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STRUCTURAL

DES I G N
G U IDE
SECOND EDITION
STRUCTURAL
DESIGN
G U IDE
To THE AISC (LRFD)
SPECIFICATION FOR BUILDINGS
SECOND EDITION

Edward S. Hoffman
Albert S. Gouwens
David P. Gustafson
Paul F. Rice

CHAPMAN & HALL


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Copyright © 1996
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 2nd edition 1996
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1234567891OXXXOI 00999796

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Structural design guide to AISC (LRFD) specification for structural


steel buildings / by Edward S. Hoffman ... [et al.] - 2nd ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-1-4612-8496-3 e-ISBN-13: 978-1-4613-1171-3
DOl: 10.1007/978-1-4613-1171-3
I. Building, Iron and Steel. 2. Structual design. 3. Load
factor design. 4. Steel, structural. I. Hoffman, Edward S.
TA684.S786 1996
691'.7-dc20 96-14942
CIP
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data available

To order this or any other Chapman & Hall book, please contact International Thomson
Publishing, 7625 Empire Drive, Forence, KY 41042. Phone: (606) 525-6600. Fax: (606) 525-7778.
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115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003.
CONTENTS
I I

Preface /ix

I-STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS:


SPECIFICATIONS, TESTING, AND INSPECTION / 1-13

Materials and Specifications / 1


Testing and Inspection / 8
Economics and the Choice of Materials / 11

2-STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN / 15-45

General/l
Pure Flexure / 1
Shear /17
Loads, Load Factors, and Load Combinations /17
Elastic Analysis for One-Story Structures / 18
Elastic Analysis for Multistory Structures / 34

3-BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS /47-63

Beam Example 1: Simple Span Roof Beam, Simple Framing


Construction / 52
Beam Example 2: Exterior Span Roof Beam, Rigid Frame
(Fully Restrained) Construction / 54
vi CONTENTS

Beam Example 3: Cantilevered Suspended Span, Interior /56


Beam Example 4: Cantilevered Suspended Span, Exterior / 58
Beam Example 5: Simple Spar Office Floor Beam, SF
Construction / 59
Beam Example 6: 5th Floor Exterior Span Floor Beam, FR
(Fully Restrained) Construction for lO-Story Office Building / 63

4-TRUSSES / 65-81

General/65
Design Example 1: Simple Span Welded Roof Truss, Grade 50
Chords and Grade 36 Web.l 66
Design Example 2: Typical Roof Truss Connection, Detail of Top
Chord and Web Members / 75

5-CONNECTIONS / 83-119

General/83
Scope/83
Rivets / 84
Bolts / 85
Welds / 88
Connection Design / 92
Joint Design Examples / 109

6-COLUMNS / 123-145

Definitions / 123
Column Design: Conditions / 125
Slenderness Effects in Axially-Loaded Columns of Braced
Frames /126
Axial Compression and Bendiag / 126
Braced Frames / 129
Axial Compression and Bending with Lateral Forces: Columns in
Unbraced Frames /131
Arbitrary Allowance by Specifications / 133
Individual Column Design / 134
Design Examples Using Specification Formulas with Primary Analy-
sis Data / 136
CONTENTS vii

Appendices /147-299

Al. Beam Selection Table / 147


A2. One-Story Rigid Frames / 211
A3. Interior Span of Cantilevered Span System / 233
A4. Exterior Span of Cantilevered Span System / 239
AS. Truss: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals
and Verticals / 245
A6. 5th Floor Gravity Loads: lO-Story Building / 277
A7. lO-Story Office Building: Wind Loads / 285

AISC SPECIFICATION SECTION INDEX / 301

SUBJECT INDEX / 303


PREFACE
I I

This book is intended to guide practicing structural engineers into more


profitable routine designs with the AISC Load and Resistance Factor
Design Specification (LRFD) for structural steel buildings.

LRFD is a method of proportioning steel structures so that no applica-


ble limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all appro-
priate factored load combinations. Strength limit states are related to
safety, and concern maximum load carrying capacity, Serviceability
limit states are related to performance under service load conditions
such as deflections. The term "resistance" includes both strength states
and serviceability limit states.

LRFD is a new approach to the design of structural steel for buildings.


It involves explicit consideration of limit states, multiple load factors
and resistance factors, and implicit probabilistic determination of relia-
bility. The type of factoring used by LRFD differs from the allowable
stress design of Chapters A through M of the 1989 Ninth Edition of the
AISC Specifications for Allowable Stress Design, where only the resistance
is divided by a factor of safety to obtain an allowable stress, and from
the plastic design provisions of Chapter N, where the loads are multi-
plied by a common load factor of 1.7 for gravity loads and 1.3 for
gravity loads acting with wind or seismic loads.

LRFD offers the structural engineer greater flexibility, rationality, and


economy than the previous 1989 Ninth Edition of the AISC Specifications
for Allowable Stress Design.

In this book, reference to provisions in the AISC LRFD Specification is


made by parenthetical citations, for example, (Spec. A2.2). Reference to
an Appendix of the Specification is cited with (Appendix BS.3a).
x PREFACE

Artwork for the book was prepared by Jesse Trevino. His skillful
production of the drawings is greatly appreciated by the authors.

The authors are indebted to the late Paul Rice for affording us the
opportunity to continue his concept of a structural design guide. We
trust the format, and most importantly, the contents of this second
edition would meet his expectations. We gratefully dedicate this book to
his memory.

Edward S. Hoffman
David P. Gustafson
Albert J. Gouwens
1 STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
AND ECONOMICS
Specifications, Testing,
and Inspection

MATERIALS AND SPECIFICATIONS

General

Specifications. Structural steel shapes are now available under a vari-


ety of specifications and a variety of strength grades within the specifi-
cations. Strength grades (minimum specified yield strength in ksi) vary
from 36 to 100. Table 1.1 provides a convenient summary of these
specifications and grades. In addition the various specifications provide
a considerable range in all other properties affecting structural design:
weldability, ductility, corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, behavior
under different temperatures, and so on (for welding materials, see
Table 1.2).

Availability. The first decision facing the practical engineer responsible


for the design of any steel structure with economy for himself and his
client becomes the selection of the basic material itself. This decision is
an important one, and the sophisticated design flexibility offered by the
possible permutations of the expanded list of material properties, con-
nections, and design methods now available makes the choice difficult.
Practical economics of design time required preclude exhaustive cost
comparisons of all such permutations except for unusual projects. Prac-
tical economics of construction costs and local immediate availability
simplify this decision for the usual projects. Availability in this sense is
not synonymous with the term as applied in Table 1.1. Table 1.1 should
be regarded merely as the inherent metallurgical limitations upon avail-
ability imposed by the manufacturing process. Economic availability
implies material available from several sources (bidders) from stock for
2 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Table 1.1. Availability of Shapes, Plates and Bars According to ASTM


Structural Steel Specifications
ASTM
Specification
Designation Title Grades

Material: SHAPES, PLATES, AND BARS (Spec. A3.1a)


A36 Structural Steel 32 (plate over 8 in. thick)
36 (all other)
A242 High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel 42,46,50
A529 High-Strength Carbon-Manganese Steel 42,50
A572 High-Strength Low-Alloy 42,50,60,65
Columbium-Vanadium Steel
A588 High-Strength Low-Alloy Structural Steel 42,46,50
A709 Structural Steel for Bridges 36,50,70,100
Material: PLATES (Spec. A3.1a)
A514 High-Yield Strength Quenched and 90 and 100
Tempered Alloy Steel
Plate, Suitable for Welding
A852 Quenched and Tempered Low-Alloy 70
Structural Steel Plate
Material: WELDED AND SEAMLESS STEEL PIPE (Spec. A3.1a)
A53 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe Grade B
Material: WELDED AND SEAMLESS STRUCTURAL STEEL TUBING
(Spec. A3.1 a)
A500 Cold-Formed Welded and Seamless
Carbon Steel Structural
Tubing in Rounds and Shapes
A501 Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless
Carbon Steel Structural Tubing
A618 Hot-Formed Welded and Seamless
High-Strength Low-Alloy
Structural Tubing
Material: STEEL SHEET AND STRIP (Spec. A3.1 a)
A570 Hot-Rolled Carbon Steel Sheets and 40,45,50
Strip, Structural Quality
A606 Steel Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled and
Cold-Rolled, High-Strength, Low-Alloy
with Improved Corrosion Resistance
A607 Steel Sheet and Strip, Hot-Rolled and
Cold-Rolled, High-Strength, Low-Alloy,
Columbium and lor Vanadium
Material: STEEL CASTINGS (Spec. A3.2)
A27 Mild-to-Medium Strength Carbon Steel 65-35
Castings for General Applications
A148 High-Strength Steel Castings for 80-50
Structural Purposes
Material: STEEL FORGINGS (Spec. A3.2)
A668 Steel Forgings Carbon and Alloy for
General Industrial Use
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 3

Table 1.2. Welding Materials: AWS Specifications and Structural Welding


Code, ANSI I AWS 01.1-94
AWS
Specification
Number Title Use
Material: FILLER METAL AND FLUX FOR WELDING (AISC Spec. A3.5)
A5.1 Mild Steel Covered Arc Welding Shielded Metal Arc
Electrodes Welding
A5.5 Low-Alloy Steel Covered Arc Shielded Metal Arc
Welding Electrodes Welding
A5.17 Bare Mild Steel Electrodes and Submerged Arc Welding
Fluxes for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.18 Carbon Steel Filler Metals for Gas Gas Metal Arc Welding
Shielded Arc Welding
A5.20 Carbon Steel Electrodes for Flux Flux Cored Arc Welding
Cored Arc Welding
A5.23 Low-Alloy Electrodes and Fluxes Submerged Arc Welding
for Submerged Arc Welding
A5.28 Low-Alloy Steel Filler Metals for Gas Metal Arc Welding
Gas Shielded Arc Welding
(AISC Spec. A3.5)
A5.29 Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc Welding
Flux Cored Arc Welding
(AISC Spec. A3.5)
Material: STUD SHEAR CONNECTORS (AISC Spec. A3.6)
01.1-94 Requirements of Section 7 for
Steel Stud Shear Connectors

small projects, or with minimum delivery time and dependable sched-


ules for delivery on larger projects.

Choice of Material

Grade. ASTM A36 (Grade 36) (see Table 1.1) has been the most com-
monly available type and grade of structural steel shapes in stock. This
type comprises approximately 50 percent of the current U.S. usage of
structural shapes. The trend is toward increased use of Grade 50 steel.
A36 steel is suitable for all standard connection methods, including field
welding. For routine or usual projects, A36 steel will be the economical
choice considering availability for early delivery, maximum competition
among bidders, and minimum inspection required. Errors in supply of
4 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

other types of steel are of little concern as they can be only of higher
grade, and so field inspection for identification is minimized. Certified
mill test reports are considered adequate evidence of quality for most
applications, and thus quality control testing for the usual project can be
avoided or minimized. Unless otherwise noted for design examples in
this book, ASTM A36 (Fy = 36 ksi) steel will be used.
The most common choice where a higher strength grade is desired is
ASTM A572, Grade 50. This high-strength, low-alloy steel is weldable
by the usual field methods. It can be obtained in all shapes, and in
plates and bars up to 4 in. thick. In the usual case where a mill order is
placed, the use of A572, Grade 50, will be economical if the lighter
members possible with the higher yield strength are not penalized by
reductions in design strength due to local bucklinq criteria, instability,
deflection, or vibration.
In some special projects such as those involving built-up members
(hybrid girders), built-up box sections, or composite members, the use
of Grade 50 or higher strength grades for purely tensile applications can
achieve significant economy through reduced tonnage, connections, or
dimensions.

Special Properties

Corrosion Resistance. The selection of the higher cost, corrosion-re-


sistant steels such as ASTM A588 for special applications such as
architecturally exposed steel or location in corrosive environments is
dictated by the architectural requirements. Economies in these cases are
usually achieved by the omission of otherwise required protection by
other materials.

Fatigue Resistance. Fatigue resistance is seldom a matter of concern in


the usual building design. Special consideration for fatigue effects is not
required for either wind or earthquake loadings for buildings (Spec. K3).
When fatigue effects must be considered, fatigue resistance is provided
in design by limiting the allowable stress range for the repetitive service
(live) loads. The allowable stress range is limited only by the number of
repetitions expected, type of stress, and the type of connections used,
and independent of the grade of steel used (see Appendix K3, Tables
A-K3.1, A-K3.2 and A-K3.3). The allowable stress ranges for various
fatigue loading and connection conditions are the same regardless of
grade of steel (Table A-K3.3). For loading repetitions less than 20,000
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 5

cycles, equivalent to two applications daily for 25 years, fatigue effects


need not be considered (Appendix K, Table A-K3.1).

Unusual Service Conditions. Other special properties of steel, for


temperature effects upon ductility or the effects of long exposure to
various types of radiation upon strength and ductility, are usually of no
concern for building structures. These effects are not considered in the
AISC Specifications. For projects in which these effects will occur, the
user is advised to consult metallurgists for the latest available research
findings.

Material Properties

General. The basic objective in the design of any structure is the


selection of economically sized members to resist all expected or pre-
scribed loads applied thereon within allowable limits on vertical and
lateral displacement. The basic data required are, therefore, the com-
plete strength-deformation relationships as loads are applied. Steels are
produced to meet: (1) minimum tensile strength requirements at yield-
ing, which is itself defined in varying terms, and (2) minimum ductility
requirements, usually measured as the total deformation at rupture.
Figure 1.1 shows the typical strength-deformation relationships for
steels with (a) definite yield point, and (b) arbitrarily defined yield
stress.

Yield Strength and Yield Point. Figure 1.1 shows curves for two steels
with a definite yield point, one at Fy = 36 ksi, and one at Fy = 50 ksi.
The latter is marked "1." The yield point can be identified similarly by
the "drop of the beam" method, the autographic diagram method, or at
any prescribed total extension under load. The rounded curves for steels
"2" and "3" represent yield strengths, Fy = 50 ksi, measured by the
offset method (0.2 percent strain beyond the elastic strain line) and the
total extension under load method (0.5 percent total strain). "ASTM
A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of
Steel Products" provides that the yield strength for steels which have no
(physical) yield point be measured by the extension under load or the
offset method.
The offset method is preferred unless the stress-strain relation is well
known so that the total extension will correspond closely to that at
which the specified offset occurs. A total extension of 0.5 percent for
6 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

100

80
!I)
-:£.

(/)
(/)
W
ex:: 50
!-
(/)
36

o
o 0.1 0.2 0,3 0.4 0.5 0.6

STRAIN, PERCENT
Figure 1.1. Typical stress - strain curves over the elastic range and specified
Fy measurements

steels with Fy < 80 ksi is suggested. For Fy > 80 ksi, it is suggested that
the limiting total extension be increased. A suitable increase would be
the additional elastic E above 80 ksi. For a steel with Fy = 100 ksi, this
increase (E 100 - ( 80 ) has been plotted in Fig. 1.1 and corresponds closely
with the 0.2 percent offset point. The reader will have discerned that the
arbitrarily defined methods for measurement of yield strength do not
give exactly identical results, except by chance. Similarly, the total
extension under load method cannot show lower, but may well show a
higher yield strength than the other prescribed methods (for example,
curves "2" and "3" at Fy = 50 ksi in Fig. 1.1). It should be noted that
ASTM A370 does not specify the offset for the offset method. It does
require that the offset used shall be reported. The values of yield
strength must be reported, for example, as:

Yield strenqth (0.2 percent offset) = 50,000 psi


STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 7

Particularly where the design method to be used requires calculations


or knowledge of adequate inelastic rotation capacity at connections, for
example, Type PR construction with wind connections, the designer
should know the shape of the stress-strain curve for the material to be
used. The followinq brief summary may serve as a guide. The current
ASTM Specifications A36, A572, and A588, specify "yield point, min.";
A514 specifies "yield strength, min. *" with the footnote "*Measured at
0.2 percent offset or 0.5 percent extension under load." All of the above
specifications require steel to be delivered in conformance with ASTM
A6 "General Requirements" which, in tum, merely provide that all tests
shall be conducted in conformance with ASTM A370. It will also be
noted that the AISC Specifications define Fy ' specified minimum yield
stress, as either the specified yield point or the specified yield strength
for steels that do not have a yield point.

Elongation. Figure 1.2 shows typical stress-strain curves through the


full range of strain to rupture. Note that the elongation of steels with a
definite yield point can be expected to possess a plastic range several
times larger than the elastic range, approximately twelve times larger
for the lower strength grades. In this range, even for most of the steels
with rounded stress-strain curves, the stress does not diverge greatly
from the measured yield stress. For gross deflections, beyond those

f::. y = elastic range = ¥. f::.ult = 15 to 24 "-


-------...;;-------

Vl

.1
V)
ILl
0:: 3 to 15 times f::. y
l-
V)

E. = 29x10 J ksi

o .02 .04 .06 .08 .10 .12 .14 .16 .18


o .002 .004 .006 .008 .010 .012 .014 .016 .018

STRAIN

Figure 1.2. Idealized stress - strain curves over the entire range
8 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

(Plastic Range)

Fy

V)
V)
ILl
0::
l-
V)

--H-+--- E:y = Fy/29x10J (Elastic Range)

o
o
STRAIN, E: {in. fin.)

Figure 1.3. Stress - strain assumed in design

utilized in structural behavior under normal loads or overloads, all


steels possess a large reserve elongation capacity and some work-
hardening increases strength capacity from the yield strength to the
ultimate strength. This property, although not used in design calcula-
tions, is thus of interest to the engineer as a reassurance as well as a
comparative measure of ductility.

Design Assumptions
In practical applications of structural design, these actual stress-strain
relationships are not available and would require calculations too com-
plex to justify their use even if available. Practical design, therefore, is
based upon the simplified relation shown in Fig. 1.3, and utilizes only
the minimum 4 specified properties of yield strength and total strain in
tension. The behavior in compression is inconvenient to test and is not
tested in routine control, but has been determined to be almost identical
to that in tension in the elastic and early stages of plastic strain.

TESTING AND INSPECTION

General

Mill Tests. From the designer's (and client's) interest, the least inspec-
tion and testing necessary to ensure the specified quality of materials
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 9

and construction to develop the expected behavior under load means


economy. Use of ASTM A36 steel has the inherent advantage of requir-
ing a minimum of testing and inspection. As previously noted, an
inadvertent substitution of grade is of major concern only when higher
strength grades are specified. For material quality, the certified mill test
reports are usually accepted as the sole evidence of compliance with the
ASTM specifications.

Field Inspection. Field inspection of fabricated shapes and connection


material is required for five principal purposes: (1) identification of the
proper strength grade, (2) shop fabrication of connections as specified or
shown, (3) dimensional accuracy (length) within allowable tolerances for
proper erection, (4) correct sizes, and (5) workmanship, including
straightness, finish, and surface condition. This aspect of field inspection
is so straightforward and least time-consuming as to be routine. Field
inspection of erection is by far more time-consuming and therefore
costly; it is also the more difficult and therefore susceptible to costly
errors. "Field adjustments" for poorly fitted connections can change
design assumptions. Improper lateral bracing, temporary or permanent,
unsuited to or ineffective with the erection sequence, can result in
damage or collapse.

Inspections During Erection

Initial Inspection. The first inspection for erection of a structural steel


frame should be performed before the actual erection begins; ideally,
this inspection should be completed before the last concreting operation
to ensure proper embedment of the anchor bolts (see Sections 7.5 and
7.6*). For all but the simplest base connections, templates to fix the bolts
in proper plan location, plumb, and at accurate levels are required. The
practice of embedding loose anchor bolts after casting concrete usually
requires too much inspection in too short a time to be reliable even for
bases designed as hinged. Finally, anchor bolts must be protected
against damage or displacement from any expected construction opera-
tions between the time of placing and the time of using such bolts.

Starting Erection. At this point, the approved lateral bracing plan must
be initiated correctly. Lateral stability during erection is very important

* AISC "Code of Standard Practice" for Steel Buildings and Bridges.


10 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

for immediate safety and to avoid any need for later costly corrections
or delays (Section 7.9*). Lateral bracing can be furnished by either
permanent or temporary members or by any combination of the two.
Anchors for any temporary guys must be in place. Any fixed column
bases to be considered part of the lateral bracing during erection must
be fully bolted even if (temporarily) supported on shims awaiting
grouting. Bending, burning off, or displacing anchor bolts for any field
adjustment of errors in location, field damage, and so forth, should be
permitted only upon directions from, and after a review by, the engi-
neer.

Final Approval of Erection

General. The "final approval" of erection most often will be completed,


of necessity, in stages since the installation of materials by other trades
usually begins before the entire steel framing is erected. In this sense,
final approval is granted when the structural steel erection is deemed
acceptable for attachment of other materials (see "Frame Tolerances,"
Section 7.11.*).

Column Base Connections. All grouting should be complete and


cured. All bolts should be given final tightening if needed.

Bracing. All permanent steel lateral bracing should be in place with


connections completed. Temporary bracing not required should be re-
moved. Arrangements for removal of any temporary bracing intended
to remain until bracing by other materials is in place should be made
(Section 7.9*).

Beams, Joists, Columns, Girders, Trusses. Any deficiencies noted in


inspections during erection should be corrected (Section 7.12*).

Connections. All connections should be completed.

Painting. Any specified field painting or "touch-up" should be com-


pleted (Spec M4.6) (also see Section 7.15*).

Final Clean-Up. Arrangements for cleanup vary, but any cleanup for
which the steel erector is responsible should be completed (Section
7.16*).
STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 11

ECONOMICS AND THE CHOICE OF MATERIAL

General
The function of a structural engineer is to provide a satisfactory struc-
ture with the most practicable overall economy to the client (owner). For
overall economy, the cost of the steel frame must be considered in
context with, and is often subordinate to, costs of alternate designs for
architectural and mechanical requirements. Without increasing these
other costs more, the value of the structural analysis and design refine-
ments and the selection of the type and grade of steel can be measured
only by savings in the cost of the steel frame itself.

Variables in the Cost of Steel


The cost of the steel itself varies from time to time according to the
supply and demand, domestic and imported, for the entire industry. At
anyone point in time, the cost of the steel frame will vary with the total
tonnage, local supply and demand conditions establishing competitive
prices, type, and grade of steel, and the cost of the connections (fabrica-
tion and erection).

Variables Affecting the Tonnage (psf)


For a given grade of steel, the unit weight of steel (ps£) of necessity
varies with the total height, the height/width ratio, and the number of
stories or story height for the columns. Local code requirements for
lateral load and specified live loads will affect the weight of steel
required for both columns and floor systems. Architectural require-
ments for span are also major factors influencing the weight of the floor
systems.

Index for Comparison


The only common index for comparison of the design efficiency, psf of
steel, leaves much to be desired as an index of either design efficiency or
even the cost of the steel frame. This index would be strictly applicable
only when all of the variables of cost and tonnage are identical. In
practice such ideal conditions for comparison are very unlikely. In spite
of this widely recognized deficiency, the weight of steel in pounds per
square foot of gross floor area is an index of great interest, probably
because it is the only convenient one we have. It is easily computed, and
30
20 - 30
STORIES ® £. Upp R BOUND
AVERAGE
RANGE -
[--..
r-~
~ ~-- -- .('20)- - -- ....
@
-
25
r- _ _
-I---
• ~
@•
r-- @ ~~
20
---..... ~
15
-1- --- r~- ~ ~
• @
-
L L bWER BOUN

10

:l_ --- ...


@
10 - 20 ST RIES
LOWER BOU
@ ® -

o
30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75
llA.B.
(b)

Figure 1.4. Comparisons of buildings - steel (psf)


STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND ECONOMICS 13

involves fewer uncertain and unequal factors than dollars per square
foot.
Within the framework of these uncertain factors, one general conclu-
sion from comparisons of the steel index (ps£) is valid. Improvements in
materials (higher strength grades) and refinements in design are reduc-
ing this index steadily. Figures 1.4 (a) and (b) show this general trend
from 1930 to 1975 as taken from a compilation of prominent buildings.
As might be expected with so many uncontrolled variables, there are
notable exceptions to the trend even in this small listing. The exceptions
that seem to violate the trend with high values are usually explained by
unusual architectural requirements, and thus are of lesser interest than
the exceptions that are ahead of the trend, or those with low values. The
design features by which these low values were achieved are of great
interest as potential guides to greater design efficiency.

Cost Differentials, Grade 36 versus Grade 50


The practical choices of grade for the ordinary structural steel building
frame as earlier noted, usually narrow down to Grade 36 versus Grade
50. Calculation of the tonnage required for alternate designs in the
preliminary stage is not difficult. For the preliminary purpose of select-
ing the more economical grade, the tonnage differential as a percentage
of the base (Grade 36) is usually sufficient. If other factors (size of
members, availability, possible reduction in story height with Grade 50,
etc.) are separately evaluated or not involved in the cost difference, the
only additional data required for an economical choice of grade is the
cost differential per ton for Grade SO/Grade 36 erected.
2 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
AND LRFD DESIGN

GENERAL
The AISC Specifications traditionally have been based upon the elastic
analysis of sections and structures for so long that elastic analysis is
implied throughout, except for specific references to plastic analysis
(Spec. AS.I, BS.2, C2, E1.2, F1.I, F1.2d and 11). Under the LRFD concept,
the structure is subjected to an elastic analysis using factored loads for
strength limits and service loads for serviceability load requirements
such as camber, expansion and contraction, deflections, vibration, drift,
connection slip and corrosion (Spec. Ll-LS).
LRFD Specifications require that all steel structures and structural
elements be proportioned so that no strength limit state is exceeded
when subjected to all required factored load combinations (Spec. AS.3).

PURE FLEXURE
For determining the flexural design strength, cjJMn, for resistance to
pure bending (no axial load) in most flexural members where the
following conditions exist, a single calculation will suffice:

Z = I2MulO.9Fy

where
Z = the required plastic section modulus
Mu = the factored bending moment
Fy = specified minimum yield stress.
16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

The principal assumptions for the justification of procedure include the


following conditions:
1. The material is homogeneous.
2. Sections before bending remain plane (see Fig. 2.1).
3. The cross section has an axis of symmetry.
4. Be.nding moment is applied in plane of symmetry (see Fig. 2.2).
5. The member is straight in the plane of bending.
6. The member is stable laterally to the plane of bending.

Figure 2.1. Stress and strain for LRFD design

ti
y y y y y y y y
I I

~
I
I

I .
,
~L I I

Y
I
Y Y Y
I i
I
i I
y
Y Y Y

Figure 2.2. Typical members with axis of symmetry in the plane of loading

Figure 2.3. Effective sections for shear strength - d!.tw


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 17

SHEAR
The formulas for the determination of the shear strength on a section is
too complex for routine use with the variety of shapes available or
possible for steel members. For members that possess an axis of symme-
try (Fig. 2.2) in the plane of loading, and where web stiffeners are not
required, two simplifying assumptions that result in a negligible loss of
(theoretical) accuracy are permitted (Spec. F2.1 and F2.2):
1. The contribution of the flanges to shear capacity may be neglected,
and
2. h/tw :s 418/ ..[F; where h equals the clear distance between flanges
less the fillet or comer radius for rolled shapes.
With these assumptions, the calculated strength becomes simple. Ne-
glecting the flanges, all symmetrical rolled shapes, box shapes, and
built-up sections reduce to an equivalent rectangular section with di-
mensions Itwd as shown in Fig. 2.3, and shear strength becomes 4>vVn
where
4>v = 0.90
Vn = nominal shear strength = 0.6Fyw Aw
Aw = dtw

LOADS, LOAD FACTORS, AND LOAD COMBINATIONS


Nominal loads (Spec. A4.1) that must be considered in design include:
D = dead load due to the weight of the structural elements
and other permanent features supported by the struc-
ture, such as permanent partitions.
L = live load due to occupancy and movable equipment
Lr = roof live load
W = wind load
S = snow load
E = earthquake load
R = initial rainwater load or ice water load exclusive of the
ponding contribution
The LRFD design strength 4>Rn of each structural element or structural
assembly must equal or exceed the design strength based on the follow-
ing combinations of factored nominal loads (Spec. A4.1 and A5.3):
18 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

1.4D (Spec. A4-l)


1.2D + 1.6L + O.S(L r or S or R) (Spec. A4-2)
1.2D + 1.6(L r or S or R) + (O.5L or 0.8 W) (Spec. A4-3)
1.2D + 1.3W + O.5L + O.5(L r or S or R) (Spec. A4-4)
1.2D + 1.5E + (O.5L or 0.2 S) (Spec. A4-5)
0.9D - (1.3Wor l.5E) (Spec. A4-6)
An exception to the above combinations is, that the load factor on L in
combinations A4-3, A4-4, and A4-5 is 1.0 for garages, areas occupied as
places of public assembly, and all areas where the live load is greater
than 100 psf.

ELASTIC ANALYSIS FOR ONE-STORY STRUCTURES

General

The application of the AISC Specifications for both analysis and design
is best shown by examples. In this section, typical building structures
are presented with the results of analyses for the different types of
construction permitted under the AISC Specifications. The designs of
the various members corresponding to these analyses will be developed
in the following chapters so that the user will be able to compare the
resulting overall designs for the structures rather than mere weight
differences for single elements.

Design Example 1: One-Story Building

Type of Construction. Design Example 1 represents a very common


structure, one-story with three bays in the short direction and a large
number in the long direction (see Fig. 2.4 for the loads and dimensions
typical for an office building). This simple structure will be employed
for comparisons of a number of variations in design permitted under the
AISC Specifications. Preliminary member sizes were selected for each of
these variations as shown in Table 2.1. Elastic analyses were carried out
for each of the resulting structural designs manually or by computer.
The results of these elastic analyses are presented in Fig. 2.5 as follows:
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 19

WIND (SPECIFIED) 20 PSF


SNOW (SPECIFIED) 30 PSF
ROOFING 6.5
INSULATION 1.5
METAL OECK 3.0
CEILING 7.0
JOISTS 2.0
BEAMS 2.0
D DEAD LOAD 22.0 PSF x 30 x 6/1000 - 3.96 k
S SNOW 30.0 PSF' x 30 x 6/1000 - ~
D + S 9.36 k
W WIND 20.0 PSF x 30 x 15/2 x 1/1000 _ 4.50 k

LOAD GRAVITY WIND


COMBINAnON P p. W W.
0 3.96 - -
S 5.40 - -
W - '.50 -
D + S 9.36 - -
0+ S + W 9.36 4.50 -
1.40 - 5.54 - -
1.2D + 0.5S - 7••5 - -
1.20 + 1.6S + 0.6W - 13.39 - 3.60
1.20 + 0.5S + 1.3w - 7.45 - 5.65
1.20 + 0.2S - 5.63 - -
0.90 - 1.2W - 3.56 - 5.85

Figure 2.4. Loads and dimensions, one-story office building: design example 1

Table 2.1. Summary of Design Variations and Preliminary Member Sizes:


Design Example 1

TYPE OF JOISTS COLUMNS BEAMS


FIG. 2-5 CONSTR. (Fy = 50) SECTION Fy BAY SECTION Fy

(0) TYPE FR 2OH6 W8 x 24 36 ALL W16 x 31 50


(b) TYPE SF 2OH6 W6 x 20 36 ALL W21 x 44 36
(e) TYPE SF 2OH6 W6 x 20 36 ALL W14 x 34 36
20 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Fig. 2.5(a). Type FR (fully restrained) construction. Rigid connections,


including fixed column bases. ASCE 7-93* requires that the effect of
removing half the balanced snow load from any portion of the roof be
considered. In this example, maximum moments were conservatively
obtained by removing all snow load from certain spans in obtaining
maximum positive and negative moments.

Fig. 2.5(b). Type SF (simple framing) construction. Braced against


sidesway; hinged column bases; beam connections for shear only.

Fig. 2.5(c). Type SF (simple framing) construction. Braced against


sidesway; hinged column bases; shear connected "suspended spans"
with continuous beams over columns for cantilever spans for uniform
factored live load on all spans.
Recent developments of computer analysis programs, particularly for
high rise building structures, are more sophisticated. In one version
commonly used, the effects of shear deformations and axial length
changes are included, and the drift is computed on this basis. Results
from such computer programs have been included in Appendix A2,
One-Story Rigid Frames. The critical moments and shears are summa-
rized in Fig. 2.5 for Design Example 1. Comparison of the computer

*ASCE 7-93, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, American Society of
Civil Engineers, New York, N.Y., 1993.

P/2 P/2

19

5 C 6'-0" = 30'-0· 5 C 6'-0" = 30'-0" 5 C 6'-0· = 30'-0"

Figure 2.5(a)-6 1.20 + 1.6S + O.BW


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 21

r<"
5 @ fY-O~~ 30'-0" .i ... 5 @ ff-OSI 30'-0"
..
5LJ6~ 1.36' g,~1e$< t.~6' ~LS6~ 9.JS' 9.3~'

i
4-,05«- !

1
"~,32,6i~

t / /1 ! I Ii /

Figure 2.5(a)-2 D + S
22 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

"'k "f..
"t- ;:;
.",

x
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h,...,
~iil-·-
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'In
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N

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STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 23

.
~~
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"!.
"l _ _ _
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24 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

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ei !
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~~f1
P\J....,7AS~ PS$ p,. P,. p" 1'" f'1.i Pu Pu Pu Fo Pu Pu Pu
Ji,n,f!!, Pu/'

! t ~ ! 1 t l ! l !
en
-t
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r
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Ci.i
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jUO' ,*,45'* :s,{)O~ HolAn!>: 17,fn~ 14,61' 1,17~ 0.28-1< ?J~-k HUSk! l$,68 k g,,,,k 1-981-; ,,,,t ~2,!.l~~ o
o
m
n n Jt Jt Jt 1~ 1~ Jt Jt Jt! 1~ nn en
G5
z
!
5 @ 6'-0" '" ~.._.9_@ 6'~O" 30"O"_~_ :, @ U'-O: ,,=,,~~O'-O" I
!
15,62" 39".9',~ 39.5:~k· 16,$4j.o;

Figure 2.5(a)-6 1.20 + 0.5S + 1.3W I\)


U1
26 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

29.33 K

'",
.... O.8w

Figure 2.5(a)-6 1.2D + 1.6$ + O.BW

output for Design Examples 1 and 2 (one-story and la-story buildings)


show that these secondary effects begin to become significant for the 10
story building shown.
As noted, the analyses for Design Example 1 are summarized in Fig.
2.5(a)-1 through 2.5(a)-9. The results for Type PR (partially restrained)
Construction (Spec. A2.2) with fixed column bases are taken from the
computer analyses (Appendix A2) for moment including the secondary
effects of axial length changes in both beams and the columns and shear
deformation. The prescribed moment magnifier is used in Chapter 6 for
the design of the one-story columns of Design Example 1 (Spec. C!).
Figures 2.5(b) and 2.5(c) for Type SF (simple framing) Construction
(Spec. A2.2) are braced against sidesway by lateral bracing in end walls
or other locations. These SF construction systems utilize pinned column
bases and simple span beams (Fig. 2.5(b)), and a cantilevered suspended
beam span system (Fig 2.5(c)). Gravity load moments were obtained by
manual analysis.
It will have been noted that the preliminary selections of sizes for
columns and beams in the four analyses differ. In later chapters on
design, the effect of varying yield point for Grades 36 and 50 will be
compared. Because of space limitations, only the results of the analyses
for critical load conditions are shown in Fig. 2.5. The computer-pro-
duced analysis shown in Fig. 2.5 includes the effects of moment and
axial shortening in computation of the lateral deflections.
The B} factor, B} = Cm/(l - Pu/Pel ) ~ I, with the denominator based
upon the Euler buckling effect, is included in the prescribed column
moment magnification formula, Mu = B} M nt + B2 MIt (Spec. Eq. C1-!).
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 27

5 @ 6'-0"
;.....o-----=--=- = 30'-0" . ..:=:..-:::......:::.....:
.-.----_ 5 @ 6'-0"
--
30'-0"

Figure 2.5(a)-7 1.20 + 1.6S

The em term represents the effects of residual stresses, moment gradi-


ent, and end connection moment restraints. em = 0.85 for residual
stresses and end connection moment restraints. em = 0.6 - O.4MIIM2
for moment gradient; where MIlM2 is the ratio of the smaller to larger
moment at the ends of that portion of member unbraced in the plane of
banding; MIl M2 is positive when the member is bent in reverse
28 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 29

1.20+1.6$ 1.20

"
i

l--- SYMMETRICAL
t ASOUT't
I

5 0 6'-O~ "" 30'-<1"


I u

Figure 2.5(a)-9 Maximum positive moment

curvature and negative when bent in single curvature. Bl is intended to


magnify first order gravity load moments, M nt , associated with no
translation or sidesway.
The B2 factor, B2 = 1/[1 - IPU<~oh/IHL)] or 1/(1 - IPu/IPe2 ),
applies to Mit moments caused by forces (W or E) producing lateral
translation or sidesway. It also applies to sidesway moments induced by
unsymmetrical gravity loading, by gravity loading on unsymmetrical
30 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

30'-0"

LA TERAL BRACING
IN ENO WALLS OR
OTHER LOCA Tl0NS

Figure 2.5(b) Type SF braced against sidesway

1-.. . . . . . . _.-"9ISI5 @ 6'· 0" .. ,(P.!L.=..J..:20+ .1J>'~"'1?39l<.L___

~.... 1/2P u V2P u .... ~

1,'--'. . . ~~~I~,i_~~I~I~I~~.i.
I 'I' I ...
I! I I <

lSH: :. _A~O:' :'~3: :. :. :,ud ~.. 3O,_' ~Q,- ' _-_rI-;~_o.


.

tA ttRA4 a><AC'N~
,~ END WActS M
OtHER l(leA NWS

Figure 2.5(c) Type SF - cantilever-suspended span system, braced


against sidesway
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 31

frames, and by out-of-plumb erection. IPu is the required axial strength


of all columns in a story, i.e., the total factored gravity load above that
level; and PeZ is the equivalent buckling strength, AgFy/{A.Y, where
the equivalent slenderness parameter, "-c, is equal to KI/(r7r)VFy/E
((Spec. Eq. E2-4); IPez is the summation of PeZ for all columns in a
story; see also Chapter 6, columns).

Type FR (fully restrained) Construction. Type FR construction is the


simplest expression of the concept of the completely elastic structure
assumed for a classical elastic analysis (see Fig. 2.5(a)). Joints must be
adequate to preserve the original angles of connected members (Spec.
A2.2). In application, this requirement usually demands that the most
flexible member at a joint assemblage be fully developed. Elastic design
for Type FR construction is "unconditionally" permitted (Spec. A2.2).
There are some specific guides, if not conditions, imposed: (I) the use of
center-to-center spans and heights for the analysis, and (2) the design for
critical sections at the faces of the support (joints). Thus, the stiffening
effect of the joints is neglected in the frame analysis but the reduced
moment at the face of the joint is used for design.
In the traditional manual frame analysis, only the effect of moment is
considered in the computation of displacements, since the effects of
shear and differential changes in the axial lengths are known to be of a
lower order of magnitude. Traditionally, such computed displacements
are used merely for establishing camber in horizontal members and
limiting the computed lateral displacement ("drift") in columns. The
secondary effect of this drift (pa) is an increase in the column moments,
causing an additional lateral displacement (" sidesway"). These sec-
ondary effects are provided for in the AISC Specifications by moment
magnifier terms B1 and Bz.
Upon comparison of the analyses for the Type FR one-story frame
with those from the other types of construction, the following observa-
tions are apparent:
1. Critical moments are less than for Type SF Construction even when
the latter is braced. Lighter members are to be expected with Type FR
Construction.
2. Negative moment at interior supports is critical, and it is approxi-
mately 7S percent of the simple beam moment.
3. The ten percent reduction in negative moment and increase in posi-
tive moment as a recognition of plastic behavior (Spec. AS. I), is
generally insufficient to achieve equal negative and positive mo-
ments for maximum reduction in tonnage.
32 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

4. The complete structural analysis including axial length effects, pat-


tern loading, computation of sidesway, etc., is extremely time-con-
suming even for the simplest one-story frame and economically not
feasible for multistory frames.
5. The straightforward Type PR frame connections for this example
(light wind loads; one-story height) are unlikely to prove economical.

Type PR Construction. Type PR Construction is perfectly suited to


manual calculations permitting design of "wind connections" for wind
only (Spec. A2.2). This extends the application of manual calculations to
resist wind where bracing is architecturally undesirable without materi-
ally increasing the design time required. Theoretical analyses easily
justify the allocation of the wind moment only to the connections and
the assumption (implicit) of adequate rotational capacity to ensure safe
behavior for designs based upon these assumptions.
The following general observations from comparisons of the analyses
for the various designs using braced construction shown in Fig. 2.5(b),
Type FR (fully restrained) Construction shown in Figs. 2.5(a)-1 through
2.5(a)-9, with wind connections effective at both the top and bottom of
the columns, are pertinent:
1. The advantages of minimum size columns, minimum design time,
feasibility of manual design, minimum cost shear connections, and
minimum field labor required for the braced frame will often over-
come the disadvantage of heavier total weight of steel required in the
beams to achieve a minimum cost structure.
2. The slight added weight of the wind moment beam-column connec-
tions and/or the fixed column bases will often be less than that
required for separate (steeD wind bracing, but the added erection
time and cost would be justified only by architectural requirements
precluding the use of wind bracing.

Type SF Construction (Simple Framing). Laterally braced, cantilever-


suspended span construction, as shown in this example, with uniform
factored live load on all spans, utilizes Type SF Construction shear
connections throughout where beams can be cantilevered into both
spans over the interior supports (see Fig. 2.5(c)). Where regular spans
and uniform loads or concentrated loads regularly spaced occur, this
modification of Type SF Construction adapts itself to a rapid manual
analysis and results in low steel weight (see Table 2.2(a) and (b)). Simple
shear connections and simple continuous-beam-over-column connec-
tions can be employed for roof construction. For intermediate floors in
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 33

Table 2.2 (a). Cantilever-Suspended Span System: Two Equal Spans

P!z p p p p p l' l' l' l' ? P P P 1'/2

" - EQUAL SPACES I) Lin n - EQUAL SPACES It lin

SIMPLE
BEAM

{),250 1'1. o.m p 2.,333 I" 0.333 I" 0.667 I" 0,1667 PL 0.2S00 L
0,333 1"1. 1.250 I" 3,.500 I" 0.150 I" 1.250 J> 0;.2500 PL 0.2000 L
4 0;.500 1"1. 1.661 I" <j,.SOO I" 1.1$1 P 1J!l3 J> 0.3333 PL IU818 L
5 O.SOO PL 2.071 I" 5.858 I" 1.:>71 P 2.~IlP CA266 PL 0.1765 l
II C.700 Pi. 2.S0(l I" 7.000 I" 2.0001" ;,c.OOO I" 0.5OOOPL 0.1667 L
7 0.856 PL 2.\)00 I" 8.200 I" 2.40CP MlOO I" O./iOOO PL O.ti5t! L
8 PL 3.:mIP 9.384 I" 2.8111 ;> 4.t82 P 0./i1)18 PL 0.1150 L
00
UNlrO~M
WLS 0.<1142 VI 1.1716 W 0.4142 W 0.5858 W 0.0&58 WL {U7l6 L

multistory structures, the cantilever connection detail is more difficult,


but often can be economical (see Chapter 3, Beams).
It will be noted from Fig. 2.S(c) that:
1. Critical positive and negative moments can be made equal in the
interior spans.
2. Positive moment in the end span is critical; it is the largest in a set of
equal spans.
3. Additional connections for wind only can be employed.
4. The only available moment capacity in the example shown, which is
not utilized, is the negative moment capacity of edge columns. Since
minimum size columns are used, the unused capacity is minor.
5. Low tonnage of steel can be achieved.
6. Fabrication and field erection time are both near minimum.
34 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

ELASTIC ANALYSIS FOR MULTISTORY STRUCTURES


Design Example 2: 10-Story Building

General. Design Example 2 represents a moderately high, high-rise


(IO-story) office building, three bays wide in the short direction and a
large number in the long direction (see Fig. 2.6 for elevation and
dimensions). Separate bracing against lateral displacement is assumed
in the long direction. Resistance to lateral displacement in the short
direction is to be provided only by rigid frames with moment-resistant
connections, Type FR Construction (Spec. A2.2). For purposes of analy-

Table 2.2 (b). Cantilever-Suspended Span System: Three or More


Equal Spans

PI';. P ? P ? P ? ? P r ? P P r p p p p

EXTERlOR SPAN

SH;~LE REACTION REACTION SHEAR SHEAR


ECAM H, Rt v, '1/'1. + MOMENT .. MOM€;NT X, Rz V,

2 ct1Sn ?l 0.875 P 2,)25 P O.SI5 P 0.625 P- V.188 PL 0.125 PL 2000 l ZP 0.5 f>
0.3J3 PI. 1.333 P 3.1€7 P 0.83.3 P 1.167 P 0.187 Pt H23 l. 3? l'
O,5~O Ft 1.750 ~ 4-250 P 1.ZS~ P ~.7S(l p 0.250 PL 1429 L .w 1.5 I'
0.1100 PC 2.200 P 5.300 P 1.7QQ P I 2.300 P 0.300 PL 1304c 51> t?
G,"mo Pi 2.-615 P 6.375 P 2.575 P 0.375 ?L .nOt c Sf 2.51'
0.856 pt S_G7~ ? 7-429' P CAZ9 PL <J250 L 7? 3f>
PL :S.$OC P ~;SQC P 0.500 PL .\250 L
................ ._,-_...
8P ·:3.5 P
j
WL
O.4J75 W LO'2~ w 0.43"13 W 0"
',$ 1250 L 'ilL WL
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 35

sis, connections detailed as shown in Fig. 2.7, are assumed at all


beam -column joints. The column bases are assumed to be fully fixed at
the first floor (ground) level as shown in Fig. 2.6. In an actual structure,
this condition would be achieved if the columns were carried through to
the footings at a lower level, and moment-resistant first floor framing
were provided to transmit all horizontal forces to the foundations.
Connections for the floor framing in the long direction, as shown in Fig.
2.8, are defined as "simple framing" (Spec. A2.2) and are assumed to
transmit vertical shears only to the rigid frames. The bay size, 30 feet
square, wind loads, live loads, and live load reductions were selected as
those commonly used for typical office buildings. This building frame as
described is called an "unbraced frame" in the short direction and a
"braced frame" in the long direction. The height (first floor), 25'0" plus
9 typical stories at 12'6", was chosen deliberately for this example as the
usual limit in practice at this time without separate lateral bracing.
If other materials were required for architectural or other reasons as
fire walls, partitions, deep spandrel beams, and so forth, and could be
utilized as stiffening elements for lateral bracing, the entire tonnage
premium for wind resistance could, of course, be eliminated. On the
other hand, almost any system of shear walls included solely for lateral
bracing would, without question, cost more and require more field
erection time than the rigidly connected Type FR fully restrained frame.
As for the total lateral displacement tolerable, again the reader is left
to judge for himself or herself. The Type FR frames were designed to
meet the usual rule of thumb limit, H/400 or 0.0025H, where H is the
total height, and the displacement is calculated due to primary wind
moments only (neglecting secondary effects of drift). Stiffening and
damping elements such as walls, partitions, and deep spandrels parallel
to the three-bay frames, which would often be required in a particular
building, were not considered. Such elements could reduce the lateral
displacements under service loads and the period of lateral displace-
ments sufficiently so that the frame as designed might well be very
satisfactory for one building and too flexible for another. See Appen-
dices A6 and A7 for analyses: Figs. 2.9(a), 2.9(b), 2.9(c), 2.9(d), 2.9(e),
2.9(£), and 2.9(g) for summaries of loads, displacements, and analyses;
Chapter 3 for design of beams; and Chapter 6 for design of columns.

Loads. The loads for design were taken as follows: Wind load from
ASCE 7-93 for Exposure B and a wind velocity of 75 mph (See Table
2.3); live load = 50 psf for all floors above ground level. The reduced
36 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

W2h:50 42 W21xSO

@ @) @
!@
~ 37 W21x50
!@
~ 38 W2h50
@
39
@
40

@ @ @ @
i
@
33 W21x57 .
.., 34 W21xS7
@
35 36

i
@ i
@ @
@
29 W21x83
®
30 W2b:83
@
31 32

ioI
@ @ @> @ @ @
N ;;
~ 25 W21x83 ~ 26 W21x83 27 28
~
~
1\ i
@ i @ @
@ ® @ @)
I

<0
I
21 22 W21x83 23 24
N W21x8J

@ @ @
~

0
m
~ 17
@
W21x83 ~
@
18 W21x83
®
19 20
~
i
@ @ i
@ @ @ @
13 W21x93 14 W21x93 15 16

@ @ @ @ @ @ 1
:;: 9
:
10
W21x93

@
.
'"
:!
i
10 WZlx93

@
11

@
12

®
5 W24xl04
0
6 W24xl04
@
7 8

® ..,..,
@ 0
0 ~
I
in :
10 0 '":
0 (2)
N i

nrr
1
.X 77 rr
2 3
77 r,. r;.

