always-on Internet
- Restart counts allows the control of multiple energy
connectivity, high quality touch screen
- Immediate fault detection systems located at one single site or
and graphics.
at multiple sites.
- Easy root cause analysis
- Ignition energy • Built-in customer access
- Knock levels • Excel based reporting
- Spark advance • Online reporting and analysis
- Enhanced synchronising • Secure Cloud based servers
• Designed for data collection, • Worldwide access
integration and metering • Enables wider building control
• Assists in reducing on-site costs • Assists in reducing on-site costs
• Two integrated safety circuits • Shows demonstrable savings
ensuring total peace of mind - Carbon Reduction
• Touchscreen Human Machine - Financial
Interface (HMI)
• Monitoring of boiler and chiller
• Always optimised heat production heat usage
and utilisation.
• Optimisation of thermal store –
The E-POWER system can easily controlling the flow and return
expand into: • Controls the modulation and
• Boiler controls; ensuring your boilers firing of boiler/heating plant.
are fully optimised and integrate with
your CHP
• MBus metering.

In the UK, CHP units should be designed and


constructed to the following standards and regulations:
G59/3 Electricity Councils Chief Engineers Regulations
IGE/UP/1 Soundness testing and purging of industrial and commercial gas installations
IGE/UP/2 Gas installation pipe work, boosters and compressors on industrial and commercial premises
IGE/UP/3 Gas fuelled spark ignition and dual fuel engines
IGE/UP/4 Commissioning of gas fired plant on industrial and commercial premises
2006/95/EC The Low Voltage Directive
2004/108/EC Electromagnetic Compatibility
2006/42/EC New Machinery Safety Directive
BS7671 IET Wiring Regulations
94/4/EC ATEX Directive
BS EN 60034 General requirements for rotating electrical machines
ISO3046/1 Reciprocating internal combustion engines – performance

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

ENER-G CHP in action

Alton Towers
Reducing costs,
ENERGY
SAVINGS OF

improving sustainability 12%


PER ANNUM

Better performance Right result

The 550-acre Alton Towers site includes The CHP unit generates powerat source

80%
a conference centre, four hotels that so energy efficiency has increased to 80%,
can accommodate 2,500 guests, and and with a direct lowering of the resort’s
Europe’s largest waterpark – which carbon levy, there is the added attraction ENERGY EFFICIENCY
needs to heat 1,000m³ of water and to investors of a more sustainable
pump 66m³of air/second. business. Centrica Business Solutions
funded the unit and installation,saving the
Centrica Business Solutions provided resort’s capital budget, which allowed it
a consolidated package, acting as to invest incustomer-facing attractions.
manufacturer, installer and service
provider. A CHP unit was installed
on site, alongside the waterpark,
generating up to 850kW. If there

are any issues with the CHP, Centrica


support ensures they are dealtwith quickly
– and the unit returnsto peak efficiency.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

ENER-G CHP in action

Newcastle United REDUCING

Fielding a premier league CARBON EMISSIONS BY

carbon footprint 390


TONNES A YEAR WITHOUT
CAPITAL OUTLAY

Better performance Right result


without capital outlay
The club were already offsetting more The ENER-G CHP unit is now helping the
EQUIVALENT TO

320
carbon than they emitted through boiler club reduce their CO2 emissions by an
optimisation, burner management, additional 390 tonnes per year. And thanks
lighting upgrades, smart building and to the cloud-based monitoring system
ACRES OF FOREST
energy monitoring. But to take their carbon which provides a two-way communication BEING PLANTED
saving to the next level, they needed channel between the unit and service
a permanent, cost-effective solution. centre, we can monitor the energy levels
in real time to make sure the club are
Due to the space constraints of the always getting the best performance.
stadium, we delivered their new CHP
system in parts and rebuilt it in situ.

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Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Glossary of terms
Absorption Chiller - Absorption chillers DECC - The Department of Energy and LTHW - Low Temperature Hot Water.
use heat instead of mechanical energy Climate Change works ot make sure the MTHW - Medium Temperature Hot Water.
to provide cooling. Therefore they can be UK has secure, clean, affordable energy
MWh - Mega Watt Hour.
combined with a Cogeneration (CHP) unit to supplies and promote international action
provide Trigeneration. to mitigate climate change. NOx - Nitrogen oxides (NOx) act as indirect
greenhouse gases by producing the
ADE - The Association for Decentralised Discount Energy Purchase - Cogeneration
tropospheric greenhouse gas ‘ozone’
Energy is the leading advocate of an technology supplied, installed and
during their breakdown in the atmosphere.
integrated approach to delivering energy maintained by Centrica Business Solutions
locally, designed around the needs of the with no capital cost incurred to the client. Operation and Maintenance -
user. ADE works within the UK, to promote The energy produced from the unit is then Services and aftercare of CHP Units.
the wider use of Combined Heat and Power sold at a discounted rate to the client. Parallel Grid Mode - This is where the
and District Heating schemes. DNO - Distribution Network Operator. Cogeneration unit runs in parallel with
BEMS - Building Energy Management he grid.
ECA - See Enhanced Capital Allowances.
Systems. Electrical Efficiency - Electrical output in Part L - Part L of the UK Building Regulations
Biogas - Biogas is generated when bacteria relation to fuel input. deals with the conservation of fuel and power
degrades biological material in the absence in buildings throughout the UK. It is part of
Enhanced Capital Allowances - Capital
of oxygen, in a process known as anaerobic a broad wave of European legislation which
allowances on plant and machinery
digestion. Since biogas is a mixture of seeks to encourage industry-wide adoption
are generally given at 25% a year on a
methane (also known as marsh gas or of energy efficient practices and waste
reducing balance basis. However, with
natural gas) and carbon dioxide it is classed minimisation techniques as the embodiment
ECAs, businesses can write off 100% of the
as a renewable fuel. of the EU Performance of Buildings Directive,
cost of energy saving equipment against
the legislation is only in its infancy. However
Building Management Systems - their taxable profits within the first year of
it is already having a significant impact on the
Controls associated with space heating, investment. Businesses claim the allowance
UK building industry.
air conditioning, hot water service and on their income tax or corporation tax
lighting in buildings. returns. This applies to the UK only. Sound pressure level (dB(A)) - A weighted
sound pressure level at a certain distance
Calorific Value - Amount of heat generated E-POWER - Control and monitoring system
from the source.
by a given mass of fuel when it is dedicated for use in Centrica Business
completely burned. It is measured Solutions Gensets/CHP Units. Spark Spread - The difference between
in joules per kilogram. electricity price and gas price – can affect
ESPC - See Energy Services Performance
the viability of the cogeneration system.
Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC) Contracting.
- Scheme designed to improve energy Standard Reference Conditions - Standard
EUETS - The European Union Emission
efficiency in organisations. conditions for ambient air, ambient air
Trading Scheme is the largest multinational
pressure, relative humidity, cooling water
Catalyst - A catalyst provides a means to greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme
temperature referred to when defining
further reduce exhaust emissions for NOx in the world and is the main pillar of EU
engine output, fuel consumption etc.
and CO2. climate policy.
Thermal Efficiency - Quantity of heat
Climate Change Levy - The Climate Change Feasibility Studies - Carried out free of
produced in relation to fuel input.
Levy is a UK only tax on energy use in charge by Centrica Business Solutions
industry, commerce, agriculture and the to determine the viability of our Total Efficiency - Sum of the electrical
public sector. Tax is levied on a p/kWh basis. technologies in a particular application. and thermal efficiency in relation to the
fuel consumed.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - odourless gas G59 - Recommendations for the connection
which is harmful to the environment. of embedded generating plant to the DNO’s Trigeneration - The absorption chilling unit
distribution systems and the provision of uses waste heat available from the CHP
Cogeneration - Also referred to as
standby generators. system in the summer months to provide
Combined Heat and Power or CHP - onsite
chilled water.
generation of electricity, heat and/or HHV - Higher Heat Value.
cooling for the public and private sector. UK Emissions Trading Scheme - Based on
HVAC - Heating, Ventilation and
the international Kyoto Summit on Climate
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) - Airconditioning.
Change agreement, this describes the
See Cogeneration. Island Mode / Standby Cogeneration - UKs National Emissions Trading Scheme
COP - Coefficient of Performance (COP = Ability of the Cogeneration unit to designed to reduce a range of greenhouse
chiller load/ heat input). operate independently from the grid. gases, 80% of which is carbon dioxide.
kWh - Kilo Watt Hour.
17
Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

CIBSE accredited CPD courses


We are a CIBSE approved Continued As the only British based CHP manufacturer Please contact us for further details:
Professional Development (CPD) we consistently design, install, maintain
Rohan Shiram
presentation provider. With a wealth of and finance CHP projects for many different
Consultant Specification Manager
experience our range of presentations focus organisations in a range of market sectors.
Centrica Business Solutions
on all subjects related to CHP and best
This allows us to tailor presentations to the Email: rohan.shiram@centrica.com
practice in CHP design, installation, financial
audience by illustrating local case study
benefits, sustainability and legislation.
examples of CHP, their lifetime benefits and
Our introductory presentations explain savings and their chosen funding options.
the fundamentals of CHP and our more
advanced presentations delve deeper into
numerous technical solutions such as load
profiling, heat interfaces, tri-generation,
site integration, control strategies, fuel
systems and many more.

18
Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Useful contacts and further information


CIBSE CHP Group www.cibse.org/chp
Association for Decentralised Energy (ADE) www.theade.co.uk
Energy Saving Trust www.est.co.uk
The Carbon Trust www.carbontrust.co.uk
DECC www.decc.gov.uk
CHP Quality Assurance www.chpqa.com
Climate Change Levy www.gov.uk/topic/business-tax/climate-change-levy
Enhanced Capital Allowances www.eca.gov.uk

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19 this publication.
Centrica Business Solutions The essential guide to combined heat and power

Centrica business Solutions


In a changing energy landscape, we help Optimisation: Redesigning how businesses
our customers unlock the power of power use energy to improve operational efficiency
to realise their ambitions. We’re already
Solutions: Providing power sources and
helping more than 1,500 businesses
systems to help customers take control of
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manufacturing to health and education:
Centrica Business Solutions is part of
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Centrica – a global energy and services
business performance
company dedicated to satisfying the
Powering Resilience: Enabling changing needs of its customers. With the
businesses to stay on 24/7 acquisition of Panoramic Power and ENER-G,
Powering Growth: Unlocking new sources we’re helping more and more customers
of value and advantage for business gain competitive advantage from energy,
building intelligent end-to-end energy
We build intelligent, end-to-end energy
solutions that power performance, resilience
solutions to power performance, resilience
and growth. Through Centrica, we also
and growth for our customers through:
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Insight: Leveraging ‘big data’ to help energy through British Gas in the UK, Bord
customers manage energy performance Gais in Ireland and Direct Energy in the USA.
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