J J
77

I. 30'-0" 30'-0"

Figure 2.6. Typical wind frame


30'-0"
.I
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 37

Figure 2.7. Type FR connection detail: design example 2.

90'-0·

3010'-0".. 30'-0· _L 3010'-0".30'-0"_, 3010'-0·-30'-0"

I I .
Iw,Ll Iw,L l. 1Jo.l. 1
0

,.,
I
b

" " 1/1


II.!
::I
Cl CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ CQ «
z N
)(
N
)(
N
)(
N
)(
N
)(
N
x
N
)(
N
)(
N
)(
('oj
)( bI ....
IE:

3:
CQ

i
CQ

i
CQ

i
CQ

i
CQ

i
CQ

i
CQ

i
<0
i
ID
i
ID
i ,.,
b 0

rTr rrr III I


II.!
()
«
IE:
w21 OR ~12 ... III

"
.
0

,.,
I
b

Figure 2.8. Typical floor framing plan: design example 2.


38 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

1958 po' ROOF" 3.83 • 41

18.98 p.' 10 th 7.12 • 37

18.40 po' 9 th 6.90 • 33

17.81 po' 8 th 8.67 •

-
I
N
17.08 po' 7 th 6.44 •
II
~

-
I
N 16.22 p.' 6 th 6.08 •
2

0
en
15.35 p.' 5 th 5.75 • 17

14.47 pof 4 th 5.59 • 13

13.46 p.' J rd 5.08 • 8

12.01 po' 2 nd 6.52 • 5

10.71 pof
bI
in "0

-
N I
in
10.71 paf 1 at
77 no
ASCE 7- 93 WINDWARD PLUS
EXPOSURE B LEEWARD FORCES
CHICAGO, IL ON FRAMES
V = 75 MPH o 30'-0" C/C
Figure 2.9(a) Wind forces (1.0W)
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 39

ROOF 2.72" z/607


41

10 th 2.65"
37

9 th 2.50·'
33

8 th 2.29"
29
Co
I
N
Co 7 th 2.0B"
I

"
,.., 25

Co
I
N 6 th 1.B3"
N
21
@
en
5 th 1.56"
17

4 th 1.27"
13

3 rd 0.99"

2 nd

(:) MAX. DRIFT Z/435


I
in
N

1 5t

Figure 2.9(b) Frame lateral displacement


40 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

6.41 k 12.01 k 12.01 k 6.41 k

22 23 24
10I
N
8.31"
@
17
@ @
18
@ ®
19
@ @
20
5th

10I
N @ ~ ~5.56k @ ~ ~5.1ak @ J~.56k @
13 a 15 16
7.98" 13.33" 13.32k 7.96"

j. -j. + -j
30'-0" 30'-0" 30'-0"

20.51" 0.96 k a.96 k 20.51"

5th

Figure 2.9(c) 1.0 Wind - 5th floor wind load - 1O-story frame
STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 41

5th fLR

At= (20}(.'SO)= 800 sf


Lr '" 50 (0.25 + 15/ {1'EO) "" 36 psf
1.20 = (1.2)(O.OS4)(30)(10) "" 2.'$,04k
1.SL "" (1.S)(0.036)(30){10) 0= 17.28k
-43.91' 40.32k
SHEAR

MOMENT

EXT. ~QLUMN IN!. COLUMN


Figure 2.9(d) 1.20 + 1.6L - 5th floor gravity loads - 10-story frame
42 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

10' 10' 10'


1.20 = 1.2 (0.064)(30)(10) = 23.04k
0.5L = 0.5 (0.036)(30)(10) = 5,40k
28,44k

1 .25k

30'-0"

GRAVITY 5 0 1~}
WIND 17 @ SEE APPENDIX A6 I!c A7

(1.20 + 0.5L) = -30.97


(1.3W) 1.3 (-5.56) = -7.23
---k
-9.19k
VIJ = 38.20

(1.2D + 0.5L) = 25.91


(1.3W) 1.3 (-5.12) = 6.66 -37.63 k

VIJ = 19.25
SHEAR

-314.65""

(1.20 + 0.5L) = -135.23 (1.20 + 0.5L) = -211.27


(1.3W) 1.3 (88.29) 113.59 (1.3W) 1.3 (79.52) = -103.38
---'k
MIJ = -21.64'k Mu = -314.65

4 C 2.09 = 8.36'

c _ 12.5 Mmax
170.86"" b - 2.5 Mmax + 3MA + 4MB + 3Mc
_ 12.5 (314.65)
MOMENT - 2.5 (314.65)+3(78.66)+4(157.32)+3(235.99)
3933.12
786.62 + 235.98 + 629.28 + 707.97

= 3933.12 = 167
2359.85 .

Figure 2.9(e) 1.20 + O.5L + 1.3W 5th floor of 1O-story frame


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 43

FLOOR O.L. L.L. TOTAL Pu COLUMN CALCULATIONS


D.L.+L.L. SIZE
1.2D+l.6L

CONT.
FROM
SH._
"
0
0(.
I
.........,
"- AREA - (30)(18) - 480 SQ. FT.
... ..,
...
o:r:
ROOF OR FL. lZ'"
~
DoL. JO.7 II- 14.4 ROOF \ PAp (SEE INT COLI
10 o- (480)(0.084) - JO.7
....
TOTAL 30.7 - 14.4

...
L = (440)(0.030) - 14.4
~~ 1.0 1!lOX II .... II
10th FL. TOTAL 31.7 14.4 4S.1 Pu· 81.1 W14 IIlb SIllS): (S llllb)
~. t- L - Lo (0.25+1S/\/'A,)
.,.
41.8 24.0
A. - (2)A, - (2)(480) - 980 SQ. FT.
TOTAL 73.3 ~38.4 L = (50)(0.25+15/JDm - 37 PSF
~~ 1.0 74" ..... lI .... II o (FLOOR) - (0.071)(480) - 34.1
o (WALL) _ (0.020)(30)(12.5) - ~
9th FL. TOTAL 74.3 32.2 ...108.5 .... 140.7 W14
Lo - (50)(480) _ 24K 41.8K
~. 41.6 - 24.0

......
DoL.
" Lo - 37/50 - 74"
10 TOTAL 115.9 - 62.4 L. _ 0.74 (38.4 .. 14.4) +14.4 _ 32.2K
~~. 1.0 60ll II .... II
8th FL. TOTAL 116.9 43.2 160.1 .... 209.4 W14 IIlb nils): (S lQlb alb)
~. 41.6 I- 24.0 L - 50 (.25 + 15/~ - 30 PSF
10I TOTAL 158.5 '- 88.4 " Lo - JO/50 - 60ll:
Ll - 0.80 (62.4 .. 14.4) +14.4 _ 43.2k

7th FL.
~~.L. 1.0 52" "". II .... II
TOTAL 159.5 51.8 ... 211.3 Pu. 274.3 W14 Zlb SIllS:! (S latb Rib IUb)
~. 41.6 I- 24.0 L _ 50 (.25 + 15/y'DBl) - 26 PSF
II Lo - 26/50 - 5211
'1a TOTAL 201.1 ::110.4 L. - (0.52)(88.4 .. 14.4) +14.4 - 51.8K
~~.L. 1.0 SOli Uo· lI .... lIE
- COL
8th FL. TOTAL 202.1 62.4 ...264.5 Po. 342.4 W14 §lb SIQBX (8. latb 8lb alb Zlb)
~
o.L. 41.6 I- 24.0 L _ 50 (.25 + 15/~) - 25 PSF
II Lo - 25/50 = SO"
~ TOTAl 243.7 ::,34.4 L. _ o.SO (110.4 .. 14.4) +14.4 = 62.4K
~~.L. 1.0 4811 Uo· lI .... lIE
5th FL. TOTAL 244.7 88.5 ... 314.3 .... 405.0 W14 :alb SIgB~ (8 lW;b itb alb Zib Bib)
~. 41.8 ~ 24.0 L - 50 (.25 + 15/fQm)) = 23 PSF
10I TOTAl 288.3 _158.4 " Lo - 23/50 - 48"
L, - 0.48 (134.4 .. 14.4) +14.4 - 89.8"

4th FL.
~~.
TOTAL
1.0
287.3
4511
"". lI ....
79.2 ...386.5 Pu. 471.5
lIE
W14
'~ 41.6 I- 24.0
10I TOTAL '-182.4
....
328.9
~~L.L. 1.0 4411 lI .... lIE
Jrd FL. TOTAL 329.9 88.3 ...418.2 .... 537.2 W14

~ 41.8 I- 24.0
10
....
TOTAL 371.5 ::208.4
*~. 1.0 4411 • Mu·
lIE
2nd FL. TOTAl. 372.5 98.8 Po. 471.3 p'" 605.1 W14
~.
o.L. 41.6 I- 24.0
b
....
TOTAL 414.1 ::230.4
.'~~L. II
2.0 42" lIEMol'
l.t FL. TOTAl. 416.1 105.1 ... 521.3 Po· 687.5 W14

~
Dol. l-
10
.'~~L.
TOTAL
I::
II
BSIAT.FL. TOTAL
II .... W14 COLUMN NO. EXTERIOR Al oil: 01

Figure 2.9(f) Exterior column loads


44 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

TOTAL Pu COLUMN CALCULA TIONS


FLOOR D.L. L.L.
D.L.+L.L. SIZE
1.2D+l.6L

CONT.
:>:

.... I
FROM 0
SH._ 0:
"-
_ - AREA = (30)(30) = 900 SQ. FT.
<w
>-w
ox
ROOF OR FL. )"Vl
~
Dol. 57.6 I- 27.0 ROOF LOAD OOth STORY)
;, TOTAL 57.6 .::: 27.0 ROOFING 10
INSULATION 3
~~. 1.0 100111 2'12 L.W. CONC. &: 2" METAL DECK 35
10th FL. TOTAL 58.6 27.0 85.6 113.5 W14 BEAIoiS &: GIRDER 6
CEILING &: IoIECH. ELECT. 10
~ 63.9 I- 45.0 64PSF
'to TOTAL 122.5 ' - 72.0 D _ (900)(0.064) = 57.6"
~~J..
~c:ot. 1.0 50111
L - (900)(0.030) = 27.0

9th FL. TOTAL 123.5 49.5 173.0 Pu' 227.4 W14


aib SIQBl: £B Hab)
~.
D.1.. 63.9 I- 45.0 2'1. L.W. CONC. &: 2" f.tETAL DECK 35
f TOTAl.. 187.4 117.0
PARTITIONS
CEILING &: IoIECH. ELECT.
20
10
~~. 1.0 42111 BEAf.tS &: GIRDERS 6
D -71PSF
8th FL. TOTAL 188.4 64.8 253.2 Pu' 329.8 W14
LD = 50 PSF
~ 63.9 I- 45.0 L - LD (0.25+15/v'Al) (ASCE 7 - 93, 4.8.1)
., TOTAL 252.3 162.0 Al - 4At - 4 (900) - 3600 SQ. FT .
L - 50 (0.2S+1S/J3600) - 25 PSF
~~. 1.0 40111 D - (900)(0.071) - 63.9
7th FL. TOTAL 253.3 81.0 ...- 334.3 Pu' 433.6 W14 LD - (900)(0.OSO) _ 45.0"
III LD = 2S/50 - 50111 EXCEPT ROOF
~ 63.9 I- 45.0 Ll = 0.50 (72 - 27) +27 = 49.5"
~ TOTAL 317.2 207.0
~~l. 1.0 40111 alb SIQBY (B ]Qtb lIlb)
6th FL. TOTAL 318.2 99.0 .... 417.2 Pu' 540.2 W14 L - 50 (.25 + 15/J"Im) - 21 PSF
D - (900)(0.071) - 63.9
~ 63.9 I- 45.0 LD - (900)(0.050) _ 45.0"
:., TOTAl 382.1 ;::252.0 III LD - 21/50 - 42111
.' Ll = 0.42 (117 - 27) +27 = 64.8"
~c~· 1.5 40111
5th FL. TOTAl. 383.6 117.0 .... 500.6 Pu' 647.5 W14
7tb STORY (B 10lh lIlb 81b)
~L.
D.1.. 63.9 I- 45.0 L = 50 (.25 + 15/~) - 20 min.
10 TOTAL 447.5 ,-297.0 III Lo - 20/50 - 40111 min.
Ll - (0.40)(162 - 27) +27 - 81.0"
~~.
~c:ot. 1.5 40111
4th FL. TOTAL 449.0 135.0 ... 584.0 Pu" 754.8 W14
~. 63.9 I- 45.0
~ TOTAl. 512.9 '::342.0
~~J.. 2.0 40111
Jrd FL. TOTAL 514.9 lS3.0 ...- 667.9 Pu= 862.7 W14
~. 63.9 - 45.0
578.8
l:> TOTAL '=387.0
~~.1., 2.0 40111
2nd FL. TOTAL 580.8 171.0 .... 751.8 Pu' 970.8 W14 lrl..£W!QB.
~.
13.1... 63.9 I- 45.0 L (PUBLIC ASSEMBLY) 100 PSF
L = 900 (0.100) = 90.0"
1r TOTAL 644.7 ::432.0 L, - (0.40)(522.0-27-90) +27 +90 = 279.0"
~~L. 4.0 40111
1.t FL. TOTAL 648.7 189.0 .... 837.7 p"..1080.8 W14
~. 63.9 I- 90.0
~ TOTAL 712.6 1,-522.0
~~l. 2.0 40111
BSMT. FL. TOTAL 714.6 279.0 .... 993.6 p,,=1303.9 W14 COLUMN NO . INTERIOR Bl &: Cl

Figure 2.9(g) Interior column loads


STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND LRFD DESIGN 45

Table 2.3. 10-STORY BUILDING WIND LOADS - ASCE 7 - 93


BASIC WIND SPEED 75 MPH (ASCE 7-93 Fig. 1, Chicago, IL)
EXPOSURE B (ASCE 7-93 6.5.3)
CATEGORY I (ASCE 7-93 Table 1)
IMPORTANCE FACTOR 1 (ASCE 7-93 Table 5)
VELOCITY PRESSURE EXPOSURE COEFFICIENT-Kz (ASCE 7-93 Table 6)
Windward Wall (WW) Kz = 2.58(z / zp)2/a
= 2.58(z /1200)
Leeward Wall (LW) K z = 2.58(137.5/1200)°·4444
=0.98
GUST RESPONSE FACTOR Gh (ASCE 7-93 Table 8); Gh = 1.26
EXTERNAL WALL PRESSURE COEFFICIENT Cp (ASCE 7-93 Fig. 2)
Windward Wall C p = 0.8
Leeward Wall C = - 0.3
VELOCITY PRESSURE qz (ASCE 7-93 6.5)
Windward Wall qz = 0.00256Kz{IV)2
= 0.00256Kz{1 X 75)2
Leeward Wall qh = 0.00256Kz OV)2
= 0.00256(0.98)(1 X 75)2
= 14.11

FLOOR z FT. K,WW KzI,.W qhWW qhLW Gh (.8q, + .3qh)

ROOF 137.5 0.98 0.98 14.11 14.11 19.56 PSF


10th 125.0 0.94 0.98 13.54 14.11 18.98 PSF
9th 112.5 0.90 0.98 12.96 14.11 18.40 PSF
8th 100.0 0:86 0.98 12.38 14.11 17.81 PSF
7th 87.5 0.81 0.98 11.66 14.11 17.09 PSF
6th 75.0 0.75 0.98 10.80 14.11 16.22 PSF
5th 62.5 0.69 0.98 9.94 14.11 15.35 PSF
4th 50.0 0.63 0.98 9.07 14.11 14.47 PSF
3rd 37.5 0.56 0.98 8.06 14.11 13.46 PSF
2nd 25.0 0.46 0.98 6.62 14.11 12.01 PSF
1st 15.0 0.37 0.98 5.33 14.11 10.71 PSF

live load, L (ASeE 7-93) is based on the specified live load, L o, as


follows:

L = Lo(0.25 + 151M)
where
A I = area in square feet
= two times tributary area for interior beams and girders
= two times tributary area for exterior columns
= four times tributary area for interior columns
3 BEAMS AND GIRDERS
AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS

Beam Selection Table


The Beam Selection Table (BST) in Appendix Al provides all the
necessary information in tabular form to determine the flexural design
strength for a quick and economical design of steel beams by the LRFD
elastic method of analysis. The BST lists the flexural design strength
cfJb Mn for unbraced lengths of the compression flange in one-foot incre-
ments from I to 50 ft. for values of the bending coefficient Cb = 1. For
values of I < Cb :::;; 2.3, the required flexural strength, M u , can be
reduced by dividing it by Cb and entering the BST and selecting a beam
with flexural design strength, cfJbMn ~ M u'
Cb (Spec. F1.2a), is a modification factor for nonuniform moment
diagrams when both ends of the beam segment are braced:

Cb = I2.5Mmax -:- (2.5Mmax + 3MA + 4MB + 3Me) (Spec. Eq. FI-3)

where
Mmax = absolute value of the maximum moment in the unbraced beam
segment
MA = absolute value of the moment at the quarter point of the
unbraced beam segment
MB = absolute value of the moment at the centerline of the unbraced
beam segment
Me = absolute value of the moment at the three-quarter point of the
unbraced beam segment length.
48 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

The values of C b for some of the more common simple span beam
loading conditions are tabulated in Table 3.1. The values of Cb for some
of the more common beam-column loading conditions are tabulated in
Table 3.2.

Flexural Design Strength

The flexural design strength, cPb Mn, varies with the unbraced length, Lb,
of the compression flange. There are three zones of flexural design
strength for doubly symmetric shapes and channels.
1. Plastic Zone. (Spec. F1.2a)

Lp = 300r y/..jF;f equals the limiting laterally unbraced


length for full plastic moment capacity
(Spec. Eq. Fl-4).

Table 3.1. Values of C b for Simple Supported Beam Spans With


Lateral Support at Ends and at Other Locations

LOAD LA TERAL BRACING IN SPAN Cb •


UNIFORM NONE 1.14
A T CENTERLINE OF SPAN 1.30

CONCENTRATED NONE 1.32

AT MID-SPAN AT CENTERLINE ONLY 1.67

CONCENTRATED NONE 1.14

AT THIRD POINTS AT LOAD POINTS 1.67-1.00-1.67

CON CENTRA TED NONE 1.14

AT FOURTH POINTS AT FOURTH POINTS 1.67-1.11-1.11-1.67

• Cb = 12.5M max. -+- (2.5M max. + 3MA + 4MB + 3Mcl .s; 2.3
BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 49

Table 3.2. Values of C b for Columns with Lateral Support Top and
Bottom: No Lateral Loads Between Supports

TOP AND BOTTOM JOINT CONDITION Cb

FIXED TOP AND BOTTOM 2.3

PINNED AT BOTTOM AND FIXED AT TOP 1.67

EQUAL MOMENT TOP AND BOTTOM WITH SINGLE CURVATURE 1.0

2. Inelastic Zone. (Spec. F1.2a)

LT = r YFXl ';1 + VI + X2 Ff equals the limiting laterally


L
unbraced length for inelastic lateral torsional
buckling (Spec. Eq. FI-6)

Xl = (TT/S x )V(EG/A)/2 (Spec. Eq. FI-B)

X2 = 4(Cw /l y )[Sx/(GJ)F (Spec. Eq. FI-9)


cfJbMn = cfJbMr = cfJbFLSx

where

Sx = elastic section modulus, in.3

E = modulus of elasticity of steel, 29,000 ksi

G = shear modulus of elasticity of steel, = 11,200 ksi

FL = smaller of (Fyf - Fr) or Fyw

FT = compressive resudual stress in flange; 10


ksi for rolled shapes, 16.5 ksi for welded
shapes
50 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

FYI = flange yield stress, ksi

Fyw = web yield stress, ksi

Iy = moment of intertia about y-axis, in.4

Cw = warping constant, in.6

3. Elastic Zone (Spec. F1.2b)

c/J bMn = c/Jb Mer = critical elastic moment

Figure 3.1 illustrates the information available in the Beam Selection


Table (BST) in Appendix Al for a W16 X 31 Grade 36 steel beam. It
shows a plot of how c/JbMn varies in the three zones of flexural design
strength with the laterally unbraced length of the compression flange for
Cb = 1.0.
Manual calculations for some of the important flexural design
strengths are as follows:
1. Plastic Zone (W16 X 31; Fy = 36 ksi)

= 300(1.17)/v'36 = 58.5 in. = 4.9 ft.

= 0.90(54.0)(36)/12 = 146 k-ft.

2. Inelastic Zone (W16 X 31; Fy = 36 ksO

Xl = (7T/S)V EG/A / 2

= (7T/47.2)V29,000(11,200)(0.46)(9.12) /2
= 1,737.31
BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 51

L. <1>.Mm L. <1>.lAm
FT. K-FT. FT. K-FT.

1 146.0 26 3B.9
2 146.0 27 37.0
3 146.0 2B 35.4
4 146.0 29 33.B
5 145.0 30 32.4
150 6 139.0 31 31.1
<I> p = 1 6.0· K 7 134.0 32 30.0
128.0 33
\ W16 31 B
9 122.0 34
2B.9
27.8
\ Fy - 36 SI
10 116.0 35 26.9
11 111.0 36 26.0

100 '\ 12
13
105.0
99.3
37
38
25.2
24.4
,K
\, <I> MR = 92. 14 99.6 39 23.7
15 85.1 40 23.0
<l>Mn Pla,!1 Inol stle E stle 16 77.1 41 22.4
K-fT. 17 70.3 42 21.B
'\.

--
18 64.6 43 21.2
50
~
"- v- Cb = 1.0 19 59.7 44 20.6
H "<.. 20 55.5 45 20.1
..J ---..... 21
22
51.B
48.6
46
47
19.6
19.2
23 45.7 4B 1B.7
24 43.2 49 lB.3
25 40.9 50 17.9
o
o 10 20 30 40 50

L. UNBRACED LENGTH FT.

Figure 3.1. Flexural Design Strength vs Lb

X 2 = 4(C w /l y )(Sx/GJ)2

= 4(739/12.4){47.2/[11,200(0.46)]}2
= 0.0200
FL = FYI - Fr = 36 - 10 = 26 ksi or Fyw = 36 ksi; Use

FL = 26 ksi

= [(1.17)(1737.31)/26] v'1 + 'VI + 0.0200(26)2


= 171.46 in. = 14.3 ft .
CPbMn = CPbMr = CPbFLSx
= 0.90(26)(47.2)/12 = 92.0 k-ft.
52 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

3. Elastic Zone (W16 X 31) For unbraced length, Lb = 20 ft.

= 0.90[1.0(47.2)(1737.31)V2 /(240/1.17)]

X VI + (1737.31)2(0.0200)/2(240/1.17)2
= 666.77 k-in. = 55.56 k-ft.

BEAM EXAMPLE 1: SIMPLE SPAN ROOF BEAM, SF


(SIMPLE FRAMING) CONSTRUCTION

Problem
Using ASTM A36 steel, design the simple span roof beam of Example 1
in Chapter 2.

Design Data. Refer to Fig. 2.5(b) for structural analysis data. The top
flange of the beam is laterally braced by open web steel joists at points
of concentrated loads (L b = 6.0 ft.). Cb = 1.0 (single curvature and
uniform moment). Mu = 241 k-ft. Concentrated loads were determined
as follows:

1.2D = 1.2 X 3.96 = 4.75 k

1.65 = 1.6 X 5.40 = 8.64 k


Pu = 13.39 k

Design the beam using the Beam Selection Table in Appendix AI. For
fully stressed roof beams, the authors' minimum recommended depth-
span ratio = Fy/lOOO = 36/1000 = 0.036; d(minimum) = (0.036X360) =
12.96 inches. Enter Beam Selection Table in Appendix Al beginning
with W14 and proceed from the heaviest to the lighter sections. The first
section with cPbMn ~ 241 k-ft. in column 11 is W14 X 61. The second
deeper section is W16 X 50; the third deeper section is W18 X 46; and
the fourth deeper section is W21 X 44.
Try W21 X 44 for minimum weight and maximum stiffness.
BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 53

Shear. Check beam shear (Spec. F2)i

418/ VFyw = 418/Y36 = 69.67

h/tw = 18.25/0.35 = 52.14 < 69.69

c/Jv Vn = c/Jv(0.6)Fyw Aw (Spec. Equation F2-1)

= (0.90)(0.6)(36)(20.66)(0.350)
= 140.57k

Deflection. Check beam unfactored live load deflection (Spec. L3). Live
load P = 5.40 ki

= 5(4.80P)(1.008)L3 /(384E1) (Manual, Vol. I, page 4-189)

= 5(4.80 X 5.40)(1.008)(360)3/(384 X 29,000 X 843)

= 0.649 in. = L/555 OK

Ponding. (Spec. K2)i


Steel roof deck (1.5 A20 Vulcraft)

Id = (0.137 in. 4)(0.85)* = 0.116 in.4

Primary members (W 21 X 44)

Lp = 30 ft.i Ip = 843 in.4

* The moment of inertia of steel joists and trusses must be reduced by 15 percent since
their shear rigidity is less than a solid plate. A steel deck must be considered a secondary
member when it is directly supported by the primary members (Spec. K2).
54 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Secondary members (20K6 Vulcraft Joists)

Ls = 30 ft.

Is = 133.46 in.4 (From Vulcraft joist catalog)

5 = 6.0 ft.

= 0.0922

= 0.1165

Cp + 0.9C s ::; 0.25 (Spec. Equation K2-l)

0.0922 + 0.9(0.1165) = 0.1971 < 0.25 OK

Id = 0.116 in. 4 ~ 255 4 (10- 6 ) (Spec. Equation K2-2)

25(6 4 )(10- 6 ) = 0.032 < 0.116 PondingOK

BEAM EXAMPLE 2: EXTERIOR SPAN ROOF BEAM,


RIGID FRAME (FULLY RESTRAINED) CONSTRUCTION

Problem
Using ASTM A36 steel, design the exterior span rigid frame roof beam
of Example 1 in Chapter 2.

Design Data. Refer to Fig. 2.5(a) for elastic analysis data that considers
elastic shortening of columns and beams. For the loading condition
shown in Fig. 2.5(a)-8 with 1.2D + 1.65 = 1.2(396) + 1.6(5.40) = 4.75 +
8.64 = 13.39 on the exterior and adjacent interior span and 1.2 D (1.2 X
BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 55

3.96) on the opposite exterior span, the maximum moment occurs in the
exterior span at the interior column centerline; Mu = 203.00 k-ft.
As with all statically indeterminate structures, the beam and column
sizes must first be assumed and then checked for conformance to the
AISC Specifications. The top flange of the beam is braced by open web
steel joists at points of concentrated loads. The bottom flange of the
beam is braced at the face of the column and at the points of contraflex-
ure.

Use of Beam Selection Table. The critical combination of moment and


unbraced length of compression flange; - Mu = 203.00 k-ft.; Cb =
12.5(203.00) -:- [2.5(203.00) + 3(44.39) + 4(97.26) + 3(150.13)] = 1.71; Lb
= 6.65 ft.; Mu/Cb = 203.00/1.71 = 118.71 k-ft. For fully stressed roof
beams, minimum recommended depth-span ratio = Fy/lOOO = 36/1000
= 0.036. d = 360(.036) = 12.96 say 13 in. This minimum depth of 13 in.
is not likely to result in economical weight. The authors recommend
beginning routine design with a minimum d = L/24 for roof beams and
L/20 for floor beams to avoid waste of design time. d(recommended) =
360/24 = 15 in. Enter Beam Selection Table in Appendix Al beginning
with W16 and Lb = 6.65 ft., and proceed from the heaviest to the lighter
sections. The first section with cfJbMn ~ 118.71 k-ft. is W16 X 31.
Try W16 X 31 for minimum weight and maximum stiffness. The BST
interpolated value of cfJbMn = 135.8 k-ft. for Lb = 6.65 ft. is greater than
Mu/Cb = 118.7 k-ft.

Shear. Check beam shear (Spec. F2)

cfJVn = (0.90)(0.6)(36)(15.88)(0.275) = 84.89 k

Deflection. Check beam unfactored live load deflection (Spec. L3).


Maximum live load deflection in the exterior span occurs with live load
on the exterior spans only. See Appendix A2 for analysis data for
combination number 9 between nodes 7 and 8.

Ponding. (Spec. K2.) Ponding characteristics are satisfactory by inspec-


tion of results in Example 1.
56 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

BEAM EXAMPLE 3: CANTILEVERED SUSPENDED


SPAN, INTERIOR

Problem
Using ASTM A572 Grade 50 steel, design the interior cantilevered
suspended span roof beam shown in Fig. 2.5(c) of Chapter 2.

Design Data. See Fig. 2.5(c) for a summary of reactions, shears, and
moments, which were obtained from Table 2.2(b), using the concen-
trated loads from Examples 1 and 2 on all spans as follows:

R2 = 5.30(13.39) = 70.79 k

V 2 = 2.30(13.39) = 30.80 k

V3 = 2.00(13.39) = 26.78 k

+ Mu and - Mu = 0.30(13.39)(30) = 120.51 k-ft.

The top flange is laterally braced in regions of positive moment by open


web joists transmitting concentrated loads (L b = 6.0 ft.). Regard the
bottom flange as laterally braced in regions of negative moments by the
connection at the face of the column and at points of inflection (L b =
0.15(30) = 4.50 ft.) from Table 2.2(b). The critical combination of moment
and unbraced length of compression flange; Mu = 120.51 k-ft.; Lb = 6.0
ft. and Cb = 1.0 for single curvature.
Design the beam using the Beam Selection Table in Appendix AI.
Enter Beam Selection Table with Lb = 6 ft., beginning with W14 and
proceed from the heaviest to the lighter sections. The first section with
cfJbMn > 120.51 is W14 X 26 with cfJbMn = 136.0 k-ft. A second deeper
section is W16 X 26. Use W14 X 26 if deflection and ponding character-
istics are satisfactory.

Shear. Check beam shear (Spec. F2);

cfJVn = cfJv(0.6)FywAw (Spec. Eq. F2-1)

= (0.90)(0.6)(50)(13.91)(0.255)
= 95.77k
Vu = 30.79 k < cfJvVn OK
BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 57

Deflection. Check beam unfactored live load deflection (Spec. L3).


Determine deflection with live load on all spans from Appendix A3
analysis;

aTL = (1.2D + 1.6L) = 2.1118 + 0.1230 = 2.2348 in.

aL = (5.40/13.39)(2.2348) = 0.90 in. = L/399 OK

Ponding. (Spec. K2);


Steel roof deck (1.5 A20 Vulcraft)

Id = (0.137 in.4)(0.85) = 0.116 in.4

Primary members (W14 X 26)

Lp = 30 ft.; I = 245 in.4

Secondary members (29K6 Vulcraft Joists)

Ls = 30 ft.; Is = 133.46 in.4 See Example 1

Cp = (32 Ls Lt )/ (10 Ip) = 32(30)(30 4)/(10


7 7 X 245)

= 0.3174
Cs = 0.1165 See Example 1.

Cp = 0.9Cs :s; 0.25 = 0.3174 + 0.9(0.1165)


= 0.4222 > 0.25 NG

Try W18 X 35

Cp (W18 X 35) = 0.3174(245/510) = 0.1525

Cp + 0.9Cs :s; 0.25 = 0.1525 + 0.9(0.1165) = 0.2574 == 0.25 OK

Use W18 X 35 for satisfactory ponding characteristics.


58 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

BEAM EXAMPLE 4: CANTILEVERED SUSPENDED


SPAN, EXTERIOR SPAN

Problem
Using ASTM A572 Grade 50 steel, design the suspended exterior span
roof beam shown in Fig. 2.5(c) of Chapter 2.

Design Data. Refer to Fig. 2.5(c) for a summary of reactions, shears and
moments, which were obtained from Table 2.2(b) using the concentrated
factored loads of 13.39 k from Examples 1 and 2 as follows:

RI = 2.20(13.39) = 29.46 k

VI = 1.7(13.39) = 22.76 k

V 2 = 2.3(13.39) = 30.80 k

+ Mu = 192.83 k-ft.

The top flange is laterally braced by open web steel joists spaced at 6.0
ft. centers. The critical combination of moment and unbraced compres-
sion flange; + Mu (max) = 192.83 k-ft.; MA = 174.76 k-ft.; MB = 180.78
k-ft.; Me = 186.80 k-ft.; Cb (Spec. Eq. FI-3) = 12.5 Mu (max) -:- [12.5M u
(max) = 3MA + 4MB + Me] = 12.5(192.83) -:- [12.5(192.83) + 3(174.76)
+ 4(180.78) + 3(186.80)] = 1.05.
Design the beam using the Beam Selection Table of Appendix AI. For
fully stressed roof beams, minimum recommended depth-span ratio =
Fy/lOOO = 50/1,000 = 0.05. Minimum d = 0.05(26.09) = 15.65 in. Enter
Beam Selection Table of Appendix Al with W16 and Mu/Cb =
192.83/1.05 = 183.65 k-ft. and proceed from the lightest to the heavier
sections. The first section with cf>bMn ~ 192.83 k-ft. is W16 X 36 with
cf>bMn = 235 k-ft., and the second deeper section is W18 X 35 with
cf>bMn = 231 k-ft.
Try W18 X 35.

Shear. Check beam shear (Spec. F2).

cf>v Vn = 0.90(0.6)(50)(17.70)(0.30) = 143.37 k


BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 59

Deflection. Check beam unfactored live load deflection (Spec. L3).


Determine deflection with live load on all spans from Appendix A4
analysis.

aTL = (1.2D + 1.6L) = 1.5385 + 0.0951 = 1.6336 in.

a L = 5.4/13.39(1.6336) = 0.66 in. = L/474 OK

Ponding. (Spec. K2)


Steel Roof Deck (1.5 A20 Vulcraft)

Id = (0.137)(0.85) = 0.116 in.4

Primary Members (18 X 35)

Secondary Members

Ls = 30 ft.; Is= 133.46 in.4 (See Example 1)

Cs = 0.00165 See Example 1

Cp + 0.9Cs :::; 0.25 = 0.1525 - 0.9(0.00165) = 0.154 < 0.25 OK

BEAM EXAMPLE 5: SIMPLE SPAN OFFICE FLOOR


BEAM, SF CONSTRUCTION

Problem
Design a composite simple span floor beam using ASTM A36 steel and
f;= 4,000 psi.

Design Data. Refer to Fig. 2.8 of Chapter 2 for floor framing layout.
Typical floor beams supporting a composite metal deck and lightweight
60 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

aggregate (LWA) concrete slab, span 30 ft. and spaced at 10 ft. on


centers. Floor dead loads are

2 in. metal deck 2 psf


2.5 in. LWA concrete 33 psf
Ceiling & Mechanical 10 psf
Partitions 20psf
Beams 4psf
Dead Load 69 psf

Reduced specified floor live load of L = 50 psf is

L = L o(0.25 + 15/VA) See ASCE 7-93.

= 50(0.25 + 15//(30 X 10 X 2) = 43 psf

Total factored uniform beam load Wu (Spec. A4).

Wu = 1.2D + 1.6L
= 1.2(0.069)(10) + 1.6(0.043)(10)

= 0.828 + 0.688 = 1.516 k/ft.

The top flange is continuously braced laterally by the slab

Preliminary Beam Design


Estimate the required beam weight from (Manual, Vol. I, page 5-11)

W14weight = 3.4M u (12)/[(d/2 + Yeon - a/2)</JFy ]

= 3.4(170.55)(12)/[(14/2 + 4.5 - 1.0/2)0.85 X 36]

= 20.67lbs./ft. (W14 X 22)


BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 61

Beam Design. Try W14 X 22 (see Fig. 3.2 for plastic and elastic trans-
formed section properties).

h/tw = 53.3 (Manual, Vol. I, page 1-37) < 640/V36 = 106.67

4>b = 0.85 (Spec. 13.2)

Maximum concrete flange width on each side of the beam centerline =


beam span/8 (Spec. 13.1) = 360/8 = 45 in.

AJy = C = T = 6.49(36)

= 233.64 k (Maximum Horizontal Shear)


(Spec. 15.2)

a = 233.64/(0.85/; X 90) = 0.76 in.

4>bMn = 4>bAJye/12 = 0.85(233.64)(13.74/2 + 4.5 - 0.38)/12


= 0.85(233.64)(10.99)/12 = 181.88 k-ft.
4>bMn > Mu = 181.88 k-ft. > 170.55 k-ft. W14 X 22 OK

n = ES/Ee = 29.000/3.600 = 8

"co d
,..,
Co

"
,.;
d
"0
on
N
..."
'tI r n.a. "
C 0.95 (C
01'"
= 4 ksi
"0
on
.; ~
V/ZZJ +
c = 223.64
'emn
":'
,...
;..
;.. "! ...
'tI t-
t-
d
,..,
N
IX) I
t- T = 223.64
,.; ;.. t-
;....
OX)
ui
'"ui c-
t-
Fy = 36 ksl

-
W14x22 (A-6.49 In. 2)

ELASTIC PLASTIC

Figure 3.2. Simple Span Floor Beam, Example 5


62 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

x Qn(0.75 in. diameter stud) = 0.5 A self[ E

= 26.0 k < 0.44(60) = 26.4 k

Use Qn = 26.0 k as the nominal strength of one stud shear connector


(Spec. Eq. 15-1). Number of studs required = (233.64/26X2) = 18 studs.
Use a total of 20 studs spaced at 18 in. centers to coincide with a 6 in. rib
width.

Beam Deflection. See Fig. 3.2.


Neutral axis distance led.

11.25(2.5)(led - 1.25) = 6.49(11.37 - led)

28.13led - 35.36 - 73.79 + 6.49kd = 0


kd = 3.16 in.

Transformed moment of inertia, I tr •

I tr = 11.25(2.5)3/12 = 14.65

+ 11.25(2.5)(3.16 - 1.25)3 = 102.60

+W14 X 22 = 199.00
+6.49(11.37 - 3.16i = 437.45

I tr = 753.70 in.4

MWet Slab & Beam) = 5(0.372/12)(360)4/(384 X 29,000 X 199)

= 1.17 in.; Camber 1.25 in.

MSuperiroposed D + L) = 1.17(0.730)(199)/(0.372 X 754)

= 0.61 in. = L/590 OK


BEAMS AND GIRDERS AS FLEXURAL MEMBERS 63

BEAM EXAMPLE 6: 5TH FLOOR EXTERIOR SPAN


FLOOR BEAM, FR (FULLY RESTRAINED)
CONSTRUCTION FOR 10-STORY OFFICE BUILDING

Problem
Using A36 steel, design rigid frame floor beam.

Design Data. Refer to Design Example 2 of Chapter 2 and Figs. 2.6, 2.8,
2.9(d), and 2.9(e) for analysis data and a summary of gravity loads and
gravity loads plus wind shears and moments. Refer also to the Ap-
pendix A6 computer analysis output.

-Mu = 314.65 k-ft. Fig. 2.9(e) - (1.2D + O.5L + 1.3W)


+ Mu = 175.54 k-ft. Fig. 2.9(d) - (1.2D + 1.6L)

The top flange of the beam is laterally braced by the reinforced concrete
slab. Because the compression in the beam due to axial load is small, the
authors would consider the bottom flange to be laterally braced at the
point of inflection and at the face of the column. Lb = 8.36 -
(14.31/2)/12) = 7.76 ft. See Fig. 2.9(e).
W 21 X 83 beams were selected for the 5th floor rigid frame beams to
assist in limiting the story drift to 1/400 of the story height. Check the
W21 X 83 beam in the 5th floor for flexural strength. Enter Beam
Selection Table of Appendix A1 for a W21 X 83 beam with an unbraced
length, Lb = 7.76 ft. and Cb = 1.0, and read CPbMn = 526 k-ft. > M u' OK.
W21 X 83 selected to control wind drift has adequate flexural strength
even with Cb = 1.0.

Shear. Check beam shear. (Spec. F2).

= 0.90(0.6)(36)(21.43)(0.5155) = 214 kips


4
TRUSSES

GENERAL
Trusses are flexural members, planar or three-dimensional (space
frames), made up of separate members designed principally for axial
loads. In most trusses, the members are articulated in triangular pat-
terns; the primary elastic analysis is usually based on axial loads in all
members with pin-connected ends. Member connections are made sym-
metrical about the neutral axes of members or are designed to resist the
resulting minor eccentricities. For very large, non-pin-connected trusses,
an analysis of bending moments created by axial length changes, and
deflections in member with rigid end connections should be performed.
Vierendeel trusses are a special type of truss in which web members,
usually verticals only, are analyzed for shear, moment, and axial load.
The geometry of Vierendeel trusses usually consists of parallel chords,
and a square or rectangular pattern of web and chord members, al-
though occasionally with a top chord steeply pitched in one or both
directions.
The AISC LRFD Specifications provide comprehensive provisions for
design of all types of trusses and for design of tension members,
compressive members with or without shear or moment, and connec-
tions thereof. These provisions are adequate for analysis and design of
all the component members in any truss, and consequently few provi-
sions apply to truss design per se. The most important provisions in
truss design relate to use of structural tees, angle, or double angle
members; slenderness effects upon compressive capacity for these shapes
or elements thereof considered "stiffened" or "unstiffened." The most
efficient explanation of these provisions is by example, citing pertinent
provisions as they appear to control at various stages in an actual truss
design.
66 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

DESIGN EXAMPLE 1: SIMPLE SPAN WELDED ROOF


TRUSS, GRADE 50 CHORDS AND GRADE 36 WEB
Design a simple span, welded, Pratt roof truss with a maximum depth
of approximately ft of the span using Grade 50 tee-section chords and
Grade 36 web members. Span is 180 feet. Trusses are spaced 15 ft. on
centers and support a 7 ~-in. deep long-span deck on the top flange of
the top chord tee.

Design Data. The roof truss supports a service dead load of 25 psf and a
roof service live load of 25 psf.
Service Loads

Roofing 7.0 psf


Insulation 1.5
Metal Deck 5.5
Truss 7.0
Mech. & Elec. 4.0
Service DL = 25.0 psf
Service LL = 25.0 psf
Total service load = 50.0 psf

Uniformly distributed service loads on top chord: DL or LL = 0.025(15)


= 0.375 kips/ft

Factored Uniformly Distributed Load on Top Chord Spec. Formulas


A4 -1 through A4 - 6
Load
Combination Factored Loads - Panel
A4-1 1.4(0.375) = 0.525 kips / ft
A4-2 1.2(0.375) + 0 + 0.5(0.375) = 0.634 kips / ft
A4-3 1.2(0.375) + 1.6(0.325) + 0 = 1.050 kips / ft
A4-4 1.2(0.325) + 0 + 0 + 0.5(0.325) = 0.634 kips / ft
A4-5 1.2(0.325) + 0 + 0 = 0.450 kips / ft
A4-6 0.9(0.325) - 0 = 0.338 kips / ft

The critical factored load combination for design is A4-3, with a total
factored load of 1.05 kips/ft. See Fig. 4.1 for factored loads, member
axial forces, and top chord bending moments.
1.05Kj1

3 { I i i I [T I I I
0."
3-
(1)ec
::Jc
c;r;

JJ = lo:q-
oo 01
t[ _,0 ,
- 0

~ ~ I 3K '>J '>J '>J '>J ~ "Y


~ NODE 7
CD 90'-0" 90'-0"
c. -l
o 12 0 15'-0" = 180'-0" JJ
C
en
~ 94.5 K en
ROOF TRUSS m
~ en
PI 1.oo;Kjl 1.oo;Kjl
0-
d
m
til
::J
C.
"('"1 ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! !1-")2'.'
15'-0" 15'-0"
.
o - -
"r""j ! ! ! ! r! ! ! !.'" 2)""'
"0
o
:::T 13.851- K 11.621- K 11.621- K 21.04 1- K
o
a.. 1
~ 16.871- K A1111l ~ 13.46 - K A1111l
0-
(1)
::J
C.
5' O'l
co ......
J.8~' 10."~.0~
!J9~r:Uli\ IIUW:! Pt! !!~II~!!
MEMBER NO. 17 MEMBER NO. 18
68 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

The truss was analyzed with a general frame analysis program (see
Appendix A5). Chords were treated as continuous members. Ends of
diagonals and verticals were pinned.

Bottom Chord Design. From Fig. 4.1, the maximum factored axial
tension force, Pu = 310 kips (Member No.6). Provide bottom chord
bracing at quarter points of span. Maximum recommended (L/r) of
bottom chord = 300 (Spec. B7).
Minimum required gross area of bottom chord:

Try WT5 X 24.5

A = 7.21 in. 2 ; rx = 1.18 in.; ry = 2.54 in.

(Ly/ry) = [(180)(12)/4112.54 = 213 < 300, OK

(Lx/rx) = (15)(12)/1.18 = 153 < 300, OK


(Spec. D1-1)

<PtPn = 0.90(7.21)(50) = 324 kips> 310 kips, OK

Top Chord Design. From Fig. 4.1, the maximum factored axial com-
pressive force is Pu = 314 kips in Member No. 17. Maximum negative
factored bending moment at Node 18 is - Mux = 13.85 k-ft. Positive
factored bending moment is + Mux = 16.87 k-ft. In Member No. 18,
Pu = 309 kips, - Mu x = 21.04 k-ft and + Mu x = 13.46 k-ft.
Try WTlO.5 X 46.5. See Fig. 4.2. Check adequacy of Members No. 17
and No. 18.
In the region of positive bending moment, the metal deck acting as a
diaphragm will provide continuous lateral support for the top compres-
sion flange of the tee, Lb = O. In regions of negative moment, the
compression stem of the tee can be considered laterally supported at the
truss panel points and at points of inflection:

Lb = 1.98 ft for Member No. 17.

Lb = 3.05 ft for Member No. 18.


TRUSSES 69

b, = 8.420"

I- I "I
// / (fft / / /j-_~+---r.
x
~
~ - --x;:;"

tw = 0.580"

Figure 4.2. Top chord section - WT1 0.5 x 46.5

For axial load, the top chord tee section is continuously braced in the
plane of the roof deck (Ly = 0), and braced at the panel points of the
truss in the plane of the truss (Lx = 15 ft).

Member No. 17. Check WTlO.5 X 46.5 for interaction of flexure and
compression (Spec. H1.2).
(1) Use Spec. Equation Hl-la or Hl-lb depending upon ratio of
Pul4>c Pn as compared to the value of 0.2. Determine value of 4>c Pw Spec
H1.2 refers to Spec. E2. In Spec. E2, 4>cPn = AgFcr if elements of the
compression member have width-thickness ratios less than Ar in Spec.
B5.1.
From Manual, Vol. I, page 3-91, and interpolating from KLx = 15 ft:

4>Pn = 466 - (466 - 439)/2 = 453 kips


70 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Confirm Manual's tabulated value of CPPn = 453 kips:


For flange of tee, b/t = 8.42/(2XO.93) = 4.53
For stem of tee, bit = d/t = 10.82/0.58 = 18.64
For stem of tee, Ar = 127/ jF; (Spec. Table BS.l).

Ar = 127/1SO = 17.96

Since d/t = 18.64 > 17.96, the stem of the WTlO.5 X 46.5 is a slender
compression element.
For design of members in flexure or in axial compression that have
slender compression elements, Spec. BS.3 refers to Appendix BS.3.
(2) Use Appendix BS.3 for proportioning members with unstiffened
compression elements:
Where CPePn = AgFerQs
Determine reduction factor, Qs (Appendix BS.3a):
Calculate 176/ jF; = 176/ ISO = 24.89
Since bit = d/t = 18.64 is > 127/ jF; but < 176jF;, use Appendix
Equation A-BS-9 to determine Qs:
Qs = 1.908 - 0.0071s(b/08
Qs = 1.908 - 0.0071S(18.6)VSO = 0.968, which checks with the value
tabulated on page 1-75 in the Manual.
(3) Calculate Fer with Ap,E.endix B equation A-BS-1S or A-BS-16
depending upon value of AeVQ as compared to 1.5; Q = Qs:

(Spec. Eq. E2-4)

Ae = 1.0(15)(12)
(3.2Shr
V29,000
50 = 0.732

AJO, = 0.732VO.968 = 0.720

Since Ae fQ = 0.72 < 1.5, calculate:

Fer -_ Q( 0.658 QA~) Fy (Appx. A-BS-1S)

The exponent, QA~ = 0.968(0.732)2 = 0.519

Fer = 0.968(0.658)°.51\50) = 38.9 ksi


TRUSSES 71

cPePn = 0.85(13.7)(38.9) = 453 kips

The calculated value of cPePn = 453 kips checks with the value tabulated
on page 3-91 in the Manual.
(5) Determine the value of cPbMnx to complete checking the adequacy
of the WT10.5 X 46.5 with Spec. Equation H1-1a or HI-lb. Since bend-
ing is only about the x-x axis of the tee, the Muy/cPbMny term in the
equations can be disregarded. The value of Pul cPPn = 313.93/453 = 0.69,
which is > 0.2. Thus, Spec. Equation H1-1a applies.
For calculating cPbMnx' Spec H1.2 refers to Spec. F1; from Spec. F1.2c:

TTJ Ely GJ
Mn = Mer = [B + h + B2] (Spec. Eq. Fl-15)
Lb

where

Mn ;: :; 1.5M y for stems in tension

Mn ;: :; 1.0My for stems in compression

Use (+) for B if stem is in tension; use (-) for B if stem is in


compression; if tip of stem is in compression anywhere along unbraced
length, use ( - ) for B
For + Mux = 16.87 k-ft, Lb = 0 and B = 00; with the stem in tension,
the limit on Mn = 1.5My controls

cPMy = 0.90(50)(17.9) = 805.5 k-in. or 67.12 k-ft

l.5cPMy = 1208.25 k-in. or 100.68 k-ft

(Spec. Eq. H1-1a)

314 8 ( 16.87 )
453 +"9 100.68 = 0.69 + 0.15 = 0.84 < 1.0, OK
72 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

For - Mu = 13.85 k-ft and Lb = 1.98 ft

B = - 2.3(10.81/1.98 X 12)V46.4/3.01 = -4.11

Mn = Mer = 1Ty129,000(46.4)(11,200)(3.01)/1.98(12)

X [ -4.11 + VI + (-4.11i]
= 3,379 k-in. or 281.6 k-ft

Thus, the limit on Mn = 1.0My controls

314 8 ( 13.85 )
453 +"9 67.12 = 0.69 + 0.18 = 0.87 < 1.0, OK

Member No. 18. Check for Pu = 309 k and -Mux = 21.04 k-ft.

Lb = 3.05 ft.

B = - 2.3(10.81/3.05 X 12)V46.4/3.01 = - 2.67

Mn = Mer = 1TV29,000(46.4)(11,200)(3.01)/3.05(12)

X [-2.67 + VI + (-2.67i]
= 3291 k-in. or 274.2 k-ft

Thus, the limit on Mn = 1.0My controls

309 8 ( 21.04 )
453 +"9 67.12 = 0.68 + 0.28 = 0.96 < 1.0, OK
TRUSSES 73

End Panel Diagonal Design. See Fig. 4.3. Maximum fadored axial
tension force, Pu = 145 kips (Member No. 26). Maximum recommended
L/r = 300 (Spec. B7).
Minimum required gross area of end panel diagonal:

Try 2 angles 5 X 3 X 5/16 with long legs back-to-back:

A = 4.80 in?; rx = 1.61 in.; r y = 1.22 in.

L/ry = 18.03(12)/1.22 = 177 < 300, OK

(Spec. Eq. Dl-l)

4>tPn = 0.90(36)(4.80) = 155 kips> 145 kips, OK

III
I-
...J
oQl 3/8 -17
5.19"
It)

'"'"«
<-
is ~
~ WT10.5x46.5 GRADE 50
124K
--~------71'~-2--~----
'2

.,
It)

7/8" END It

Figure 4.3. Connection of roof truss and column


74 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

First Interior Vertical Design. Maximum factored axial compression


force, Pu = 80 kips (Member No. 27). See Fig. 4.4.
Try 2 angles 4 X 3t X ft with long legs back-to-back:

A = 4.49 in. 2 ; r x = 1.26 in.; r y = 1.55 in.

Compare width-thickness ratio vs. AT in Spec. B5.1

bit = 4.0/0.3125 = 12.8

AT = 76/ {f; = 76/136 = 12.7 (Spec. Table B5.1)

11/8.

4"

"oDO

Figure 4.4. Connection of roof truss, top chord and web members
TRUSSES 75

Since bjt > Ar , calculate cf>ePn according to Spec. E2.

(Spec. Eq. E2-1)

Calculate

A = -
e
KL
r7T
fiY
-
E
=
0)00.67)02) ~6
1.267T
- - = 1 14
29,000 .

Since

Ae < 1.5, Fer = (0.658A~)Fy (Spec. E2-2)

A~ = (1.14)2 = 1.30; and (0.658)1.30 = 0.58

Fer = 0.58(36) = 20.9 ksi

cf>ePn = 0.85(4.49)(20.9) = 80 kips = Pu = 80 kips, OK

Check adequacy of angles with design axial strength tabulated on page


3-69 in the Manual.
From page 3-69; about x-x axis and interpolating for KL = (1)(10.67)
= 10.67 ft:
cf>ePn = 85 - 0.67 j2.0(85 - 69) = 80 kips, which checks with the cal-
culated value of cf>ePn'

DESIGN EXAMPLE 2: TYPICAL ROOF TRUSS


CONNECTION, DETAIL OF TOP CHORD AND WEB
MEMBERS
Detail typical welded connection of vertical and diagonal web members
to top chord of truss shown in Fig. 4.4.

Design data. See Fig. 4.4 for member sizes, grade of steel, and axial
forces. Use E70XX electrodes.

Vertical Member Connection to Top Chord. Member is 2 Ls 4 X 3t


X ft. Compression force = 80 kips. The maximum fillet weld size along
the edges of members i in. or more in thickness is 16 in. less than the
76 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

thickness of the material (Spec. J2.2.b). For 2 Ls 4 X 3t X -fu, the maxi-


mum fillet weld size that can be used along the edge of the outstanding
legs is -fu - ft = ± in. The minimum fillet weld size allowed is based on
the thickness of the thicker part joined (Spec. J2.2.b). The ft in. thickness
of the stem of the top chord, WTlO.5 X 46.5, requires a minimum fillet
weld size of ± in. (Spec. Table J2.4).
Try a ± in. fillet weld. The design strength of a ± in. fillet weld can be
obtained from Table 4.1 or it can be computed. Design strength is the
smaller value of cfJFBM ABM or cfJFw Aw (Spec. J2.4).

cfJFBM = cfJFy = 0.90(36) = 32.4 ksi

cfJFw = cfJ(0.60)FEXX = 0.75(0.60)(70) = 31.5 ksi

Thus, the value of cfJFw = 31.5 ksi governs.


For ± in. weld, the design strength = (31.5)(±Xl/ Ii) = 5.57 kips/in.
Total length of ± in. fillet weld required = 80/5.57 = 14.4 in. Use ± in.
fillet weld. Extend angles 3.0 in. on the stem of the tee as shown in Fig.
4.5. Allowing for the loss in length of the weld that occurs at ends (Spec.

Table 4.1. Fillet Weld Design Strength*


(Spec. Table J2.S)

E70XX Electrodes
Size Design Strength
Inches kips per inch
1
"8 2.78
3
16 4.18
1
4 5.57
5
16 6.96
3
"8 8.35
7
16 9.74
1
2 11.14
9
16 12.53
5
"8 13.92
3
4 16.70
7
"8 19.49
1 22.27

* Shielded metal arc welding process (SMAW).


TRUSSES 77

2F

8"

F+A
r-II--+ b = 2.50"

a 6 2tf = 1.25"

II
J M

w~I==-====:J
Figure 4.5. Bolt tension prying action

J2.2.b), the effective weld length developed is (2)[(3.0)(2) + 4 - (2)(2)(-i-)]


= 18.0 in. > 14.4 in. OK
It is not necessary to locate the welds for end connections in such a
manner as to balance the forces about the center of gravity (Spec. J1.8).

Diagonal Member Connection to Top Chord. Member is 2 Ls 3!- X 3 x


ft. Tension force = 106 kips. Minimum fillet weld size along edge of
outstanding leg is based upon the thickness of the thicker part joined = t
in. (Spec. J2.2.b). Maximum size fillet weld is ft - -k = t in. (Spec.
J2.2.b).
Total length of t in. weld required = 106/5.57 = 19.0 in. Extend
angles 7.0 in. on the stem of the tee as shown in Fig. 4.4 which will
provide an effective weld length in excess of the 19.0 in. required.

End Diagonal Member Connection to Top Chord. Weld a small !- in.


thick gusset plate to stem of WTlO.5 X 46.5 top chord with an AISC
prequalified manual shielded metal-arc double-V groove joint of limited
thickness and grind smooth (Spec. J2.1a) (see Fig. 4.3). End diagonal (2
78 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Ls 5 X 3 X ft) tension force = 145 kips. Maximum size fillet weld along
edges of diagonal = ft - -k = i in. (Spec. J2.2.b). Minimum fillet weld
size (Spec. J2.2.b) is based on the thickness of the thicker part joined (!6
in. tee stem) = i i
in. (Spec. Table J2.4). Try a in. fillet weld; design
i
strength from Table 4.1 = 5.57 kips/in. Total length of in. fillet weld
required = 145/5.57 = 26.0 in. Extend the 2 Ls 5 X 3 X ft, 5 in. onto
stem of tee and gusset plate as shown in Fig. 4.4. Allowing for the loss
in weld that occurs at comers and ends (as conservative practice) the
effective weld length of 2[5 + 5 + 5 - (2XiX2)] = 29.0 in. > 26.0 in. OK

Truss Connection to Column. Field bolt truss to WI0 X 49 column


using A325 field bolts in a friction-type end plate connection (see Fig.
4.3). This connection can be laid out so that no moment is created in the
truss connection or no moment in the column. If moment is eliminated
in the truss connection, the simple span vertical shear will be delivered
at the face of the column. The resulting moment in the column will be
0.5 dR; where d is the depth of the column, and R is the factored shear
(reaction). Unless this moment is balanced, as by a similar truss load on
the opposite column face, it will usually be preferable to layout the
connection for zero moment to the column. In order to avoid an
eccentric load on the column, locate the end diagonal such that its
working line intersects the working line of the top chord tee at the
centerline of the column. This layout will subject the bolts connecting
the truss to the column to a factored axial shear force of 94.5 kips and a
factored moment of (94.5 k)(5.0 in.) = 472.5 k-in. (see Fig. 4.3).
No exact method exists for locating the neutral axis to determine the
tension stress in the bolts for this type of connection. The neutral axis is
located somewhere below the centroid of the bolt pattern. It is conserva-
tive common practice to assume its location conveniently at the centroid
of the bolts. Assume twelve i-in. dia. A325 bolts (2 rows of 6 each at 3
in. centers).
Number of bolts: 12; let y = lever arm to neutral axis; I y2 of bolt
pattern = 2[(1.5)2 + (4.5)2 + (7.5)2] = 157.5 in?
Compute factored nominal tension force in each top bolt:

F = Mc/ly2 = (472.5)(7.5)/[157.5)(2)] = 11.25 kips

Compute the increase in the tension force (qu) in the A325 top bolts
due to prying action (see Fig. 4.5). Assume ~ in. thick Grade 50 end
TRUSSES 79

plate thickness (tf ). From Part 11 of AISC LRFD Manual, Volume II,
Connections, 2nd Edition:

where:

</Jrn = </JFn Ab = 0.75(90)(0.4418) = 29.8 kips

[) = 1 - d'/p = 1 - 0.8125/3 = 0.73 in.

b' = b - d/2 = 2.50 - 0.375 = 2.125 in.

a' = a + d/2 = 1.25 + 0.375 = 1.63 in.

(J = b'/ri = 2.125/1.63 = 1.31 in.

f3 = l/(J(</Jrn/r ut - 1)

f3 = 1/1.31{29.8/11.25 - 1) = 1.26

Since f3 > 1, [) = 1.0

t = 0.875 in.

tc = "j4.44</Jr nb'/pFy = y'4.44(29.8)(2.125)/(3)(36) = 1.61 in.

qu = 29.8(0.73)(1.0)(1.31)(0.875/1.61i = 8.42 kips

Total tension force (F - q) in each top bolt:

F + qu = 11.25 + 8.42 = 19.67 kips


Ft = 117 - 1.91v :::;; 90 ksi (Spec. Table J3.5)

Where Iv = Vu/12 Ab = 94.5/12(0.4418) = 17.8 ksi

</JFv = 0.75(48) = 36 ksi > 17.8 ksi. OK (Spec. Table J3.2)


80 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

For A325 bolts, the tension stress limit, FI , with threads included in the
shear plane (Spec. Table J3.5):

FI = 117 - 1.9(17.8) = 83.2 ksi;

or expressed as tensile limit = 83.2(0.4418) = 36.76 kips

</>Ft = 0.75(36.76) = 27.57 kips

</>Ft > (F + Q), i.e., 27.57 kips > 19.67 kips. OK

Assume two ft in. X 17 in. long vertical fillet welds to connect the end
plate to the WT10.5 X 46.5 top chord section and the gusset plate.
Compute the maximum stress in these welds due to shear and moment.

Vu = 94.5 kips

Mu = (94.5)(5.0 + 0.875)(plate thickness) = 555.2 k-in.


Au = (0.4375)(2)(17)/V2 = 10.52 in. 2

Iw = (0.4375)(2)(17)3/[(12)V2] = 253.3 in.4

Iv = Vu/Aw + Muc/1w = 94.5/10.52 + (555.2)(8.5)/253.3

= 8.98 + 18.63 = 27.61 ksi


</>Fv = 0.75(0.60)(70) = 31.50 ksi

</>Fv > lv' OK

Check the assumed end plate thickness of ~ in. for flexural design
strength (see Fig. 4.5).

Mu = F(b/2) = (11.25)(2.50)/2 = 14.06 k-in.

</>bMn = </>bFyZ = 0.90(50)(3 - 0.8125)(0.875i /4

</>bMn = 18.84 k-in. > 14.06. OK


TRUSSES 81

Serviceability. From the computer analysis, the deflections at midspan


of the truss (Node 7) due to the service dead load and service live load
are:

aD.L.= 3.32 in.

aL. L . = 3.32 in.

The deflection under service dead load can be compensated for by


cambering the truss during fabrication. The deflection under service live
load, expressed as a fraction of the span of the truss, is equivalent to
L/650. This value is much less than customary permissible service live
load detlections of L/360, L/480, and so on.
5
CONNECTIONS

GENERAL
The latest AISC LRFD Specifications permit a wide variety of connec-
tions. The basic requirement, appropriate with the sophisticated combi-
nations of different types of steel to be connected, different design
requirements of connections, and different means of connections, is a
performance requirement consistent with the overall development of the
Specifications. This requirement states simply " . .. that the design of
connections shall be consistent with the assumptions as to the type of
construction ... " (Spec. A2.2). Each of the detailed requirements for the
design of connections simply builds upon this basic requirement. By
implicitly or explicitly requiring that the design of a particular type of
connection be consistent with the design assumptions as to the type and
amount of force to be transmitted, and rotation capacity (or rigidity)
consistent with the rotation assumed necessary to develop the connec-
tion forces, the basic performance requirement is completed.
The LRFD Specifications explicitly recognize inelastic behavior in
connections of members designed as elastic: " sufficient rigidity" to
maintain the angles at the joints in rigid frames Type FR (fully re-
strained) construction; "inelastic, but self-limiting" deformation of parts
of connections in Type PR (partially restrained) construction; and "in-
elastic rotation capacity" for wind connections with Type PR (partially
restrained) construction. Elastic behavior in connections of members
under plastic design is implicitly recognized (Spec. AS.I).

SCOPE
For the purposes of this chapter, connections are most conveniently
considered as classified on two bases; (1) materials used (rivets, bolts,
84 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

pins, or welds), and (2) the assumed behavior of the connection (Design
requirements: rigid, semirigid, or plastic for moment; shear transmission
only; tensile or compressive forces only; or combinations). In addition to
forming joints between two or more steel members or parts of members,
connections are required to elements composed of other structural
materials. For composite action with concrete elements not bonded by
encasement, shear connections are required (Spec. IS). Shear connections
may utilize specially designed shear connectors or standard welded
stud connectors (Spec. A3.6). For connection of steel column bases to
transmit any direct tension or shear, anchor bolts are required (Spec.
JIO).
It is not intended in this chapter to duplicate the design aids, details,
and examples in the AISC LRFD Manual of Steel Construction, Vol. II,
Connections. Equally, space limitations do not permit presentation of a
wide range of examples to illustrate even the recently published re-
search in this area. Rather, the purpose here is limited to explanations
and illustrations of applicable Specification requirements that might be
overlooked or troublesome in routine work. This aim will include
indication of reasonable interpretations to resolve apparent conflicts or
ambiguities in the LRFD Specifications, and extension of such interpre-
tations where the Specifications seem to have omissions. It has been
desirable to extend this aim somewhat, in that a design aid for bearing
plate connections, and design examples for column base plate connec-
tions is included in Fig. 5-7.

RIVETS
The requirements for the use of rivets were established many years ago
in many AISC Specifications. Since most of the late research has been
directed toward welded, and more recently high-strength bolted connec-
tions, there has been little change in the Specifications for the use of
rivets. Familiarity with the requirements for, and a sharply reduced use
of, rivets in building construction results in little need for interpretations
of the LRFD Specifications. Rivets of Grades 1, 2, and 3 are available
under ASTM A502. Design rivet strengths for tension and for shear in
bearing-type connections are given in Spec. Table J3.2 (Spec. J3.3).
Design rivet strengths for tension in bearing-type connections are given
in Spec. Table J3.5 (Spec. J3.7). The net area, An' and effective net area,
A c' for tension members must be used (Spec. DI); computed as pre-
CONNECTIONS 85

scribed (Spec. B2); and allowance of -k in. made plus the diameter of the
rivet holes (Spec. B2).
Perhaps the most used application of these Specification requirements
will be in alterations or additions to existing buildings in which rivets
were used. Rivets may be used with welds to support loads (Spec. J1.9).
In existing structures the rivets must provide the design strength for
existing dead loads, and welds must provide the additional strength
required for added dead loads and live loads.
A summary of design strengths of some of the common size rivets is
given in Table 5.1, Rivet Design Strength-Kips.

BOLTS
Bolts may be classified by design tensile strength as: (1) low, A307, for
cpFt = 0.75 X 45 = 33.8 ksi; and (2) high, A325, for cpFt = 0.75 X 90 =
67.5 ksi, and A490, for cpFt = 0.75 X 113 = 84.8 ksi (Spec. J3.6).
Ordinary low strength bolts (A307) are usable only in bearing-type
connections and cannot be considered as sharing load in combination
with welds (Spec. J1.9).

Table 5.1. Rivet Design Strength In Kips


Nominal Diameter and Area
ASTM
3 •
4" In. i In. 1 In. 1~ in.
Loading Designation 0.442In.2 0.601In. 2 0.785 in.2 0.994In.2
Tension A502 Gr 1 14.9 20.3 26.5 33.5
cpFt = 0.75(45)
= 33.8 ksi
A502 Gr2&3 19.9 27.1 35.3 44.7
cpFt = 0.75(60)
= 45.0 ksi
Shear S A502 Gr 1 8.3 11.3 14.8 18.7
cpFv = 0.75(25)
D = 18.8 ksi 16.6 22.6 29.5 37.4
S A502 Gr2&3 10.9 14.9 19.5 24.6
D cpFv = 0.75(33) 21.9 29.8 38.9 49.3
= 24.8 ksi

S = Single Shear; D = Double Shear


(1) Static loading only; (2) When tension splice length parallel to line of force exceeds 50
in., reduce tabulated values by 20 %.
86 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

High-strength bolts must have adequate design strength for factored


loads in tension and bearing-type connections (Spec. J3.6) with threads
included (N) or excluded (X) in the shear plane. High-strength bolts in
"Slip-Critical Joints" where slip into bearing would be detrimental to
the serviceability of the structure must be checked for service loads
(Spec. J3.5). Joints where slip into bearing would be detrimental include
joints subject to fatigue loading, joints with bolts in oversized holes,
joints subject to load reversal, and joints that share load transmittal with
welds.
High-strength bolts in bearing-type connections cannot be considered
as sharing load with welds; however, bolts in slip-critical connections
can be considered to share load with welds (Spec. J1.9). If existing
bearing-type bolted connections are to be strengthened by welds, the
bolts can be utilized to support existing factored dead loads and the
welds for added factored dead and factored live loads.
The use of ordinary (A307) bolts is limited by a number of Specifica-
tion requirements. The design strengths for standard (Std) and long or
short-slotted holes (NSL) normal to the load direction are low: tension,
cfJFt = 0.75 X 45 = 33.8 ksi on the threaded area; and shear, cfJFv = 0.75
X 24 = 18.0 ksi (Spec. J3.6, Table J3.2). The slip before full bearing is
achieved on a group of ordinary bolts effectively rules out the sharing of
stress in a mixed connection. Standard holes are to be taken as ft in.
larger than the nominal diameter of the bolt (Spec. J3.2 and Table J3.3),
and the ordinary bolt does not expand to fill the hole like a hot driven
rivet, nor can it be used for dependable friction. Stress sharing may not
be assumed between ordinary bolts and rivets or welds (Spec. J1.9 and
J1.10). A307 bolts (Spec. J1.11) are not permitted in important field
connections including the following:
1. Column splices in all buildings with a height more than 200 ft.
2. Column splices in all buildings with a height equal to or more than
100 ft. but less than 200 ft., where the minimum horizontal dimension
is less than 40 percent of the height.
3. Column splices in all buildings with a height less than 100 ft., where
the minimum horizontal dimension is less than 25 percent of the
height.
4. Buildings with beam-column or column bracing connections, where
the building height is greater than 125 ft.
5. Building frames carrying cranes with more than five-ton capacity.
6. Building connections subject to vibration, impact, or stress reversal.
CONNECTIONS 87

High-strength bolts must conform to the LRFD Specification and


Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, as
approved by the Research Council on Structural Connections (Spec.
J3.1). The design strength of high-strength bolted connections depends
on their shear strength, bearing strength and tension strength for fac-
tored loads, and on their slip-critical shear strength for service loads.
The design SHEAR strengths in bearing-type connections in standard
or in long or short-slotted holes for factored loads are as follows (Table
J3.2):
1. Threads excluded from the shear plane (X)

A325 cpFv = 0.75 X 60 = 45.0 ksi

A490 cpFv = 0.75 X 75 = 56.3 ksi

2. Threads not excluded from the shear plane (N)

A325 CPvF = 0.75 X 48 = 36.0 ksi

A490 cpFv = 0.75 X 60 = 45.0 ksi

3. Reduce the above values 20 percent when the length between ex-
treme fasteners parallel to the line of force exceeds 50 in.
The design TENSION strengths for factored loads (Table J3.2):
1. A325 cpFt = 0.75 X 90 = 67.5 ksi
2. A490 cpFt = 0.75 X 113 = 84.8 ksi
The design BEARING strengths for standard or long or short-slotted
holes for factored loads when Le ~ LSd, spacing of bolts ~ 3d, and
when deformation around the bolt holes is a design consideration are as
follows (Spec J3.1O):
1. Standard or short-slotted holes
88 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

2. Long-slotted holes with load transverse to long slot

The SLIP-CRITICAL shear strengths for service loads (Spec. J3.8a) on


connected material with clean mill scale and blast cleaned surfaces with
Class A coating (slip coefficient = 0.33) are as follows:

A325 A490
Standard Holes 17 ksi 21 ksi
Oversize and Short-Slotted Holes 15 ksi 18 ksi
Long-Slotted Holes and Transverse Load 12 ksi 15 ksi
Long-Slotted Holes and Parallel Load 10 ksi 13 ksi

For fasteners in slip-critical connections subjected to service load tension


forces, the slip-critical shear strength must be reduced by multiplying it
by a reduction factor (1 - T /T b), where Tb is the minimum pretension
load (Spec J3.9a).
The Specifications provide an option to design slip-critical connections
at factored loads (Spec. J3.8b).
Likewise for fasteners in bearing-type connections, the tension stress
limit (Ft ) for factored loads with A307 bolts, A325 bolts, A490 bolts, and
rivets must be reduced in accordance with the factored shear stress Iv
(Spec. J3.7). Shear and tension bolt strengths in kips for ~ in. diameter
through 1 ~ in diameter bolts are shown in Table 5.2.

WELDS

General
The design strength of welds, 4>R n , must be the lower value of the
nominal strength of the base material, FBM , or the weld electrode
material, Fw' These strengths are set forth in Specification Table J2.5.

Fillet Welds. Fillet welds are one of the most common types of welds
used. Their design strength depends on their effective throat thickness
as shown in Fig. 5.1.
CONNECTIONS 89

Table 5.2. Bolt Strength <l>Rn In Kips


BOLT DIAMETER AND AREA
0.75 0.875 1.00 1.125
ASTM CONN HOLE <l>Ft <l>Fv NOMINAL AREA IN. 2
LOADING BOLT TYPE TYPE KSI KSI 0.442 0.601 0.785 0.994
FACTORED A307 33.8 14.9 20.3 26.5 33.6
TENSION A325 67.5 29.8 40.6 53.0 67.1
A490 84.8 37.5 51.0 66.6 84.3
STD S 15.9 21.6 28.3 35.8
N 36.0
A325 NSL D 31.8 43.3 56.5 71.6
STD S 19.9 27.0 35.3 44.7
X 45.0
FACTORED NSL D 39.8 54.1 70.6 89.5
SHEAR STD S 19.9 27.0 35.3 44.7
N 45.0
A490 NSL D 39.8 54.1 70.6 89.5
STD S 24.9 33.8 44.2 56.0
X 56.3
NSL D 49.8 67.7 88.4 111.9
S 7.5 10.2 13.3 16.9
STD 17.0
D 15.0 20.4 26.7 33.8
OVS S 6.6 9.0 11.8 14.9
A325 SC 15.0
SSL D 13.3 18.0 23.6 29.8
SERVICE S 5.3 7.2 9.4 11.9
LOAD LSL 12.0
SHEAR D 10.6 14.4 18.8 23.9
S 9.3 12.6 16.5 20.9
sm 21.0
D 18.6 25.2 33.0 41.7
OVS S 7.9 10.8 14.1 17.9
A490 SC 18.0
SSL D 15.9 21.6 28.3 35.8
S 6.6 9.0 11.8 14.9
LSL 15.0
D 13.3 18.0 23.6 29.8
S = single shear SSL = short-slotted holes
o = double shear ~ in. bolts <1t in. x 1 in.)
N = bearing-type connection t in. bolts (-liin. x 1kin.)
(threads excluded from shear plane) 1 in. bolts (1 fa- in. x 1fa- in.)
SC = slip-critical connection 1k in. bolts (1,\ in. x 1tin.)
X = bearing-type connection LSL = long-slotted holes
(threads included in shear plane) ~ in. bolts (it in. x 1tin.)
Std = standard round holes (d + fa- in.) t in. bolts (-liin. x 2,\ in.)
OVS = oversize round holes 1 in. bolts (1 fa- in. x 2t in.)
(*
~ in. bolts in.)
t in. bolts (1 fa- in.)
1k in. bolts (1,\ in. x 2it in.)
NSL = short or long-slotted
1 in. bolts (1 tin.) holes normal to load direction
1k in. bolts (1-!s in.)
90 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Effective Throat 0.707 T

a) SMAW WELDS
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process
Gas Metal Arc Welding Process
Flux Cored Arc Welding Process

k - - + - 4 ~ 1/16"

Tmax

Effective Throat = 0.707 T

b) SMAW WELPS
Shielded Metal Arc Welding Process
Gas Metal Arc Welding Process
Flux Cored Arc Welding Process

c)~ Effective Throat T when T f, 3/8 in.


Submerged Arc Welding Process Effective Throat 0.707T + 0.11 In. when
T ~ 3/8 in.

Figure 5.1. Effective throat thickness of fillet welds


CONNECTIONS 91

The design strength of fillet welds joining component elements of


building members with E70XX electrodes is as follows:

c!»Rn' kips per linear inch


Fillet Weld Size, in. SMAW* E70XX SAW** E70XX
1
16 1.392 1.969
1
B 2.784 3.941
3
16 4.176 5.906
1
"4 5.568 7.875
5
16 6.960 9.844
3
B 8.351 11.813
7
16 9.743 13.208
1
2" 11.135 14.600

* SMAW = Shielded metal arc welding process,


** SAW = Submerged arc welding process

Special Considerations. A number of minor special considerations


arise in the specification of welding. Generally, net sections are not a
consideration except for plug and slot welds in which the gross area of
the holes is deducted (Spec. B2). The Specifications require preheating
for various conditions, including all work when temperatures are below
32° F (Spec. M2.4). Except for single and double angle or similar minor
members, welds should be arranged to avoid eccentric axial force or,
such eccentricity must be considered in the design of the connection and
the member connected. For the usual shear connection requiring flexibil-
ity to accommodate the necessary simple end rotations assumed, the
locations of the welds and the selection of the connection elements must
be coordinated (Spec. J1.2).
As previously noted, where welding at high-strength bolted friction-
type joints is required as a mixed connection with shared stress, the
final tightening of the bolts is required prior to the welding. The
sequence of completing purely welded connections is also important,
although not explicitly covered by the the Specifications (Spec. M2.4).
The heat generated in the operations of welding creates intense shrink-
age strains which, if restrained, leave corresponding residual stresses
(Spec. M2.4). These stresses can be relieved by local inelastic yielding,
but where local inelastic yielding is also restrained or limited, warping
92 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

and lamellar tearing* may result. For many welded assemblies, the
simple precaution of a specified sequence of welding may be employed
to balance the strains and to avoid warping. Even after this precaution,
certain complex assemblies may be expected to retain adverse residual
stresses. For cases where this condition is anticipated or suspected,
stress relief by heating must be specified by the Engineer (Spec. M2.4).
(Note: This service is not provided unless it has been specified and will
normally be an added cost.)
The use of a proper sequence to avoid creation of shrinkage stresses
or to minimize the same can also be specified in many connections
where lamellar tearing might occur. Particularly with thicker sections,
where both the direction of the shrinkage is completely restrained and
the resulting stress is normal to the surface of the section, consideration
should be given to the welding sequence. If the condition cannot be
eliminated by a practicable sequence as a first choice for a solution, it
may be possible to relieve the strains without developing large stresses
by use of soft wire "cushions" or by revision of the entire connection
detail. At least for simple cases it should, of course, be more economical
to specify a particular welding sequence.

CONNECTION DESIGN

Classification
In addition to the general requirements previously cited for the design
of connections, certain arbitrary minimum design requirements for
connections have been established. All connections for members carry-
ing calculated stress must be "designed to support a factored load not
less than ten kips (except lacing, sag bars, and girts)," presumably ten
kips shear in flexural members, ten kips tension in ties, and ten kips
bearing in compression members, all at required strength levels (Spec.
J1.7). Eccentric connections of axially loaded members are to be de-
signed to transmit the resulting moments as well as the axial force
(Spec. J1.8 and J5.1) These minimum requirements naturally become
most significant in the design of light members, such as axially loaded
members in trusses. Connections for such members are required to meet
an additional requirement that they transmit the factored load, or the
minimum ten kips, whichever is larger.

·"Commentary on Highly Restrained Welded Connections," Engineering Journal, AISC, 10,


No.3,1973.
CONNECTIONS 93

As noted previously, connection types may be classified on the basis


of the connection method or the design function. Broadly, connections
may be described as flexible (for the transmission of shear only) (Spec.
J1.2), or rigid (maintaining the angle between the members connected
and transmitting full moment capacity of the most flexible element at
the joint as well as the shear) (Spec. J1.3), or semirigid (transmitting a
predetermined fraction of the full moment capacity as a rigid joint and
further loads in shear as a flexible joint with corresponding angle
change to supply rotation for the additional loads) (Spec. J1.3).

Flexible Connections
"Flexible" connections are designed to transmit shear without exceed-
ing the design strength of the connectors as a group or the connection as
a whole. The use of an average capacity for each of several connector
elements sharing the total load is justified by allowing self-limiting
localized stresses, determined by an elastic joint analysis, to exceed the
yield point and create inelastic localized deformations of the connector
materials, or by inelastic deformations of the connection elements (Spec.
J1.2). The simplest examples of localized deformation occur in the
assembly of bearing-type bolted connections where the cumulative
tolerances permitted exist on (1) out-of-round in the bolts, (2) oversize
holes (ft."), and (3) center-to-center location of the holes in the different
elements connected. The extreme degree of such inelastic action occurs
with a two-bolt bearing-type, where one bolt is loosely fitted and one is
very tight. Until the material of the connected element surrounding the
loaded bolt, or the bolt itself, yields and deforms (+ ft."), the load is not
shared and a 50 percent adjustment will be developed as the load
increases. For larger (and thus more important) members, more bolts
will be required and the degree of adjustment required on each will be
less. Lesser adjustments are required for a long line of bolts intended to
share stress equally. Even if perfectly fitted, yielding and inelastic
deformations occur, maximum at and beginning at the first loaded bolt,
and decreasing to a minimum at the last (see Figs. 5.2 and 5.3). After
this localized inelastic adjustment in the connectors for shear transmis-
sion, consider the inelastic adjustments that occur to reduce the "elastic
theory" moments.
Inelastic deformation in the connection elements, typically angles, will
occur and reduce the restraint, which would transmit moment. The
common double-angle shear bearing connection is extremely stiff longi-
tudinally for the transmission of shear, and it depends upon the minor
inelastic bearing deformations around each fastener to equalize the
94 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

F ACE OF SUPPORT

fM ~ v/bt until (titep + tibet) ~ 1/16"


(,Stop + Obot) increase until fEn = \;2 V/Dt = h,2

Figure 5.2. Self-limiting, localized deformations-two bolts

shear stresses in the fasteners. The same double-angle member is rela-


tively flexible and will twist to permit a relatively large angular rotation
reducing moment transmission (see Fig. 5.4).
Experience and tests confirm the practical assumptions of shear trans-
fer only and the use of a design shear strength per unit weld or separate
fastener. The actual rotations observed in one series range from 0.84 to
0.97 times <Po, the "simple beam rotation." These limits, corresponding
to moments ranging from three to 16 percent, were approximately the
same for a single end plate connector or the common double-angle

Tu -2 Ii (-Tu

f I ltHr:
.:.,::,:.:. +
Inelastic deformatioms occur successively in the
plates at each fastener and in the fasteners,
beginning and largest at the first loaded, and
continuing until the elastic strains in the spaces
S10 S2, S3 and S4 become proportional to equal
stress in all fasteners.

Figure 5.3. Self-limiting deformations - axial stress on line of separate fasten-


ers.
CONNECTIONS 95

~ FACE OF SUPPORT

~ It! ~ until s '" 0

wL l ML
M = end moment
~ '" 24EI - 2EI
~ = end rotation
s '" space, bottom flange to
face of the support

Figure 5.4. Self-limiting deformation, twist elements (JJ - two angles.

connector.* An additional caution reported from these tests is that the


moment stiffness increases abruptly when the space "s" in Fig. 5.4,
closes and the lower flange transmits compression to the face of the
support. Coping the bottom flange, where a quick analysis of the
proportions of depth and required angle change show the usual clear-
ance to be inadequate, may be desirable for deep connections.
For flexible connections, all the factored beam reactions should be
shown on the design drawings; alternatively, only those exceeding one
half the uniform factored load capacity l/J bWj(2 L) for the sections used,
together with a general note that connections shall be designed for one
half the capacity unless otherwise noted, should be shown.

Column Bearing Connections

Columns. The LRFD Specifications provide for column bases bearing


on concrete, which apply in the absence of Code (Statutory Building
Code) regulations (Spec. J9). Design bearing strength, l/JPp' may be
taken as l/JcO.85f: Al for bearing on the full concrete area, and l/JcO.85f: Al

*D. J. L. Kennedy, "Moment-Rotation Characteristics of Shear Connections," Engineering


Journal, AISC, No.4., October 1969.
96 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

,; A2/Al :5; CPcO.85f; 2 Al for bearing on a fraction of the concrete area,


where
CPc = 0.60
Al = steel base plate area bearing concentrically on concrete of the same
area
A2 = concrete bearing area that is larger than the steel base plate area
and is geometrically similar to and concentric with the steel base
plate area.
See Fig. 5.5 for the relationship between loaded area and unloaded area.
When the m and n dimensions shown in Fig. 5.6 are not small, the
approved design formula for the thickness of the column base plate
(Manual, Vol. II, pages 11-57 through 11-60) is based on the formation
of a plastic hinge in the base plate due to bending at the edge of a
rectangle whose sides are 0.80b and 0.95d. The required thickness of the
plate, t p' using its plastic section modulus, Z = l( t p)2 / 4, is obtained
from the larger of the two following equations:

Eq.5.1

where: 1 is the larger of m, n, and An'

m = (N - 0.95d)/2

A, = BN

2 2

FOOTING

Figure 5.5. Column base plates on concrete.


CONNECTIONS 97

b,

;; E

0 -tF
I--t-
--1b
,~
tw Hinged
-0

z -0 1--
I ~
Fixed
'"c5
0>

'r-
0
Hinged
-~
j E

n 0_8 b, n

Figure 5.6. Column base plate dimensions

n' = fibt/4

A = 2/X /0 + ,II - X) ::;; 1

X = (4dbf /(d + bf)2)/(Pu/<PcPp)

When the m and n dimensions are small, the base plate thickness
determined by the above equations may not be conservative. In this case
another determination of the thickness can be made by assuming the
base plate acts as a two-way slab spanning between column flanges,
considered as fixed. The maximum bending moment in the base plate
for this condition, (My), produces tension in the top of the base plate
and occurs at the midpoint of a line connecting the tips of the column
flanges. My can be obtained from Fig. 5.7, which is based on "Moments
and Reactions for Rectangular Plates," by the U.S. Department of the
Interior Bureau of Reclamation, Engineering Monograph No. 27. For this
condition the plate thickness can be determined from Eq. 5.2:

Eq.5.2
98 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

y
COL!JM~ ::iI::lAEE AA kQEEElklENI
W6x15 TO 25 0.950 0.284
W8x24 TO 28 1.141 0.341
W8x31 TO 67 0.925 0.277
Wl0x33 TO 45 1.155 0.344
c Hinged Wl0x49 TO 112 0.917 0.276
z X W12x53 TO 58 1.131 0.333
Fixed W12x65 TO 190 0.939 0.281
c W14x61 TO 82 1.309 0.379
Hinged
W14x90 TO 130 0.894 0.265
W14xl45 TO 730 0.850 0.250

I. B
.I
My

tp
= (Coefficient) b2 Pp/(BN)
= 2b V(Coefficlent) Pp/(0.9Fy BN)

0.35

0.30

.
..-c:
·u
0.25

..
!E
0
0.20
u

0.15

0.10

0.05

0
a 0.5 1.0
alb
Figure 5.7. Column base plate thickness
CONNECTIONS 99

The base plate thickness selected should be the larger of Eq. 5.1, or Eq.
5.2. Examples 5 and 6 demonstrate the use of these three equations in
determining the correct column bearing plate thickness.

Anchor Bolts for Column Base Plates


The LRFD Specifications refer the designer to criteria by the American
Concrete Institute or Prestressed Concrete Institute for the design of
anchor bolts and embedments (Spec. J10).
The ACI Building Code (318-95) does not provide ultimate tension
and shear strengths for plain bolts embedded in concrete or for expan-
sion bolts and grouted bolts installed in predrilled holes in concrete.
However, ACI Committee 318 is working on Code provisions for the
design of anchor bolts and other steel embedments. Until such time, the
authors recommend that the designer follow the recommendations of
Appendix B (Steel Embedments) of "Code Requirements for Nuclear
Safety-Related Structures-ACI 349" for the design of anchor bolts. ACI
349, Appendix B is also cited in Comm. JlO and in Manual, Vol. II,
Connections.
For bolts resisting both factored shear and tension loads, a design can
be made assuming that all anchor bolts can provide strength to resist
the factored shear force, (V), if the hole diameter is only fg in. larger
than the bolt diameter or because welded plate washers are used. When
the resultant shear force, Vu , is concentric with the bolt pattern all bolts
provide equal shear strength. If Vu is not concentric with the bolt
pattern, the torsional shear will increase the total shearing force per bolt.
The shear friction concept can be used to calculate the total tension
force in an anchor bolt due to the shear force on the bolt. This concept is
conservative because ultimate anchor bolt shear strengths are greater
than the ultimate anchor bolt strengths assumed equal to the coefficient
of friction, IL, multiplied by the ultimate tension strength.
For anchor bolts resisting both tension and shear forces, an equivalent
tension load per bolt, Tu , can be calculated from

where Pu = tension force per bolt

Vu = shear force per bolt

IL = 0.7 for steel against concrete.


100 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Specifications
Efficiency in design time, fabrication, and erection for routine condi-
tions, suggests that the selection of connections be considered part of the
detailer's function. The designer must, of course, provide the design
requirements necessary for the detailer to complete the details of the
connections. For special conditions, any special design requirements or
limitations on the types of connector materials, connection fasteners,
and so forth, must also be provided either as specification requirements
or details and general notes on the design drawings (Spec. A7.1).

Simple Beam Connections (Flexible)


General notes to indicate the type of connections on design drawings
should be standard practice, although flexible connections (Spec. J1.2)
are often taken for granted unless otherwise specified. To permit maxi-
mum economy in detailing connections, it is also preferable to show all
beam reactions on the design drawings. Otherwise it is customary to
detail noncomposite beam connections for a load equal to one half the
AISC total uniform load constant, 4>Wu , divided by 2L (2 X span) for
the shape, span, and steel specification of the beam. Showing all reac-
tions not only permits some economy for lightly loaded beams, but is
also an aid to the designer's memory not to omit composite beam
reactions, which must be shown.

Tension Connections
The strength of tension members with bolted connections depends on
their gross area, A g , (Spec. B1); their net area, An' (Spec. B2); their
effective net area, A e, (Spec. B3); and fatigue loading (Spec. K3).
The design tension strength, 4>Pn' based on yielding of the gross
section is equal to 4>Fy Ag = O.90Fy Ag (Spec. D1.a). When based on
fracture in the net section, the design tension strength is equal to
O.75Fu Ae (Spec. D1.b).
In determining the net area, An' for bolted connections, the width of a
bolt hole must be taken as -t; in. greater than the nominal dimension of
the hole (Spec. B2). Nominal dimensions of holes for bolts (Spec. J3.2
Table J3.3) are taken -t; in. greater than the diameter of the bolt. These
requirements result in a width deduction for holes equal to the bolt
diameter plus ~ in.
The effective net area, A e , for bolted connections, when the load is not
transmitted through all of the parts of the member cross section, varies
CONNECTIONS 101

with a load reduction factor, U = 1 - xlL s 0.9, where x equals con-


nection eccentricity in inches and L equals the length of connection in
the direction of loading.

Ae = UAn (Spec. B3)

The effective net area, Ae, for welded connections, where the load is
transmitted by welds transverse to the direction of the load, is equal to
the area of the directly connected parts (Spec. B3). When a tension load
is transmitted to a plate by longitudinal welds along both edges of the
plate for a length of welds, 1, equal to or greater than the width of the
plate, w, Ae = Ag, where

U = 1.00 for 1 ~ 2w

U = 0.87 for 2 w > 1 ~ 1.5w

U = 0.75 for 1.5w > 1 ~ w

Moment Connections
Again, a general note that the design is based upon moment connections
(Spec. J1.3) is required. The portions of the structure which are to be of
moment connections, such as "E-W beam-column frames"; joints,
such as "E-W column connections only"; fixed column bases, if any
and in which direction, if only one; and so on, should be so identified.
Since moment connections virtually require full moment development
of members at each end connection, it is unnecessary to show factored
moments unless less than full development is required, as when con-
nected to a more flexible support. Factored shears should also be shown.

Web Stiffeners

Design Requirements. Moment connections consisting of beam -col-


umn connections with beams framed to the flanges of the columns must
be investigated to determine whether stiffeners on the column web
opposite the beam flanges are required (Spec. Kl.). Six conditions for
such analyses are prescribed (see Figs. 5.8 through 5.13).
102 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

(t) Local Flange Bending (Spec. Kl.2). Flange design tension strength,
cf>Rn' equal to or greater than the horizontal tension force in the beam
flange (see Fig. 5.8).

cf>Rn = cf>6.25tJFyf ~ M z /(O.95d)

= O.9(6.25)t}Fyf ~ M z/(O·95d)

= 5.2625tJFyf ~ M z /(O.95d)

(2) Local Web Yielding (Spec. Kl.3). Web design strength, cf>Rn' at
the toe of the fillet under concentrated loads must be equal to or greater
than the concentrated applied force (see Fig. 5.9).
(a) For a force, Pu ' applied at a distance, d, or more from the end of
the column:

,
(.(

\
\
~
I M
I
.r. "
III
C7I
T- o

v;;='"

Figure 5.8. Local flange bending


CONNECTIONS 103

I
I

:0: r:::
+ ~
1==
~
~12.

..r:
tf ..r:
It)

'"0
:0;1
f::;
+ F;
f:::
~
L <DRn
I
J tf
I

Figure 5.9. Local web yielding

(b) For a force, Pu ' applied at a distance less than d from the end of
the column:

(3) Web Crippling (Spec. Kl.4). Web crippling strength, cfJRn, where
stiffeners are not provided, must be equal to or greater than the
concentrated compression load, Pu (see Fig. 5.10).
(a) When Pu is applied at a distance equal to or greater than d/2 from
the end of the member,

cfJRn = cfJ 135(tw)2[1 + 3(N/d)(tw/tj)1.5]y'Fywtj/tw ~Pu

= 0.75(35)(t w)2[ 1 + 3(N/d)(tw/tj)1.5] y'Fytw/tw ~ Pu

(b) When Pu is applied at a distance less than d/2 from the end of the
member,
104 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

10,000 10
9
8
7 I
/11
;... I U_
'hi ",9 'II
t:{ /; V "'~
Y7A J ~

1,000 ~ ~=1S" it =
tw
1.pS

II V
'I ... d .l
Vr; I
<!>Rn
Kips II ~ ---"0-

!~
DM
~V
-4
~ "
z ~
100 I ~

-+"<-
IIJ /
I II tw-'
II
II If
JJ/ Ii>R , o 7p. 135) twl1 r+-3~ (~; )
1.5
If'6'f
.
w

10 VI
0.10
+
y

567891
I
~6 ~fS

1.0
456789

10.0

tw - inches

Figure 5.10. Web crippling


CONNECTIONS 105

For N/d .::; 0.2,

cfJRn = cfJ68t;,[ 1 + 3(N/d)(t w/t j )1.5] v'Fywtj/tw 2:: Pu

= 0.75(68)t~[ 1 + 3(N/d)(t w/t j )1.5] v'Fywtj/tw 2:: Pu

For N/d > 0.2,

cfJRn = cfJ(68)t~[ 1 + (4N/d - 0.2)(t w /t j )1.5] v'Fywtj/tw 2:: Pu

= 0.75(68)(tw)2[ 1 + (4N/d - 0.2)(tj/t w)1.5] v'Fywtj/tw 2:: Pu

(4) Sidesway Web Buckling (Spec. Kl.5). The design compressive


strength, cfJRn' of beam webs with flanges not restrained against relative
movement by stiffeners or bracing and subjected to concentrated com-
pressive loads is independent of the yield strength of the steel beam (see
Fig. 5.11).
(a) When the compression flange is restrained against rotation and
(h/tw)/(l/bj ) is equal to or less than 2.3,

cfJRn = cfJCrt!tj/h2[1 + 0.4(Ch/t w)/(I/bj )f]

= 0.85C rt!t j /h 2[1 + 0.4(h/t w)/(l/bj ))3] 2:: Pu

When (h/tw)/(l/bj ) > 2.3, the limit state of sidesway web buckling
does not apply.
(b) When the loaded flange is not restrained against rotation and
(h/tw)/(l/bj ) is less than 1.7,

cfJRn = cfJCrt!tj/h2[0.4(h/tw)/(I/bj))312:: Pu

= 0.85Crt!tj/h2[0.4(Ch/tw)/(I/bj))3] 2:: Pu

Cr = 960,000 when Mu < My

Cr = 480,000 when Mu 2:: My


106 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Fig. 5.11 demonstrates how the web buckling requirements of the LRFD
Specifications apply to a W24 X 55 beam.

(5) Compression Buckling of Beam Web (Spec. Kl.6). The design


compressive strength, 4>Rv, of unstiffened column webs must be equal
to or greater than a concentrated load, Pu' from the compression flange
of a beam.

4> R v = 4>4,100t~VFyw jh ~ Pu

= O.9(4,lOO)Ct w)3 VFyw jh ~ Pu

= 3,690Ct w)3 VFyw jh ~ Pu

200

t=~
.>t.

dc/tw
I/bf
= 23
.
~;± ~.r.

150
.>t.

¢Rn
12,000
Kips ¢Rn = h
tw 3 [1+0.4 (d~/t wt ] (kl-6)

100

50 r-----~~~------~~~--------_P~~------~--------~

10 15 20 25 30 35

UNBRACED LENGTH - FT.

Figure 5.11. Sidesway web buckling


CONNECTIONS 107

(6) Compression Members With Web Panels Subject to High Shear


(Spec. Kl.7). The design web shear strength, cpRv' of compression
members, such as columns with large web shear forces, must be equal
to or greater than the summation of the factored forces acting on the
column web. If the column web thickness is not adequate to provide the
required strength, diagonal stiffeners or web doubler plates must be
added (see Fig. 5.12).
(a) When the effect of panel-zone deformation on frame stability is NOT
considered,
For Pu sOAPy

.,
'" ______ COLUMN

~
!F""'

(
1.11

'"en'"
.Q

'"en
-.(tw "'"
D
II') II')

ci ci
M2
~

l2!.L
O. 95db
!F""'
l
~

Figure 5.12. Column web panels with high shear


108 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

(b) When the effect of panel-zone deformation on frame stability IS


considered,
ForPu :::; O.75Py

When beam and column webs do not have adequate strength, cpRw or
cpRv, stiffeners must be provided (see Fig. 5.13).
For local flange bending (Spec. K1.2) and local web yielding (Spec.
K1.3), required stiffeners need only extend one half the depth of the web
(see also Figs. 5.8 and 5.9).

~ -.l\

d/2

,~ J
/
~
~ ~
V V

~
A

. 4 .
.,
==:J

.~~==j
.:~
. 4

.. ,"
d'
d
.,
~

.. .. .
, .'
. .A.4
.

bit .-;; 7 6 0
SECTION A

Figure 5.13. Web stiffeners


CONNECTIONS 109

For web crippling (Spec. KIA), sidesway web buckling (Spec. K1.5),
and beam web compression buckling (Spec. K1.6), required stiffeners
should be placed in pairs on each side of the web and welded to the
web and flanges. Web stiffeners subjected to concentrated compression
loads must be designed as columns (Spec. E2) with an effective length,
KI, of 0.75h using a cross section consisting of the two stiffeners and a
length of web equal to 25tw at interior stiffeners and 12tw at ends of
members (Spec. K9). The thickness of stiffeners should not be less than
one-half the thickness of the fl~e delivering the concentrated load and
not less than its width times"'; Fy /95.

JOINT DESIGN EXAMPLES


As previously noted, typical details as shown on the design drawings
should show sufficient design data for the completion of the details by
others. In addition, the type of detail desired must be indicated when-
ever there are design limitations involved that preclude the use of
certain details. It is unnecessary, and even undesirable in terms of
design time, for the designer to proceed further than these objectives.
For most shear connections, the required design shear strength only in
terms of factored loads is sufficient. If slip-critical high-strength bolted
connections are required for vibratory or seismic loads, service loads
(D + L + E) should also be shown on the drawings in addition to the
factored loads.
The following joint design examples are presented with these objec-
tives. Calculations for each, which must be considered by the designer,
are included.

Example 1. (See Fig. 5.14)


Simple beam, shop welded and field bolted, flexible bearing-type con-
nection with t in. A325-N bolts in standard round holes (d +
with threads included in shear planes.
*
in.)

Shear. Vu = 120 kips.


Bolt Shear Strength (see Table 5.2).

cfJRn = 15.9(8) = 127 kips;;:: 120 OK

Bolt Bearing Strength (see Table 5.2).


110 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

3f4" A325 - N BOLTS - STO HOLES

,..--:;--r-r--< E70XX W24x55 (F y = 50)

2 l 4x3x 5/16X1'-0" (F y = 50)


l/Z"

W30x99 (F y = 50)

(0.395) 3/8 "

Figure 5.14. Simple beam flexible connection

= 0.75(2.4)(0.75)(5/16)(65)8 = 219.4 > 120 kips OK

(Spec. Eq. J3-1a)


CONNECTIONS 111

Example 2 (See Fig 5.14)


Similar to Example l' except that the W 24 X 55 beam is subjected to
load reversal and slip-critical joints are required. Try A490 bolts in
slip-critical joints. The loads are as follows:
o 50 k =

L = 38 k
o + L (Service Load) = 88 k

1.20 = 60 k

1.6L = 61 k
1.20 + 1.6L (Factored Load) = 121 k
Bolt Shear Strength (see Table 5.2)
No. of t in. bolts required

for service load = 88/9.2 = 10 bolts

for factored load = 121/19.9 = 8 bolts

No. of ~ in. bolts required

for service load = 88/12.6 = 8 bolts

for factored load = 121/27.0 = 6 bolts

Use 8 ~ in. bolts

Example 3 (See Figs. 5.15 - 5.17)

Column base plate connection. A column base plate (A36) for a


W 12 X 40 (A36) column is subjected to a factored gravity load of 80
kips and a factored gravity load moment of 70 k-ft. This example
explains the design of this connection in detail.
Assume the base plate size shown in Fig. 5.15, which uses two 1 in.
diameter (A36) anchor bolts to connect the column base plate to a large
concrete footing with a compressive strength of 4,000 psi.
Draw a load-moment interaction diagram for the base plate interact-
ing with the concrete and the tension force in one anchor bolt. The
112 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

N = 19"

31f2" 11 -0" 3'/2"

2" 1'-3" 2"

1f2" 1'1 " 1'/2" 1'/2" 1/2" 1f2"

1 1

h
r=- '::: 5/'6 '"
r~":-::
f
ic
.1
r- V r- .- N
'!or ~ ~~ I~~ - -'-
~

I
~ .:...= t~ :=
"
!D
f-F-=
'.-,

W12x40

l===
1" DIA. A36

Figure 5.15. Column base connection


CONNECTIONS 113

calculations for locating six control points on the load-moment interac-


tion diagram shown in Fig. 5.16, are as follows:
Point #1. (Axial load without moment)

4>Po = 4>0.85f;BN

= 0.7(0.85)(4)(12)(19) = 543 kips

Point #2. (Maximum load with moment)

4>Pn = 0.8Pa = 0.8(543) = 434 kips

Point #3. (Zero tension; see Fig. 5.21 pg. 121)

Pn = 589.56 kips

4>Pn = 0.7(589.56) = 413 kips

Mn = 589.56(2.28)/12 = 112.02 k-ft.

4>Mn = 0.7(112.02) = 78 k-ft.

Point #4. (Balance, see Fig. 5.22 p. 121)

Pn = 416.98 - 21.82 = 395.16 kips

4>Pn = 0.7(395.16) = 277 kips

Mn = 416.98(4.39)/12 + 21.82(7.5)/12 = 152.54 + 13.64

= 166.18 k-ft.
4>Mn = 0.7(166.18) = 116 k-ft.

Point #5. (Steel strain = 0.005 in./in., see Fig. 5.23 p. 121)

Pn = 221.14 - 21.82 = 199.32 kips

4>Pn = 0.7(199.32) = 140 kips


114 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

N 19"

A36
600

® ¢Pu = 543 k

¢P n
500
J

~ 434 k
( i\ ¢M n

. " ..
" •• I,.

400

.
A
1'-3" J, '. fc'=4 ksi

., T - ' -_ _ II!. 12xl'/4x1'-7 A36


a.
~

a::" 300
B-

200

100

a
200

¢Mnx Ft Kips

Figure 5.16. Base plate load-moment interaction diagram column base plate
CONNECTIONS 115

Mn = 221.14(6.79)/12 + 21.82(75)/12 = 125.13 + 13.64

= 138.77 k-ft.
cpMn = 0.7(138.77) = 97 k-ft.

Point #6. (Moment only, see Fig. 5.24 p. 121)

cpMn = 22 k-ft.

Locate the factored load, Pu = 70 kips, and factored moment, Mu = 80


k-ft., on the load-moment interaction diagram for the base plate and the
column. Note that the load-moment interaction diagram for the base
plate (curve) is different from that for the column (straight line).

Check W12 x 24 Column. Even though the factored load and moment
fall within the load-moment interaction diagram for the column, the
column will be checked according to the LRFD Specifications to demon-
strate their use.
For KL = 15 ft.; CPPn = 228 kips (Manual, p. 3-25)
For Lb = 15 ft.; cpMn = 135 k-ft. (Beam Selection Table, Appendix AI)

Pu/cpPn + (8/9)M u/cpM nx ~ 1.0

70/228 + (8/9)(80/135) ~ 1.0

0.307 + 0.527 = 0.834 ~ 1.0 OK

Determine Sase Plate Thickness.

Mu = 0.85f~(12)(3.5)2 /2

= 0.85(4)(12)(3.5i/2 = 250 k-in.

Z(required) = Mu/cpFy = 250/[(0.9)(36)] = 7.72 in.

t = V4Z/B = V4(7.72)/B = V4(7.72)/12 = 1.60 in.

Use 1 ~ in. thickness.


116 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Determine Anchor Bolt Embedment Length (see Fig. 5.17).

held = I-in. diam.) = [-d + Jd 2 + 0.OO69686AJy ]/2

he! = [ -1 + .../12 + 0.0069686(0.606)(36,000) ] /2


= 5.68 in.

Use 7.5 in. 2: s /2 2: 15.2. OK

Example 4. (see Fig. 5.18) (Tension Hanger)


Design a connection for the single angle tension hanger shown in Fig.
5.18 to support a mezzanine floor. The loads are as follows:

Service Loads Factored Loads


Dead load = 5.0 5.0(1.2) = 6.0
Live Load 20(1.33) = 26.6 26.6(1.6) = 42.6
31.6 kips 48.6 kips

Refer to Table 5.2 for the single shear value of ~ in. A325 bolts in
slip-critical (SC) connections. 7.5 kips per bolt.

Number of bolts required = 31.6/7.5 = 5 bolts

Check gross area of angle based on yielding:

Ag = Pu /(4)J y ) (Spec. D1.a) = 48.6/[0.9(0.6)(36)]

= 2.50 in. 2 < Ag of 2.56 in. 2 for L5 X 3!- X ft

Check gross area of angle based on fracture at net section:

u= 1 - x/L.:s; 0.9(ft in. thick angle)

= 1 - 0.838/8 = 0.89

(Spec. D1.b, B2 and B3)


CONNECTIONS 117

¢ Nn ¢ Nn ,.....
51 ~ 2hef Cl~ het '"E
E
ACI 349-81 CIJ
I')
".::,. APPENDIX b N
........
Steel Embedments
2 r-...
I')

Stress Area Bolt = ~ [d- 0.9~42J <:Ii

fe' = 4 ksi (23.44 N/mm 2 ) ,.....


0
¢ Nn = ¢ As Fy = ¢(4) [fC'hef (hat+d) 0
0
0.9 As Fy = 0.65(4) J4000 hef (het+d) N
( h )2 + dh _ o.g As Fy = 0 ~
to
20 t--~,l--- ef af 516.6 0

-
to
hef = -d + Jr"(d-)....2+-0.-0-06-9-S-g-6-A-s-- ci
,.....
........

.....c::" '"ij5c: <0


2 CIJ
<0
c: 0 Ol
Q) 400 <0 <0 N
E 15 ci 0
0
" Q)
II ci
J:J
'+
E
-
fII
w « ,......
'"........
300 UiQ.
0 +

-
10 0 0
0
~
N
Ol I

-
200
>.

5
..."0
LL ..c::"

CIJ
100
!

IR
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Bolt Diameter "d"

Figure 5.17. Anchor bolt embedments

= 48.6/[0.75(58)(0.89)] + 2(i)(l6)

- 2 2 (l6)/[4(1.75)]

= 1.26 + 0.55 - 0.18 = 1.63 in. 2 < 2.56 in.2

L5 X 3~ X l6. OK
118 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

1J2" GUSSET II!.


~

irJ
..-- -
-i~
q
~ ~
o
.... -4~

-r-
2" 13f."

r--- - - 3f4" A325 SC

o = 5k INCREASE 33%
L = 20k - - {
25k FOR IMPACT (SPEC. A42)

Figure 5.18. Tension hanger

Example 5 (see Fig. 5.19)

Axially-loaded column on a large steel base plate bearing on a large


concrete footing.
Column fy = 50 ksi
Base Plate Fy = 36 ksi
f~=3ksi
Pu = 2056 kips
4>c Pp > Pu
4>cO.85f~2AI = 4>c Pp
0.60(0.85X3)(2X AI) = 2056 kips
Al = 672 in.2 (24 X 28 = 672 in.2 )
alb = 5.455/5.805 = 0.94 (Coefficient = 0.28 from Fig. 5.7)
Eq.5.1;

tp = m...j2PU/(4)bFyBN)

= 7.17V2(2056) /0.9(3.6)(24)(28)

= 3.12 in.
CONNECTIONS 119

12.67"

,-,
~1ri E
~
.~
10
,.., ':n
,,~ ~
1
-4' .,;
-
5.~05" 1.06T
1'-r-~
"'"
':n 1
z 11 ,,~
.,;
.~
I 1
c::i

"" :-=-::t\.
=
E
'-

n 0.8 bf n
~.93 10.14" 6.93
8 = 24

Figure 5.19. Large base plate

Eq.5.3;

= 2(5.805)VO.28(2056) /[0.9(36)(24)(28)]

= 1.88 in.

Eq. 5.1 controls.


Use 3t in. thick plate.

Example 6 (See Fig. 5.20)

Axially-loaded column on a small steel base plate bearing on a large


reinforced concrete footing.
Column Fy = 50 ksi
Base Plate Fy = 36 ksi
f: = 3 ksi
Pu = 676 kips
120 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

bf
12.67"

,
E
~I!!!
-
kI')
.,f-
c~
fn
on
"tff"
5·1305
~
1.06T
.,,-
10
I 1;---
I I- e--- '"d
I
."
z II c~
." on I I
"rt==" :-=::tl-
:
E
n 0.8 bf n
1....3· 10.14" 1.43"
B '" 13

Figure 5.20. Small base plate

cf>cPp ~ Pu
cf>cO.85f;2A I = cf>cPp
0.60(0.85X3X2X AI) = 676 kips
Al = 221 in.2 (13 X 17 = 221 in.2 )
alb = 5.455/5.805 = 0.94 (Coeff = 0.28 from Fig. 5.7)
Eq.5.1;

tp = m...j2Pu/(cf>bFyBN)

= 1.67';2(676)/[0.9(36)(17)(13)]
= 0.73 in.
Eq.5.3;

tp = 2b...j(Coeff)Pulcf>bFyNB

= 2(5.805)';0.28(676)/[0.9(36)(13)(17)]

= 1.89 in. (Controls)

Use base plate 13 in. X 2 in. X 17 in.


CONNECTIONS 121

O.85fc ' "'" .3.4 KSI

3.4(12)(14.45) "" 589.5S k

FIG 521 ZERO TENSION FIG 5 22 BALANCE

17"

ac=J 3.4 KSI

a = (3.4)(12)
21.82
= 0.54"
16.73"
3.4 KS!
21.82"

¢eMil ...
"'" 0.70 (2182) (16.73)/12)
22 K!PS'

FIG. 5.23 H(12)(5.42) = 221.14'


STEEl STRAIN
_ OOOSio!in FIG 524 MOMENT ONLY
6
COLUMNS

DEFINITIONS
A number of common terms used loosely among the LRFD Specifica-
tions, Commentary, and technical literature on structural steel design
and research add to the practitioner's confusion. The authors have no
pretensions toward, nor intend to attempt, standardization of defini-
tions, but for the purposes of this chapter and intelligible communica-
tion of the concepts herein, the following definitions were adopted and
followed:

Beams. Principal solid web members without axial compressive load.

Beam - Columns. Principal solid web members, which are designed to


resist combinations of axial compressions and bending, with criteria for
both Pu /4JPn ;:;: 0.2 and Pul4JPn < 0.2.

Braced. A condition in which large external restraint prevents any


significant relative displacement of the ends of the column at right
angles to the axial load and in the direction of the bending under
consideration.

Buckling. Lateral deflection of the centroidal axis between braced ends,


which increases from the elastic state through an inelastic state to
failure. (Similar failure of a portion of a column cross-section, such as an
unsupported flange or thin web, is herein referred to as local buckling.)
124 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Columns. Principal compression members used primarily for the sup-


port of axial compression loads. Ends of columns refer to points of
support or points where load conditions change, including the restraints
that provide bracing. Length of columns is the distance between ends
(measured center-to-center of joints for analysis of frames, and between
the faces of lateral restraints for determining un braced length).

Drift. Relative lateral displacement of the ends of unbraced columns;


customarily the result of gravity and lateral load primary effects com-
puted separately and combined by superposition. When the secondary
effects of shear deformations and differential changes in the axial lengths
of parallel members are to be considered, any resulting lateral displace-
ments are included in the drift by superposition. This is called lateral
inter-story deflection (Spec. cn
Lateral Deflection. Displacement of the centroidal axis between braced
or unbraced ends. If excessive, this displacement becomes buckling.

Lateral Displacement. Relative movement of the centroidal axis at the


ends of a column at right angles to the direction of the axial load and in
the direction of bending under consideration. Drift, sidesway, or the
sum of drift plus sidesway.

Sides way. An increase in the relative lateral displacement of the ends of


a column (an increase in the drift). Sidesway under an axial load (PA) is
a secondary effect of lateral displacement, and as such, it is not usually
computed except by computer.

Unbraced. A condition in which lateral displacement will occur. Re-


straint against such movement may consist of the column itself (canti-
lever) or a frame including the column, and externally any flexible
bracing element, such restraints being insufficient to hold the ends
relatively immovable.

Moment Magnifier 81" An expression to provide for second order


moments due to beam-column lateral deflections in frames braced
against sidesway (Spec. cn
(Spec. Eq. Cl-2)
COLUMNS 125

where Pel = AgFy/ A~ and Ac is the slenderness parameter, in which the


effective K in the plane of bending can conservatively be taken as 1.0
for a braced frame.

Moment Magnifier, 8 2 " An expression to provide for second order


moments due to drift and sidesway in unbraced frames (Spec. Cl).

(Spec. Eq. Cl-4)

or

where Pe2 = AgFy/A~ and Ac is the slenderness parameter, in which the


effective K in the plane of bending should be determined by structural
analysis (Spec. C2.2).

floh = lateral deflection, in.

COLUMN DESIGN: CONDITIONS

GENERAL
The applications of the LRFD Specification requirements for column
design are relatively simple, but the selection of the requirements
appropriate to each shape or built-up section is not simple, except for
the special case of direct compression without moment or lateral dis-
placement.
For convenience, the problem of steel column design can be subdi-
vided into two general categories. Direct compression is the simplest
case, but, unfortunately for the designer, this case has limited appli-
cation (Spec. E2). A column or strut may be considered in direct com-
pression only when it is laterally braced, loaded concentrically with
connections of sufficient flexibility so that end moments may be as-
sumed zero (Type SF Construction) (Spec. A2.2), and not subjected to
transverse loads of any kind between end supports. The second cate-
gory, axial compression and bending, is the general case encountered in
most design (Spec. H1.2).
126 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

SLENDERNESS EFFECTS IN AXIALLY-LOADED


COLUMNS OF BRACED FRAMES
In both categories of column design, the effect of the column slender-
ness parameter, Ae (expressed as KlinT' )JFyIE (Spec. Eq. E2-4) must be
considered as a reduction factor applied to yield stress (Spec. Eq. E2-2).
There are no "short columns" for which slenderness may be entirely
disregarded where, Fer can be taken as a constant.
The reduction in the critical stress, Fer' to allow for slenderness is
proportional to a modified Euler expression for values of Ae =
(Kllm )JFyIE larger than 1.5 (Spec. Eq. E2-3). For Fy = 36 ksi and
Ae = 1.5, Kllr = 133.75; for Fy = 50 ksi and Ae = 1.5, Kljr = 113.49. For
Kllr values smaller than these values, the reduction is based upon a
reasonable conversion of research data into a design equation. For Kllr
values equal to these values both expressions are equivalent (Spec. Eqs.
E2-2 and E2-3).
The slenderness ratio, Kljr, for columns and bracing members whose
design is controlled by compression should not exceed 200 (Spec. B7)
(see Fig. 6.1).
The design strength of axially-loaded columns whose elements have
width to thickness ratios less than Ar (Spec. B5.1) is CPePn = CPeFer Ag
(Spec. Eq. E2-1) (see Fig. 6.2).

For Ae ::s; 1.5; cpJer = 0.85(0.658A~)Fy (see Fig. 6.1).

For Ae > 1.5; cpJer = 0.85(0.877 I A~ )Fy (see Fig. 6.1).

AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING


In the general case of column design, bi-axial bending is combined with
axial compression. The sum of the ratios of required axial strength, Pu '
to some function of design axial strength, CPe Pn or 2 CPe Pn, in each
direction is limited to 1.0.
COLUMNS 127

50
,..2
file fer = 0.85 (0.658 e) y file fer = 213,362/ kl r)2

40
0.0132 li!; Fy = 50
r
<0 0.0112 li!; Fy = 36
n r
<0
n
en 30
.::L
L
o
LL

~ 20

11.94
10

o 50 100 150 200

kl/r
Figure 6.1. 0.85 (critical compressive stress)

Design flexural strengths are established separately in each direction


to provide against local buckling (see Chapter 3, Beams). Since the
design axial strength is established by the maximum slenderness ratio
KIlr, it is additive in only one direction, that of maximum KIlr. The
process of superimposing the three effects, therefore, does not produce a
simple uniform "safety factor," although it is conservative, particularly
128 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

:J
«
11 N
....
1:
~ 11~
F y =36 Fy =50

'I
t
1<
. ., rJ bit L 95/ffy 15.83 13.44
i.
tw

. t=
.r:" hcltw L253/ffy 42.17 35.78

N N
.... ....
+
..., ....+

. t=ur=
b
-I 1 0

bit L 95/ffy 15.83 13.44

_I lOb = Width-3t

t]=i
g
ROLLED

WELDED
b/tL 238/JF y -10

bit L 238/JF y -16.5


46.67

53.90
37.63

41.12

~Cq: bit L 127 /fF'"; 21.17 17.96

bit L 76/rF; 12.67 10.75

b/tL238/JF y -16.5 53.90 41.12

Figure 6.2. Limiting width thickness ratios for compression elements (Spec.
Table 85.1)
COLUMNS 129

where bending occurs about only one axis, not in the direction of the
axial load slenderness reduction.

BRACED FRAMES
Where lateral bracing is provided, the Specifications permit the use of
K = 1.0, "unless analysis shows that a smaller value may be used" (Fig.
6.3a). The use of K = 1.0 is recommended for preliminary design. Where
bending is present, lateral deflection will occur in the plane of bending.
This lateral deflection (Ll) displaces the centroid of the member and a
"secondary" additional moment (PLl) is developed. In practical applica-
tions, it may not be economically feasible without a computer program
to include this moment in the analysis. The Specifications provide for
this effect by requiring use of a moment magnification factor for sec-
ondary moments (see Bl in Definitions).
See Fig. 6.1 (or enter Table 3-36 or 3.-50, page 6-147 or page 6-148
AISC Manual of Steel Construction, Vol. I, with the effective length ratio
Kljr, based upon the minimum r, usually ry) for values of cPcFcr- See
Figs. 6.3 and 6.4 for graphic solutions of the moment magnification
factors, Cm and Bl' and the Beam Selection Table of Appendix Al for
values of cPMn- These values are applicable for use in both design

... SINGLE CURVATURE_I.DOUBLE CURVATURE ...

1.0
.......
.......
i"- ...... C .6- p.4 (M 1/lJ V
...... V-
=(
0.8
r--...
Cm
..... ....... ~r-
....... i'o..
0.6

em
i'
0.4
'" ..... .......
r--....
0.2
Ml M~ FO 5 f-- '" i"'" .......
o r--.... ~
-1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 +0.2 +0.4 +0.6 +0.8 +1.0 +1.2 +1.4

(-) .. ·1· • (+)


Ml/M2

Figure 6.3. Reduction factor, em - sidesway prevented


130 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

10
,'III
I 1\
9
1,111
"'11
81 = Cm (1- Pul p.) ~ 1.0
II: II
8
Cn = O.E -0.4 11M2 I III
/
~
I I II
7

M/ ""- /; I' I II

"
I /I
M,-" Ml M, 1/1

III,
6
1/1
~
~
81 { {I
i I

I VI
5
M2'-... V Ml
M2'-- --' Ml I II
M,fMl + M,/Ml - I I I

r.// ~VI I I
4
.5~ ;!
~ ~ tv
3
Q
I I
I I
/
-::::~ :::::
J~ b~ I
2

~' /~ '/
O~J
Q
~ ~ CJ

o 1~.______________~P~~;~.___________.+I~N~OT1't__. RECOMMENDED
Figure 6.4. Moment magnifier - no sidesway

equations for all braced frames. See also Table 6.1 for Ch , the bending
coefficient, which depends on the moment gradient.
The B1 factor (Spec. el), B1 = Cm/(l - PuiPel ) ~ 1.0, with the de-
nominator based upon the Euler buckling effect, is included in the
prescribed column moment magnification formula, Mu = B1 M nt +
B2 Mit (Spec. en. The Cm term represents the effects of residual stresses,
moment gradient, and end connection moment restraints (Spec. en
Cm = 0.85 for residual stresses and end connection moment restraints.
Cm = 0.6 - OAMdM2 for moment gradient, where M1/M2 is the ratio
of the smaller to larger moment at the ends of that portion of member
unbraced in the plane of bending. MdM2 is positive when the member
is bent in reverse curvature and negative when bent in single curvature.
B1 is intended to magnify first order gravity load moments, M nt ,
associated with no translation or sidesway.
COLUMNS 131

Table 6.1. Bending Coefficient, C b


M1/M2 Cb M1/M2 Cb
- 1.0 1.000 +1.0 2.300

I I
-0.9 1.048
-0.8 1.102
-0.7 1.162
-0.6 1.228 +0.5 2.300
-0.5 1.300 +0.4 2.218
-0.4 1.378 +0.3 2.092
-0.3 1.462 +0.2 1.972
-0.2 1.552 +0.1 1.858
-0.1 1.648 o 1.750

AXIAL COMPRESSION AND BENDING WITH LATERAL


FORCES: COLUMNS IN UNBRACED FRAMES

General

K, em, P4., and 8 2 - Up to this point, only braced construction, in which


relative lateral displacement at each story is prevented, has been consid-
ered. When resistance to lateral displacement is provided only by the
beam-column frame itself, relative lateral displacements at each end of
the columns develop, both under pattern gravity loads alone and due to
lateral forces, wind or seismic. The designer is confronted by three
additional factors associated with this relative lateral displacement
(drift).
The effective length factor, K, can no longer be conservatively as-
sumed equal to 1.0 or estimated at lower values. For special limited
cases it may be assumed equal to 2.0; but, since it may greatly exceed
even this value, in the general case it must be computed (Comm. C2). A
very convenient nomograph for the determination of K for unbraced
and braced frames is available in Fig. C-C2.2 of the Commentary.
The use of K = 1.2 is recommended for preliminary design. Where
bending is present, lateral deflection will occur in the plane of bending.
This lateral deflection (a) displaces the centroid of the member and a
"secondary" additional moment (Pa) is developed. In practical applica-
tions, it is not economically feasible to include this moment in the
analysis without the aid of a computer program. If such a program is
not available, the Specifications provide for this effect by requiring use
132 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

of a moment magnification factor for secondary moments (see "B2" in


Definitions). See also Figs. 6.5 and 6.6 for moment magnifier B2 • The B2
factor, B2 = 1/[1 - IPu(Lloh/IHL)] or 1/(1 - IPu/IPe2 ), applies to
Mit moments caused by forces (W or E) producing lateral translation or
sidesway. The B2 factor also applies to sidesway moments induced by
unsymmetrical gravity loading, by gravity loading on unsymmetrical
frames, and by out-of-plumb erection. IPu is the required axial strength
of all columns in a story, i.e., the total factored gravity load above that
level; and Pe2 is the equivalent buckling strength, AgFy/(AY, where
the equivalent slenderness parameter, Ac' is equal to tKl/Y1T )..jFy/E

~Pu
t.oH

~H

/ ...J

~H

::ep u

10
1
E
1 - ~Pu (~.) ~/
/
/
or 02
/
1 ~Pu/ lP.2 \ /

--
), V
,./

o 0.5 1.0

"'P (t.OH) ~Pu


<; u '\ ~H or ~P.2

Figure 6.5. Moment magnifier - with drift


COLUMNS 133

10
g
0
r. I
"'- "i- ~/
..., ...,"j
II

?i ~/ "I
<J/ J/ <-i r/

--
92 5
/ 1/ /
1/ /' //
~ .,./ ........
--:: !----

o
o 100 200 300 400 500

Figure 6.6. Moment magnifier-with drift

(Spec. Eq. E2-4); IPe2 is the summation of Pe2 for all columns in a story.
The B2 moment magnification factor applies to moments caused by
forces producing sidesway and is calculated for the entire story.
If a significant force is required to restrain an unbraced unsymmetri-
cal frame, or an unsymmetrically loaded symmetrical frame, the mo-
ments created by releasing the restraining force will be Mit moments
multiplied by B2 •

ARBITRARY ALLOWANCE BY SPECIFICATIONS


For routine design, the designer cannot afford "special analyses," de-
scribed at length in research reports or technical papers, for the analysis
of all the complex conditions encountered in practical applications. For
routine design of low-rise buildings, simple conservative design re-
quirements that can be carried out manually are essential. Similarly, a
manual procedure for workable preliminary selection of sections is
essential for the input required where the final analysis and design is to
be performed by a computer program. The Specifications provide com-
plete freedom for the exercise of the designer's ingenuity to achieve
economy both in design time and in construction cost for frames that
must provide lateral stability. The Specifications are nearly pure "per-
formance requirements." Where separate lateral bracing is not to be
provided, the designer must:
1. Provide for general stability of the structure and each compression
element thereof (Spec. B4).
134 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

2. For slenderness ratios, use the unbraced effective length KI, and the
corresponding radius of gyration.
3. KI must be determined by a rational method; K ~ 1.0; and KI ~ actual
unbraced length (see Commentary Fig. C-C2.2).
The Specifications define three constants required for column design,
two of which must be determined in advance by the designer before
applying the shortcut procedures of this chapter for the solution of the
column design formulas prescribed:
1. A column slenderness parameter, Ac = Kljr7TVFyIE . For Fy = 36 ksi,
Ac = 9.034 Kllr; for Fy = 50 ksi, Ac = 7.666Kllr. The values dividing
elastic or Euler buckling from inelastic buckling for Fy = 36 ksi, are
Kljr = 133.68 and cfJJcr = 11.94 ksi. For Fy = 50 ksi, these values are
Kljr = 118.44 and cfJJcr = 16.58 ksi. For other values of Fy, see Table
4, page 6-149 of the Manual's Numerical Values. Values of cfJJcr = for
the full range of values of KI I r are conveniently available in Fig. 6-1
and in Tables 3-36 and 3-50 of the Manual's Numerical Values for
Fy = 36 ksi and 50 ksi.
2. A bending compression (or tension) constant, Cb •
a. Cb = 1.0 in braced frames. Enter Beam Selection Table of Appendix
Al with this value for solutions of cfJMn'
b. Unbraced frames,

c. Recommendation: For all preliminary designs, routine design of


low-rise structures, and columns with large bending moments
between the ends, take Cb = 1.0 for use in both braced or unbraced
frames.
3. A "moment reduction" factor constant, Cm' for use with the sec-
ondary moment factors of Fig. 6.3. Use Cm = 0.85 for all columns in
unbraced frames subject to drift, or conservatively, the values in Fig.
6.3.

INDIVIDUAL COLUMN DESIGN


At this point, the designer will have completed preliminary elastic
analyses using assumed relative stiffnesses of members (see Chapter 2).
COLUMNS 135

The designer will possess the following data for the preliminary design
of each column:
1. Factored axial gravity loads.
2. End conditions (at least one end restrained) and the sign and approxi-
mate magnitude of end moments, MtlM2 , under (a) gravity loads,
and (b) wind, seismic, or other transverse loads.
Where lateral bracing is not provided, unless the designer can neglect
lateral displacements on the basis of experience or intuition based
thereon, the analysis should include the sum of the primary wind, or
seismic moments, and pattern live load moments, and the primary drift
resulting. The sum of the moments will be magnified for the (Pa) effect.
(The drift should be computed for unfactored service loads for compari-
son to accepted limits, even though it is not required to complete the
column design using the arbitrary allowance for the (Pa) effect.)
The AISC LRFD Specifications provide for two (alternate) review
procedures to check the adequacy of the assumed column at critical
sections (Spec. Eqs. Hl-la and Hl-lb, respectively). The alternative
single step procedure (Spec. Eq. Hl-lb) for light axial load (beam-col-
umns) applies where Pn/(CPcPn) < 0.20. The general procedure for short-
cut design and stability check of an individual column recommended by
the authors is:

Step 1. Collect elastic analysis data: maximum Pu , H, M 1, M 2 , actual


Lb for all applicable loading conditions; determine ratios of I column
stiffnesses to I beam stiffnesses about both axes at top and bottom of
the columns, GA and GB , respectively (see Commentary Fig. C-C2.2).
Loading conditions usually critical may be: (1) 1.2D + 1.6L with all
bays loaded, (2) 1.2D + 1.6L with pattern loading for live loading. For
frames with lateral movement possible, either combination (1) or (2),
separately or combined with wind may be critical.

Step 2. Record design data for assumed section: A, rY' rx' d, t w ' ew '
and J.

Step 3. Determine effective length factor, K. Use the stiffness ratios


GA and GB , in the nomograph of Commentary Fig. C-C2.2 for sidesway
inhibited or uninhibited. Calculate K)x/rx and Kyly/ry.
136 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Step 4. Read 4>Jcr from Fig. 6.1 or Manual Tables 3-36 or 3.50. Use
the larger value, K)x/rx or Kyly/ry.

Step 5. For bending in a braced frame, use Cb = 1.0. Otherwise


calculate MdM2 (negative for reverse curvature), and read Cb from
Table 6.1. Enter Beam Selection Table in Appendix AI. For a trial
column size read, 4>bMnx' based on an appropriate Cb factor taken from
Table 6.1.

Step 6a. Sidesway Inhibited. Calculate or select Cm (see Fig. 6.3).


Calculate Pel = AgFy/(AY where Ac is defined in Fig. 6.1 based on
K = 1.0 in the plane of bending (Spec. C2). Select moment magnification
factor B} from Fig. 6.4. Calculate magnified moment, Mu = B} MnfI
where M nt is the moment from a first order elastic analysis.

Step 6b. Sidesway uninhibited. Select moment magnifier B2 from Fig.


6.5 or from Fig. 6.6 if a particular drift limitation is desired.

Step 7. Select appropriate equation (Spec. H1-1a or H1-1b) depending


on the ratio of Pu/4>cPn' For compression loads where Pul4>cPn ~ 0.2,
solve Spec. Eq. H1-1a:

For compression loads where Pu/4>c Pn < 0.2, solve Spec. Eq. H1-1b:

DESIGN EXAMPLES USING SPECIFICATION


FORMULAS WITH PRIMARY ANALYSIS DATA
In the following examples, the sketches show simplified summaries of
analyses (from Chapter 2 and Appendix). Some values have been
rounded off. Moment values for columns have been increased from zero
from analyses for shear connections at the column faces to include shear
times one half column depth. For simplicity, where the frame consid-
ered is braced against joint translation at right angles to the plane of
bending under consideration, the effective length factor, Ky = 1.0, has
been used. This approach conservatively neglects incidental moment
COLUMNS 137

restraints due to lateral bracing connections and base restraints (such as


anchor bolts outside the plane of bending considered). Where successive
examples illustrate different selection of sections or connections for the
same condition, values from the preceding examples are freely used as a
designer would to save time. Also in successive examples, calculations
obviously not critical in preceding examples are not repeated. 'These
shortcuts not only save space here, but make the examples more
representative of design procedures to save design time.

Example 1
Check preliminary selections of sizes for the exterior columns of Design
Example 1, Chapter 2 (W8 X 24 columns and W16 X 31 beams) (see
Fig. 2.5(a)-l). 'The structure is Type FR Construction (rigid) with no
lateral bracing in the plane of the frame. It is laterally braced at right
angles. 'The column length, lbx, for bending about the x-x axis is
(14.25X12) - 18/2 = 162 in. 'The unbraced length about the y-y axis is
100 in. Figs. 2.5(a)-1 through 2.5(a)-9 show all of the column load
conditions considered for design.

Gravity Load Only. Symmetrical structure and symmetrical loading


with no sidesway. See Fig. 2.5(a)-9 showing 1.2D + 1.6L, on the exterior
spans and 1.2 D on the interior span.

Step 1. Analysis data: Pu = 30.90 kips; Ml = 32.21 k-ft.;


M2 = 64.87 k-ft.;Ix = 162 in.; ly = 100 in.; Column W8 X 24

Step 2. Member properties:


W8 X 24 Column: A = 7.08 in. 2 ; Ix = 82.8 in.4; bf /2tf = 8.1; hJtw =
25.8; rx = 3.42 in.; ry = 1.61 in. W16 X 31 Beam: Ix = 375 in.4 lb = 360
- 8 = 352 in.

Step 3. (Comm. Fig. C-C2.2 and Table C-C2.1)

GA (bottom fixed) = 1.0

GB (top) = (IIJ1c)/CIIg/Ig) = (82.8/162)/(375/352) = 1.065

Kx = 1.4 (Comm. Fig. C-C2.2)

Ky = 0.8 (Comm. Table C-C2.1)


138 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Kxlx/rx = (1.4)062)/3.42

= 66.3 Gravity + Wind (Sidesway Uninhibited)


Kyly/r y = (0.8)000)/1.61

= 49.7 Gravity Only (Sidesway Inhibited)

Step 4. Determine critical compressive stress, cpFcr (Spec. E2)

Ac = (Kyly/ry7T)VFy/E = (66.3/7T)V36/29,OOO = 0.744

(Af = (0.744)2 = 0.554


cpJcr = CPc(0.658)0.554 Fy = 0.85(0.793)(36) = 24.26 ksi

Step 5. Determine axial strength CPc Pn-

CPcPn = CPcFcr Ag = 24.26(7.08) = 171.76 kips.

Step 6. Determine required flexural strength, Mu (Spec. cn


Cm = 0.6 - 0.4(MdM2 ) = 0.6 - (0.4)(32.21/64.87) = 0.496

Ac = (Kl/ry7T )VFy/E where K = 1.0

= (1.0)04.25 X 12)/(1.617T)V36/29,OOO

= 1.191 < 1.5 (Spec. Eq. E2-2)

Pel (Elastic Buckling Load) = AgFy/(Ac)2

= 7.08(36)/(1.191)2
= 179.68 kips
Bl = Cm/O - Pu/Pet ) ~ 1.0 (Spec. Eq. C1-2)

= 0.496/0 - 30.90/179.68) = 0.597; use 1.0 min.


Mu = BtMnt = 1.0{64.87 - (5.41)(9/12)} = 60.81 k-ft.
COLUMNS 139

Step 7. Determine the interaction of flexure and compression (Spec.


HI).

Pu/</>cPn = 30.90/171.76 = 0.18 < 0.2 (Spec. H1.1a)

= 1.75 + 1.05(32.21/64.87) + 0.3(32.21/64.87)2


= 1.75 + 0.521 + 0.074 = 2.35, but max value is 2.3

For Lb = 14.25 ft. - 0.75 ft. = 13.5 ft. and Cb = 2.3 enter Beam Selection
Table in Appendix A1 and read

:::; 0.9(23.2)(36)/12

:::; 62.64 k ft.

30.90/(2 X 171.76) + 60.81/62.64 = 0.090 + 0.971


= 1.061 > 1.0. Use W8 X 28.

Gravity + Wind Load. See Fig. 6.7 for maximum moments and shears
with 1.2D + 1.65 and 0.8W wind from the left. This loading condition
produces the maximum moment in the leeward column.

Step 1. Analysis data: Pu = 29.35 kips; Ml = 34.09 k-ft.; M2 = 61.75


k-ft.

Step 2. Member properties (see Gravity Load Only).


140 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

29.33 k

0.169"

61.25·k

6.69 k

-.
;,.,
I

O.8W
.. 4

6.69 k

Figure 6.7. Exterior column - one-story FR rigid frame

Step 3. Determine required flexural strength, Mu' (Spec. Cl)

em = 0.6 + 0.4MdM2 = 0.6 - 0.4(34.09)/61.75 = 0.552

B1 (Gravity Load Only) = Cm/O - PulPe1) (Spec. Eq. Cl-2)

= 0.552/0 - 29.35/179.68)
= 0.552/0 - 0.163)
= 0.462 (see also Fig. 6.4) but ~ 1.0 use 1.0
COLUMNS 141

B2 (Gravity + Wind) = 1/[1 - IPu(Aoh)/IHL)] (Spec. Eq. CI-4)


= 1/{l - 200.89[0.169/(3.6)(171)]}

= 1.06 (see also Fig. 6.5)

or = 1/(1 - Pu /Pe2 ) (Spec. Eq. CI-5)

= 1/(1 - 29.35/179.68)

= 1/(1 - 0.163)

= 1.20 (see also Fig. 6.5)

It is conservative to use the B2 factor with the total of the sway and
nonsway moments (Comm. Cl).

= 60.81 + 74.10 = 184.91 k-ft.

Step 4. Determine critical compressive stress, c!JJcr (Spec. E2).

(AJ = (0.637)2 = 0.553

c!JJcr = c!Jc(0.658)o.553 Fy = 0.85(0.793)(36) = 24.27 ksi

Step 5. Determine design axial strength,

= 171.8 kips
142 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Step 6. Determine the interaction of flexure and compression.

Pu/c/JcPn = 29.33/171.80 = 0.171 < 0.2

= 1.75 + 1.05(34.09/61.25) + 0.3(34.09/61.25)2

= 1.75 + 0.584 + 0.092 = 2.43 but 2.3 is max value


c/JbMn = 62.64 k-ft. (see Step 7 Gravity Loads Only)

29.33/[(2)(171.80)] + 61.25/62.64 = 0.085 + 0.984

= 1.069 > 1.0 Use W8 X 28

Gravity plus wind controls; W8 X 24. OK

Example 2
Check 5th story exterior column of the lO-story building shown in Fig.
2.6 using the preliminary W14 column sizes and W2l X 83 beam sizes
assumed for analysis to control drift. See Fig. 6.8 for controlling factored
axial load, moment, and shear due to gravity load plus wind load
(1.2D + O.5L + 1.3W).

Step 1. Analysis data: Pu = 456.4 kips; IPu = 2222.6 kips; Ml = 98.1


k-ft.; M2 = 131.1 k-ft.; Mu at bottom of floor beam = 131.1 - 18.33(21)/
[(2XI2)] = 131.1 - 16.0 = 115.1; Vu = 18.33 kips; H = 55.4 kips; Ll = 0.38
in.

Step 2. Member properties:


3rd story: W14 X 90 columns; Ag = 26.5 in. 2, Ix = 999 in.4, bf /2tf =
10.2, h/tw = 25.9, r x = 6.14 in., r y == 3.70 in.,
4th and 5th stories: W14 X 82 columns; A = 24.10 in. 2 Ix = 882 in.4,
bf /2tf = 5.9, h/tw = 22.4, rx = 6.05 in., ry = 2.48 in.
W2l X 83 beams; Ix = 1830 in.4, Ib = 360 - 14 = 346 in.
COLUMNS 143

20

~
...
I
N

18

99.01~

EXT. COLUMN MOMENT

Figure 6.S. 5th story leeward column 10-story building

Step 3. (Comm. Fig. C-C2.2 and Table C-C2.1)

GA{Top) = CIlc/U/{IIg/l g) = [(882 + 882)/1501/(1830/360)

= 11.76/5.0833 = 2.31
GiBottom) = [{882 + 999)/1501/5.0833 = 2.47
Kx = 1.70 (Comm. Fig. C-C2.2)

Ky = 1.00 (Assumed pinned top and bottom)

Kxlx/rx = 1.70(150)/6.05 = 42.15 (Sidesway Uninhibited)

Kyly/r y = 1.00(150)/2.48 = 60.48 (Sidesway Inhibited)

Step 4. Determine critical compressive stress, ljJJcr (Spec. E2)

,\~ = (0.678i = 0.460

ljJJcr = ljJc{0.658)o.460 Fy = 0.85{0.825){36) = 25.24 ksi


144 STRUCTURAL DESIGN GUIDE

Step 5. Determine axial strength cfJc Pn (Spec. E2)

cfJcPn = cfJJcr Ag = 25.24(24.10) = 608.28 kips

Step 6. Determine required flexural strength, Mu (Spec. cn


Cm = 0.6 - 0.4(Ml /M2 ) = 0.6 - 0.4(98.1/131.1) (Spec. Eq. CI-3)

= 0.6 - 0.30 = 0.30

Pel = AgFy/CAY = 24.10(36)/0.460 = 1886 kips (Spec. Cl)

Bl = Cm /(1 - Pu/Pe1 ) (Spec. Eq. CI-2)

= 0.298/(1 - 456.4/1886) = 0.393 but ~ 1.0

B2 = 1/[1 - IPu(.:loh)/(IHL)] (Spec. Eq. CI-4)

= I/O - 2222.6(0.38/[(55.4)(150)]}
= 1.114
Mu = BlMnl + B2MIt (Spec. Eq. Cl-1)
Mn' at bottom of W21 beam for 1.2D + O.5L and no lateral translation
67.02 - 8.02(21)/[(2)(12)] = 67 - 7

= 60 k-ft.
Mit at bottom of W21 beam for 1.3W with lateral translation

= 49.32(1.3) - (1.3)(7.94)(21)/[(2)(12)]
= 64 - 9
= 55 k-ft.
Mux = 1.0(60) + 1.114(55) = 60 + 55 = 115 k-ft.

Pu/(cfJcPn) = 456.4/608.28 = 0.750 > 0.2 (Spec. Hl-la)

cfJbMnx = (for Lb = 12.5 ft. - 21/12 = 10.75 ft.)

= 373.5 k-ft.
COLUMNS 145

(See Beam Selection Table in Appendix At).

Pu/l/JcPn + 8/9{Mux/[(l/Jb)(Mnx)] + Muy/[(l/Jb)(Mny)]} =s; 1.0

0.750 + 8/9(115)/373.5 + 0) = 0.750 + 0.273


= 1.02:::::; 1.0; W14 X 82. OK
I APPENDICES I
These appendices consist of the computer output of structural
analysis programs used for the analysis of structural systems
to demonstrate AISC LRFD SPECIFICATION requirements
for the design of structural steel members.

A 1. BEAM SELECT~ON TABLE

A2. ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES

A3. INTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED


SPAN SYSTEM

A4. EXTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED


SPAN SYSTEM

A5. TRUSS: CONTINUOUS CHORDS,


PINNED DIAGONALS AND VERTICALS

A6. 5TH FLOOR GRAVITY LOADS:


10-STORY BUILDING

A7. 1O-STORY OFFICE BUILDING:


WIND LOADS
BEAM SELECTION TABLE

In the following 60 pages of the Seam Selection Table (SST), the


shaded columns of data apply to Grade 50 steel. The unshaded
columns of data are for A36 material. The computer-printed notation in
the SST follow AISC's notation, or it designates terms that are used in
expressions for generating the values in the table.

NOTATION

BST AISC

5Z Designation of section, e.g., W36 x 300


A A Cross-sectional area, in.2
B/2T b f /2tf Flange width divided by 2 x flange thickness
H/TW d/tw Overall depth of member divided by web thickness
LP Lp Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic
flexural strength, uniform moment case (C b = 1.0),in.

OMP <l>bMp Plastic bending moment strength, kip-in.


LR Lr Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic
lateral-torsional buckling, in.

OMR <l>bMr Limiting buckling moment strength, kip-in.


FY Fy Yield stress (yield point or yield strength), ksi
LB Lb Unbraced length of compression flange, ft
PHI*MN <l>bMn Flexural design strength, kip-in.
APPENDIXA1
BEAM
SELECTION
TABLE

The computer-printed notation Ll and L2 are defined as:

Unbraced length of compression flange where


pure torsion with zero flange bending resistance
will have Mer = ~

L2 = 1t .../CwE/JG Unbraced length of compression flange where


flange bending resistance and pure torsion
contribute equally to Mer

The terms Ll and L2 are used in the development of the BST, that is, in
computing Lr and Mer:

Lr = (Ll/..J2)~(M/Mr)2 + .../(M/Mr)4 + 4(MpL2/MrLl)2

Mer = Cb~(Ll/~) .../1 + (L2/~)2

The above expressions for calculating, Lr and Mer' give the same results as Spec.
Eq. Fl-6 and Spec. Eq. Fl-13, respectively.
SZ W36X300 W36X280 W36X260 W36X245
A 88.3 82.4 76.5 72.1
B/2T 5.0 5.3 5.7 6.1
H/TW 32.9 35.2 37.1 38.9
LP 191.6 190.6 189.1 187.6
o MP 3402.1 3159.1 2916.1 2727.1
LR 660.6 636.3 606.5 586.6
o MR 2164.6 2008.6 1858.4 1745.3
Ll 360.0 337.2 310.2 291. 7
L2 398.1 421. 7 450.8 475.5
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


9 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
10 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
11 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
12 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
13 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
14 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
15 3400.0 3160.0 2920.0 2730.0
16 3400.0 3160.0 2910.0 2720.0
17 3370.0 3120.0 2880.0 2690.0
18 3340.0 3090.0 2850.0 2660.0
19 3310.0 3060.0 2820.0 2630.0
20 3270.0 3030.0 2790.0 2600.0
21 3240.0 3000.0 2760.0 2570.0
22 3210.0 2970.0 2730.0 2540.0
23 3180.0 2940.0 2700.0 2510.0
24 3150.0 2910.0 2670.0 2480.0
25 3120.0 2880.0 2630.0 2450.0
26 3080.0 2850.0 2600.0 2420.0
27 3050.0 2810.0 2570.0 2390.0
28 3020.0 2780.0 2540.0 2360.0
29 2990.0 2750.0 2510.0 2330.0
30 2960.0 2720.0 2480.0 2300.0
31 2930.0 2690.0 2450.0 2270.0
32 2890.0 2660.0 2420.0 2240.0
33 2860.0 2630.0 2390.0 2210.0
34 2830.0 2600.0 2360.0 2180.0
35 2800.0 2570.0 2330.0 2160.0
36 2770.0 2540.0 2300.0 2130.0
37 2740.0 2500.0 2270.0 2100.0
38 2700.0 2470.0 2240.0 2070.0
39 2670.0 2440.0 2210.0 2040.0
40 2640.0 2410.0 2180.0 2010.0
41 2610.0 2380.0 2150.0 1980.0
42 2580.0 2350.0 2120.0 1950.0
43 2550.0 2320.0 2090.0 1920.0
44 2510.0 2290.0 2060.0 1890.0
45 2480.0 2260.0 2030.0 1860.0
46 2450.0 2230.0 2000.0 1830.0
47 2420.0 2190.0 1970.0 1800.0
48 2390.0 2160.0 1940.0 1770.0
49 2360.0 2130.0 1910.0 1740.0
50 2320.0 2100.0 1870.0 1690.0
51 2290.0 2070.0 1840.0 1650.0
52 2260.0 2040.0 1790.0 1600.0
53 2230.0 2010.0 1740.0 1560.0
54 2200.0 1960.0 1700.0 1520.0
55 2170.0 1920.0 1660.0 1490.0
56 2120.0 1870.0 1620.0 1450.0
57 2070.0 1830.0 1580.0 1420.0
58 2030.0 1790.0 1550.0 1380.0
59 1980.0 1750.0 1510.0 1350.0
60 1940.0 1710.0 1480.0 1320.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W36X230 6X256 W36X232 W36X210
67.6 75.4 68.1 61. 8
6.5 3.5 3.9 4.5
41.0 33.5 36.9 38.6
186.6 132.6 131. 0 129.1
2546.1 2527.3 2249.1
569.1 476.0 446.3 419.4
1632.2 1577.6 1402.1
273.6 254.1 229.2 202.7
502.0 283.9 308.3 341. 8
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


2550.0 2530.0 2250.0
2550.0 2530.0 2250.0
2550.0 2520.0 2240.0
2550.0 2490.0 2210.0
2550.0 2450.0 2170.0
2550.0 2420.0 2140.0
2550.0 2380.0 2100.0
2530.0 2340.0 2070.0
2500.0 2310.0 2030.0
2480.0 2270.0 2000.0
2450.0 2230.0 1960.0
2420.0 2200.0 1930.0
2390.0 2160.0 1890.0
2360.0 2130.0 1860.0
2330.0 2090.0 1820.0
2300.0 2050.0 1790.0
2270.0 2020.0 1750.0
2250.0 1980.0 1720.0
2220.0 1950.0 1680.0
2190.0 1910.0 1650.0
2160.0 1870.0 1610.0
2130.0 1840.0 1580.0
2100.0 1800.0 1540.0
2070.0 1770.0 1510.0
2050.0 1730.0 1470.0
2020.0 1690.0 1440.0
1990.0 1660.0 1400.0
1960.0 1620.0 1350.0
1930.0 1580.0 1300.0
1900.0 1530.0 1250.0
1870.0 1480.0 1210.0
1840.0 1430.0 1170.0
1820.0 1390.0 1130.0
1790.0 1350.0 1090.0
1760.0 1310.0 1060.0
1730.0 1270.0 1030.0
1700.0 1240.0 999.0
1670.0 1200.0 971. 0
1640.0 1170.0 945.0
1600.0 1140.0 920.0
1560.0 1110.0 896.0
1510.0 1090.0 874.0
1470.0 1060.0 853.0
1430.0 1040.0 833.0
1400.0 1010.0 813.0
1360.0 990.0 795.0
1330.0 969.0 778.0
1290.0 948.0 761. 0
1260.0 929.0 745.0
1230.0 910.0 729.0
1210.0 892.0 715.0
1180.0 875.0 701. 0
SZ W36X194 W36X182 W36X160
A 57.0 53.6 47.0
B/2T 4.8 5.1 5.9
H/TW 42.0 44.2 49.4
LP 128.0 127.6 125.1
o MP 2070.9 1938.7 1684.8
LR 403.2 392.4 371. 5
o MR 1294.8 1214.9 1057.0
L1 186.8 175.5 152.2
L2 365.5 385.5 431.2
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


8 2070.0 1940.0 1680.0
2070.0 1940.0 1680.0
10 2070.0 1940.0 1680.0
11 2060.0 1930.0 1670.0
12 2030.0 1890.0 1640.0
13 1990.0 1860.0 1610.0
14 1960.0 1830.0 1580.0
15 1920.0 1800.0 1540.0
16 1890.0 1760.0 1510.0
17 1860.0 1730.0 1480.0
18 1820.0 1700.0 1450.0
19 1790.0 1660.0 1420.0
20 1750.0 1630.0 1390.0
21 1720.0 1600.0 13 60.0
22 1690.0 1570.0 1330.0
23 1650.0 1530.0 1300.0
24 1620.0 1500.0 1270.0
25 1590.0 1470.0 1240.0
26 1550.0 1430.0 1210.0
27 1520.0 1400.0 1180.0
28 1480.0 1370.0 1150.0
29 1450.0 1340.0 1120.0
30 1420.0 1300.0 1090.0
31 1380.0 1270.0 1050.0
32 1350.0 1240.0 1000.0
33 1310.0 1200.0 957.0
34 1270.0 1150.0 914.0
35 1220.0 1100.0 874.0
36 1170.0 1060.0 838.0
37 1130.0 1010.0 805.0
38 1090.0 977.0 773.0
39 1050.0 941. 0 745.0
40 1010.0 909.0 718.0
41 979.0 878.0 693.0
42 948.0 849.0 669.0
43 918.0 823.0 647.0
44 891. 0 797.0 627.0
45 865.0 774.0 607.0
46 840.0 751. 0 589.0
47 817.0 730.0 572.0
48 795.0 710.0 556.0
49 774.0 692.0 540.0
50 755.0 674.0 526.0
51 736.0 657.0 512.0
52 718.0 641. 0 499.0
53 701. 0 625.0 487.0
54 685.0 611. 0 475.0
55 670.0 597.0 464.0
56 655.0 583.0 453.0
57 641. 0 571.0 443.0
58 628.0 559.0 433.0
59 615.0 547.0 424.0
60 602.0 536.0 415.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W36X150 W36X135 W33X241 W33X221
44.2 39.7 70.9 65.0
6.4 7.6 5.7 6.2
51.4 53.6 35.9 38.5
123.6 119.1 181. 6 179.6
1568.8 1374.3 2535.4 2308.6
362.5 345.5 590.7 562.3
982.8 856.1 1616.6 1476.2
141.3 122.6 306.4 279.2
456.1 499.0 422.5 456.3
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1570.0 1370.0 2540.0 2310.0
1570.0 1370.0 2540.0 2310.0
1570.0 1370.0 2540.0 2310.0
1550.0 1340.0 2540.0 2310.0
1520.0 1320.0 2540.0 2310.0
1490.0 1290.0 2540.0 2310.0
1460.0 1260.0 2540.0 2310.0
1430.0 1230.0 2540.0 2310.0
1400.0 1210.0 2510.0 2280.0
1370.0 1180.0 2480.0 2260.0
1340.0 1150.0 2460.0 2230.0
1310.0 1120.0 2430.0 2200.0
1280.0 1100.0 2400.0 2180.0
1250.0 1070.0 2380.0 2150.0
1220.0 1040.0 2350.0 2120.0
1190.0 1020.0 2320.0 2100.0
1170.0 988.0 2300.0 2070.0
1140.0 960.0 2270.0 2050.0
1110.0 933.0 2240.0 2020.0
1080.0 905.0 2220.0 1990.0
1050.0 878.0 2190.0 1970.0
1020.0 846.0 2160.0 1940.0
989.0 799.0 2130.0 1920.0
942.0 757.0 2110.0 1890.0
896.0 719.0 2080.0 1860.0
854.0 684.0 2050.0 1840.0
815.0 652.0 2030.0 1810.0
779.0 622.0 2000.0 1790.0
746.0 595.0 1970.0 1760.0
716.0 570.0 1950.0 1730.0
687.0 547.0 1920.0 1710.0
661. 0 526.0 1890.0 1680.0
637.0 506.0 1860.0 1660.0
614.0 487.0 1840.0 1630.0
593.0 470.0 1810.0 1600.0
573.0 454.0 1780.0 1580.0
555.0 439.0 1760.0 1550.0
537.0 424.0 1730.0 1520.0
521. 0 411.0 1700.0 1500.0
505.0 399.0 1680.0 1470.0
491.0 387.0 1650.0 1430.0
477.0 376.0 1620.0 1390.0
464.0 365 0 1580.0 1350.0
452.0 355.0 1540.0 1310.0
440.0 345.0 1500.0 1280.0
429.0 336.0 1470.0 1250.0
418.0 328.0 1430.0 1220.0
408.0 320.0 1400.0 1190.0
399.0 312.0 1370.0 1160.0
389.0 305.0 1330.0 1130.0
381. 0 298.0 1310.0 1110.0
372.0 291.0 1280.0 1080.0
364.0 284.0 1250.0 1060.0
SZ W33X201 W33X169 W33X152 W33X141
A 59.1 49.5 44.7 41. 6
B/2T 6.8 4.7 5.5 6.0
H/TW 41.7 44.3 46.8 49.3
LP 178.1 125.1 123.6 121. 6
o MP 2084.4 1698.3 1509.3 1387.8
LR 537.4 391.3 373.3 360.4
o MR 1333.8 1070.6 949.7 873.6
L1 252.5 185.1 163.7 149.4
L2 496.9 345.0 384.5 412.0
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


6 2080.0 1700.0 1510.0 1390.0
7 2080.0 1700.0 1510.0 1390.0
8 2080.0 1700.0 1510.0 1390.0
9 2080.0 1700.0 1510.0 1390.0
10 2080.0 1700.0 1510.0 1390.0
11 2080.0 1680.0 1490.0 1370.0
12 2080.0 1650.0 1460.0 1340.0
13 2080.0 1630.0 1440.0 1310.0
14 2080.0 1600.0 1410.0 1290.0
. 15 2080.0 1570.0 1380.0 1260.0
16 2060.0 1540.0 1360.0 1240.0
17 2030.0 1510.0 1330.0 1210.0
18 2010.0 1480.0 1300.0 1180.0
19 1980.0 1460.0 1280.0 1160.0
20 1950.0 1430.0 1250.0 1130.0
21 1930.0 1400.0 1220.0 1110.0
22 1900.0 1370.0 1190.0 1080.0
23 1880.0 1340.0 1170.0 1060.0
24 1850.0 1310.0 1140.0 1030.0
25 1830.0 1290.0 1110.0 1000.0
26 1800.0 1260.0 1090.0 978.0
27 1780.0 1230.0 1060.0 952.0
28 1750.0 1200.0 1030.0 926.0
29 1730.0 1170.0 1010.0 900.0
30 1700.0 1140.0 979.0 874.0
31 1680.0 1120.0 952.0 831. 0
32 1650.0 1090.0 910.0 792.0
33 1630.0 1050.0 869.0 755.0
34 1600.0 1010.0 832.0 722.0
35 1580.0 968.0 797.0 691. 0
36 1550.0 931. 0 765.0 663.0
37 1530.0 896.0 736.0 637.0
38 1500.0 864.0 708.0 613.0
39 1480.0 834.0 683.0 590.0
40 1450.0 806.0 659.0 569.0
41 1430.0 780.0 637.0 549.0
42 1400.0 755.0 616.0 531. 0
43 1380.0 732.0 597.0 514.0
44 1350.0 711. 0 578.0 498.0
45 1320.0 690.0 561. 0 483.0
46 1280.0 671. 0 545.0 469.0
47 1240.0 653.0 530.0 455.0
48 1210.0 636.0 515.0 442.0
49 1170.0 620.0 502.0 430.0
50 1140.0 604.0 489.0 419.0
51 1110.0 589.0 476.0 408.0
52 1080.0 575.0 465.0 398.0
53 1050.0 562.0 454.0 388.0
54 1020.0 549.0 443.0 379.0
55 998.0 537.0 433.0 370.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W33X13 0 W33X118 W30X261 W30X235
38.3 34.7 76.7 69.0
6.7 7.8 4.6 5.0
51.2 54.1 28.7 32.3
119.6 116.0 177 .1 176.1
1261. 0 1120.6 2540.8 2281.6
348.5 334.9 664.5 619.4
791.8 700.1 1612.7 1454.8
135.3 119.3 380.1 344.2
443.1 482.6 319.6 348.5
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1260.0 1120.0 2540.0 2280.0
1260.0 1120.0 2540.0 2280.0
1260.0 1120.0 2540.0 2280.0
1260.0 1120.0 2540.0 2280.0
1260.0 1110.0 2540.0 2280.0
1240.0 1090.0 2540.0 2280.0
1210.0 1070.0 2540.0 2280.0
1190.0 1040.0 2540.0 2280.0
1160.0 1020.0 2540.0 2280.0
1140.0 998.0 2530.0 2270.0
1110.0 974.0 2510.0 2250.0
1090.0 951. 0 2490.0 2230.0
1060.0 928.0 2470.0 2210.0
1040.0 905.0 2440.0 2180.0
1010.0 882.0 2420.0 2160.0
989.0 859.0 2400.0 2140.0
965.0 836.0 2380.0 2120.0
940.0 813.0 2350.0 2100.0
916.0 790.0 2330.0 2070.0
891. 0 767.0 2310.0 2050.0
866.0 744.0 2280.0 2030.0
842.0 721. 0 2260.0 2010.0
817.0 696.0 2240.0 1980.0
793.0 656.0 2220.0 1960.0
751. 0 621. 0 2190.0 1940.0
713.0 588.0 2170.0 1920.0
678.0 559.0 2150.0 1890.0
646.0 532.0 2120.0 1870.0
617.0 507.0 2100.0 1850.0
590.0 485.0 2080.0 1830.0
565.0 464.0 2060.0 1800.0
542.0 444.0 2030.0 1780.0
521.0 427.0 2010.0 1760.0
502.0 410.0 1990.0 1740.0
483.0 395.0 1960.0 1710.0
466.0 380.0 1940.0 1690.0
450.0 367.0 1920.0 1670.0
436.0 355.0 1900.0 1650.0
422.0 343.0 1870.0 1630.0
408.0 332.0 1850.0 1600.0
396.0 321.0 1830.0 1580.0
384.0 312.0 1800.0 1560.0
373.0 303.0 1780.0 1540.0
363.0 294.0 1760.0 1510.0
353.0 286.0 1740.0 1490.0
344.0 278.0 1710.0 1470.0
335.0 271.0 1690.0 1440.0
327.0 264.0 1670.0 1410.0
319.0 257.0 1640.0 1380.0
311. 0 251.0 1620.0 1350.0
SZ W30X211 W30Xl91 W30X173 W30X148
A 62.0 56.1 50.8 43.5
B!2T 5.7 6.3 7.0 4.4
H/TW 34.4 37.8 40.7 41. 0
LP 174.6 173.1 171. 6 114.1
o MP 2022.3 1817.2 1633.6 1350.1
LR 575.8 543.9 518.6 367.6
o MR 1292.9 1166.2 1051.1 850.3
Ll 304.8 274.9 248.6 180.8
L2 390.0 425.6 464.2 294.1
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


6 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1350.0
7 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1350.0
2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1350.0
2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1350.0
10 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1340.0
11 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1310.0
12 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1290.0
13 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1270.0
14 2020.0 1820.0 1630.0 1240.0
15 2010.0 1800.0 1620.0 1220.0
16 1990.0 1780.0 1600.0 1200.0
17 1970.0 1760.0 1580.0 1170.0
18 1950.0 1740.0 1560.0 1150.0
19 1930.0 1720.0 1540.0 1130.0
20 1900.0 1700.0 1520.0 1100.0
21 1880.0 1680.0 1500.0 1080.0
22 1860.0 1660.0 1480.0 1050.0
23 1840.0 1640.0 1460.0 1030.0
24 1820.0 1620.0 1440.0 1010.0
25 1790.0 1590.0 1420.0 983.0
26 1770.0 1570.0 1400.0 960.0
27 1750.0 1550.0 1380.0 936.0
28 1730.0 1530.0 13 60.0 912.0
29 1710.0 1510.0 1340.0 889.0
30 1690.0 1490.0 1320.0 865.0
31 1660.0 1470.0 1300.0 836.0
32 1640.0 1450.0 1280.0 800.0
33 1620.0 1430.0 1260.0 767.0
34 1600.0 1400.0 1240.0 737.0
35 1580.0 1380.0 1220.0 709.0
36 1550.0 1360.0 1200.0 683.0
37 1530.0 1340.0 1180.0 659.0
38 1510.0 1320.0 1160.0 637.0
39 1490.0 1300.0 1140.0 616.0
40 1470.0 1280.0 1120.0 596.0
41 1450.0 1260.0 1100.0 578.0
42 1420.0 1240.0 1080.0 560.0
43 1400.0 1220.0 1060.0 544.0
44 1380.0 1190.0 1020.0 529.0
45 1360.0 1170.0 992.0 514.0
46 1340.0 1140.0 961. 0 501. 0
47 1310.0 1110.0 932.0 488.0
48 1290.0 1080.0 905.0 476.0
49 1260.0 1050.0 880.0 464.0
50 1230.0 1020.0 856.0 453.0
51 1190.0 994.0 833.0 442.0
52 1160.0 969.0 811. 0 432.0
53 1140.0 945.0 790.0 423.0
54 1110.0 922.0 771.0 413.0
55 1080.0 900.0 752.0 405.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W30X132 W30X124 W30X116 W30Xl08
38.9 36.5 34.2 31.7
5.3 5.7 6.2 6.9
43.6 45.8 47.4 49.0
112.6 111.6 109.6 107.6
1180.0 1101.7 1020.6 934.2
347.3 337.4 326.3 316.4
741.0 692 .3 641. 6 583.1
157.5 146.8 135.2 123.0
332.7 351.4 372.5 397.9
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1180.0 1100.0 1020.0 934.0
1180.0 1100.0 1020.0 934.0
1180.0 1100.0 1020.0 934.0
1180.0 1100.0 1020.0 933.0
1170.0 1090.0 1000.0 913.0
1140.0 1060.0 981. 0 893.0
1120.0 1040.0 960.0 873.0
1100.0 1020.0 939.0 853.0
1080.0 999.0 918.0 832.0
1050.0 977 .0 897.0 812.0
1030.0 956.0 876.0 792.0
1010.0 934.0 855.0 772.0
986.0 912.0 834.0 752.0
964.0 890.0 813.0 732.0
942.0 869.0 792.0 711.0
919.0 847.0 771. 0 691.0
897.0 825.0 750.0 671. 0
874.0 803.0 729.0 651.0
852.0 782.0 708.0 631.0
829.0 760.0 687.0 611.0
807.0 738.0 666.0 590.0
784.0 716.0 645.0 561. 0
762.0 695.0 613 .0 530.0
739.0 660.0 580.0 501.0
703.0 628.0 551.0 475.0
670.0 598.0 525.0 452.0
640.0 571.0 500.0 431.0
613.0 546.0 478.0 411.0
588.0 523.0 458.0 393.0
564.0 502.0 439.0 377 .0
543.0 483.0 421.0 361. 0
523.0 464.0 405.0 347.0
504.0 448.0 390.0 334.0
487.0 432.0 377 .0 322.0
471. 0 418.0 364.0 311. 0
456.0 404.0 352.0 300.0
442.0 391.0 340.0 290.0
428.0 379.0 330.0 281.0
416.0 368.0 320.0 272 .0
404.0 357.0 310.0 264.0
393.0 347.0 301.0 256.0
382.0 338.0 293.0 249.0
372 .0 329.0 285.0 242.0
363.0 320.0 278.0 236.0
354.0 312.0 271.0 230.0
346.0 305.0 264.0 224.0
337.0 297.0 257.0 218.0
330.0 290.0 251.0 213.0
322.0 284.0 245.0 208.0
315.0 278.0 240.0 203.0
SZ W30X 99 W30X 90 W27X258 W27X235
A 29.1 26.4 75.7 69.1
B/2T 7.8 8.5 4.0 4.4
H/TW 51. 5 57.2 24.5 26.4
LP 105.1 104.5 168.5 166.6
o MP 842.4 764.1 2295.1 2076.4
LR 305.6 298.8 714.6 660.3
o MR 524.6 477.8 1446.9 1314.4
L1 110.9 102.0 423.8 385.3
L2 426.3 458.4 258.1 278.0
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


6 842.0 764.0 2300.0 2080.0
7 842.0 764.0 2300.0 2080.0
8 842.0 764.0 2300.0 2080.0
9 838.0 759.0 2300.0 2080.0
10 819.0 741. 0 2300.0 2080.0
11 800.0 724.0 2300.0 2080.0
12 781. 0 706.0 2300.0 2080.0
13 762.0 688.0 2300.0 2080.0
14 743.0 670.0 2300.0 2070.0
15 724.0 653.0 2280.0 2060.0
16 705.0 635.0 2260.0 2040.0
17 686.0 617.0 2240.0 2020.0
18 667.0 600.0 2220.0 2000.0
19 647.0 582.0 2200.0 1980.0
20 628.0 564.0 2180.0 1960.0
21 609.0 547.0 2170.0 1940.0
22 590.0 529.0 2150.0 1930.0
23 571. 0 511. 0 2130.0 1910.0
24 552.0 494.0 2110.0 1890.0
25 533.0 474.0 2090.0 1870.0
26 507.0 444.0 2070.0 1850.0
27 476.0 417.0 2050.0 1830.0
28 449.0 392.0 2030.0 1810.0
29 424.0 370.0 2020.0 1800.0
30 402.0 350.0 2000.0 1780.0
31 382.0 332.0 1980.0 1760.0
32 363.0 316.0 1960.0 1740.0
33 347.0 301. 0 1940.0 1720.0
34 331. 0 287.0 1920.0 1700.0
35 317.0 275.0 1900.0 1690.0
36 304.0 263.0 1890.0 1670.0
37 292.0 252.0 1870.0 1650.0
38 280.0 242.0 1850.0 1630.0
39 270.0 233.0 1830.0 1610.0
40 260.0 224.0 1810.0 1590.0
41 251. 0 216.0 1790.0 1570.0
42 243.0 209.0 1770.0 1560.0
43 235.0 202.0 1760.0 1540.0
44 227.0 195.0 1740.0 1520.0
45 220.0 189.0 1720.0 1500.0
46 214.0 183.0 1700.0 1480.0
47 208.0 178.0 1680.0 1460.0
48 202.0 173.0 1660.0 1440.0
49 196.0 168.0 1640.0 1430.0
50 191. 0 163.0 1620.0 1410.0
51 186.0 159.0 1610.0 1390.0
52 181. 0 155.0 1590.0 1370.0
53 177.0 151. 0 1570.0 1350.0
54 173.0 147.0 1550.0 1330.0
55 168.0 144.0 1530.0 1310.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W27X217 W27X194 W27X178 W27X161
63.8 57.0 52.3 47.4
4.7 5.2 5.9 6.5
29.0 32.0 33.2 36.3
166.1 164.6 163.1 162.1
1911.7 1695.7 1530.9 1382.4
623.7 576.0 541.8 513 .8
1216.8 1084.3 978.9 887.3
358.4 320.3 288.8 262.8
297.4 327.2 359.0 389.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1700.0 1530.0 1380.0
1910.0 1690.0 1520.0 1370.0
1890.0 1670.0 1510.0 1360.0
1870.0 1650.0 1490.0 1340.0
1850.0 1640.0 1470.0 1320.0
1840.0 1620.0 1450.0 1310.0
1820.0 1600.0 1440.0 1290.0
1800.0 1580.0 1420.0 1270.0
1780.0 1570.0 1400.0 1260.0
1760.0 1550.0 1380.0 1240.0
1740.0 1530.0 1370.0 1220.0
1730.0 1510.0 1350.0 1210.0
1710.0 1490.0 1330.0 1190.0
1690.0 1480.0 1310.0 1170.0
1670.0 1460.0 1300.0 1150.0
1650.0 1440.0 1280.0 1140.0
1640.0 1420.0 1260.0 1120.0
1620.0 1410.0 1240.0 1100.0
1600.0 1390.0 1230.0 1090.0
1580.0 1370.0 1210.0 1070.0
1560.0 1350.0 1190.0 1050.0
1540.0 1330.0 1170.0 1040.0
1530.0 1320.0 1160.0 1020.0
1510.0 1300.0 1140.0 1000.0
1490.0 1280.0 1120.0 985.0
1470.0 1260.0 1100.0 968.0
1450.0 1240.0 1090.0 952.0
1430.0 1230.0 1070.0 935.0
1420.0 1210.0 1050.0 918.0
1400.0 1190.0 1030.0 901.0
1380.0 1170.0 1020.0 882.0
1360.0 1160.0 999.0 855.0
1340.0 1140.0 981.0 829.0
1330.0 1120.0 955.0 805.0
1310.0 1100.0 929.0 783.0
1290.0 1080.0 904.0 761.0
1270.0 1060.0 881. 0 741. 0
1250.0 1030.0 859.0 722.0
1230.0 1010.0 837.0 703.0
1220.0 982.0 817.0 686.0
1190.0 960.0 798.0 670.0
1160.0 939.0 780.0 654.0
1140.0 918.0 762.0 639.0
sz W27X146 W27X129 W27X114 W27X102
A 42.9 37.8 33.5 30.0
B/2T 7.2 4.5 5.4 6.0
H/TW 39.7 39.4 42.2 46.5
LP 160.6 110.6 109.1 107.6
o MP 1244.8 1066.6 926.1 823.5
LR 488.0 360.0 337.8 321.7
OMR 801.5 672 .8 583.1 520.7
L1 236.9 181.1 156.7 139.7
L2 425.5 272 .4 310.3 340.6
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


6 1240.0 1070.0 926.0 824.0
7 1240.0 1070.0 926.0 824.0
8 1240.0 1070.0 926.0 824.0
9 1240.0 1070.0 926.0 823.0
10 1240.0 1050.0 910.0 806.0
11 1240.0 1030.0 892.0 789.0
12 1240.0 1010.0 874.0 772 .0
13 1240.0 995.0 856.0 755.0
14 1230.0 976.0 838.0 738.0
15 1220.0 957.0 820.0 721. 0
16 1200.0 938.0 802.0 704.0
17 1190.0 919.0 784.0 687.0
18 1170.0 900.0 766.0 670.0
19 1150.0 881.0 748.0 653.0
20 1140.0 862.0 730.0 636.0
21 1120.0 843.0 712.0 619.0
22 1100.0 824.0 694.0 602.0
23 1090.0 805.0 676.0 585.0
24 1070.0 786.0 658.0 568.0
25 1060.0 767.0 640.0 551. 0
26 1040.0 748.0 622.0 534.0
27 1020.0 729.0 604.0 515.0
28 1010.0 711. 0 586.0 487.0
29 991. 0 692.0 558.0 462.0
30 975.0 673.0 532.0 440.0
31 958.0 643.0 508.0 419.0
32 942.0 616.0 486.0 400.0
33 926.0 592.0 465.0 383.0
34 910.0 569.0 447.0 367.0
35 893.0 548.0 429.0 353.0
36 877 .0 528.0 413.0 339.0
37 861.0 510.0 399.0 326.0
38 845.0 493.0 385.0 315.0
39 828.0 477.0 372.0 304.0
40 812.0 463.0 360.0 294.0
41 792.0 449.0 349.0 284.0
42 765.0 435.0 338.0 275.0
43 740.0 423.0 328.0 267.0
44 717.0 411.0 319.0 259.0
45 695.0 400.0 310.0 252.0
46 674.0 390.0 301. 0 245.0
47 655.0 380.0 294.0 238.0
48 636.0 371.0 286.0 232.0
49 619.0 362.0 279.0 226.0
50 602.0 353.0 272 .0 220.0
51 587.0 345.0 266.0 215.0
52 572.0 338.0 260.0 210.0
53 558.0 330.0 254.0 205.0
54 544.0 323.0 248.0 201. 0
55 531.0 316.0 243.0 196.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W27X 94 W27X 84 W24X229 W24X207
27.7 24.8 67.2 60.7
6.7 7.8 3.8 4.1
49.1 52.1 2l. 9 24.1
106.0 103.6 155.6 154.1
750.6 658.8 1825.3 1636.3
310.9 297.7 710.7 650.4
473.9 415.4 1146.7 1035.5
126.8 11l.4 426.9 387.0
367.6 403.5 217.4 235.7
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


75l. 0 659.0 1830.0 1640.0
75l. 0 659.0 1830.0 1640.0
75l. 0 659.0 1830.0 1640.0
748.0 653.0 1830.0 1640.0
732.0 638.0 1830.0 1640.0
715.0 623.0 1830.0 1640.0
699.0 608.0 1830.0 1640.0
683.0 593.0 1820.0 1630.0
667.0 578.0 1810.0 1620.0
65l. 0 563.0 1800.0 1600.0
634.0 548.0 1780.0 1590.0
618.0 533.0 1770.0 1580.0
602.0 518.0 1750.0 1560.0
586.0 503.0 1740.0 1550.0
570.0 488.0 1720.0 1530.0
553.0 473.0 1710.0 1520.0
537.0 458.0 1690.0 1500.0
52l. 0 442.0 1680.0 1490.0
505.0 427.0 1660.0 1470.0
488.0 410.0 1650.0 1460.0
47l. 0 384.0 1630.0 1440.0
444.0 362.0 1620.0 1430.0
420.0 34l. 0 1600.0 1420.0
398.0 323.0 1590.0 1400.0
378.0 306.0 1580.0 1390.0
359.0 29l. 0 1560.0 1370.0
343.0 277.0 1550.0 1360.0
328.0 265.0 1530.0 1340.0
314.0 253.0 1520.0 1330.0
30l. 0 242.0 1500.0 1310.0
289.0 232.0 1490.0 13 00.0
278.0 223.0 1470.0 1290.0
268.0 215.0 1460.0 1270.0
258.0 207.0 1440.0 1260.0
250.0 200.0 1430.0 1240.0
24l. 0 193.0 1410.0 1230.0
234.0 186.0 1400.0 1210.0
226.0 18l. 0 1380.0 1200.0
219.0 175.0 1370.0 1180.0
213.0 170.0 1360.0 1170.0
207.0 165.0 1340.0 1150.0
20l. 0 160.0 1330.0 1140.0
196.0 156.0 1310.0 1130.0
19l. 0 15l. 0 1300.0 1110.0
186.0 147.0 1280.0 1100.0
18l. 0 144.0 1270.0 1080.0
177.0 140.0 1250.0 1070.0
173.0 137.0 1240.0 1050.0
169.0 133.0 1220.0 1040.0
165.0 130.0 1210.0 1020.0
SZ W24X192 W24X176 W24X162 W24X146
A 56.3 51. 7 47.7 43.0
B/2T 4.4 4.8 5.3 5.9
H/TW 25.9 28.0 29.8 32.3
LP 153.5 152.0 152.6 150.6
o MP 1509.3 1379.8 1263.7 1128.7
LR 614.4 573.7 542.2 503.7
o MR 957.5 877.5 807.3 723.5
L1 360.9 330.3 304.5 271. 9
L2 250.7 269.4 294.1 322.7
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
2 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
3 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
4 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
5 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
6 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
7 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
8 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
10 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
11 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
12 1510.0 1380.0 1260.0 1130.0
13 1510.0 1370.0 1260.0 1120.0
14 1490.0 1360.0 1250.0 1110.0
15 1480.0 1350.0 1230.0 1090.0
16 1460.0 1330.0 1220.0 1080.0
17 1450.0 1320.0 1200.0 1070.0
18 1430.0 1300.0 1190.0 1050.0
19 1420.0 1290.0 1180.0 1040.0
20 1410.0 1270.0 1160.0 1030.0
21 1390.0 1260.0 1150.0 1010.0
22 1380.0 1250.0 1130.0 998.0
23 1360.0 1230.0 1120.0 985.0
24 1350.0 1220.0 1100.0 971. 0
25 1330.0 1200.0 1090.0 957.0
26 1320.0 1190.0 1080.0 943.0
27 1310.0 1170.0 1060.0 930.0
28 1290.0 1160.0 1050.0 916.0
29 1280.0 1150.0 1030.0 902.0
30 1260.0 1130.0 1020.0 888.0
31 1250.0 1120.0 1010.0 874.0
32 1230.0 1100.0 993.0 861. 0
33 1220.0 1090.0 978.0 847.0
34 1200.0 1070.0 964.0 833.0
35 1190.0 1060.0 950.0 819.0
36 1180.0 1050.0 936.0 806.0
37 1160.0 1030.0 922.0 792.0
38 1150.0 1020.0 908.0 778.0
39 1130.0 1000.0 894.0 764.0
40 1120.0 989.0 880.0 751. 0
41 1100.0 975.0 866.0 737.0
42 1090.0 960.0 852.0 723.0
43 1080.0 946.0 838.0 701. 0
44 1060.0 932.0 824.0 681. 0
45 1050.0 918.0 810.0 662.0
46 1030.0 903.0 790.0 644.0
47 1020.0 889.0 769.0 627.0
48 1000.0 873.0 750.0 611. 0
49 989.0 852.0 732.0 595.0
50 975.0 832.0 714.0 581. 0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W24X131 W24X117 W24X104 W24X103
38.5 34.4 30.6 30.3
6.7 7.5 8.5 4.6
34.7 38.2 42.1 38.2
148.6 147.1 145.6 99.6
999.0 882.9 780.3 756.0
471.2 446.2 423.8 324.8
641. 6 567.5 503.1 477.8
241. 5 215.0 190.4 164.0
356.0 393.9 436.6 244.5
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 756.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 745.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 731. 0
999.0 883.0 780.0 716.0
999.0 883.0 780.0 701.0
991. 0 873.0 770.0 686.0
977.0 861.0 758.0 671.0
964.0 848.0 746.0 657.0
951.0 835.0 734.0 642.0
938.0 823.0 722.0 627.0
924.0 810.0 710.0 612.0
911.0 798.0 698.0 597.0
898.0 785.0 686.0 582.0
884.0 772.0 674.0 568.0
871. 0 760.0 662.0 553.0
858.0 747.0 650.0 538.0
844.0 734.0 638.0 523.0
831.0 722.0 626.0 508.0
818.0 709.0 614.0 493.0
805.0 696.0 602.0 479.0
791. 0 684.0 591.0 456.0
778.0 671. 0 579.0 435.0
765.0 658.0 567.0 416.0
751. 0 646.0 555.0 399.0
738.0 633.0 543.0 383.0
725.0 620.0 531. 0 368.0
712.0 608.0 519.0 354.0
698.0 595.0 507.0 341. 0
685.0 582.0 489.0 330.0
672.0 570.0 469.0 319.0
658.0 550.0 451.0 308.0
645.0 530.0 434.0 299.0
626.0 512.0 418.0 290.0
605.0 494.0 404.0 281.0
586.0 478.0 390.0 273.0
568.0 463.0 377.0 266.0
551. 0 449.0 365.0 259.0
535.0 435.0 354.0 252.0
520.0 422.0 343.0 246.0
506.0 411.0 333.0 240.0
492.0 399.0 324.0 234.0
479.0 389.0 315.0 228.0
467.0 378.0 306.0 223.0
SZ W24X 94 W24X 84 W24X 76 W24X 68
A 27.7 24.7 22.4 20.1
B/2T 5.2 5.9 6.6 7.7
H/TW 40.9 44.6 47.8 50.6
LP 99.1 97.6 96.1 93.5
o MP 685.8 604.8 540.0 477.9
LR 310.7 294.4 281.4 269.9
o MR 432.9 382.2 343.3 300.3
L1 148.0 130.9 117.0 101. 9
L2 270.0 297.4 325.4 359.0
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
2 686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
4 686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
5 686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
7 686.0 605.0 540.0 478.0
8 686.0 605.0 540.0 475.0
9 675.0 593.0 527.0 463.0
10 661. 0 579.0 515.0 451. 0
11 646.0 566.0 502.0 439.0
12 632.0 552.0 489.0 427.0
13 618.0 539.0 476.0 415.0
14 603.0 525.0 464.0 403.0
15 589.0 512.0 451. 0 391. 0
16 575.0 498.0 438.0 379.0
17 560.0 484.0 425.0 367.0
18 546.0 471. 0 413.0 355.0
19 532.0 457.0 400.0 342.0
20 517.0 444.0 387.0 330.0
21 503.0 430.0 374.0 318.0
22 489.0 417.0 362.0 306.0
23 474.0 403.0 349.0 289.0
24 460.0 389.0 331. 0 270.0
25 446.0 372.0 311. 0 253.0
26 430.0 350.0 293.0 238.0
27 408.0 332.0 276.0 224.0
28 387.0 315.0 262.0 212.0
29 369.0 299.0 248.0 201. 0
30 352.0 285.0 237.0 191. 0
31 337.0 272.0 226.0 182.0
32 323.0 261. 0 216.0 174.0
33 310.0 250.0 206.0 166.0
34 298.0 240.0 198.0 159.0
35 287.0 231. 0 190.0 152.0
36 277.0 222.0 183.0 147.0
37 268.0 215.0 176.0 141. 0
38 259.0 207.0 170.0 136.0
39 250.0 200.0 164.0 131.0
40 243.0 194.0 159.0 127.0
41 235.0 188.0 154.0 122.0
42 228.0 182.0 149.0 119.0
43 222.0 177.0 145.0 115.0
44 216.0 172.0 141. 0 111. 0
45 210.0 167.0 137.0 108.0
46 205.0 163.0 133.0 105.0
47 199.0 159.0 129.0 102.0
48 195.0 155.0 126.0 99.6
49 190.0 151. 0 123.0 97.0
50 185.0 147.0 120.0 94.6

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W24X 62 W24X 55 W21X201 W21X182
18.2 16.2 59.2 53.6
6.0 6.9 3.9 4.2
48.8 53.0 20.1 22.0
69.1 67.1 151.1 150.1
413 .1 361.8 1431.1 1285.3
206.9 198.2 730.3 670.7
255.5 222.3 899.0 813 .2
79.2 68.8 443.2 404.7
262.8 289.6 195.6 211.3
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


413 .0 362.0 1430.0 1290.0
413.0 362.0 1430.0 1290.0
413.0 362.0 1430.0 1290.0
413 .0 362.0 1430.0 1290.0
413.0 362.0 1430.0 1290.0
410.0 356.0 1430.0 1290.0
396.0 344.0 1430.0 1290.0
382.0 331.0 1430.0 1290.0
369.0 318.0 1430.0 1290.0
355.0 305.0 1430.0 1290.0
341. 0 293.0 1430.0 1290.0
327.0 280.0 1430.0 1290.0
314.0 267.0 1430.0 1280.0
300.0 254.0 1420.0 1270.0
286.0 242.0 1400.0 1260.0
272.0 229.0 1390.0 1250.0
259.0 212.0 1380.0 1240.0
238.0 193.0 1370.0 1230.0
219.0 176.0 1360.0 1210.0
202.0 162.0 1350.0 1200.0
187.0 150.0 1340.0 1190.0
175.0 140.0 1330.0 1180.0
164.0 131. 0 1320.0 1170.0
154.0 122.0 1310.0 1160.0
145.0 115.0 1290.0 1150.0
137.0 109.0 1280.0 1140.0
130.0 103.0 1270.0 1130.0
124.0 97.7 1260.0 1120.0
118.0 93.0 1250.0 1110.0
112.0 88.7 1240.0 1090.0
108.0 84.7 1230.0 1080.0
103.0 81.1 1220.0 1070.0
99.1 77.8 1210.0 1060.0
95.3 74.8 1190.0 1050.0
91. 8 71. 9 1180.0 1040.0
88.6 69.3 1170.0 1030.0
85.6 66.9 1160.0 1020.0
82.7 64.6 1150.0 1010.0
80.1 62.5 1140.0 997.0
77.6 60.5 1130.0 986.0
75.3 58.7 1120.0 975.0
73.1 56.9 1110.0 964.0
71.1 55.3 1100.0 953.0
69.2 53.7 1080.0 942.0
67.3 52.3 1070.0 932.0
65.6 50.9 1060.0 921.0
63.9 49.6 1050.0 910.0
62.4 48.3 1040.0 899.0
60.9 47.2 1030.0 888.0
59.5 46.0 1020.0 877.0
SZ W21X166 W21X147 W21X132 W21X122
A 48.8 43.2 38.8 35.9
B/2T 4.6 5.4 6.0 6.5
H/TW 24.3 25.4 28.0 30.5
LP 149.1 147.6 146.6 146.1
o MP 1166.5 1007.1 899.1 828.9
LR 621.2 556.4 517.3 492.1
o MR 741.0 641.6 575.3 532.4
L1 370.6 320.9 289.8 268.6
L2 227.8 261.2 285.4 305.1
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
2 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
4 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
5 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
7 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
9 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
10 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
11 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
12 1170.0 1010.0 899.0 829.0
13 1160.0 1000.0 891.0 820.0
14 1150.0 989.0 880.0 810.0
15 1140.0 978.0 870.0 800.0
16 1130.0 967.0 859.0 789.0
17 1120.0 957.0 849.0 779.0
18 1110.0 946.0 838.0 769.0
19 1100.0 935.0 828.0 759.0
20 1080.0 924.0 817.0 748.0
21 1070.0 914.0 807.0 738.0
22 1060.0 903.0 796.0 728.0
23 1050.0 892.0 786.0 717.0
24 1040.0 881. 0 775.0 707.0
25 1030.0 871. 0 765.0 697.0
26 1020.0 860.0 755.0 687.0
27 1010.0 849.0 744.0 676.0
28 998.0 839.0 734.0 666.0
29 987.0 828.0 723.0 656.0
30 976.0 817.0 713.0 646.0
31 965.0 806.0 702.0 635.0
32 955.0 796.0 692.0 625.0
33 944.0 785.0 681. 0 615.0
34 933.0 774.0 671. 0 604.0
35 922.0 763.0 660.0 594.0
36 911.0 753.0 650.0 584.0
37 901.0 742.0 639.0 574.0
38 890.0 731. 0 629.0 563.0
39 879.0 721. 0 618.0 553.0
40 868.0 710.0 608.0 543.0
41 857.0 699.0 597.0 532.0
42 847.0 688.0 587.0 516.0
43 836.0 678.0 576.0 501. 0
44 825.0 667.0 561. 0 487.0
45 814.0 656.0 546.0 474.0
46 803.0 645.0 531. 0 461. 0
47 793.0 631. 0 518.0 449.0
48 782.0 616.0 505.0 437.0
49 771. 0 601. 0 492.0 427.0
50 760.0 587.0 481. 0 416.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W21X111 W21X101 W21X 93 W21X 83
32.7 29.8 27.3 24.3
7.1 7.7 4.5 5.0
33.2 36.5 31. 5 35.5
145.1 144.6 92 .1 91.6
753.3 683.1 596.8 529.3
465.1 444.0 318.6 299.6
485.6 442.7 374.4 333.5
244.4 223.9 168.1 150.8
330.6 358.5 205.3 225.5
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 597.0 529.0
753.0 683.0 593.0 525.0
753.0 683.0 581. 0 514.0
753.0 683.0 569.0 502.0
753.0 683.0 557.0 491. 0
753.0 683.0 546.0 480.0
744.0 674.0 534.0 469.0
734.0 664.0 522.0 457.0
724.0 655.0 510.0 446.0
714.0 645.0 499.0 435.0
704.0 635.0 487.0 423.0
694.0 626.0 475.0 412.0
684.0 616.0 463.0 401. 0
674.0 606.0 451. 0 389.0
664.0 597.0 440.0 378.0
654.0 587.0 428.0 367.0
644.0 578.0 416.0 356.0
634.0 568.0 404.0 344.0
624.0 558.0 393.0 333.0
614.0 549.0 381. 0 316.0
604.0 539.0 366.0 300.0
593.0 529.0 350.0 286.0
583.0 520.0 334.0 273.0
573.0 510.0 321. 0 262.0
563.0 500.0 308.0 251. 0
553.0 491.0 296.0 241. 0
543.0 481. 0 285.0 232.0
533.0 472.0 275.0 223.0
523.0 462.0 266.0 216.0
513.0 452.0 257.0 208.0
503.0 443.0 249.0 202.0
493.0 427.0 241.0 195.0
481. 0 412.0 234.0 189.0
466.0 398.0 227.0 184.0
451. 0 385.0 221. 0 178.0
437.0 372.0 215.0 173.0
424.0 361. 0 209.0 169.0
411.0 350.0 204.0 164.0
400.0 340.0 199.0 160.0
389.0 330.0 194.0 156.0
378.0 321. 0 189.0 152.0
368.0 313.0 185.0 149.0
359.0 305.0 181. 0 145.0
350.0 297.0 177.0 142.0
SZ W21X 73 1X 68 W21X 62 W21X 57
A 21.5 20.0 18.3 16.7
B/2T 5.6 6.0 6.7 5.0
H/TW 40.1 42.5 45.6 45.2
LP 90.5 90.1 88.6 67.6
o MP 464.4 432.0 388.8 348.3
LR 281. 6 273.3 261. 6 207.3
OMR 294.5 273.0 247.7 216.5
L1 133.4 123.9 111. 9 89.5
L2 250.5 265.6 288.5 214.7
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 464.0 432.0 389.0 348.0
2 464.0 432.0 389.0 348.0
3 464.0 432.0 389.0 348.0
4 464.0 432.0 389.0 348.0
5 464.0 432.0 389.0 348.0
6 464.0 432.0 389.0 344.0
7 464.0 432.0 389.0 333.0
8 460.0 427.0 383.0 321. 0
9 449.0 416.0 373.0 310.0
10 438.0 406.0 363.0 299.0
11 427.0 396.0 353.0 287.0
12 417.0 385.0 344.0 276.0
13 406.0 375.0 334.0 265.0
14 395.0 364.0 324.0 253.0
15 385.0 354.0 314.0 242.0
16 374.0 344.0 304.0 231. 0
17 363.0 333.0 295.0 220.0
18 353.0 323.0 285.0 203.0
19 342.0 312.0 275.0 188.0
20 331. 0 302.0 265.0 174.0
21 321. 0 291. 0 255.0 162.0
22 310.0 281. 0 244.0 152.0
23 299.0 269.0 228.0 143.0
24 285.0 253.0 214.0 135.0
25 269.0 238.0 201. 0 128.0
26 255.0 225.0 190.0 121. 0
27 242.0 214.0 180.0 115.0
28 230.0 203.0 171. 0 110.0
29 219.0 193.0 162.0 105.0
30 210.0 185.0 155.0 101. 0
31 201. 0 177.0 148.0 96.7
32 193.0 169.0 142.0 93.0
33 185.0 163.0 136.0 89.5
34 178.0 156.0 131. 0 86.3
35 172.0 151. 0 126.0 83.3
36 166.0 145.0 121. 0 80.6
37 160.0 140.0 117.0 78.0
38 155.0 136.0 113.0 75.5
39 150.0 131. 0 109.0 73.3
40 146.0 127.0 106.0 71.1
41 141. 0 124.0 102.0 69.1
42 137.0 120.0 99.4 67.2
43 133.0 117.0 96.6 65.4
44 130.0 113.0 93.9 63.7
45 126.0 110.0 91.3 62.1
46 123.0 108.0 88.9 60.6
47 120.0 105.0 86.6 59.1
48 117.0 102.0 84.5 57.7
49 114.0 99.8 82.4 56.4
50 112.0 97.5 80.4 55.2

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W21X 50 1X 44 W18X192 W18X175
14.7 13.0 56.4 51. 3
6.1 7.2 3.3 3.6
47.9 52.2 16.1 17.5
65.0 63.0 139.6 138.1
297.0 257.6 1193.5 1074.7
194.7 185.5 820.1 747.9
184.3 159.2 741. 0 670.8
76.1 65.8 501.3 456.9
240.1 264.7 146.4 157.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


297.0 258.0 1190.0 1070.0
297.0 258.0 1190.0 1070.0
297.0 258.0 1190.0 1070.0
297.0 258.0 1190.0 1070.0
297.0 258.0 1190.0 1070.0
291. 0 250.0 1190.0 1070.0
280.0 241.0 1190.0 1070.0
270.0 231. 0 1190.0 1070.0
260.0 221. 0 1190.0 1070.0
249.0 212.0 1190.0 1070.0
239.0 202.0 1190.0 1070.0
228.0 192.0 1190.0 1070.0
218.0 183.0 1180.0 1060.0
207.0 173.0 1170.0 1050.0
197.0 163.0 1170.0 1050.0
187.0 150.0 1160.0 1040.0
171.0 136.0 1150.0 1030.0
156.0 124.0 1140.0 1020.0
144.0 114.0 1130.0 1020.0
133.0 105.0 1130.0 1010.0
124.0 97.4 1120.0 999.0
116.0 90.8 1110.0 991. 0
109.0 85.0 1100.0 983.0
102.0 79.8 1090.0 975.0
96.5 75.2 1090.0 967.0
91. 4 71.1 1080.0 959.0
86.8 67.5 1070.0 951. 0
82.7 64.1 1060.0 944.0
78.9 61.1 1050.0 936.0
75.4 58.4 1050.0 928.0
72.3 55.8 1040.0 920.0
69.4 53.5 1030.0 912.0
66.7 51.4 1020.0 904.0
64.3 49.5 1010.0 896.0
62.0 47.6 1010.0 888.0
59.8 46.0 999.0 880.0
57.9 44.4 991. 0 872.0
56.0 42.9 983.0 864.0
54.3 41.6 975.0 856.0
52.6 40.3 967.0 848.0
51.1 39.1 959.0 840.0
49.7 37.9 951. 0 832.0
48.3 36.9 943.0 824.0
47.0 35.9 935.0 816.0
45.8 34.9 927.0 808.0
44.6 34.0 919.0 800.0
43.5 33.2 911. 0 793.0
42.5 32.3 903.0 785.0
41. 5 31. 6 895.0 777.0
40.6 30.8 887.0 769.0
SZ W18X158 W18X143 W18X130 W18X119
A 46.3 42.1 38.2 35.1
B/2T 3.9 4.2 4.6 5.3
H/TW 19.1 21.2 23.1 23.6
LP 137.1 136.1 135.1 134.6
o MP 961.2 869.4 785.7 704.7
LR 680.5 625.7 575.8 530.1
o MR 604.5 549.9 499.3 450.5
L1 415.2 379.7 345.8 312.7
L2 170.6 184.0 198.7 221.3
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
2 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
4 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
5 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
6 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
7 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
8 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
9 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
10 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
11 961. 0 869.0 786.0 705.0
12 957.0 864.0 780.0 699.0
13 949.0 856.0 772.0 691. 0
14 941. 0 849.0 764.0 683.0
15 933.0 841. 0 756.0 675.0
16 925.0 833.0 749.0 668.0
17 917.0 825.0 741. 0 660.0
18 909.0 817.0 733.0 652.0
19 901. 0 809.0 725.0 645.0
20 894.0 802.0 717.0 637.0
21 886.0 794.0 710.0 629.0
22 878.0 786.0 702.0 621. 0
23 870.0 778.0 694.0 614.0
24 862.0 770.0 686.0 606.0
25 854.0 762.0 678.0 598.0
26 846.0 755.0 671. 0 591. 0
27 838.0 747.0 663.0 583.0
28 831. 0 739.0 655.0 575.0
29 823.0 731. 0 647.0 567.0
30 815.0 723.0 639.0 560.0
31 807.0 715.0 632.0 552.0
32 799.0 708.0 624.0 544.0
33 791. 0 700.0 616.0 537.0
34 783.0 692.0 608.0 529.0
35 775.0 684.0 600.0 521. 0
36 768.0 676.0 593.0 513.0
37 760.0 668.0 585.0 506.0
38 752.0 661. 0 577.0 498.0
39 744.0 653.0 569.0 490.0
40 736.0 645.0 561. 0 483.0
41 728.0 637.0 554.0 475.0
42 720.0 629.0 546.0 467.0
43 712.0 621. 0 538.0 459.0
44 705.0 614.0 530.0 452.0
45 697.0 606.0 522.0 441. 0
46 689.0 598.0 515.0 430.0
47 681. 0 590.0 507.0 420.0
48 673.0 582.0 499.0 410.0
49 665.0 574.0 488.0 400.0
50 657.0 567.0 477.0 391. 0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W18X106 W18X 97 W18X 86 W18X 76
31.1 28.5 25.3 22.3
6.0 6.4 7.2 8.1
26.2 28.9 32.3 36.4
133.1 132.6 131.6 130.6
621.0 569.8 502.2 440.1
484.8 457.4 425.8 399.0
397.8 366.6 323.7 284.8
277 .5 255.3 226.5 200.1
243.9 262.5 291.2 325.1
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI-MN PHI-MN PHI-MN PHI-MN


621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621. 0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621. 0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 440.0
621.0 570.0 502.0 439.0
614.0 563.0 495.0 432.0
606.0 555.0 487.0 425.0
599.0 548.0 480.0 418.0
591.0 540.0 473.0 411.0
584.0 533.0 465.0 404.0
576.0 525.0 458.0 398.0
568.0 517.0 451. 0 391.0
561.0 510.0 444.0 384.0
553.0 502.0 436.0 377 .0
545.0 495.0 429.0 370.0
538.0 487.0 422.0 363.0
530.0 480.0 415.0 356.0
523.0 472.0 407.0 349.0
515.0 465.0 400.0 342.0
507.0 457.0 393.0 335.0
500.0 450.0 385.0 328.0
492.0 442.0 378.0 321.0
485.0 435.0 371.0 314.0
477 .0 427.0 364.0 307.0
469.0 420.0 356.0 300.0
462.0 412.0 349.0 293.0
454.0 405.0 342.0 286.0
447.0 397.0 334.0 276.0
439.0 390.0 327.0 265.0
431. 0 382.0 318.0 255.0
424.0 375.0 306.0 246.0
416.0 367.0 296.0 237.0
408.0 356.0 286.0 229.0
401.0 345.0 277.0 222.0
391.0 335.0 269.0 214.0
380.0 325.0 261. 0 208.0
369.0 316.0 253.0 202.0
359.0 308.0 246.0 196.0
350.0 299.0 239.0 190.0
341.0 292.0 233.0 185.0
333.0 284.0 227.0 180.0
325.0 277 .0 221. 0 176.0
317.0 271.0 216.0 171. 0
310.0 265.0 211. 0 167.0
SZ W18X 71 W18X 65 W18X 60 W18X 55
A 20.8 19.1 17.6 16.2
B/2T 4.7 5.1 5.4 6.0
H/TW 31.3 34.4 37.3 39.7
LP 85.1 84.6 84.6 83.5
o MP 391.5 359.1 332.1 302.4
LR 293.6 279.1 268.7 257.3
o MR 247.7 228.2 210.6 191. 7
L1 156.9 144.4 133.6 121. 7
L2 185.8 199.3 213.0 229.8
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
2 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
3 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
4 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
5 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
6 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
7 392.0 359.0 332.0 302.0
8 384.0 351. 0 325.0 294.0
376.0 343.0 317.0 287.0
10 367.0 335.0 309.0 279.0
11 359.0 327.0 301. 0 271. 0
12 351. 0 319.0 293.0 264.0
13 343.0 311. 0 285.0 256.0
14 334.0 303.0 277.0 249.0
15 326.0 295.0 269.0 241. 0
16 318.0 287.0 261.0 233.0
17 309.0 279.0 253.0 226.0
18 301. 0 271.0 245.0 218.0
19 293.0 263.0 237.0 210.0
20 285.0 254.0 230.0 203.0
21 276.0 246.0 222.0 195.0
22 268.0 238.0 214.0 185.0
23 260.0 230.0 203.0 173.0
24 251. 0 219.0 192.0 163.0
25 241. 0 207.0 181. 0 154.0
26 229.0 197.0 172.0 146.0
27 219.0 188.0 164.0 139.0
28 209.0 179.0 156.0 133.0
29 200.0 172.0 149.0 127.0
30 192.0 165.0 143.0 121. 0
31 185.0 158.0 137.0 116.0
32 178.0 152.0 132.0 112.0
33 171. 0 146.0 127.0 107.0
34 165.0 141. 0 123.0 103.0
35 160.0 137.0 118.0 99.8
36 155.0 132.0 114.0 96.4
37 150.0 128.0 111. 0 93.3
38 145.0 124.0 107.0 90.3
39 141. 0 120.0 104.0 87.5
40 137.0 117.0 101. 0 84.9
41 133.0 114.0 98.2 82.5
42 130.0 111. 0 95.5 80.2
43 127.0 108.0 93.0 78.0
44 123.0 105.0 90.6 76.0
45 120.0 102.0 88.3 74.0
46 117.0 99.8 86.1 72.2
47 115.0 97.4 84.1 70.4
48 112.0 95.2 82.1 68.7
49 110.0 93.1 80.2 67.1
50 107.0 91. 0 78.4 65.6

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W18X 50 W18X 46 W18X 40 W18X 35
14.7 13.5 11.8 10.3
6.6 5.0 5.7 7.1
43.6 43.2 49.3 51. 5
82.6 64.6 63.5 61.1
272.7 244.9 211. 7 179.6
246.2 199.5 188.7 177.4
173.4 153.7 133.4 112.4
109.7 90.8 78.8 66.2
250.4 189.3 213 .2 239.1
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


273.0 245.0 212.0 180.0
273.0 245.0 212.0 180.0
273.0 245.0 212.0 180.0
273.0 245.0 212.0 180.0
273.0 245.0 212.0 180.0
273.0 240.0 206.0 173.0
272.0 232.0 199.0 166.0
265.0 224.0 191. 0 159.0
257.0 215.0 184.0 152.0
250.0 207.0 176.0 145.0
243.0 199.0 169.0 139.0
235.0 191. 0 161. 0 132.0
228.0 183.0 154.0 125.0
221. 0 175.0 146.0 118.0
214.0 167.0 139.0 110.0
206.0 159.0 130.0 98.7
199.0 149.0 118.0 89.7
192.0 137.0 108.0 82.0
184.0 127.0 100.0 75.4
177.0 118.0 92.9 69.8
167.0 110.0 86.7 64.9
156.0 104.0 81.2 60.7
146.0 97.7 76.3 56.9
138.0 92.4 72.0 53.6
130.0 87.6 68.2 50.6
123.0 83.3 64.7 47.9
117.0 79.5 61. 6 45.5
111. 0 75.9 58.8 43.4
106.0 72.7 56.2 41.4
101. 0 69.8 53.8 39.6
96.9 67.0 51. 7 37.9
93.0 64.5 49.7 36.4
89.4 62.2 47.8 35.0
86.0 60.1 46.1 33.7
82.9 58.1 44.5 32.5
80.0 56.2 43.0 31.4
77.3 54.4 41. 7 30.4
74.8 52.8 40.4 29.4
72.5 51.2 39.1 28.5
70.3 49.8 38.0 27.6
68.2 48.4 36.9 26.8
66.3 47.1 35.9 26.1
64.4 45.9 35.0 25.4
62.7 44.7 34.1 24.7
61.1 43.6 33.2 24.0
59.5 42.6 32.4 23.4
58.0 41. 6 31. 6 22.9
56.6 40.6 30.9 22.3
55.3 39.7 30.2 21. 8
54.0 38.9 29.5 21.3
SZ W16X100 W16X 89 W16X 77 W16X 67
A 29.4 26.2 22.6 19.7
B/2T 5.3 5.9 6.8 7.7
H/TW 23.2 26.0 30.0 34.4
LP 125.5 124.6 123.6 123.1
o MP 534.6 472.5 405.0 351. 0
LR 505.8 462.5 419.0 387.4
o MR 341.3 302.3 261. 3 228.2
L1 300.6 267.5 232.7 "204.3
L2 198.4 218.7 248.0 279.4
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*:M:N PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
2 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
3 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
4 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
5 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
6 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
7 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
8 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
·9 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
10 535.0 473.0 405.0 351. 0
11 531. 0 469.0 401. 0 347.0
12 525.0 463.0 395.0 341. 0
13 519.0 457.0 389.0 336.0
14 513.0 451. 0 383.0 330.0
15 507.0 445.0 378.0 325.0
16 501. 0 438.0 372.0 319.0
17 495.0 432.0 366.0 313.0
18 489.0 426.0 360.0 308.0
19 482.0 420.0 354.0 302.0
20 476.0 414.0 348.0 297.0
21 470.0 408.0 343.0 291. 0
22 464.0 402.0 337.0 285.0
23 458.0 396.0 331. 0 280.0
24 452.0 390.0 325.0 274.0
25 446.0 384.0 319.0 269.0
26 440.0 378.0 313.0 263.0
27 434.0 372.0 307.0 258.0
28 428.0 366.0 302.0 252.0
29 421. 0 360.0 296.0 246.0
30 415.0 354.0 290.0 241. 0
31 409.0 348.0 284.0 235.0
32 403.0 342.0 278.0 230.0
33 397.0 336.0 272.0 222.0
34 391. 0 330.0 267.0 213.0
35 385.0 324.0 260.0 205.0
36 379.0 318.0 251. 0 198.0
37 373.0 312.0 243.0 191. 0
38 367.0 305.0 235.0 184.0
39 360.0 298.0 228.0 178.0
40 354.0 289.0 221. 0 173.0
41 348.0 281. 0 214.0 168.0
42 342.0 273.0 208.0 163.0
43 334.0 266.0 203.0 158.0
44 325.0 259.0 197.0 154.0
45 317.0 252.0 192.0 149.0
46 309.0 246.0 187.0 146.0
47 302.0 240.0 182.0 142.0
48 295.0 235.0 178.0 138.0
49 288.0 229.0 174.0 135.0
50 282.0 224.0 170.0 132.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W16X 57 W16X 50 W16X 45 W16X 40
16.8 14.7 13.3 11.8
5.0 5.6 6.2 6.9
31. 8 35.9 39.5 44.7
80.1 79.6 78.6 78.6
283.5 248.4 222.3 196.9
273.9 254.7 241. 5 231. 0
179.8 158.0 141. 8 126.2
146.4 128.5 115.3 103.5
175.0 195.4 214.1 236.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
284.0 248.0 222.0 197.0
281. 0 246.0 219.0 194.0
275.0 240.0 214.0 189.0
269.0 234.0 208.0 183.0
262.0 227.0 202.0 178.0
256.0 221. 0 196.0 172.0
249.0 215.0 190.0 166.0
243.0 209.0 184.0 161.0
236.0 203.0 178.0 155.0
230.0 197.0 172.0 150.0
224.0 190.0 166.0 144.0
217.0 184.0 160.0 139.0
211. 0 178.0 154.0 133.0
204.0 172.0 148.0 128.0
198.0 166.0 142.0 119.0
191. 0 159.0 133.0 111. 0
185.0 150.0 125.0 104.0
178 .0 142.0 117.0 97.1
169.0 134.0 111. 0 91. 5
160.0 127.0 105.0 86.4
152.0 121. 0 99.6 81. 9
146.0 115.0 94.8 77.8
139.0 110.0 90.4 74.1
133.0 105.0 86.4 70.7
128.0 101. 0 82.8 67.7
123.0 96.9 79.4 64.8
119.0 93.2 76.4 62.3
115.0 89.9 73.5 59.9
111. 0 86.7 70.9 57.7
107.0 83.8 68.5 55.6
104.0 81.1 66.2 53.7
100.0 78.5 64.0 51. 9
97.5 76.1 62.1 50.3
94.7 73.9 60.2 48.7
92.0 71.8 58.4 47.3
89.5 69.8 56.8 45.9
87.1 67.9 55.2 44.6
84.9 66.1 53.7 43.4
82.8 64.5 52.3 42.2
80.8 62.9 51. 0 41. 2
78.9 61. 3 49.8 40.1
77.0 59.9 48.6 39.1
75.3 58.5 47.4 38.2
73.6 57.2 46.4 37.3
72.0 55.9 45.3 36.5
SZ W16X 36 W16X 31 W16X 26 W14X211
A 10.6 9.1 7.7 62.0
B/2T 8.1 6.3 8.0 5.1
H/TW 46.1 49.6 54.3 11.4
LP 76.0 58.5 56.0 203.6
o MP 172.8 145.9 119.4 1053.1
LR 219.0 171.3 159.9 1389.4
OMR 110.2 92.1 74.9 659.1
L1 89.4 69.8 56.4 863.1
L2 262.9 202.7 235.7 171. 8
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 173.0 146.0 119.0 1050.0
2 173.0 146.0 119.0 1050.0
173.0 146.0 119.0 1050.0
4 173.0 146.0 119.0 1050.0
5 173.0 145.0 118.0 1050.0
6 173.0 139.0 112.0 1050.0
7 169.0 134.0 107.0 1050.0
8 164.0 128.0 102.0 1050.0
9 159.0 122.0 97.1 1050.0
10 154.0 116.0 91.9 1050.0
11 148.0 111. 0 86.8 1050.0
12 143.0 105.0 81. 7 1050.0
13 138.0 99.3 76.5 1050.0
14 133.0 93.6 68.9 1050.0
15 127.0 85.1 61.5 1050.0
16 122.0 77.1 55.4 1050.0
17 117.0 70.3 50.3 1050.0
18 111. 0 64.6 46.0 1050.0
19 103.0 59.7 42.4 1040.0
20 95.4 55.5 39.2 1040.0
21 88.5 51. 8 36.5 1040.0
22 82.5 48.6 34.1 1030.0
23 77.3 45.7 32.0 1030.0
24 72.6 43.2 30.2 1020.0
25 68.4 40.9 28.5 1020.0
26 64.7 38.9 27.0 1020.0
27 61. 4 37.0 25.6 1010.0
28 58.4 35.4 24.4 1010.0
29 55.6 33.8 23.3 1010.0
30 53.1 32.4 22.3 1000.0
31 50.8 31.1 21.4 997.0
32 48.7 30.0 20.5 993.0
33 46.8 28.9 19.7 989.0
34 45.0 27.8 19.0 985.0
35 43.4 26.9 18.3 981. 0
36 41.8 26.0 17.7 977.0
37 40.4 25.2 17.1 973.0
38 39.1 24.4 16.6 969.0
39 37.8 23.7 16.1 965.0
40 36.7 23.0 15.6 961. 0
41 35.6 22.4 15.1 957.0
42 34.6 21.8 14.7 953.0
43 33.6 21.2 14.3 949.0
44 32.7 20.6 13 .9 945.0
45 31. 8 20.1 13.6 941. 0
46 31. 0 19.6 13 .2 937.0
47 30.2 19.2 12.9 933.0
48 29.5 18.7 12.6 929.0
49 28.8 18.3 12.3 925.0
50 28.1 17.9 12.0 921. 0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W14X193 4X176 W14X159 W14X145
56.8 51. 8 46.7 42.7
5.5 6.0 6.5 7.1
12.6 13.5 15.1 16.6
202.6 201.1 200.0 199.1
958.5 864.0 774.9 702.0
1277.9 1170.6 1063.8 977.9
604.5 548.0 495.3 452.4
797.8 732.1 666.6 613 .4
183.6 197.7 214.4 230.9
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
959.0 864.0 775.0 702.0
958.0 863.0 774.0 700.0
954.0 859.0 770.0 697.0
950.0 855.0 766.0 693.0
946.0 851. 0 762.0 689.0
942.0 847.0 758.0 685.0
938.0 843.0 754.0 681. 0
934.0 840.0 750.0 677.0
930.0 836.0 746.0 673.0
926.0 832.0 743.0 670.0
922.0 828.0 739.0 666.0
919.0 824.0 735.0 662.0
915.0 820.0 731. 0 658.0
911. 0 816.0 727.0 654.0
907.0 812.0 723.0 650.0
903.0 808.0 719.0 647.0
899.0 804.0 715.0 643.0
895.0 800.0 711. 0 639.0
891. 0 797.0 708.0 635.0
887.0 793.0 704.0 631. 0
883.0 789.0 700.0 627.0
879.0 785.0 696.0 623.0
875.0 781. 0 692.0 620.0
871. 0 777.0 688.0 616.0
867.0 773.0 684.0 612.0
863.0 769.0 680.0 608.0
859.0 765.0 676.0 604.0
855.0 761. 0 673.0 600.0
851. 0 757.0 669.0 597.0
847.0 753.0 665.0 593.0
843.0 750.0 661. 0 589.0
839.0 746.0 657.0 585.0
836.0 742.0 653.0 581. 0
832.0 738.0 649.0 577.0
828.0 734.0 645.0 573.0
SZ
W14X132 W14X 99
A 38.8 29.1
B/2T 7.1 8.5 9.3
H/TW 17.5 21.3 23.3
LP 188.1 186.6 185.6
o MP 631. 8 518.4 467.1
LR 884.4 752.7 697.6
o MR 407.6 337.4 306.2
L1 552.1 461.2 421.7
L2 230.2 269.3 292.7
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 632.0 518.0 467.0
2 632.0 518.0 467.0
3 632.0 518.0 467.0
4 632.0 518.0 467.0
5 632.0 518.0 467.0
632.0 518.0 467.0
7 632.0 518.0 467.0
8 632.0 518.0 467.0
9 632.0 518.0 467.0
10 632.0 518.0 467.0
11 632.0 518.0 467.0
12 632.0 518.0 467.0
13 632.0 518.0 467.0
14 632.0 518.0 467.0
15 632.0 518.0 467.0
16 631. 0 517.0 465.0
17 627.0 513.0 461. 0
18 623.0 509.0 458.0
19 619.0 505.0 454.0
20 615.0 501. 0 450.0
21 611. 0 497.0 446.0
22 607.0 494.0 442.0
23 603.0 490.0 439.0
24 600.0 486.0 435.0
25 596.0 482.0 431. 0
26 592.0 478.0 427.0
27 588.0 474.0 424.0
28 584.0 471. 0 420.0
29 580.0 467.0 416.0
30 576.0 463.0 412.0
31 573.0 459.0 408.0
32 569.0 455.0 405.0
33 565.0 451. 0 401. 0
34 561. 0 448.0 397.0
35 557.0 444.0 393.0
36 553.0 440.0 390.0
37 549.0 436.0 386.0
38 545.0 432.0 382.0
39 542.0 428.0 378.0
40 538.0 425.0 375.0
41 534.0 421. 0 371.0
42 530.0 417.0 367.0
43 526.0 413.0 363.0
44 522.0 409.0 359.0
45 518.0 405.0 356.0
46 515.0 402.0 352.0
47 511. 0 398.0 348.0
48 507.0 394.0 344.0
49 503.0 390.0 341. 0
50 499.0 386.0 337.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W14X 90 W14X 82 W14X 74 W14X 68
26.5 24.1 21. 8 20.0
10.2 5.9 6.4 7.0
25.6 21. 7 24.5 26.6
185.1 124.0 124.0 123.1
423.9 375.3 340.2 310.5
650.4 515.8 480.0 447.8
278.9 239.9 218.4 200.9
384.5 310.5 284.7 261. 5
317.4 183.8 198.7 213.4
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311.0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311.0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311.0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 375.0 340.0 311. 0
424.0 373.0 337.0 307.0
424.0 368.0 333.0 303.0
424.0 364.0 329.0 299.0
424.0 360.0 325.0 295.0
424.0 356.0 321.0 291. 0
422.0 352.0 317.0 287.0
418.0 348.0 313.0 283.0
414.0 343.0 309.0 279.0
410.0 339.0 305.0 275.0
407.0 335.0 301.0 271.0
403.0 331. 0 296.0 267.0
399.0 327.0 292.0 263.0
396.0 323.0 288.0 259.0
392.0 319.0 284.0 255.0
388.0 314.0 280.0 251. 0
384.0 310.0 276.0 247.0
381. 0 306.0 272.0 243.0
377.0 302.0 268.0 239.0
373.0 298.0 264.0 235.0
369.0 294.0 259.0 230.0
366.0 290.0 255.0 226.0
362.0 285.0 251.0 222.0
358.0 281. 0 247.0 218.0
354.0 277.0 243.0 214.0
351. 0 273.0 239.0 210.0
347.0 269.0 235.0 206.0
343.0 265.0 231. 0 202.0
339.0 261. 0 227.0 197.0
336.0 256.0 222.0 191. 0
332.0 252.0 218.0 185.0
328.0 248.0 212.0 180.0
324.0 244.0 207.0 175.0
321.0 240.0 201. 0 170.0
317.0 234.0 196.0 166.0
313.0 228.0 191. 0 162.0
309.0 222.0 186.0 158.0
306.0 217.0 182.0 154.0
302.0 212.0 178.0 150.0
298.0 208.0 174.0 147.0
295.0 203.0 170.0 144.0
SZ W14X 61 W14X 48 W14X 43
A 17.9 15.6 14.1 12.6
B/2T 7.7 6.1 6.7 7.5
H/TW 29.4 29.9 32.5 36.2
LP 122.6 96.1 95.5 94.6
o MP 275.4 235.2 211. 7 188.0
LR 416.5 336.6 316.7 296 .4
OMR 179.8 151. 8 137.1 122.3
L1 237.1 190.8 173.9 155.4
L2 234.0 183.0 198.1 217.9
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
2 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
4 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
5 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
6 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
7 275.0 235.0 212.0 188.0
8 275.0 235.0 212.0 187.0
9 275.0 231. 0 207.0 184.0
10 275.0 227.0 203.0 180.0
11 272.0 223.0 199.0 176.0
12 268.0 219.0 195.0 172.0
13 265.0 214.0 191.0 168.0
14 261.0 210.0 187.0 164.0
15 257.0 206.0 183.0 160.0
16 253.0 202.0 179.0 156.0
17 249.0 198.0 175.0 152.0
18 245.0 194.0 171.0 148.0
19 241. 0 189.0 167.0 144.0
20 237.0 185.0 163.0 141.0
21 233.0 181. 0 159.0 137.0
22 229.0 177.0 155.0 133.0
23 225.0 173.0 151. 0 129.0
24 222.0 169.0 147.0 125.0
25 218.0 164.0 143.0 120.0
26 214.0 160.0 139.0 114.0
27 210.0 156.0 133.0 109.0
28 206.0 152.0 127.0 104.0
29 202.0 146.0 122.0 99.0
30 198.0 140.0 117.0 94.8
31 194.0 134.0 112.0 90.9
32 190.0 129.0 108.0 87.4
33 186.0 125.0 104.0 84.1
34 183.0 120.0 100.0 81.1
35 178.0 116.0 96.9 78.3
36 172.0 113.0 93.7 75.7
37 166.0 109.0 90.7 73.2
38 161. 0 106.0 88.0 70.9
39 156.0 103.0 85.4 68.8
40 151. 0 100.0 82.9 66.8
41 147.0 97.3 80.6 64.9
42 143.0 94.7 78.4 63.1
43 139.0 92.2 76.4 61.4
44 135.0 89.9 74.4 59.8
45 132.0 87.7 72.6 58.3
46 128.0 85.6 70.8 56.9
47 125.0 83.6 69.2 55.5
48 122.0 81. 7 67.6 54.2
49 119.0 79.9 66.0 52.9
50 117.0 78.2 64.6 51. 8

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W14X 38 W14X 30 W14X 26
11.2 8.9 7.7
6.6 7.4 8.7 6.0
38.6 42.0 44.3 47.2
77 .5 76.6 74.6 54.0
166.1 147.5 127.8 108.6
240.0 227.3 214.7 161.0
106.5 94.8 82.0 68.9
118.7 105.3 90.9 70.4
198.3 219.1 244.3 169.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


166.0 147.0 128.0 109.0
166.0 147.0 128.0 109.0
166.0 147.0 128.0 109.0
166.0 147.0 128.0 109.0
166.0 147.0 128.0 106.0
166.0 147.0 128.0 102.0
164.0 145.0 125.0 97.4
159.0 141.0 121. 0 93.0
155.0 136.0 117.0 88.5
150.0 132.0 113.0 84.0
146.0 128.0 109.0 79.6
142.0 124.0 105.0 75.1
137.0 120.0 101. 0 70.7
133.0 115.0 97.1 64.5
128.0 111.0 93.2 58.2
124.0 107.0 89.3 53.0
120.0 103.0 85.4 48.6
115.0 98.7 81.1 44.9
111.0 94.3 74.6 41. 7
106.0 87.5 69.0 38.9
99.5 81. 6 64.1 36.5
93.3 76.3 59.9 34.4
87.9 71. 7 56.1 32.4
83.0 67.7 52.8 30.7
78.7 64.0 49.9 29.2
74.8 60.7 47.2 27.8
71.3 57.8 44.8 26.6
68.1 55.1 42.7 25.4
65.2 52.7 40.7 24.4
62.5 50.4 38.9 23.4
60.0 48.4 37.3 22.5
57.7 46.5 35.8 21. 7
55.6 44.8 34.4 21. 0
53.7 43.1 33.1 20.3
51. 9 41.7 32.0 19.6
50.2 40.3 30.9 19.0
48.6 39.0 29.8 18.4
47.1 37.7 28.9 17.9
45.7 36.6 28.0 17.3
44.4 35.5 27.1 16.9
43.2 34.5 26.3 16.4
42.0 33.6 25.6 16.0
40.9 32.7 24.9 15.6
39.9 31.8 24.2 15.2
38.9 31.0 23.6 14.8
37.9 30.2 23.0 14.5
37.0 29.5 22.4 14.1
36.2 28.8 21. 9 13 .8
35.4 28.2 21.4 13.5
34.6 27.5 20.9 13.2
SZ W14X 22 W12X190 W12X170
A 6.5 55.8 50.0
B/2T 7.5 3.7 4.0
H/TW 52.1 9.0 9.9
LP 52.0 162.6 161.1
o MP 89.7 839.7 742.5
LR 149.9 1408.6 1264.6
o MR 56.6 512.9 458.3
L1 57.6 857.7 777.0
L2 195.5 111. 2 120.2
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 89.6 840.0 743.0
89.6 840.0 743.0
3 89.6 840.0 743.0
4 89.6 840.0 743.0
86.9 840.0 743.0
82.9 840.0 743.0
7 78.8 840.0 743.0
8 74.8 840.0 743.0
70.7 840.0 743.0
10 66.6 840.0 743.0
62.6 840.0 743.0
58.5 840.0 743.0
13 53.0 840.0 743.0
14 47.1 838.0 741. 0
15 42.3 835.0 738.0
16 38.3 832.0 735.0
17 35.0 829.0 731. 0
18 32.2 826.0 728.0
19 29.8 823.0 725.0
20 27.7 819.0 722.0
21 25.9 816.0 7l9.0
22 24.3 813.0 7l6.0
23 22.9 810.0 7l3.0
24 21.6 807.0 7l0.0
25 20.5 804. 0 707.0
26 19.5 800.0 704.0
27 18.6 797.0 701. 0
28 17.8 794.0 697.0
29 17.0 791. 0 694.0
30 16.3 788.0 691. 0
31 15.7 785.0 688.0
32 15.1 782.0 685.0
33 14.5 778.0 682.0
34 14.0 775.0 679.0
35 13.5 772.0 676.0
36 13 .1 769.0 673.0
37 12.7 766.0 670.0
38 12.3 763.0 667.0
39 11. 9 760.0 663.0
40 11. 6 756.0 660.0
41 11.3 753.0 657.0
42 11. 0 750.0 654.0
43 10.7 747.0 651. 0
44 10.4 744.0 648.0
45 10.2 741. 0 645.0
46 9.9 738.0 642.0
47 9.7 734.0 639.0
48 9.4 731. 0 636.0
49 9.2 728.0 633.0
50 9.0 725.0 629.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W12X136 W12X120 W12X 96
39.9 35.3 31.2 28.2
5.0 5.6 6.2 6.8
12.1 13.4 15.6 17.2
158.1 156.6 155.6 154.6
577 .8 502.2 442.8 396.9
1015.1 905.6 806.3 737.2
362.7 317.9 282.8 255.5
631.0 564.8 503.4 459.9
142.5 156.8 173.1 187.3
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
578.0 502.0 443.0 397.0
575.0 499.0 440.0 394.0
572.0 496.0 437.0 391.0
569.0 493.0 434.0 388.0
566.0 491.0 431.0 385.0
563.0 488.0 428.0 382.0
560.0 485.0 425.0 379.0
557.0 482.0 422.0 376.0
554.0 479.0 419.0 373.0
551.0 476.0 416.0 370.0
548.0 473.0 413.0 367.0
545.0 470.0 410.0 364.0
542.0 467.0 407.0 362.0
539.0 464.0 404.0 359.0
536.0 461.0 401.0 356.0
533.0 458.0 398.0 353.0
530.0 455.0 395.0 350.0
527.0 452.0 393.0 347.0
524.0 449.0 390.0 344.0
521.0 446.0 387.0 341.0
518.0 443.0 384.0 338.0
515.0 440.0 381.0 335.0
512.0 437.0 378.0 332.0
509.0 434.0 375.0 330.0
506.0 431.0 372 .0 327.0
503.0 428.0 369.0 324.0
500.0 426.0 366.0 321. 0
497.0 423.0 363.0 318.0
494.0 420.0 360.0 315.0
491.0 417.0 357.0 312.0
488.0 414.0 354.0 309.0
485.0 411.0 351.0 306.0
482.0 408.0 348.0 303.0
479.0 405.0 345.0 300.0
476.0 402.0 342.0 297.0
473.0 399.0 339.0 295.0
470.0 396.0 336.0 292.0
467.0 393.0 333.0 289.0
SZ W12X 87 W12X 79 W12X 72 W12X 65
A 25.6 23.2 21.1 19.1
B/2T 7.5 8.2 9.0 9.9
H/TW 18.5 20.2 22.1 24.3
LP 153.5 152.6 152.0 151.1
o MP 356.4 321.3 291. 6 261.4
LR 676.1 621. 8 578.3 536.6
o MR 230.2 208.7 190.0 171. 5
L1 418.0 380.5 348.1 316.7
L2 203.6 220.9 238.9 260.4
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
2 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
3 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
4 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
5 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
6 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
7 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
8 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
10 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
11 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
12 356.0 321. 0 292.0 261. 0
13 356.0 320.0 291. 0 260.0
14 353.0 318.0 288.0 257.0
15 350.0 315.0 285.0 255.0
16 347.0 312.0 282.0 252.0
17 344.0 309.0 279.0 249.0
18 341. 0 306.0 276.0 246.0
19 338.0 303.0 273.0 243.0
20 335.0 300.0 271.0 241. 0
21 333.0 297.0 268.0 238.0
22 330.0 295.0 265.0 235.0
23 327.0 292.0 262.0 232.0
24 324.0 289.0 259.0 229.0
25 321. 0 286.0 256.0 227.0
26 318.0 283.0 253.0 224.0
27 315.0 280.0 251. 0 221. 0
28 312.0 277.0 248.0 218.0
29 309.0 274.0 245.0 215.0
30 306.0 271.0 242.0 213.0
31 304.0 269.0 239.0 210.0
32 301. 0 266.0 236.0 207.0
33 298.0 263.0 233.0 204.0
34 295.0 260.0 231. 0 201. 0
35 292.0 257.0 228.0 199.0
36 289.0 254.0 225.0 196.0
37 286.0 251. 0 222.0 193.0
38 283.0 248.0 219.0 190.0
39 280.0 246.0 216.0 187.0
40 277.0 243.0 213.0 185.0
41 275.0 240.0 210.0 182.0
42 272.0 237.0 208.0 179.0
43 269.0 234.0 205.0 176.0
44 266.0 231. 0 202.0 173.0
45 263.0 228.0 199.0 170.0
46 260.0 225.0 196.0 166.0
47 257.0 223.0 193.0 162.0
48 254.0 220.0 190.0 158.0
49 251. 0 217.0 186.0 154.0
50 248.0 214.0 182.0 150.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W12X 58 53 W12X 50 W12X 45
17.0 14.7 13.2
7.8 8.7 6.3 7.0
26.2 27.7 25.5 28.5
125.5 124.0 98.1 97.1
233.3 210.4 195.5 174.7
459.8 429.3 369.4 341.6
152.1 137.7 126.2 113.3
273.0 248.6 217.8 196.1
208.5 226.1 164.3 179.5
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 195.0 175.0
233.0 210.0 193.0 172.0
233.0 210.0 190.0 169.0
232.0 208.0 187.0 166.0
229.0 206.0 184.0 163.0
226.0 203.0 181. 0 160.0
223.0 200.0 178.0 157.0
220.0 197.0 175.0 154.0
217.0 194.0 171.0 151.0
214.0 191.0 168.0 148.0
211.0 188.0 165.0 145.0
208.0 186.0 162.0 142.0
205.0 183.0 159.0 139.0
203.0 180.0 156.0 136.0
200.0 177.0 153.0 133.0
197.0 174.0 150.0 130.0
194.0 171. 0 147.0 127.0
191. 0 168.0 144.0 124.0
188.0 166.0 141.0 121. 0
185.0 163.0 138.0 118.0
182.0 160.0 135.0 115.0
179.0 157.0 132.0 111.0
176.0 154.0 129.0 106.0
173.0 151.0 125.0 102.0
170.0 148.0 121.0 98.5
168.0 146.0 116.0 95.0
165.0 143.0 112.0 91. 7
162.0 140.0 109.0 88.7
159.0 137.0 105.0 85.9
156.0 132.0 102.0 83.2
153.0 128.0 99.2 80.7
149.0 124.0 96.4 78.4
145.0 120.0 93.7 76.2
141. 0 117.0 91.2 74.1
137.0 114.0 88.8 72 .1
133.0 111.0 86.6 70.3
130.0 108.0 84.4 68.5
126.0 105.0 82.4 66.8
123.0 1(j2.0 80.5 65.3
120.0 99.9 78.6 63.7
118.0 97.5 76.9 62.3
115.0 95.3 75.2 60.9
112.0 93.1 73.6 59.6
SZ W12X 40 W12X 30 W12X 26
A 11.8 8.8 7.7
B/2T 7.8 6.3 7.4 8.5
H/TW 32.0 35.0 40.3 45.5
LP 96.5 77 .0 76.0 75.5
o MP 155.3 138.3 116.4 100.5
LR 318.7 248.2 229.0 216.4
OMR 101.3 89.0 75.3 65.2
L1 176.8 130.6 111.6 96.8
L2 196.9 174.3 200.0 227.4
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
2 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
3 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
4 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
5 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
6 155.0 138.0 116.0 100.0
7 155.0 136.0 114.0 98.3
8 155.0 133.0 111. 0 95.3
9 152.0 129.0 108.0 92.3
10 150.0 126.0 105.0 89.3
11 147.0 122.0 101. 0 86.3
12 144.0 119.0 98.1 83.3
13 141.0 115.0 94.9 80.3
14 138.0 112.0 91. 6 77.3
15 135.0 109.0 88.4 74.2
16 132.0 105.0 85.2 71.2
17 129.0 102.0 82.0 68.2
18 126.0 98.2 78.8 65.2
19 123.0 94.7 75.5 60.2
20 120.-0 91.3 70.4 55.8
21 117.0 87.1 65.8 51.9
22 115.0 81.9 61. 7 48.6
23 112.0 77.4 58.1 45.6
24 109.0 73.3 54.9 43.0
25 106.0 69.6 52.0 40.6
26 103.0 66.3 49.4 38.5
27 99.1 63.3 47.1 36.6
28 94.6 60.5 45.0 34.9
29 90.6 58.0 43.0 33.3
30 86.9 55.7 41.2 31.9
31 83.5 53.6 39.6 30.6
32 80.3 51.6 38.1 29.4
33 77 .4 49.8 36.7 28.3
34 74.7 48.1 35.4 27.3
35 72.2 46.5 34.2 26.3
36 69.8 45.1 33.1 25.4
37 67.6 43.7 32.1 24.6
38 65.5 42.4 31.1 23.8
39 63.6 41.2 30.2 23.1
40 61.8 40.0 29.3 22.4
41 60.1 38.9 28.5 21.8
42 58.4 37.9 27.7 21.1
43 56.9 36.9 27.0 20.6
44 55.5 36.0 26.3 20.0
45 54.1 35.1 25.6 19.5
46 52.8 34.3 25.0 19.0
47 51. 5 33.5 24.4 18.6
48 50.3 32.7 23.9 18.1
49 49.2 32.0 23.3 17.7
50 48.1 31.3 22.8 17.3

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W12X 22 W12X 19 W12X 16 W12X 14
6.5 5.6 4.7 4.2
4.7 5.7 7.5 8.8
40.6 44.8 47.7 52.7
42.4 41.2 38.7 37.7
79.2 66.7 54.3 47.0
133.9 124.7 114.7 110.0
49.6 41. 6 33.4 29.1
62.4 52.5 41. 6 36.8
120.3 136.4 157.4 171.4
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


79.1 66.7 54.3 47.0
79.1 66.7 54.3 47.0
79.1 66.7 54.3 47.0
77.3 64.6 51. 7 44.4
73.4 61. 0 48.4 41.4
69.5 57.4 45.1 38.5
65.6 53.8 41.8 35.5
61. 8 50.2 38.5 32.5
57.9 46.6 35.2 29.5
54.0 42.9 31.0 25.1
50.1 38.1 26.6 21.4
44.6 33.4 23.2 18.6
39.9 29.8 20.5 16.4
36.1 26.8 18.4 14.7
32.9 24.4 16.6 13 .2
30.3 22.3 15.2 12.0
28.1 20.6 13.9 11.0
26.1 19.1 12.9 10.2
24.4 17.9 12.0 9.5
23.0 16.7 11.2 8.8
21.7 15.8 10.5 8.3
20.5 14.9 9.9 7.8
19.5 14.1 9.4 7.4
18.6 13.4 8.9 7.0
17.7 12.8 8.5 6.6
16.9 12.2 8.1 6.3
16.2 11.7 7.7 6.0
15.6 11.2 7.4 5.8
15.0 10.8 7.1 5.5
14.4 10.4 6.8 5.3
13 .9 10.0 6.6 5.1
13.5 9.7 6.3 4.9
13 .0 9.3 6.1 4.8
12.6 9.0 5.9 4.6
12.2 8.8 5.7 4.4
11. 8 8.5 5.5 4.3
11.5 8.2 5.4 4.2
11.2 8.0 5.2 4.0
10.9 7.8 5.1 3.9
10.6 7.6 4.9 3.8
10.3 7.4 4.8 3.7
10.1 7.2 4.7 3.6
9.8 7.0 4.6 3.5
9.6 6.8 4.4 3.4
9.3 6.7 4.3 3.3
9.1 6.5 4.2 3.3
8.9 6.4 4.2 3.2
8.7 6.2 4.0 3.1
8.6 6.1 4.0 3.1
8.4 6.0 3.9 3.0
SZ W10X112 OX100 W10X 88 W10X 77
A 32.9 29.4 25.9 22.6
B/2T 4.2 4.6 5.2 5.9
H/TW 10.1 11.2 12 .5 14.3
LP 134.1 132.6 131. 6 130.1
o MP 396.9 351.0 305.1 263.6
LR 1037.3 928.8 820.8 720.6
OMR 245.8 218.4 192 .1 167.6
L1 639.1 574.0 511.2 450.3
L2 101. 0 109.9 121.3 134.8
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 397.0 351. 0 305.0 264.0
2 397.0 351.0 305.0 264.0
3 397.0 351.0 305.0 264.0
4 397.0 351. 0 305.0 264.0
5 397.0 351. 0 305.0 264.0
6 397.0 351.0 305.0 264.0
7 397.0 351.0 305.0 264.0
8 397.0 351. 0 305.0 264.0
9 397.0 351. 0 305.0 264.0
10 397.0 351.0 305.0 264.0
11 397.0 351.0 305.0 263.0
12 395.0 349.0 303.0 261. 0
13 393.0 347.0 301. 0 259.0
14 391. 0 345.0 299.0 257.0
15 389.0 343.0 297.0 255.0
16 387.0 341. 0 295.0 253.0
17 385.0 339.0 293.0 251. 0
18 383.0 337.0 291. 0 250.0
19 381.0 335.0 289.0 248.0
20 379.0 333.0 287.0 246.0
21 377.0 331. 0 285.0 244.0
22 375.0 329.0 283.0 242.0
23 373.0 327.0 281. 0 240.0
24 371. 0 325.0 279.0 238.0
25 369.0 323.0 277.0 236.0
26 367.0 321. 0 276.0 234.0
27 365.0 319.0 274.0 232.0
28 363.0 317.0 272.0 230.0
29 361. 0 315.0 270.0 228.0
30 359.0 313.0 268.0 226.0
31 357.0 311. 0 266.0 224.0
32 355.0 309.0 264.0 222.0
33 353.0 307.0 262.0 220.0
34 351. 0 305.0 260.0 218.0
35 349.0 303.0 258.0 216.0
36 347.0 301. 0 256.0 214.0
37 345.0 299.0 254.0 212.0
38 343.0 297.0 252.0 211. 0
39 341. 0 295.0 250.0 209.0
40 339.0 293.0 248.0 207.0
41 337.0 291. 0 246.0 205.0
42 335.0 289.0 244.0 203.0
43 333.0 287.0 242.0 201. 0
44 331. 0 285.0 240.0 199.0
45 329.0 283.0 238.0 197.0
46 327.0 281. 0 236.0 195.0
47 325.0 279.0 234.0 193.0
48 323.0 277.0 232.0 191. 0
49 321. 0 275.0 230.0 189.0
50 319.0 273.0 228.0 187.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W10X 68 W10X 60 W10X 54 W10X 49
20.0 17.6 15.8 14.4
6.6 7.4 8.2 8.9
16.3 18.1 20.5 22.4
129.5 128.6 128.0 127.0
230.4 201. 5 179.9 163.1
645.3 576.6 526.7 488.1
147.7 130.1 117.1 106.5
403.0 358.0 324.2 295.9
149.2 165.0 180.5 195.1
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 180.0 163.0
230.0 201. 0 179.0 162.0
228.0 199.0 177.0 160.0
226.0 197.0 175.0 159.0
224.0 195.0 174.0 157.0
222.0 193.0 172.0 155.0
220.0 191. 0 170.0 153.0
218.0 189.0 168.0 151. 0
216.0 187.0 166.0 149.0
215.0 186.0 164.0 147.0
213.0 184.0 162.0 145.0
211. 0 182.0 160.0 143.0
209.0 180.0 158.0 142.0
207.0 178.0 156.0 140.0
205.0 176.0 155.0 138.0
203.0 174.0 153.0 136.0
201. 0 172.0 151. 0 134.0
199.0 170.0 149.0 132.0
197.0 168.0 147.0 130.0
195.0 166.0 145.0 128.0
193.0 165.0 143.0 127.0
191. 0 163.0 141. 0 125.0
190.0 161. 0 139.0 123.0
188.0 159.0 138.0 121. 0
186.0 157.0 136.0 119.0
184.0 155.0 134.0 117.0
182.0 153.0 132.0 115.0
180.0 151. 0 130.0 113.0
178.0 149.0 128.0 112.0
176.0 147.0 126.0 110.0
174.0 145.0 124.0 108.0
172.0 144.0 122.0 106.0
170.0 142.0 121. 0 103.0
168.0 140.0 119.0 100.0
166.0 138.0 117.0 97.4
164.0 136.0 114.0 95.0
163.0 134.0 111. 0 92.7
161. 0 132.0 109.0 90.5
159.0 130.0 106.0 88.5
157.0 127.0 104.0 86.5
155.0 125.0 101. 0 84.6
SZ W10X 45 W10X 39 W10X 33 W10X 30
A 13.3 11.5 9.7 8.8
B/2T 6.5 7.5 9.1 5.7
H/TW 21.7 24.3 26.2 28.6
LP 100.6 99.1 97.1 68.6
o MP 148.3 126.4 104.8 98.9
LR 421. 7 374.3 329.3 244.5
o MR 95.8 82.1 68.3 63.2
L1 258.1 223.4 186.7 137.9
L2 142.6 160.9 186.6 130.7
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 148.0 126.0 105.0 98.8
2 148.0 126.0 105.0 98.8
3 148.0 126.0 105.0 98.8
4 148.0 126.0 105.0 98.8
148.0 126.0 105.0 98.8
148.0 126.0 105.0 98.1
7 148.0 126.0 105.0 95.7
8 148.0 126.0 105.0 93.2
147.0 125.0 103.0 90.8
10 145.0 123.0 101. 0 88.4
11 143.0 121. 0 99.3 86.0
12 141. 0 119.0 97.4 83.5
13 139.0 117.0 95.5 81.1
14 137.0 115.0 93.6 78.7
15 135.0 113.0 91. 7 76.2
16 133.0 111. 0 89.8 73.8
17 131. 0 109.0 87.9 71.4
18 129.0 108.0 86.1 68.9
19 127.0 106.0 84.2 66.5
20 125.0 104.0 82.3 64.1
21 123.0 102.0 80.4 60.9
22 122.0 99.8 78.5 57.6
23 120.0 97.9 76.6 54.6
24 118.0 96.0 74.7 51.9
25 116.0 94.0 72.8 49.5
26 114.0 92.1 71.0 47.3
27 112.0 90.2 69.1 45.3
28 110.0 88.2 66.6 43.5
29 108.0 86.3 63.7 41. 8
30 106.0 84.4 61.2 40.2
31 104.0 82.5 58.8 38.8
32 102.0 79.7 56.6 37.5
33 99.9 76.9 54.6 36.2
34 98.0 74.4 52.7 35.1
35 96.0 72.0 50.9 34.0
36 93.2 69.7 49.3 32.9
37 90.5 67.6 47.8 32.0
38 87.9 65.6 46.3 31.1
39 85.4 63.8 45.0 30.2
40 83.1 62.0 43.7 29.4
41 80.9 60.4 42.5 28.6
42 78.9 58.8 41.4 27.9
43 76.9 57.3 40.3 27.2
44 75.0 55.9 39.3 26.6
45 73.3 54.5 38.3 25.9
46 71. 6 53.3 37.4 25.4
47 70.0 52.0 36.5 24.8
48 68.4 50.9 35.7 24.2
49 66.9 49.8 34.9 23.7
50 65.5 48.7 34.1 23.2

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W10X 26 W10X 22 W10X 19 W10X 17
7.6 6.5 5.6 5.0
6.6 8.0 5.1 6.1
33.0 36.1 34.5 35.9
68.0 66.6 43.8 42.3
84.6 70.3 58.4 50.5
222.7 203.6 143.8 134.3
54.5 45.3 36.7 31. 6
119.3 100.5 72.4 63.5
148.5 171.2 107.5 116.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


84.5 70.2 58.3 50.5
84.5 70.2 58.3 50.5
84.5 70.2 58.3 50.5
84.5 70.2 57.4 49.3
84.5 70.2 54.8 46.8
83.7 69.2 52.2 44.4
81.4 67.0 49.6 41.9
79.1 64.8 47.0 39.4
76.7 62.6 44.4 37.0
74.4 60.5 41.8 34.5
72.0 58.3 39.2 32.1
69.7 56.1 36.6 28.6
67.4 53.9 32.8 25.6
65.0 51. 7 29.8 23.2
62.7 49.5 27.3 21.2
60.4 47.3 25.2 19.5
58.0 45.1 23.4 18.1
55.7 41. 6 21.8 16.8
52.7 38.7 20.5 15.8
49.4 36.1 19.3 14.8
46.4 33.8 18.2 14.0
43.8 31.8 17.3 13.3
41.5 30.0 16.4 12.6
39.4 28.5 15.6 12.0
37.5 27.0 14.9 11. 5
35.8 25.8 14.3 11. 0
34.2 24.6 13.7 10.5
32.8 23.5 13.2 10.1
31.5 22.6 12.7 9.7
30.3 21. 7 12.2 9.3
29.2 20.9 11.8 9.0
28.1 20.1 11.4 8.7
27.2 19.4 11.0 8.4
26.3 18.7 10.7 8.2
25.4 18.1 10.4 7.9
24.7 17.5 10.1 7.7
23.9 17.0 9.8 7.5
23.2 16.5 9.5 7.3
22.6 16.0 9.3 7.0
22.0 15.6 9.0 6.9
21.4 15.2 8.8 6.7
20.8 14.8 8.6 6.5
20.3 14.4 8.3 6.4
19.8 14.0 8.2 6.2
19.4 13.7 8.0 6.1
18.9 13 .4 7.8 5.9
18.5 13.1 7.6 5.8
18.1 12.8 7.4 5.7
17.7 12.5 7.3 5.5
17.3 12.2 7.1 5.4
SZ W10X 15 W10X 12 W 8X 67 W 8X 58
A 4.4 3.5 19.7 17.1
B/2T 7.4 9.4 4.4 5.1
H/TW 37.5 45.4 10.7 12.0
LP 40.5 39.3 106.0 105.1
o MP 43.2 34.1 189.6 161.5
LR 124.1 114.2 767.9 671.3
OMR 27.0 21.3 117.8 101. 4
L1 52.9 41. 3 474.3 417.4
L2 132.2 161. 3 85.3 95.1
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 43.2 34.0 190.0 161. 0
2 43.2 34.0 190.0 161. 0
3 43.2 34.0 190.0 161. 0
4 41. 7 32.5 190.0 161. 0
5 39.4 30.5 190.0 161. 0
6 37.1 28.4 190.0 161. 0
7 34.7 26.4 190.0 161. 0
8 32.4 24.4 190.0 161. 0
9 30.0 22.3 189.0 161. 0
10 27.7 19.6 188.0 160.0
11 24.5 16.8 187.0 159.0
12 21. 5 14.6 185.0 157.0
13 19.2 12.9 184.0 156.0
14 17.3 11. 6 183.0 155.0
15 15.7 10.5 182.0 154.0
16 14.4 9.5 180.0 152.0
17 13 .3 8.8 179.0 151. 0
18 12.4 8.1 178.0 150.0
19 11.6 7.5 176.0 148.0
20 10.9 7.0 175.0 147.0
21 10.2 6.6 174.0 146.0
22 9.7 6.2 172.0 145.0
23 9.2 5.9 171. 0 143.0
24 8.7 5.6 170.0 142.0
25 8.3 5.3 169.0 141. 0
26 7.9 5.1 167.0 140.0
27 7.6 4.8 166.0 138.0
28 7.3 4.6 165.0 137.0
29 7.0 4.4 163.0 136.0
30 6.8 4.3 162.0 134.0
31 6.5 4.1 161. 0 133.0
32 6.3 4.0 159.0 132.0
33 6.1 3.8 158.0 131. 0
34 5.9 3.7 157.0 129.0
35 5.7 3.6 155.0 128.0
36 5.5 3.5 154.0 127.0
37 5.4 3.4 153.0 126.0
38 5.2 3.3 152.0 124.0
39 5.1 3.2 150.0 123.0
40 4.9 3.1 149.0 122.0
41 4.8 3.0 148.0 120.0
42 4.7 2.9 146.0 119.0
43 4.6 2.8 145.0 118.0
44 4.5 2.8 144.0 117.0
45 4.3 2.7 142.0 115.0
46 4.3 2.6 141. 0 114.0
47 4.2 2.6 140.0 113.0
48 4.1 2.5 139.0 112.0
49 4.0 2.5 137.0 110.0
50 3.9 2.4 136.0 109.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W 8X 48 W 8X 40 W 8X 35 W 8X 31
14.1 11. 7 10.3 9.1
5.9 7.2 8.1 9.2
15.3 17.0 19.7 21. 5
104.0 102.1 101. 5 101.1
132.4 107.5 93.7 82.1
560.5 469.7 421. 5 384.2
84.5 69.3 60.9 53.7
351. 0 291. 9 259.2 232.1
110 .2 128.8 143.4 158.4
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.7 82.1
132.0 107.0 93.0 81.4
131. 0 106.0 91. 8 80.2
129.0 104.0 90.6 79.0
128.0 103.0 89.3 77.8
127.0 102.0 88.1 76.6
126.0 101. 0 86.9 75.3
124.0 99.3 85.6 74.1
123.0 98.1 84.4 72.9
122.0 96.9 83.2 71. 7
121. 0 95.6 81. 9 70.5
119.0 94.4 80.7 69.3
118.0 93.1 79.5 68.1
117.0 91. 9 78.2 66.9
116.0 90.6 77 .0 65.7
114.0 89.4 75.8 64.5
113.0 88.1 74.5 63.3
112.0 86.9 73.3 62.1
1l0.0 85.6 72.1 60.9
109.0 84.4 70.8 59.7
108.0 83.1 69.6 58.5
107.0 81. 9 68.4 57.3
105.0 80.6 67.1 56.1
104.0 79.4 65.9 54.8
103.0 78.1 64.7 53.6
102.0 76.9 63.5 51. 8
100.0 75.6 62.2 50.1
99.2 74.4 61. 0 48.5
97.9 73.1 59.2 47.0
96.6 71.9 57.5 45.5
95.4 70.6 55.8 44.2
94.1 69.4 54.3 43.0
92.9 67.6 52.8 41. 8
91. 6 65.9 51. 4 40.7
90.4 64.2 50.1 39.6
89.1 62.6 48.8 38.6
87.8 61.1 47.6 37.7
86.6 59.7 46.5 36.8
85.3 58.3 45.4 35.9
83.9 57.0 44.4 35.1
82.1 55.8 43.4 34.3
80.3 54.6 42.5 33.5
78.7 53.5 41. 6 32.8
SZ W 8X 28 W 8X 24 W 8X 21 W 8X 18
A 8.3 7.1 6.2 5.3
B/2T 7.0 8.1 6.6 8.0
H/TW 21.7 25.2 26.6 28.9
LP 81.1 80.6 63.0 61.5
o MP 73.5 62.7 55.1 45.9
LR 327.0 292.0 223.8 201. 0
o MR 47.4 40.8 35.5 29.7
Ll 197.8 171. 9 127.6 107.7
L2 121. 6 137.6 117.8 135.5
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 73.4 62.6 55.1 45.9
73.4 62.6 55.1 45.9
73.4 62.6 55.1 45.9
4 73.4 62.6 55.1 45.9
5 73.4 62.6 55.1 45.9
6 73.4 62.6 54.0 44.7
7 73.1 62.3 52.5 43.3
8 71.9 61. 0 51.1 41. 9
9 70.6 59.8 49.6 40.5
10 69.3 58.6 48.1 39.1
11 68.0 57.3 46.7 37.7
12 66.8 56.1 45.2 36.3
13. 65.5 54.8 43.7 34.9
14 64.2 53.6 42.3 33.5
15 63.0 52.3 40.8 32.1
16 61. 7 51.1 39.4 30.7
17 60.4 49.9 37.9 29.1
18 59.1 48.6 36.4 27.0
19 57.9 47.4 34.7 25.2
20 56.6 46.1 32.6 23.6
21 55.3 44.9 30.8 22.3
22 54.1 43.6 29.1 21. 0
23 52.8 42.4 27.7 19.9
24 51.5 41.2 26.4 19.0
25 50.2 39.5 25.2 18.1
26 49.0 37.7 24.1 17.3
27 47.7 36.1 23.1 16.5
28 46.0 34.6 22.2 15.8
29 44.2 33.3 21.3 15.2
30 42.6 32.0 20.5 14.7
31 41.1 30.8 19.8 14.1
32 39.7 29.8 19.1 13.6
33 38.4 28.8 18.5 13 .2
34 37.1 27.8 17.9 12.8
35 36.0 27.0 17.4 12.4
36 34.9 26.1 16.9 12.0
37 33.9 25.4 16.4 11. 6
38 33.0 24.7 15.9 11. 3
39 32.1 24.0 15.5 11. 0
40 31.2 23.3 15.1 10.7
41 30.4 22.7 14.7 10.4
42 29.6 22.1 14.3 10.1
43 28.9 21. 6 14.0 9.9
44 28.2 21.1 13.6 9.7
45 27.6 20.6 13 .3 9.4
46 26.9 20.1 13.0 9.2
47 26.3 19.6 12.7 9.0
48 25.8 19.2 12.5 8.8
49 25.2 18.8 12.2 8.6
50 24.7 18.4 11. 9 8.4

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W 8X 15 W 8X 13 W 8X 10 W 6X 25
4.4 3.8 3.0 7.3
6.4 7.8 9.6 6.7
27.0 28.8 39.1 14.9
43.8 42.2 42.1 76.0
36.8 30.8 24.0 51.1
151. 5 138.1 122.7 374.9
23.1 19.4 15.3 32.6
79.9 68.4 51.4 232.5
97.3 107.7 140.6 91. 3
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


36.7 30.8 23.9 51. 0
36.7 30.8 23.9 51. 0
36.7 30.8 23.9 51. 0
36.2 30.1 23.3 51. 0
34.7 28.6 22.0 51. 0
33.1 27.2 20.7 51. 0
31.6 25.8 19.4 50.5
30.1 24.3 18.1 49.8
28.5 22.9 16.8 49.1
27.0 21. 5 15.5 48.3
25.5 20.1 13.6 47.6
24.0 18.2 11.9 46.8
22.2 16.4 10.6 46.1
20.2 14.9 9.5 45.3
18.5 13.6 8.7 44.6
17.1 12.6 7.9 43.9
15.9 11. 7 7.3 43.1
14.9 10.9 6.8 42.4
14.0 10.2 6.3 41. 6
13 .2 9.6 5.9 40.9
12.5 9.1 5.6 40.2
11.8 8.6 5.3 39.4
11. 3 8.2 5.0 38.7
10.7 7.8 4.8 37.9
10.3 7.4 4.5 37.2
9.8 7.1 4.3 36.4
9.4 6.8 4.1 35.7
9.1 6.6 4.0 35.0
8.8 6.3 3.8 34.2
8.4 6.1 3.7 33.5
8.1 5.9 3.5 32.7
7.9 5.7 3.4 31. 7
7.6 5.5 3.3 30.7
7.4 5.3 3.2 29.8
7.2 5.2 3.1 28.9
7.0 5.0 3.0 28.1
6.8 4.9 2.9 27.3
6.6 4.7 2.8 26.5
6.4 4.6 2.7 25.8
6.2 4.5 2.7 25.2
6.1 4.4 2.6 24.5
5.9 4.3 2.5 23.9
5.8 4.2 2.5 23.3
5.7 4.1 2.4 22.8
5.5 4.0 2.3 22.3
5.4 3.9 2.3 21. 8
5.3 3.8 2.3 21.3
5.2 3.7 2.2 20.8
5.1 3.6 2.1 20.4
4.9 3.6 2.1 20.0
SZ W 6X 20 W 6X 15 W 6X 16 W 6X 12
A 5.9 4.4 4.7 3.5
B/2T 8.2 11.5 5.0 7.1
H/TW 18.1 20.6 18.4 20.8
LP 75.1 73.1 48.4 45.9
o MP 40.3 29.2 31. 6 22.5
LR 307.3 249.6 220.1 172.0
o MR 26.2 19.0 19.9 14.3
L1 188.0 141. 6 132.7 98.4
L2 109.7 139.9 66.7 83.8
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 40.2 29.2 31. 6 22.4
2 40.2 29.2 31. 6 22.4
3 40.2 29.2 31. 6 22.4
4 40.2 29.2 31. 6 22.3
5 40.2 29.2 30.8 21.5
6 40.2 29.2 30.0 20.7
7 39.7 28.5 29.2 19.9
8 39.0 27.8 28.3 19.2
38.2 27.1 27.5 18.4
10 37.5 26.4 26.7 17.6
11 36.8 25.7 25.9 16.8
12 36.0 25.1 25.1 16.1
13 35.3 24.4 24.3 15.3
14 34.6 23.7 23.4 14.5
15 33.9 23.0 22.6 13 .5
16 33.1 22.3 21.8 12.5
17 32.4 21. 6 21. 0 11. 7
18 31. 7 20.9 20.2 10.9
19 30.9 20.2 19.1 10.3
20 30.2 19.5 18.1 9.7
21 29.5 18.7 17.2 9.2
22 28.8 17.7 16.4 8.8
23 28.0 16.8 15.6 8.3
24 27.3 15.9 14.9 8.0
25 26.6 15.2 14.3 7.6
26 25.7 14.5 13.7 7.3
27 24.6 13.9 13 .2 7.0
28 23.7 13 .3 12.7 6.8
29 22.8 12.8 12.3 6.5
30 22.0 12.3 11. 8 6.3
31 21.2 11. 9 11.4 6.1
32 20.5 11.4 11.1 5.9
33 19.8 11.1 10.7 5.7
34 19.2 10.7 10.4 5.5
35 18.6 10.4 10.1 5.3
36 18.1 10.0 9.8 5.2
37 17.5 9.7 9.5 5.0
38 17.1 9.5 9.3 4.9
39 16.6 9.2 9.0 4.8
40 16.2 8.9 8.8 4.7
41 15.7 8.7 8.6 4.5
42 15.4 8.5 8.4 4.4
43 15.0 8.3 8.2 4.3
44 14.6 8.1 8.0 4.2
45 14.3 7.9 7.8 4.1
46 14.0 7.7 7.6 4.0
47 13.7 7.5 7.5 3.9
48 13.4 7.4 7.3 3.9
49 13 .1 7.2 7.2 3.8
50 12.8 7.1 7.0 3.7

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


W 6X 9 W 5X 19 W 5X 16 W 4X 13
2.7 5.5 4.7 3.8
9.2 5.8 6.9 5.9
28.1 13.1 14.6 9.9
45.3 64.0 63.5 50.0
16.9 31. 4 25.9 17.0
144.2 363.8 314.8 306.2
10.9 19.9 16.6 10.7
74.9 227.5 196.4 189.9
106.4 64.8 73.9 48.9
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


16.8 31.3 25.9 17.0
16.8 31.3 25.9 17.0
16.8 31.3 25.9 17.0
16.7 31.3 25.9 17.0
15.9 31.3 25.9 16.7
15.2 31. 0 25.6 16.4
14.5 30.6 25.1 16.1
13.8 30.1 24.7 15.8
13.0 29.6 24.2 15.5
12.3 29.2 23.8 15.2
11. 6 28.7 23.4 14.9
10.9 28.3 22.9 14.6
9.8 27.8 22.5 14.3
8.9 27.4 22.0 14.0
8.1 26.9 21. 6 13.8
7.5 26.4 21.1 13.5
7.0 26.0 20.7 13.2
6.5 25.5 20.2 12.9
6.1 25.1 19.8 12.6
5.7 24.6 19.4 12.3
5.4 24.2 18.9 12.0
5.1 23.7 18.5 11. 7
4.9 23.2 18.0 11.4
4.7 22.8 17.6 11.1
4.4 22.3 17.1 10.8
4.3 21. 9 16.7 10.4
4.1 21.4 16.1 10.0
3.9 20.9 15.5 9.7
3.8 20.5 14.9 9.3
3.6 20.0 14.4 9.0
3.5 19.4 13.9 8.7
3.4 18.8 13.5 8.4
3.3 18.2 13.1 8.2
3.2 17.7 12.7 7.9
3.1 17.2 12.3 7.7
3.0 16.7 11.9 7.5
2.9 16.2 11. 6 7.3
2.8 15.8 11.3 7.1
2.8 15.4 11. 0 6.9
2.7 15.0 10.7 6.7
2.6 14.6 10.5 6.6
2.5 14.2 10.2 6.4
2.5 13.9 10.0 6.3
2.4 13.6 9.7 6.1
2.4 13.3 9.5 6.0
2.3 13 .0 9.3 5.8
2.3 12.7 9.1 5.7
2.2 12.4 8.9 5.6
2.2 12.2 8.7 5.5
2.1 11. 9 8.5 5.4
SZ M12X 11 10 M10X 9 M10X 8
A 3.5 3.2 2.7 2.4
B/2T 6.8 7.4 6.5 7.3
H/TW 61. 6 67.1 56.4 63.4
LP 28.0 28.0 25.1 25.1
o MP 38.7 35.4 24.9 22.2
LR 82.1 81.1 73.7 71.8
OMR 23.6 21. 7 15.3 13.7
L1 25.7 24.0 24.3 21.1
L2 137.9 147.0 115.7 132.8
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 38.6 35.4 24.9 22.1
2 38.6 35.4 24.9 22.1
36.4 33.3 22.7 20.2
4 33.0 30.2 20.3 18.0
5 29.7 27.1 18.0 15.8
6 26.4 24.0 15.6 13.6
7 22.7 20.3 12.2 10.4
8 18.1 16.1 9.8 8.3
9 14.9 13 .3 8.2 6.8
10 12.6 11.2 7.0 5.8
11 10.8 9.6 6.1 5.0
12 9.5 8.4 5.4 4.4
13 8.5 7.5 4.8 3.9
14 7.6 6.7 4.4 3.5
15 6.9 6.1 4.0 3.2
16 6.3 5.6 3.7 3.0
17 5.9 5.1 3.4 2.7
18 5.4 4.8 3.2 2.5
19 5.1 4.4 3.0 2.4
20 4.8 4.1 2.8 2.2
21 4.5 3.9 2.6 2.1
22 4.2 3.7 2.5 2.0
23 4.0 3.5 2.4 1.9
24 3.8 3.3 2.3 1.8
25 3.6 3.1 2.2 1.7
26 3.5 3.0 2.1 1.6
27 3.3 2.9 2.0 1.5
28 3.2 2.8 1.9 1.5
29 3.1 2.6 1.8 1.4
30 3.0 2.5 1.8 1.4
31 2.8 2.5 1.7 1.3
32 2.7 2.4 1.6 1.3
33 2.6 2.3 1.6 1.2
34 2.6 2.2 1.5 1.2
35 2.5 2.1 1.5 1.2
36 2.4 2.1 1.4 1.1
37 2.3 2.0 1.4 1.1
38 2.3 1.9 1.4 1.1
39 2.2 1.9 1.3 1.0
40 2.1 1.8 1.3 1.0
41 2.1 1.8 1.3 1.0
42 2.0 1.8 1.2 1.0
43 2.0 1.7 1.2 .9
44 1.9 1.7 1.2 .9
45 1.9 1.6 1.1 .9
46 1.8 1.6 1.1 .9
47 1.8 1.5 1.1 .8
48 1.8 1.5 1.1 .8
49 1.7 1.5 1.0 .8
50 1.7 1.4 1.0 .8

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


M 8X M 5X 18
1.9 5.6
6.1 6.0
51. 5 10.3
22.0 59.6
14.6 29.7
65.7 373.8
9.1 18.8
25.1 233.8
83.5 55.8
36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


14.6 29.7
14.3 29.7
12.8 29.7
11. 3 29.7
9.7 29.7
7.8 29.3
6.1 28.8
5.0 28.4
4.3 28.0
3.7 27.6
3.3 27.2
2.9 26.8
2.7 26.3
2.4 25.9
2.2 25.5
2.1 25.1
1.9 24.7
1.8 24.3
1.7 23.8
1.6 23.4
1.5 23.0
1.4 22.6
1.4 22.2
1.3 21. 8
1.3 21. 3
1.2 20.9
1.2 20.5
1.1 20.1
1.1 19.7
1.0 19.3
1.0 18.8
1.0 18.3
.9 17.7
.9 17.2
.9 16.7
.9 16.2
.8 15.8
.8 15.3
.8 14.9
.8 14.6
.8 14.2
.7 13.9
.7 13.5
.7 13 .2
.7 12.9
.7 12.6
.7 12.4
.6 12.1
.6 11.9
.6 11. 6
SZ S24X121 S24X106 S24X100 S24X 90
A 35.6 31.2 29.3 26.5
B/2T 3.7 3.6 4.2 4.1
H/TW 25.6 33.1 27.5 32.8
LP 76.6 78.6 63.5 65.0
o MP 826.2 753.3 648.0 599.4
LR 307.2 290.4 242.2 232.3
o MR 503.1 468.0 388.1 364.7
L1 167.9 157.2 124.1 116.6
L2 150.9 163.8 146.7 159.4
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 826.0 753.0 648.0 599.0
2 826.0 753.0 648.0 599.0
3 826.0 753.0 648.0 599.0
4 826.0 753.0 648.0 599.0
5 826.0 753.0 648.0 599.0
6 826.0 753.0 636.0 590.0
7 816.0 746.0 618.0 573.0
8 799.0 730.0 601. 0 556.0
782.0 714.0 583.0 539.0
10 765.0 697.0 566.0 522.0
11 748.0 681. 0 548.0 505.0
12 732.0 665.0 531. 0 489.0
13 715.0 649.0 513.0 472.0
14 698.0 633.0 496.0 455.0
15 681. 0 617.0 478.0 438.0
16 664.0 600.0 461. 0 421. 0
17 648.0 584.0 444.0 404.0
18 631.0 568.0 426.0 387.0
19 614.0 552.0 409.0 371. 0
20 597.0 536.0 391. 0 349.0
21 580.0 520.0 369.0 328.0
22 564.0 503.0 348.0 309.0
23 547.0 487.0 330.0 292.0
24 530.0 471. 0 313.0 277.0
25 513.0 449.0 298.0 264.0
26 494.0 428.0 285.0 251. 0
27 472.0 409.0 272.0 240.0
28 452.0 392.0 261. 0 230.0
29 434.0 376.0 251. 0 221. 0
30 418.0 361. 0 241. 0 212.0
31 402.0 348.0 232.0 204.0
32 388.0 335.0 224.0 197.0
33 375.0 323.0 216.0 190.0
34 362.0 313.0 209.0 184.0
35 351. 0 302.0 203.0 178.0
36 340.0 293.0 196.0 172.0
37 330.0 284.0 191. 0 167.0
38 320.0 276.0 185.0 162.0
39 311. 0 268.0 180.0 158.0
40 303.0 261. 0 175.0 153.0
41 295.0 254.0 170.0 149.0
42 287.0 247.0 166.0 145.0
43 280.0 241. 0 162.0 142.0
44 273.0 235.0 158.0 138.0
45 267.0 229.0 154.0 135.0
46· 260.0 224.0 151. 0 132.0
47 255.0 219.0 147.0 129.0
48 249.0 214.0 144.0 126.0
49 244.0 209.0 141. 0 123.0
50 238.0 204.0 138.0 120.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


S24X 80 S20X 96 S20X 86 S20X 75
23.5 28.2 25.3 22.0
4.0 3.9 3.8 4.0
41. 0 21. 0 25.5 26.4
67.1 66.6 68.0 58.0
550.8 534.6 494.1 413 .1
224.8 291. 9 274.1 226.1
341.3 321. 8 302.3 249.7
110.7 162.5 151.5 119.9
171. 9 119.8 130.0 123.8
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


551. 0 535.0 494.0 413.0
551. 0 535.0 494.0 413.0
551. 0 535.0 494.0 413.0
551. 0 535.0 494.0 413.0
551. 0 535.0 494.0 411. 0
544.0 529.0 490.0 399.0
528.0 518.0 479.0 388.0
512.0 507.0 468.0 376.0
496.0 495.0 457.0 364.0
480.0 484.0 446.0 353.0
464.0 473.0 435.0 341. 0
449.0 461. 0 423.0 329.0
433.0 450.0 412.0 318.0
417.0 439.0 401. 0 306.0
401. 0 427.0 390.0 294.0
385.0 416.0 379.0 283.0
369.0 405.0 367.0 271. 0
353.0 393.0 356.0 259.0
335.0 382.0 345.0 247.0
312.0 371. 0 334.0 232.0
293.0 359.0 323.0 219.0
275.0 348.0 312.0 207.0
260.0 337.0 300.0 197.0
246.0 325.0 285.0 187.0
234.0 312.0 272.0 178.0
223.0 298.0 260.0 171.0
213.0 286.0 249.0 164.0
204.0 274.0 239.0 157.0
195.0 264.0 230.0 151. 0
188.0 254.0 221. 0 145.0
180.0 245.0 213.0 140.0
174.0 237.0 206.0 135.0
168.0 229.0 199.0 131. 0
162.0 222.0 193.0 127.0
157.0 215.0 187.0 123.0
152.0 209.0 181. 0 119.0
147.0 203.0 176.0 116.0
143.0 197.0 171.0 112.0
139.0 192.0 166.0 109.0
135.0 187.0 162.0 106.0
131. 0 182.0 157.0 104.0
128.0 177.0 153.0 101. 0
124.0 173.0 150.0 98.6
121. 0 169.0 146.0 96.3
118.0 165.0 143.0 94.0
116.0 161. 0 139.0 91. 9
113.0 157.0 136.0 89.9
110.0 154.0 133.0 87.9
108.0 151. 0 130.0 86.0
106.0 148.0 128.0 84.2
SZ S20X 66 S18X 70 S18X 54 S15X 50
A 19.4 20.6 16.1 14.7
B/2T 3.9 4.5 4.3 4.5
H/TW 33.2 21.1 32.5 22.3
LP 59.6 54.0 57.0 51. 5
o MP 378.0 337.5 283.5 208.2
LR 214.5 231.9 203.5 213 .1
o MR 232.1 200.9 174.4 126.4
L1 111. 5 125.7 105.5 117.3
L2 135.0 105.3 129.7 98.9
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 378.0 338.0 284.0 208.0
2 378.0 338.0 284.0 208.0
3 378.0 338.0 284.0 208.0
4 378.0 338.0 284.0 208.0
5 378.0 333.0 281. 0 204.0
6 366.0 324.0 272.0 198.0
7 355.0 314.0 263.0 192.0
8 344.0 305.0 254.0 186.0
9 332.0 296.0 245.0 180.0
10 321. 0 287.0 237.0 173.0
11 310.0 278.0 228.0 167.0
12 298.0 268.0 219.0 161. 0
13 287.0 259.0 210.0 155.0
14 276.0 250.0 201. 0 149.0
15 264.0 241. 0 192.0 143.0
16 253.0 231. 0 183.0 137.0
17 242.0 222.0 174.0 131. 0
18 230.0 213.0 161. 0 124.0
19 215.0 204.0 151. 0 117.0
20 201.0 193.0 142.0 110.0
21 190.0 182.0 133.0 104.0
22 179.0 173.0 126.0 98.8
23 170.0 164.0 120.0 94.0
24 161. 0 157.0 114.0 89.6
25 154.0 150.0 109.0 85.7
26 147.0 143.0 104.0 82.1
27 141. 0 138.0 99.4 78.8
28 135.0 132.0 95.4 75.7
29 130.0 127.0 91. 7 72.9
30 125.0 123.0 88.3 70.3
31 120.0 118.0 85.1 67.9
32 116.0 115.0 82.2 65.7
33 112.0 111. 0 79.5 63.6
34 109.0 107.0 76.9 61. 6
35 105.0 104.0 74.5 59.7
36 102.0 101. 0 72.3 58.0
37 99.1 98.2 70.2 56.3
38 96.3 95.4 68.2 54.8
39 93.6 92.9 66.3 53.3
40 91.1 90.4 64.5 51. 9
41 88.8 88.1 62.9 50.6
42 86.5 85.9 61. 3 49.4
43 84.4 83.9 59.8 48.2
44 82.3 81. 9 58.3 47.0
45 80.4 80.0 57.0 46.0
46 78.5 78.2 55.6 44.9
47 76.8 76.5 54.4 44.0
48 75.1 74.8 53.2 43.0
49 73.5 73.3 52.1 42.1
50 71. 9 71. 8 51. 0 41.2

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


S15X 42 S12X 50 S12X 40 S12X 35
12.6 14.7 12.0 10.3
4.4 4.2 4.0 4.7
29.8 13.3 19.8 22.5
53.6 51. 5 53.0 49.1
187.2 165.3 143.4 121. 0
197.6 291. 9 245.1 203.0
116.3 99.1 88.6 74.5
107.0 170.5 143.9 114.8
111.2 67.7 79.9 87.6
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


187.0 165.0 143.0 121.0
187.0 165.0 143.0 121. 0
187.0 165.0 143.0 121. 0
187.0 165.0 143.0 121. 0
184.0 163.0 141. 0 118.0
178.0 160.0 138.0 114.0
172.0 156.0 135.0 110.0
166.0 153.0 131. 0 107.0
160.0 150.0 128.0 103.0
154.0 146.0 124.0 99.5
148.0 143.0 121. 0 95.9
143.0 140.0 117.0 92.3
137.0 136.0 114.0 88.7
131. 0 133.0 111. 0 85.0
125.0 130.0 107.0 81.4
119.0 127.0 104.0 77.8
112.0 123.0 100.0 74.0
104.0 120.0 96.8 69.3
97.7 117.0 93.4 65.2
91. 9 113.0 90.0 61. 6
86.8 110.0 85.9 58.3
82.3 107.0 81. 6 55.4
78.2 103.0 77.8 52.8
74.5 100.0 74.3 50.4
71.1 96.2 71.2 48.2
68.1 92 .4 68.2 46.2
65.3 88.8 65.6 44.4
62.7 85.5 63.1 42.7
60.4 82.4 60.8 41.1
58.2 79.6 58.7 39.7
56.2 76.9 56.7 38.3
54.3 74.5 54.9 37.1
52.5 72 .1 53.1 35.9
50.8 70.0 51. 5 34.8
49.3 67.9 50.0 33.8
47.8 66.0 48.6 32.8
46.5 64.2 47.2 31. 9
45.2 62.4 45.9 31. 0
44.0 60.8 44.7 30.2
42.8 59.2 43.6 29.4
41. 7 57.8 42.5 28.7
40.7 56.4 41. 4 28.0
39.7 55.0 40.5 27.3
38.7 53.8 39.5 26.6
37.8 52.6 38.6 26.0
37.0 51.4 37.8 25.5
36.2 50.3 36.9 24.9
35.4 49.2 36.2 24.4
34.6 48.2 35.4 23.9
33.9 47.2 34.7 23.4
SZ S12X 31 S10X 35 S10X 25 S 8X 23
A 9.4 10.3 7.5 6.8
B/2T 4.6 5.0 4.7 4.9
H/TW 27.5 13.0 24.9 13.6
LP 50.0 45.1 47.8 39.9
o MP 113.4 95.6 76.7 52.2
LR 192.9 250.5 192.9 213.5
o MR 71.0 57.4 48.2 31. 6
L1 108.7 146.0 111. 8 125.5
L2 93.4 61.2 80c8 53.6
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 113.0 95.6 76.7 52.1
2 113.0 95.6 76.7 52.1
3 113.0 95.6 76.7 52.1
4 113.0 95.0 76.6 51.2
5 110.0 92.8 74.3 49.7
6 107.0 90.6 71.9 48.3
7 103.0 88.3 69.6 46.9
8 99.7 86.1 67.2 45.5
9 96.2 83.9 64.8 44.1
'10 92.6 81. 6 62.5 42.6
11 89.0 79.4 60.1 41.2
12 85.5 77.2 57.8 39.8
13 81.9 74.9 55.4 38.4
14 78.4 72.7 53.1 37.0
15 74.8 70.4 50.7 35.5
16 71.2 68.2 48.3 34.1
17 66.4 66.0 45.2 32.7
18 62.1 63.7 42.4 31.2
19 58.4 61.5 39.9 29.5
20 55.1 59.3 37.7 27.9
21 52.1 57.0 35.7 26.5
22 49.5 54.2 33.9 25.3
23 47.1 51. 8 32.4 24.1
24 45.0 49.5 30.9 23.1
25 43.0 47.4 29.6 22.1
26 41.2 45.6 28.4 21.3
27 39.6 43.8 27.3 20.5
28 38.1 42.2 26.2 19.7
29 36.6 40.7 25.3 19.0
30 35.3 39.3 24.4 18.4
31 34.1 38.0 23.6 17.8
32 33.0 36.8 22.8 17.2
33 32.0 35.6 22.1 16.7
34 31. 0 34.6 21.4 .16.2
35 30.0 33.6 20.8 15.7
36 29.2 32.6 20.2 15.3
37 28.4 31. 7 19.6 14.8
38 27.6 30.9 19.1 14.4
39 26.8 30.1 18.6 14.1
40 26.1 29.3 18.1 13.7
41 25.5 28.6 17.7 13.4
42 24.9 27.9 17.2 13.0
43 24.3 27.2 16.8 12.7
44 23.7 26.6 16.4 12.4
45 23.1 26.0 16.0 12.2
46 22.6 25.4 15.7 11.9
47 22.1 24.9 15.4 11. 6
48 21. 7 24.3 15.0 11.4
49 21.2 23.8 14.7 11.2
50 20.8 23.4 14.4 10.9

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


S 8X 18 S 6X 17 S 6X 12 S 5X 10
5.4 5.1 3.7 2.9
4.7 5.0 4.6 4.6
22.1 9.1 18.3 15.8
41. 6 33.8 35.3 32.2
44.6 28.7 22.9 15.4
180.7 232.3 170.6 166.4
28.1 17.2 14.4 9.6
107.5 137.2 103.4 101. 5
63.5 35.7 46.7 39.4
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


44.5 28.6 22.9 15.3
44.5 28.6 22.9 15.3
44.5 28.5 22.8 15.1
43.8 27.8 22.1 14.6
42.4 27.1 21. 3 14.1
40.9 26.4 20.6 13.6
39.5 25.7 19.8 13 .1
38.1 25.0 19.1 12.6
36.7 24.3 18.3 12.1
35.3 23.6 17.5 11. 6
33.8 22.9 16.8 11.1
32.4 22.2 16.0 10.5
31.0 21. 5 15.3 10.0
29.6 20.8 14.5 9.5
28.2 20.1 13.6 8.8
26.3 19.4 12.7 8.3
24.6 18.7 11.9 7.8
23.1 18.0 11.2 7.3
21.8 17.3 10.6 6.9
20.6 16.5 10.0 6.6
19.6 15.7 9.5 6.2
18.6 15.0 9.1 5.9
17.8 14.3 8.7 5.7
17.0 13.7 8.3 5.4
16.3 13.2 8.0 5.2
15.7 12.7 7.7 5.0
15.1 12.2 7.4 4.8
14.5 11. 7 7.1 4.7
14.0 11. 3 6.9 4.5
13.5 11.0 6.6 4.3
13.1 10.6 6.4 4.2
12.6 10.3 6.2 4.1
12.2 9.9 6.0 3.9
11. 9 9.7 5.8 3.8
11.5 9.4 5.7 3.7
11.2 9.1 5.5 3.6
10.9 8.9 5.4 3.5
10.6 8.6 5.2 3.4
10.3 8.4 5.1 3.3
10.1 8.2 4.9 3.3
9.8 8.0 4.8 3.2
9.6 7.8 4.7 3.1
9.3 7.6 4.6 3.0
9.1 7.4 4.5 3.0
8.9 7.3 4.4 2.9
8.7 7.1 4.3 2.8
8.5 7.0 4.2 2.8
8.4 6.8 4.1 2.7
8.2 6.7 4.0 2.6
8.0 6.5 3.9 2.6
sz S 4X 9 S 4X 7 S 3X 7 S 3X 5
A 2.8 2.3 2.2 1.7
B/2T 4.8 4.5 4.8 4.5
H/TW 7.7 13.0 4.7 9.6
LP 28.5 29.1 25.8 26.1
o MP 11. 0 9.5 6.4 5.3
LR 213 .1 168.4 257.6 176.4
OMR 6.7 6.0 3.9 3.3
L1 128.2 103.6 153.4 108.9
L2 25.7 31. 0 17.7 23.4
FY 36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


1 10.9 9.5 6.4 5.3
2 10.9 9.5 6.4 5.3
3 10.7 9.3 6.3 5.1
4 10.5 9.0 6.1 5.0
5 10.2 8.7 6.0 4.8
6 9.9 8.4 5.9 4.7
7 9.6 8.1 5.7 4.5
8 9.3 7.8 5.6 4.3
9 9.1 7.5 5.5 4.2
10 8.8 7.2 5.3 4.0
11 8.5 6.8 5.2 3.9
12 8.2 6.5 5.1 3.7
13 7.9 6.2 4.9 3.5
14 7.7 5.9 4.8 3.4
15 7.4 5.5 4.7 3.2
16 7.1 5.2 4.5 3.0
17 6.8 4.9 4.4 2.8
18 6.5 4.6 4.3 2.7
19 6.2 4.3 4.1 2.5
20 5.9 4.1 4.0 2.4
21 5.6 3.9 3.9 2.3
22 5.3 3.7 3.7 2.2
23 5.1 3.6 3.5 2.1
24 4.9 3.4 3.4 2.0
25 4.7 3.3 3.3 1.9
26 4.5 3.2 3.1 1.8
27 4.3 3.0 3.0 1.8
28 4.2 2.9 2.9 1.7
29 4.0 2.8 2.8 1.6
30 3.9 2.7 2.7 1.6
31 3.8 2.6 2.6 1.5
32 3.6 2.6 2.5 1.5
33 3.5 2.5 2.5 1.4
34 3.4 2.4 2.4 1.4
35 3.3 2.3 2.3 1.4
36 3.2 2.3 2.3 1.3
37 3.1 2.2 2.2 1.3
38 3.1 2.2 2.1 1.3
39 3.0 2.1 2.1 1.2
40 2.9 2.0 2.0 1.2
41 2.8 2.0 2.0 1.2
42 2.8 1.9 1.9 1.1
43 2.7 1.9 1.9 1.1
44 2.6 1.9 1.8 1.1
45 2.6 1.8 1.8 1.1
46 2.5 1.8 1.8 1.0
47 2.5 1.7 1.7 1.0
48 2.4 1.7 1.7 1.0
49 2.4 1.7 1.7 1.0
50 2.3 1.6 1.6 1.0

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


HP14X117 HP14X102 HP14X 89 HP14X 73
34.4 30.0 26.1 21.4
9.2 10.5 11. 9 14.4
13.9 16.0 18.2 22.2
179.6 178.1 176.6 174.6
523.8 456.3 394.2 318.6
792.2 708.1 635.8 561.4
335.4 292.5 255.5 208.7
483.5 421. 7 368.6 305.1
251. 9 282.0 317.5 377.4
36.0 36.0 36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN PHI*MN


524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 394.0 319.0
524.0 456.0 393.0 317.0
520.0 452.0 390.0 314.0
516.0 448.0 386.0 310.0
513.0 445.0 382.0 307.0
509.0 441. 0 379.0 303.0
505.0 437.0 375.0 300.0
502.0 433.0 371.0 297.0
498.0 430.0 368.0 293.0
494.0 426.0 364.0 290.0
490.0 422.0 361. 0 286.0
487.0 419.0 357.0 283.0
483.0 415.0 353.0 280.0
479.0 411.0 350.0 276.0
476.0 407.0 346.0 273.0
472.0 404.0 342.0 269.0
468.0 400.0 339.0 266.0
465.0 396.0 335.0 262.0
461. 0 393.0 332.0 259.0
457.0 389.0 328.0 256.0
454.0 385.0 324.0 252.0
450.0 382.0 321. 0 249.0
446.0 378.0 317.0 245.0
442.0 374.0 313.0 242.0
439.0 370.0 310.0 239.0
435.0 367.0 306.0 235.0
431. 0 363.0 303.0 232.0
428.0 359.0 299.0 228.0
424.0 356.0 295.0 225.0
420.0 352.0 292.0 222.0
417.0 348.0 288.0 218.0
413.0 344.0 284.0 215.0
409.0 341. 0 281. 0 211.0
406.0 337.0 277.0 207.0
402.0 333.0 274.0 202.0
398.0 330.0 270.0 196.0
394.0 326.0 266.0 191. 0
SZ HP12X 84
A 24.6
B/2T 9.0 13.8
H/TW 13.9 21. 9
LP 147.1 143.0
o MP 324.0 199.8
LR 647.8 464.9
OMR 206.8 130.3
L1 393.6 253.3
L2 207.8 305.5
FY 36.0 36.0

LB PHI*MN PHI*MN
1 324.0 200.0
2 324.0 200.0
3 324.0 200.0
4 324.0 200.0
5 324.0 200.0
6 324.0 200.0
7 324.0 200.0
8 324.0 200.0
9 324.0 200.0
10 324.0 200.0
11 324.0 200.0
12 324.0 200.0
13 322.0 197.0
14 319.0 194.0
15 316.0 192.0
16 313.0 189.0
17 311. 0 187.0
18 308.0 184.0
19 305.0 181. 0
20 302.0 179.0
21 299.0 176.0
22 297.0 174.0
23 294.0 171. 0
24 291. 0 168.0
25 288.0 166.0
26 285.0 163.0
27 283.0 161. 0
28 280.0 158.0
29 277.0 156.0
30 274.0 153.0
31 271. 0 150.0
32 268.0 148.0
33 266.0 145.0
34 263.0 143.0
35 260.0 140.0
36 257.0 137.0
37 254.0 135.0
38 252.0 132.0
39 249.0 129.0
40 246.0 125.0
41 243.0 121.0
42 240.0 117.0
43 238.0 114.0
44 235.0 111. 0
45 232.0 108.0
46 229.0 105.0
47 226.0 102.0
48 224.0 99.4
49 221. 0 97.0
50 218.0 94.6

Note: See explanation of notation on pages 148 and 149.


HP10X 57 HP 8X 36
16.8 10.6
9.0 9.2
13.5 13.8
122.6 97.6
179.6 90.8
546.8 427.9
114.7 58.2
333.4 260.8
170.5 138.6
36.0 36.0

PHI*MN PHI*MN
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 90.7
180.0 89.7
180.0 88.5
178.0 87.3
176.0 86.1
174.0 84.9
173.0 83.8
171. 0 82.6
169.0 81.4
167.0 80.2
165.0 79.0
163.0 77.8
162.0 76.7
160.0 75.5
158.0 74.3
156.0 73.1
154.0 71.9
152.0 70.7
151. 0 69.5
149.0 68.4
147.0 67.2
145.0 66.0
143.0 64.8
141. 0 63.6
140.0 62.4
138.0 61.3
136.0 60.1
134.0 58.9
132.0 57.5
130.0 55.8
129.0 54.2
127.0 52.7
125.0 51.3
123.0 50.0
121.0 48.7
119.0 47.5
118.0 46.3
116.0 45.2
113.0 44.2
111. 0 43.2
108.0 42.2
106.0 41.3
104.0 40.5
APPENDIXA2
ONE-STORY
RIGID
FRAMES
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 213

===============================================================================
NOD A L I N FOR MAT ION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===============================================================================
Units : Ft Ft K lIn K lIn K -In IDeg
1 0.000 0.000 F
2 30.000 0.000 F
3 60.000 0.000 F
4 90.000 0.000 F
5 0.000 14.250
6 6.000 14.250
7 12.000 14.250
8 18.000 14.250
9 24.000 14.250
10 30.000 14.250
11 36.000 14.250
12 42.000 14.250
13 48.000 14.250
14 54.000 14.250
15 60.000 14.250
16 66.000 14.250
17 72.000 14.250
18 78.000 14.250
19 84.000 14.250
20 90.000 14.250

===============================================================================
ELEMENT I N FOR MAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===============================================================================
units : Ft Deg
1 1 5 14.250 90.00 1 BEAM
2 2 10 14.250 90.00 1 BEAM
3 3 15 14.250 90.00 1 BEAM
4 4 20 14.250 90.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
6 6 7 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
7 7 8 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
8 8 9 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
9 9 10 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
10 10 11 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
11 11 12 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
12 12 13 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
13 13 14 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
14 14 15 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
15 15 16 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
16 16 17 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
17 17 18 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
18 18 19 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM
19 19 20 6.000 0.00 2 BEAM

===============================================================================
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
===============================================================================
units: K lIn 2 In2 In4 Ft
1 W 8 x 24 29000 7.08 82.800003
2 W 16 x 31 29000 9.12 375
214 APPENDIX A2

===============================================================================
NOD A L LOA D I N FOR MAT ION
REC LOAD LOAD PX PY M
NO CASE TYPE DX DY BETA
===============================================================================
Units : K K Ft-K
Ft Ft Deg
Description : DL
Node List 5,20
1 1 FORCE 0.00 -1.98 0.00

Description : DL
Node List 6-19*1
2 1 FORCE 0.00 -3.96 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 5,20
3 2 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 6-19*1
4 2 FORCE 0.00 -5.40 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 5
5 3 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 6-14*1
6 3 FORCE 0.00 -5.40 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 15
7 3 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : WL
Node List 5
8 4 FORCE 4.50 0.00 0.00
Description : LL
Node List 5,20
9 5 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 10,15
10 5 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 6,7,8,9,16,17,18,19
11 5 FORCE 0.00 -5.40 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 6,10
12 6 FORCE 0.00 -2.70 0.00

Description : LL
Node List 7,8,9,10
13 6 FORCE 0.00 -5.40 0.00
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 215

===============================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB ox Oy ROTATION
==============================================================================~

units In In Deg
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2
COMB 2 1.20 X CASE 1
+ 1.60 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2
+ 1.00 X CASE 4

COMB 4 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2
+ 0.80 X CASE 4
COMB 5 0.90 X CASE 1
+ 1.30 X CASE 4
COMB 6 1.20 X CASE 1
+ 0.50 X CASE 2
+ 1.30 X CASE 4

COMB 7 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 3

COMB 8: 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 5
COMB 9 1.00 X CASE 1
+ 1.00 X CASE 5

COMB 10 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 6

5 1 0.0077 -0.0169 -0.4823


2 0.0110 -0.0242 -0.6901
3 0.2418 -0.0166 -0.5155
4 0.1983 -0.0239 -0.7166
5 0.3073 -0.0060 -0.2268
6 0.3105 -0.0130 -0.4271
7 0.1027 -0.0237 -0.6772
8 0.0110 -0.0257 -0.7996
9 0.0077 -0.0179 -0.5508
10 0.0510 -0.0135 -0.4962

6 1 0.0066 -0.6456 -0.4472


2 0.0094 -0.9237 -0.6399
3 0.2397 -0.6694 -0.4544
4 0.1959 -0.9427 -0.6456
5 0.3056 -0.2768 -0.1796
6 0.3083 -0.5450 -0.3654
7 0.1012 -0.8965 -0.6132
8 0.0091 -1. 0776 -0.7643
9 0.0064 -0.7418 -0.5250
10 0.0499 -0.6653 -0.4761
216 APPENDIX A2

====----=======================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
==-====--=======================================================================
7 1 0.0054 -1.0159 -0.1138
2 0.0078 -1.4536 -0.1629
3 0.2377 -1.0382 -0.1060
4 0.1936 -1.4714 -0.1566
5 0.3040 -0.4158 -0.0331
6 0.3062 -0.8378 -0.0804
7 0.0998 -1. 3928 -0.1388
8 0.0073 -1. 7463 -0.2508
9 0.0051 -1.1989 -0.1688
10 0.0489 -1.0850 -0.1571

8 1 0.0043 -0.9138 0.2622


2 0.0062 -1.3075 0.3751
3 0.2356 -0.9225 0.2742
4 0.1912 -1.3144 0.3847
5 0.3023 -0.3592 0.1154
6 0.3041 -0.7388 0.2243
7 0.0984 -1. 2267 0.3801
8 0.0054 -1.6607 0.3753
9 0.0038 -1.1346 0.2623
10 0.0478 -1.0264 0.2423

9 1 0.0032 -0.4463 0.4252


2 0.0046 -0.6385 0.6083
3 0.2336 -0.4430 0.4304
4 0.1889 -0.6359 0.6125
5 0.3007 -0.1656 0.1687
6 0.3020 -0.3510 0.3453
7 0.0970 -0.5719 0.5779
8 0.0035 -0.9092 0.7481
9 0.0026 -0.6155 0.5125
10 0.0467 -0.5494 0.4664

10 1 0.0021 -0.0416 0.1195


2 0.0030 -0.0595 0.1710
3 0.2315 -0.0417 0.1070
4 0.1865 -0.0596 0.1610
5 0.2991 -0.0160 0.0292
6 0.2999 -0.0333 0.0789
7 0.0955 -0.0620 0.0888
8 0.0017 -0.0399 0.5018
9 0.0013 -0.0293 0.3263
10 0.0456 -0.0348 0.2594

11 1 0.0013 -0.1356 -0.1839


2 0.0018 -0.1940 -0.2632
3 0.2301 -0.1433 -0.1844
4 0.1849 -0.2002 -0.2635
5 0.2980 -0.0616 -0.0706
6 0.2985 -0.1179 -0.1470
7 0.0945 -0.3323 -0.3864
8 0.0010 0.3558 0.1713
9 0.0008 0.2080 0.0876
10 0.0452 0.1047 0.0049
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 217

===============================================================================:
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
===============================================================================
12 1 0.0004 -0.3433 -0.1039
2 0.0006 -0.4911 -0.1487
3 0.2286 -0.3471 -0.0984
4 0.1832 -0.4942 -0.1442
5 0.2969 -0.1357 -0.0323
6 0.2970 -0.2782 -0.0755
7 0.0934 -0.7761 -0.2482
8 0.0003 0.4721 0.0355
9 0.0003 0.2588 0.0112
10 0.0448 0.0612 -0.0498

13 1 -0.0004 -0.3433 0.1039


2 -0.0006 -0.4911 0.1487
3 0.2272 -0.3394 0.1095
4 0.1815 -0.4881 0.1531
5 0.2958 -0.1257 0.0468
6 0.2956 -0.2683 0.0900
7 0.0923 -0.8525 0.1374
8 -0.0003 0.4721 -0.0355
9 -0.0003 0.2588 -0.0112
10 0.0444 0.0178 -0.0130

14 1 -0.0013 -0.1356 0.1839


2 -0.0018 -0.1940 0.2632
3 0.2258 -0.1280 0.1835
4 0.1798 -0.1879 0.2628
5 0.2946 -0.0417 0.0694
6 0.2941 -0.0980 0.1459
7 0.0913 -0.4804 0.4047
8 -0.0010 0.3558 -0.1713
9 -0.0008 0.2080 -0.0876
10 0.0440 0.0216 0.0073

15 1 -0.0021 -0.0416 -0.1195


2 -0.0030 -0.0595 -0.1710
3 0.2243 -0.0414 -0.1320
4 0.1781 -0.0594 -0.1810
5 0.2935 -0.0157 -0.0618
6 0.2927 -0.0329 -0.1114
7 0.0902 -0.0382 0.1880
8 -0.0017 -0.0399 -0.5018
9 -0.0013 -0.0293 -0.3263
10 0.0436 -0.0162 -0.0972

16 1 -0.0032 -0.4463 -0.4252


2 -0.0046 -0.6385 -0.6083
3 0.2229 -0.4499 -0.4204
4 0.1763 -0.6414 -0.6045
5 0.2928 -0.1746 -0.1556
6 0.2914 -0.3600 -0.3323
7 0.0897 -0.0224 -0.1065
8 -0.0035 -0.9092 -0.7481
9 -0.0026 -0.6155 -0.5125
10 0.0430 -0.2268 -0.1975
218 APPENDIX A2

===================~========================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
========ac----========~=====================~===============================:

17 1 -0.0043 -0.9138 -0.2622


2 -0.0062 -1.3075 -0.3751
3 0.2215 -0.9060 -0.2506
4 0.1745 -1.3012 -0.3659
5 0.2920 -0.3378 -0.0848
6 0.2902 -0.7174 -0.1937
7 0.0892 -0.1915 -0.1279
8 -0.0054 -1.6607 -0.3753
9 -0.0038 -1.1346 -0.2623
10 0.0425 -0.4332 -0.1085

18 1 -0.0054 -1.0159 0.1138


2 -0.0078 -1.4536 0.1629
3 0.2201 -0.9950 0.1215
4 0.1727 -1.4368 0.1690
5 0.2912 -0.3596 0.0534
6 0.2889 -0.7816 0.1006
7 0.0887 -0.2838 -0.0060
8 -0.0073 -1. 7463 0.2508
9 -0.0051 -1.1989 0.1688
10 0.0419 -0.4655 0.0617

19 1 -0.0066 -0.6456 0.4472


2 -0.0094 -0.9237 0.6399
3 0.2187 -0.6229 0.4405
4 0.1709 -0.9055 0.6345
5 0.2904 -0.2163 0.1616
6 0.2877 -0.4845 0.3473
7 0.0883 -0.2009 0.1293
8 -0.0091 -1.0776 0.7643
9 -0.0064 -0.7418 0.5250
10 0.0414 -0.2896 0.2048

20 1 -0.0077 -0.0169 0.4823


2 -0.0110 -0.0242 0.6901
3 0.2173 -0.0172 0.4506
4 0.1690 -0.0244 0.6648
5 0.2896 -0.0069 0.1425
6 0.2864 -0.0139 0.3428
7 0.0878 -0.0075 0.1483
8 -0.0110 -0.0257 0.7996
9 -0.0077 -0.0179 0.5508
10 0.0408 -0.0074 0.2127
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 219

----~==========================================================================

E L E ME N T R E P 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft
LOAD COMBINATIONS:
COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1
+ 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 2 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2
+ 1.00 X CASE 4

COMB 4 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2
+ 0.80 X CASE 4

COMB 5 0.90 X CASE 1


+ 1. 30 X CASE 4

COMB 6 1. 20 X CASE 1
+ 0.50 X CASE 2
+ 1. 30 X CASE 4

COMB 7 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1. 60 X CASE 3

COMB 8 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 5

COMB 9 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1. 00 X CASE 5

COMB 10 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 6
220 APPENDIX A2

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

1 1 1 -20.2807 -4.1035 19.3868


5 -20.2807 -4.1035 -39.0885 0.2127 9.49

2 1 -29.0170 -5.8712 27.7380


5 -29.0170 -5.8712 -55.9266 0.3043 9.49

3 1 -19.8809 -3.0395 11.1284


5 -19.8809 -3.0395 -32.1842 0.2113 9.04

4 1 -28.6971 -5.0200 21.1313


5 -28.6971 -5.0200 -50.4031 0.3027 9.25

5 1 -7.2025 -0.1792 -3.3540


5 -7.2025 -0.1792 -5.9081 0.0848 7.45

6 1 -15.6268 -1. 8838 4.6990


5 -15.6268 -1. 8838 -22.1448 0.1687 8.69

7 1 -28.4168 -5.2315 23.4449


5 -28.4168 -5.2315 -51.1045 0.2920 9.37

8 1 -30.9030 -6.8127 32.2102


5 -30.9030 -6.8127 -64.8707 0.3527 9.49

9 1 -21. 4594 -4.6920 22.1819


5 -21. 4594 -4.6920 -44.6785 0.2429 9.49

10 1 -16.2598 -3.9727 18.1722


5 -16.2598 -3.9727 -38.4394 0.2157 9.41

2 1 2 -49.9193 1. 0396 -4.9665


10 -49.9193 1. 0396 9.8475 -0.0530 9.51

2 2 -71.4230 1. 4874 -7.1060


10 -71. 4230 1.4874 14.0895 -0.0758 9.51

3 2 -50.0985 2.2542 -13.8762


10 -50.0985 2.2542 18.2464 -0.0669 10.38

4 2 -71. 5664 2.4591 -14.2337


10 -71. 5664 2.4591 20.8086 -0.0864 10.11
5 2 -19.2407 1.9749 -13.4737
10 -19.2407 1.9749 14.6683 -0.0405 10.95

6 2 -39.9764 2.4067 -15.5367


10 -39.9764 2.4067 18.7588 -0.0612 10.62

7 2 -74.3885 1. 3139 -7.5483


10 -74.3885 1.3139 11.1743 -0.0470 10.08

8 2 -47.9370 4.3249 -20.5664


10 -47.9370 4.3249 41. 0633 -0.2220 9.50

9 2 -35.2406 2.8130 -13.3793


10 -35.2406 2.8130 26.7061 -0.1444 9.50
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 221

~==--=========================================-=================================
E L E M EN T R E PO R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
==--=============================================~===========================

10 2 -41.8130 2.4936 -12.4688


10 -41.8130 2.4936 23.0647 -0.1181 9.63

3 1 3 -49.9193 -1.0396 4.9665


15 -49.9193 -1.0396 -9.8475 0.0530 9.51

2 3 -71.4230 -1.4874 7.1060


15 -71.4230 -1.4874 -14.0895 0.0758 9.51

3 3 -49.7528 0.1576 -3.8186


15 -49.7528 0.1576 -1.5734 0.0495 6.64

4 3 -71.2898 -0.5297 0.0778


15 -71.2898 -0.5297 -7.4702 0.0694 8.25

5 3 -18.7912 1.1604 -9.5296


15 -18.7912 1.1604 7.0067 0.0364 3.96
6 3 -39.5270 0.7286 -7.4666
15 -39.5270 0.7286 2.9162 0.0465 5.08

7 3 -45.8641 2.1362 -11.3813


15 -45.8641 2.1362 19.0592 -0.0901 9.82

8 3 -47.9370 -4.3249 20.5664


15 -47.9370 -4.3249 -41. 0633 0.2220 9.50
9 3 -35.2406 -2.8130 13.3793
15 -35.2406 -2.8130 -26.7061 0.1444 9.50

10 3 -19.4173 -0.5850 2.i820


15 -19.4173 -0.5850 -6.1542 0.0400 9.06

4 1 4 -20.2807 4.1035 -19.3868


20 -20.2807 4.1035 39.0885 -0.2127 9.49

2 4 -29.0170 5.8712 -27.7380


20 -29.0170 5.8712 55.9266 -0.3043 9.49

3 4 -20.6678 5.1277 -27.3312


20 -20.6678 5.1277 45.7384 -0.2162 9.82

4 4 -29.3267 6.6905 -34.0936


20 -29.3267 6.6905 61.2465 -0.3068 9.68

5 4 -8.2256 2.8939 -17.7097


20 -8.2256 2.8939 23.5286 -0.0874 10.35

6 4 -16.6498 4.5985 -25.7627


20 -16.6498 4.5985 39.7653 -0.1745 9.99

7 4 -9.0105 1. 7815 -9.6634


20 -9.0105 1. 7815 15.7230 -0.0725 9.88

8 4 -30.9030 6.8127 -32.2102


20 -30.9030 6.8127 64.8707 -0.3527 9.49
222 APPENDIX A2

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

9 4 -21.4594 4.6920 -22.1819


20 -21.4594 4.6920 44.6785 -0.2429 9.49

10 4 -8.9099 2.0642 -10.3631


20 -8.9099 2.0642 19.0512 -0.0971 9.64

5 1 5 -4.1035 15.6007 -39.0885


6 -4.1035 15.6007 54.5157 -0.0084 4.31

2 5 -5.8712 22.3210 -55.9266


6 -5.8712 22.3210 77.9994 -0.0120 4.31

3 5 -7.5395 15.2009 -32.1842


6 -7.5395 15.2009 59.0211 -0.0118 4.06

4 5 -8.6200 22.0011 -50.4031


6 -8.6200 22.0011 81. 6037 -0.0147 4.16

5 5 -6.0292 5.4205 -5.9081


6 -6.0292 5.4205 26.6150 -0.0079 3.67

6 5 -7.7338 11. 9008 -22.1448


6 -7.7338 11. 9008 49.2599 -0.0111 3.93

7 5 -5.2315 21. 7208 -51.1045


6 -5.2315 21. 7208 79.2204 -0.0137 4.20
8 5 -6.8127 24.2070 -64.8707
6 -6.8127 24.2070 80.3711 -0.0107 4.44

9 5 -4.6920 16.7794 -44.6785


6 -4.6920 16.7794 55.9980 -0.0075 4.43

10 5 -3.9727 14.2798 -38.4394


6 -3.9727 14.2798 47.2393 -0.0062 4.45

6 1 6 -4.1035 6.2407 54.5157


7 -4.1035 6.2407 91. 9598 -0.0525 3.13

2 6 -5.8712 8.9290 77.9994


7 -5.8712 8.9290 131. 5733 -0.0751 3.13

3 6 -7.5395 5.8409 59.0211


7 -7.5395 5.8409 94.0664 -0.0548 3.11

4 6 -8.6200 8.6091 81. 6037


7 -8.6200 8.6091 133.2586 -0.0769 3.12

5 6 -6.0292 1.8565 26.6150


7 -6.0292 1. 8565 37.7540 -0.0230 3.09
6 6 -7.7338 4.4488 49.2599
7 -7.7338 4.4488 75.9527 -0.0448 3.11
7 6 -5.2315 8.3288 79.2204
7 -5.2315 8.3288 129.1934 -0.0746 3.12
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 223

================================================-==============================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
8 6 -6.8127 10.8150 80.3711
7 -6.8127 10.8150 145.2610 -0.0809 3.14

9 6 -4.6920 7.4194 55.9980


7 -4.6920 7.4194 100.5146 -0.0561 3.14

10 6 -3.9727 7.6198 47.2393


7 -3.9727 7.6198 92.9580 -0.0503 3.16

7 1 7 -4.1035 -3.1193 91. 9598


8 -4.1035 -3.1193 73.2440 -0.0591 2.94

2 7 -5.8712 -4.4630 131. 5733


8 -5.8712 -4.4630 104.7953 -0.0845 2.94

3 7 -7.5395 -3.5191 94.0664


8 -7.5395 -3.5191 72.9517 -0.0597 2.94

4 7 -8.6200 -4.7829 133.2586


8 -8.6200 -4.7829 104.5614 -0.0851 2.94

5 7 -6.0292 -1. 7075 37.7540


8 -6.0292 -1. 7075 27.5091 -0.0233 2.92

6 7 -7.7338 -3.0032 75.9527


8 -7.7338 -3.0032 57.9335 -0.0479 2.93

7 7 -5.2315 -5.0632 129.1934


8 -5.2315 -5.0632 98.8143 -0.0816 2.93

8 7 -6.8127 -2.5770 145.2610


8 -6.8127 -2.5770 129.7988 -0.0983 2.97

9 7 -4.6920 -1. 9406 100.5146


8 -4.6920 -1. 9406 88.8712 -0.0677 2.97

10 7 -3.9727 -1. 7402 92.9580


8 -3.9727 -1. 7402 82.5167 -0.0627 2.97

8 1 8 -4.1035 -12.4793 73.2440


9 -4.1035 -12.4793 -1. 6318 -0.0263 2.52

2 8 -5.8712 -17.8550 104.7953


9 -5.8712 -17.8550 -2.3348 -0.0377 2.52

3 8 -7.5395 -12.8791 72.9517


9 -7.5395 -12.8791 -4.3230 -0.0253 2.49

4 8 -8.6200 -18.1749 104.5614


9 -8.6200 -18.1749 -4.4877 -0.0369 2.50

5 8 -6.0292 -5.2715 27.5091


9 -6.0292 -5.2715 -4.1199 -0.0088 2.40

6 8 -7.7338 -10.4552 57.9335


9 -7.7338 -10.4552 -4.7977 -0.0197 2.47
224 APPENDIX A2

===============================================================================;
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================:

7 8 -5.2315 -18.4552 98.8143


9 -5.2315 -18.4552 -11. 9168 -0.0324 2.43

8 8 -6.8127 -15.9690 129.7988


9 -6.8127 -15.9690 33.9846 -0.0591 2.72

9 8 -4.6920 -11. 3006 88.8712


9 -4.6920 -11.3006 21. 0678 -0.0397 2.70

10 8 -3.9727 -11.1002 82.5167


9 -3.9727 -11.1002 15.9153 -0.0356 2.67

9 1 9 -4.1035 -21. 8393 -1. 6318


10 -4.1035 -21.8393 -132.6677 0.0492 3.45

2 9 -5.8712 -31.2470 -2.3348


10 -5.8712 -31.2470 -189.8168 0.0704 3.45

3 9 -7.5395 -22.2391 -4.3230


10 -7.5395 -22.2391 -137.7577 0.0520 3.44

4 9 -8.6200 -31. 5669 -4.4877


10 -8.6200 -31. 5669 -193.8889 0.0726 3.45

5 9 -6.0292 -8.8355 -4.1199


10 -6.0292 -8.8355 -57.1328 0.0223 3.41

6 9 -7.7338 -17.9072 -4.7977


10 -7.7338 -17.9072 -112.2410 0.0428 3.43

7 9 -5.2315 -31.8472 -11. 9168


10 -5.2315 -31.8472 -202.9998 0.0785 3.42

8 9 -6.8127 -29.3610 33.9846


10 -6.8127 -29.3610 -142.1816 0.0412 3.69

9 9 -4.6920 -20.6606 21. 0678


10 -4.6920 -20.6606 -102.8957 0.0309 3.65

10 9 -3.9727 -20.4602 15.9153


10 -3.9727 -20.4602 -106.8460 0.0340 3.60

10 1 10 -3.0639 18.7200 -122.8202


11 -3.0639 18.7200 -10.5002 0.0486 2.60

2 10 -4.3838 26.7840 -175.7273


11 -4.3838 26.7840 -15.0233 0.0695 2.60

3 10 -5.2853 18.4994 -119.5113


11 -5.2853 18.4994 -8.5150 0.0467 2.59

4 10 -6.1608 26.6075 -173.0802


11 -6.1608 26.6075 -13.4352 0.0680 2.60

5 10 -4.0544 6.8412 -42.4646


11 -4.0544 6.8412 -1.4174 0.0161 2.56
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 225

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
6 10 -5.3271 14.6172 -93.4822
11 -5.3271 14.6172 -5.7790 0.0362 2.58

7 10 -3.9177 29.1493 -191. 8255


11 -3.9177 29.1493 -16.9296 0.0760 2.60

8 10 -2.4878 9.5040 -101.1183


11 -2.4878 9.5040 -44.0943 0.0521 2.81
9 10 -1.8789 7.9200 -76.1895
11 -1. 8789 7.9200 -28.6695 0.0377 2.78

10 10 -1. 4792 9.2928 -83.7813


11 -1.4792 9.2928 -28.0248 0.0402 2.76

11 1 11 -3.0639 9.3600 -10.5002


12 -3.0639 9.3600 45.6598 -0.0134 3.68

2 11 -4.3838 13.3920 -15.0233


12 -4.3838 13.3920 65.3287 -0.0191 3.68

3 11 -5.2853 9.1394 -8.5150


12 -5.2853 9.1394 46.3213 -0.0142 3.63

4 11 -6.1608 13.2155 -13.4352


12 -6.1608 13.2155 65.8578 -0.0198 3.65

5 11 -4.0544 3.2772 -1.4174


12 -4.0544 3.2772 18.2458 -0.0062 3.53

6 11 -5.3271 7.1652 -5.7790


12 -5.3271 7.1652 37.2122 -0.0118 3.60

7 11 -3.9177 15.7573 -16.9296


12 -3.9177 15.7573 77.6144 -0.0230 3.66

8 11 -2.4878 4.7520 -44.0943


12 -2.4878 4.7520 -15.5823 0.0215 2.77

9 11 -1. 8789 3.9600 -28.6695


12 -1. 8789 3.9600 -4.9095 0.0122 2.66

10 11 -1.4792 5.3328 -28.0248


12 -1.4792 5.3328 3.9718 0.0090 2.41

12 1 12 -3.0639 -0.0000 45.6598


13 -3.0639 -0.0000 45.6598 -0.0326 3.00

2 12 -4.3838 -0.0000 65.3287


13 -4.3838 -0.0000 65.3287 -0.0467 3.00
3 12 -5.2853 -0.2206 46.3213
13 -5.2853 -0.2206 44.9976 -0.0326 2.99

4 12 -6.1608 -0.1765 65.8578


13 -6.1608 -0.1765 64.7989 -0.0467 3.00
226 APPENDIX A2

-==-~~============~-==============================================~~==========
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===========-======================================================~==~========

5 12 -4.0544 -0.2868 18.2458


13 -4.0544 -0.2868 16.5249 -0.0124 2.98

6 12 -5.3271 -0.2868 37.2122


13 -5.3271 -0.2868 35.4913 -0.0260 2.99

7 12 -3.9177 2.3653 77.6144


13 -3.9177 2.3653 91.8064 -0.0606 3.04

8 12 -2.4878 -0.0000 -15.5823


13 -2.4878 -0.0000 -15.5823 0.0111 3.00

9 12 -1.8789 -0.0000 -4.9095


13 -1.8789 -0.0000 -4.9095 0.0035 3.00

10 12 -1. 4792 1. 3728 3.9718


13 -1.4792 1. 3728 12.2083 -0.0058 3.25

13 1 13 -3.0639 -9.3600 45.6598


14 -3.0639 -9.3600 -10.5002 -0.0134 2.32

2 13 -4.3838 -13.3920 65.3287


14 -4.3838 -13.3920 -15.0233 -0.0191 2.32

3 13 -5.2853 -9.5806 44.9976


14 -5.2853 -9.5806 -12.4861 -0.0125 2.27

4 13 -6.1608 -13.5685 64.7989


14 -6.1608 -13.5685 -16.6121 -0.0184 2.30
5 13 -4.0544 -3.8508 16.5249
14 -4.0544 -3.8508 -6.5799 -0.0040 2.13

6 13 -5.3271 -7.7388 35.4913


14 -5.3271 -7.7388 -10.9415 -0.0095 2.24
7 13 -3.9177 -11.0267 91.8064
14 -3.9177 -11.0267 25.6463 -0.0424 2.73
8 13 -2.4878 -4.7520 -15.5823
14 -2.4878 -4.7520 -44.0943 0.0215 3.23

9 13 -1.8789 -3.9600 -4.9095


14 -1.8789 -3.9600 -28.6695 0.0122 3.34

10 13 -1.4792 -2.5872 12.2083


14 -1.4792 -2.5872 -3.3151 -0.0034 2.28

14 1 14 -3.0639 -18.7200 -10.5002


15 -3.0639 -18.7200 -122.8202 0.0486 3.40
2 14 -4.3838 -26.7840 -15.0233
15 -4.3838 -26.7840 -175.7273 0.0695 3.40

3 14 -5.2853 -18.9406 -12.4861


15 -5.2853 -18.9406 -126.1298 0.0505 3.39
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 227

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
4 14 -6.1608 -26.9605 -16.6121
15 -6.1608 -26.9605 -178.3751 0.0710 3.39

5 14 -4.0544 -7.4148 -6.5799


15 -4.0544 -7.4148 -51. 0687 0.0209 3.37

6 14 -5.3271 -15.1908 -10.9415


15 -5.3271 -15.1908 -102.0863 0.0411 3.38

7 14 -3.9177 -24.4187 25.6463


15 -3.9177 -24.4187 -120.8657 0.0361 3.66

8 14 -2.4878 -9.5040 -44.0943


15 -2.4878 -9.5040 -101.1183 0.0521 3.19

9 14 -1. 8789 -7.9200 -28.6695


15 -1. 8789 -7.9200 -76.1895 0.0377 3.22

10 14 -1. 4792 -6.5472 -3.3151


15 -1. 4792 -6.5472 -42.5986 0.0167 3.40

15 1 15 -4.1035 21. 8393 -132.6677


16 -4.1035 21. 8393 -1.6318 0.0492 2.55

2 15 -5.8712 31.2470 -189.8168


16 -5.8712 31.2470 -2.3348 0.0704 2.55
3 15 -5.1277 21. 4522 -127.7032
16 -5.1277 21. 4522 1. 0098 0.0465 2.53

4 15 -6.6905 30.9373 -185.8452


16 -6.6905 30.9373 -0.2215 0.0683 2.54

5 15 -2.8939 7.8124 -44.0620


16 -2.8939 7.8124 2.8127 0.0152 2.48
6 15 -4.5985 16.8842 -99.1701
16 -4.5985 16.8842 2.1349 0.0357 2.52
7 15 -1. 7815 12.3735 -101.8065
16 -1. 7815 12.3735 -27.5658 0.0467 2.72

8 15 -6.8127 29.3610 -142.1816


16 -6.8127 29.3610 33.9846 0.0412 2.31
9 15 -4.6920 20.6606 -102.8957
16 -4.6920 20.6606 21.0678 0.0309 2.35
10 15 -2.0642 8.9101 -48.7528
16 -2.0642 8.9101 4.7075 0.0163 2.45

16 1 16 -4.1035 12.4793 -1. 6318


17 -4.1035 12.4793 73.2440 -0.0263 3.48
2 16 -5.8712 17.8550 -2.3348
17 -5.8712 17.8550 104.7953 -0.0377 3.48
228 APPENDIX A2

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST

3 16 -5.1277 12.0922 1.0098


17 -5.1277 12.0922 73.5627 -0.0273 3.45
4 16 -6.6905 17.5453 -0.2215
17 -6.6905 17.5453 105.0502 -0.0385 3.47
5 16 -2.8939 4.2484 2.8127
17 -2.8939 4.2484 28.3034 -0.0113 3.39

6 16 -4.5985 9.4322 2.1349


17 -4.5985 9.4322 58.7278 -0.0223 3.44

7 16 -1. 7815 7.6215 -27.5658


17 -1. 7815 7.6215 18.1629 0.0047 1. 78

8 16 -6.8127 15.9690 33.9846


17 -6.8127 15.9690 129.7988 -0.0591 3.28

9 16 -4.6920 11. 3006 21. 0678


17 -4.6920 11. 3006 88.8712 -0.0397 3.30

10 16 -2.0642 4.9501 4.7075


17 -2.0642 4.9501 34.4078 -0.0142 3.36

17 1 17 -4.1035 3.1193 73.2440


18 -4.1035 3.1193 91. 9598 -0.0591 3.06

2 17 -5.8712 4.4630 104.7953


18 -5.8712 4.4630 131. 5733 -0.0845 3.06

3 17 -5.1277 2.7322 73.5627


18 -5.1277 2.7322 89.9557 -0.0585 3.05

4 17 -6.6905 4.1533 105.0502


18 -6.6905 4.1533 129.9700 -0.0841 3.05

5 17 -2.8939 0.6844 28.3034


18 -2.8939 0.6844 32.4101 -0.0217 3.03

6 17 -4.5985 1. 9802 58.7278


18 -4.5985 1. 9802 70.6088 -0.0463 3.05

7 17 -1.7815 2.8695 18.1629


18 -1.7815 2.8695 35.3796 -0.0192 3.16

8 17 -6.8127 2.5770 129.7988


18 -6.8127 2.5770 145.2610 -0.0983 3.03

9 17 -4.6920 1. 9406 88.8712


18 -4.6920 1. 9406 100.5146 -0.0677 3.03

10 17 -2.0642 0.9901 3.4.4078


18 -2.0642 0.9901 40.3481 -0.0267 3.04

18 1 18 -4.1035 -6.2407 91. 9598


19 -4.1035 -6.2407 54.5157 -0.0525 2.87
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 229

====================================================== ========================~

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

2 18 -5.8712 -8.9290 131.5733


19 -5.8712 -8.9290 77.9994 -0.0751 2.87

3 18 -5.1277 -6.6278 89.9557


19 -5.1277 -6.6278 50.1886 -0.0502 2.86

4 18 -6.6905 -9.2387 129.9700


19 -6.6905 -9.2387 74.5377 -0.0733 2.87

5 18 -2.8939 -2.8796 32.4101


19 -2.8939 -2.8796 15.1327 -0.0171 2.82

6 18 -4.5985 -5.4718 70.6088


19 -4.5985 -5.4718 37.7777 -0.0388 2.85

7 18 -1. 7815 -1. 8825 35.3796


19 -1. 7815 -1. 8825 24.0843 -0.0213 2.91

8 18 -6.8127 -10.8150 145.2610


19 -6.8127 -10.8150 80.3711 -0.0809 2.86

9 18 -4.6920 -7.4194 100.5146


19 -4.6920 -7.4194 55.9980 -0.0561 2.86

10 18 -2.0642 -2.9699 40.3481


19 -2.0642 -2.9699 22.5284 -0.0225 2.86

19 1 19 -4.1035 -15.6007 54.5157


20 -4.1035 -15.6007 -39.0885 -0.0084 1.69

2 19 -5.8712 -22.3210 77.9994


20 -5.8712 -22.3210 -55.9266 -0.0120 1.69
3 19 -5.1277 -15.9878 50.1886
20 -5.1277 -15.9878 -45.7384 -0.0055 1.40

4 19 -6.6905 -22.6307 74.5377


20 -6.6905 -22.6307 -61. 2465 -0.0096 1. 54

5 19 -2.8939 -6.4436 15.1327


20 -2.8939 -6.4436 -23.5286 0.0041 4.20

6 19 -4.5985 -12.9238 37.7777


20 -4.5985 -12.9238 -39.7653 0.0040 4.66

7 19 -1. 7815 -6.6345 24.0843


20 -1. 7815 -6.6345 -15.7230 -0.0041 1. 79

8 19 -6.8127 -24.2070 80.3711


20 -6.8127 -24.2070 -64.8707 -0.0107 1.56

9 19 -4.6920 -16.7794 55.9980


20 -4.6920 -16.7794 -44.6785 -0.0075 1.57

10 19 -2.0642 -6.9299 22.5284


20 -2.0642 -6.9299 -19.0512 -0.0028 1.50
230 APPENDIXA2

===============================================================================
R E A C T I 0 N S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
===============================================================================
units : K K K -Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:
COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1
+ 1. 00 X CASE 2

COMB 2 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1. 00 X CASE 1
+ 1.00 X CASE 2
+ 1.00 X CASE 4

COMB 4 1. 20 X CASE 1
+ 1.60 X CASE 2
+ 0.80 X CASE 4
COMB 5 0.90 X CASE 1
+ 1.30 X CASE 4

COMB 6 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 0.50 X CASE 2
+ 1.30 X CASE 4

COMB 7 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 3

COMB 8 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 5
COMB 9 1. 00 X CASE 1
+ 1.00 X CASE 5

COMB 10 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 6

1 1 4.1035 20.2807 -19.3868


2 5.8712 29.0170 -27.7380
3 3.0395 19.8809 -11.1284
4 5.0200 28.6971 -21.1313
5 0.1792 7.2025 3.3540
6 1. 8838 15.6268 -4.6990
7 5.2315 28.4168 -23.4449
8 6.8127 30.9030 -32.2102
9 4.6920 21. 4594 -22.1819
10 3.9727 16.2598 -18.1722

2 1 -1.0396 49.9193 4.9665


2 -1. 4874 71.4230 7.1060
3 -2.2542 50.0985 13.8762
4 -2.4591 71. 5664 14.2337
5 -1. 9749 19.2407 13.4737
6 -2.4067 39.9764 15.5367
7 -1. 3139 74.3885 7.5483
8 -4.3249 47.9370 20.5664
9 -2.8130 35.2406 13.3793
10 -2.4936 41.8130 12.4688
ONE-STORY RIGID FRAMES 231

REA C T ION S
NODE LOAO
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
===============================================================================

3 1 1. 0396 49.9193 -4.9665


2 1. 4874 71.4230 -7.1060
3 -0.1576 49.7528 3.8186
4 0.5297 71. 2898 -0.0778
5 -1.1604 18.7912 9.5296
6 -0.7286 39.5270 7.4666
7 -2.1362 45.8641 11. 3813
8 4.3249 47.9370 -20.5664
9 2.8130 35.2406 -13.3793
10 0.5850 19.4173 -2.1820

4 1 -4.1035 20.2807 19.3868


2 -5.8712 29.0170 27.7380
3 -5.1277 20.6678 27.3312
4 -6.6905 29.3267 34.0936
5 -2.8939 8.2256 17.7097
6 -4.5985 16.6498 25.7627
7 -1. 7815 9.0105 9.6634
8 -6.8127 30.9030 32.2102
9 -4.6920 21.4594 22.1819
10 -2.0642 8.9099 10.3631
APPENDIXA3
INTERIOR SPAN
OF CANTILEVERED
SPAN SYSTEM
INTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED SPAN SYSTEM 235

==~ __========='-==-
___ ~=----=== _______ =-_.c==-=-=======-==_=_-======~============

NOD A L INFORMATION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===--=-~=-~====-=---==---=====--=-=======:I--=---====-===========

Units : Ft Ft KIln KIln K -In IDeg


1 -3.912 0.000
2 0.000 0.000 H
3 6.000 0.000
4 12.000 0.000
5 18.000 0.000
6 24.000 0.000
7 30.000 0.000 XR
8 33.912 0.000

-==-==--====================--==~=========-==============================

ELEMENT I N FORMATIO N
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
==-=~=-============================-~=--=-======-==========================
units Ft Deg
1 1 2 3.912 0.00 1 BEAM
2 2 3 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
3 3 4 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
4 4 5 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
6 6 7 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
7 7 8 3.912 0.00 1 BEAM

==----===---~==-==----~----~--===-===----------=-===--------=---===-=-========
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
====-=========~-=---==-------~=--==-============================
units: KIln 2 In2 In4 Ft
1 W14 x 26 29000 7.69 245
236 APPENDIX A3

===============================================================================:
NOD A L LOA D I N FOR MAT ION
REC LOAD LOAD PX PY M
NO CASE TYPE DX DY BETA
Units K K Ft-K
Ft Ft Deg
Description : 1.2D+1. 6L
Node List 1,8
1 1 FORCE 0.00 -30.80 0.00
Description : 1.2D+1. 6L
Node List 2-7*1
2 1 FORCE 0.00 -13.39 0.00
INTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED SPAN SYSTEM 237

================================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB OX DY ROTATION
================================================================================
units In In Deq
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 0.0000 0.4241 -0.4264

2 1 0.0000 0.0000 -0.7001

3 1 0.0000 -1.1727 -0.9798

4 1 0.0000 -2.1108 -0.4199

5 1 0.0000 -2.1108 0.4199

6 1 0.0000 -1.1727 0.9798

7 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.7001

8 1 0.0000 0.4241 0.4264


================================================================================
ELEMENT REPORTS
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
================================================================================
units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 1 0.0000 -30.8000 -0.0000


2 0.0000 -30.8000 -120.4896 0.0288 2.26

2 1 2 0.0000 26.7800 -120.4896


3 0.0000 26.7800 40.1904 0.0481 2.21

3 1 3 0.0000 13.3900 40.1904


4 0.0000 13.3900 120.5304 -0.0886 3.24

4 1 4 0.0000 -0.0000 120.5304


5 0.0000 -0.0000 120.5304 -0.1319 3.00
238 APPENDIX A3

ELEMENT REPORTS
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
~=-==-=-==:z:=-~~===-= =-=--====SJII:=---=======:aa: ===:=======

5 1 5 0.0000 -13.3900 120.5304


6 0.0000 -13.3900 40.1904 -0.0886 2.76

6 1 6 0.0000 -26.7800 40.1904


7 0.0000 -26.7800 -120.4896 0.0481 3.79

7 1 7 0.0000 30.8000 -120.4896


8 0.0000 30.8000 0.0000 0.0288 1.65
==============----=========-=-===============--==--===============================
REA C T I O N S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
~-====--------====~-~==-======

units: K K K -Ft
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1

2 1 0.0000 70.9700 0.0000

7 1 0.0000 70.9700 -0.0000


EXTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED SPAN SYSTEM 239

APPENDIXA4
EXTERIOR SPAN
OF CANTILEVERED
SPAN SYSTEM
EXTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED SPAN SYSTEM 241

=============----================================================~====-========:
NOD A L I N FOR MAT ION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===-==========-================================================================:
units Ft Ft KIln KIln K -In IDeq
1 0.000 0.000 H
2 6.000 0.000
3 12.000 0.000
4 18.000 0.000
5 24.000 0.000
6 26.088 0.000 XR
===-=============--============================================================
ELEMENT I N FOR MAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===================_=-c==~=====================================================
Units Ft Deq
1 1 2 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
2 2 3 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
3 3 4 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
4 4 5 6.000 0.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 2.088 0.00 1 BEAM
=========================================-======================================
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
====================================================================-===-=======
units: KIln 2 In2 In4 Ft
1 W18 x 35 29000 10.3 510
===~-~--===============~-=====================================================:
NOD A L LOA 0 I N FOR MAT ION
REC LOAD LOAD PX PY M
NO CASE TYPE OX DY BETA
============--==============~===================================================
units K K Ft-K
Ft Ft Deq
Description : 1.2D+1.6L
Node List 2,3,4,5
1 1 FORCE 0.00 -13.39 0.00
242 APPENDIX A4

===============================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB OX DY ROTATION
==========-=================-==================================================
Units In In Deg
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1. 00 X CASE 1

1 1 0.0000 0.0000 -0.8945

2 1 0.0000 -1. 0283 -0.6659

3 1 0.0000 -1. 5385 -0.1146

4 1 0.0000 -1.2939 0.4905

5 1 0.0000 -0.3960 0.8805

6 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.9179

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 1 0.0000 22.7642 0.0000


2 0.0000 22.7642 136.5854 -0.0369 3.46

2 1 2 0.0000 9.3742 136.5854


3 0.0000 9.3742 192.8308 -0.0867 3.09

3 1 3 0.0000 -4.0158 192.8308


4 0.0000 -4.0158 168.7362 -0.0951 2.97

4 1 4 0.0000 -17.4058 168.7362


5 0.0000 -17.4058 64.3016 -0.0616 2.78

5 1 5 0.0000 -30.7958 64.3016


6 0.0000 -30.7958 -0.0000 -0.0021 0.88
EXTERIOR SPAN OF CANTILEVERED SPAN SYSTEM 243

REA C T ION S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
===============================================================================:
Units: K K K -Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:
COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 0.0000 22.7642 -0.0000

6 1 0.0000 30.7958 -0.0000


APPENDIXA5
TRUSS:
Continous Chords,
Pinned Diagonals
and Verticals
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 247

=======-=======================================================================
NOD A L I N FOR MAT ION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===============================================================================
units : Ft Ft K lIn K lIn K -In IDeg

1 0.000 0.000 H
2 15.000 0.000
3 30.000 0.000
4 45.000 0.000
5 60.000 0.000
6 75.000 0.000
7 90.000 0.000
8 105.000 0.000
9 120.000 0.000
10 135.000 0.000
11 150.000 0.000
12 165.000 0.000
13 180.000 0.000 XR
14 0.000 10.000
15 15.000 10.667
16 30.000 11. 333
17 45.000 12.000
18 60.000 12.667
19 75.000 13.333
20 90.000 14.000
21 105.000 13.333
22 120.000 12.667
23 135.000 12.000
24 150.000 11.333
25 165.000 10.667
26 180.000 10.000

===============================================================================:
ELEMENT I N FOR MAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===============================================================================:
Units : Ft Deg
1 1 2 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
2 2 3 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
3 3 4 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
4 4 5 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
6 6 7 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
7 7 8 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
8 8 9 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
9 9 10 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
10 10 11 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
11 11 12 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
12 12 13 15.000 0.00 1 BEAM
13 14 15 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
14 15 16 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
15 16 17 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
16 17 18 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
17 18 19 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
18 19 20 15.015 2.54 2 BEAM
19 20 21 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
20 21 22 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
21 22 23 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
22 23 24 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
23 24 25 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
24 25 26 15.015 -2.54 2 BEAM
248 APPENDIXA5

=====~=~====-~====-=======----===============-================================
ELEMENT INFORMAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===============================================================================
25 1 14 10.000 90.00 3 BEAM
26 2 14 18.028 146.31 4 TRUSS Y Y
27 2 15 10.667 90.00 6 TRUSS Y Y
28 3 15 18.406 144.58 5 TRUSS Y Y
29 3 16 11. 333 90.00 9 TRUSS Y Y
30 4 16 18.800 142.93 7 TRUSS Y Y
31 4 17 12.000 90.00 10 TRUSS Y Y
32 5 17 19.209 141. 34 8 TRUSS Y Y
33 5 18 12.667 90.00 11 TRUSS Y Y
34 6 18 19.633 139.82 8 TRUSS Y Y
35 6 19 13.333 90.00 11 TRUSS Y Y
36 7 19 20.069 138.37 8 TRUSS Y Y
37 7 20 14.000 90.00 11 TRUSS Y Y
38 7 21 20.069 41.63 8 TRUSS Y Y
39 8 21 13.333 90.00 11 TRUSS Y Y
40 8 22 19.633 40.18 8 TRUSS Y Y
41 9 22 12.667 90.00 11 TRUSS Y Y
42 9 23 19.209 38.66 8 TRUSS Y Y
43 10 23 12.000 90.00 10 TRUSS Y Y
44 10 24 18.800 37.07 7 TRUSS Y Y
45 11 24 11. 333 90.00 9 TRUSS Y Y
46 11 25 18.406 35.42 5 TRUSS Y Y
47 12 25 10.667 90.00 6 TRUSS Y Y
48 12 26 18.028 33.69 4 TRUSS Y Y
49 13 26 10.000 90.00 3 BEAM
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 249

===============================================================================
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
===============================================================================
Units : K lIn 2 In2 In4 Ft
1 WT 5x 24.5 29000 7.21 10
2 WT 10.5 x 41.5 29000 12.2 127
3 W10 x 49 29000 14.4 272
4 2Ls 5 x 3 x5/16 29000 4.8 12.5
5 2Ls 3.5 x 2.5 x 5/16 29000 3.55 4.38
6 2Ls 4 x 3.5 x 5/16 29000 4.49 7.12
7 2Ls 29000 2.38 2.17
8 2Ls 2.5 x 2 1/4 29000 2.13 1. 31
9 2Ls 4 x 3 5/16 29000 4.18 6.76
10 2Ls 3.5 x 305 x 5/16 29000 3.55 4.38
11 2Ls 3 x 2.5 x 1/4 29000 2.63 2.35
===============================================================================
E L E M E N T L 0 A D I N F 0 R MA T I 0 N
REC LOAD LOAD LOAD DIST
NO CASE TYPE SYS SPEC DIST PX PY M
===============================================================================
Units : Ft K 1Ft K 1Ft Ft-K 1Ft
Description : D
Element List : 13-24*1
1 1 UNIF LOC FRAC B 0.00 0.00 -0.38 0.00
E 1.00 0.00 -0.38 0.00
Description : L
Element List : 13-24*1
2 2 UNIF LOC FRAC B 0.00 0.00 -0.38 0.00
E 1.00 0.00 -0.38 0.00
Description : D + L
Element List : 13-24*1
3 3 UNIF LOC FRAC B 0.00 0.00 -0.75 0.00
E 1.00 0.00 -0.75 0.00
Description : 1. 2D+1.6L
Element List : 13-24*1
4 4 UNIF LOC FRAC B 0.00 0.00 -1.05 0.00
E 1.00 0.00 -1.05 0.00
250 APPENDIX A5

NOD A L 0 I S P LAC E MEN T S


NODE LOAD
NO CASE OX DY ROTATION
===============================================================================
units In In Deg
1 1 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2257
2 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2257
3 0.0000 0.0000 -0.4513
4 0.0000 0.0000 -0.6318

2 1 0.0009 -0.9094 -0.3013


2 0.0009 -0.9094 -0.3013
3 0.0018 -1. 8187 -0.6026
4 0.0025 -2.5462 -0.8436

3 1 0.0388 -1. 7591 -0.2490


2 0.0388 -1. 7591 -0.2490
3 0.0775 -3.5182 -0.4980
4 0.1085 -4.9255 -0.6972

4 1 0.1033 -2.4761 -0.1988


2 0.1033 -2.4761 -0.1988
3 0.2066 -4.9521 -0.3977
4 0.2892 -6.9330 -0.5567

5 1 0.1853 -2.9858 -0.1271


2 0.1853 -2.9858 -0.1271
3 0.3706 -5.9717 -0.2542
4 0.5188 -8.3603 -0.3559

6 1 0.2773 -3.2667 -0.0477


2 0.2773 -3.2667 -0.0477
3 0.5545 -6.5333 -0.0955
4 0.7763 -9.1467 -0.1337

7 1 0.3727 -3.3189 0.0000


2 0.3727 -3.3189 0.0000
3 0.7454 -6.6379 0.0000
4 1. 0436 -9.2930 0.0000

8 1 0.4682 -3.2667 0.0477


2 0.4682 -3.2667 0.0477
3 0.9363 -6.5333 0.0955
4 1. 3109 -9.1467 0.1337

9 1 0.5602 -2.9858 0.1271


2 0.5602 -2.9858 0.1271
3 1.1203 -5.9717 0.2542
4 1. 5684 -8.3603 0.3559

10 1 0.6422 -2.4761 0.1988


2 0.6422 -2.4761 0.1988
3 1. 2843 -4.9521 0.3977
4 1.7980 -6.9330 0.5567

11 1 0.7067 -1. 7591 0.2490


2 0.7067 -1. 7591 0.2490
3 1.4134 -3.5182 0.4980
4 1. 9787 -4.9255 0.6972

12 1 0.7446 -0.9094 0.3013


2 0.7446 -0.9094 0.3013
3 1. 4891 -1. 8187 0.6026
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 251

=======================================================================~=~=~~

NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S


NODE LOAD
NO CASE DX DY ROTATION
===============================================================================:
4 2.0847 -2.5462 0.8436
13 1 0.7454 0.0000 0.2257
2 0.7454 0.0000 0.2257
3 1.4909 0.0000 0.4513
4 2.0872 0.0000 0.6318

=============================---===========================---=====---=========
E L EM EN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
============================~=====================--=========--=-=============
units : K K K -Ft

1 1 1 1.0288 0.0487 -0.5426


2 1.0288 0.0487 0.1881

2 1 1.0288 0.0487 -0.5426


2 1.0288 0.0487 0.1881

3 1 2.0576 0.0974 -1.0851


2 2.0576 0.0974 0.3761

4 1 2.8806 0.1364 -1.5192


2 2.8806 0.1364 0.5265
2 1 2 43.9900 -0.0087 0.1881
3 43.9900 -0.0087 0.0571
2 2 43.9900 -0.0087 0.1881
3 43.9900 -0.0087 0.0571
3 2 87.9801 -0.0175 0.3761
3 87.9801 -0.0175 0.1141
4 2 123.1721 -0.0245 0.5265
3 123.1721 -0.0245 0.1598

3 1 3 74.9528 0.0081 0.0571


4 74.9528 0.0081 0.1780
2 3 74.9528 0.0081 0.0571
4 74.9528 0.0081 0.1780
3 3 149.9056 0.0161 0.1141
4 149.9056 0.0161 0.3560
4 3 209.8679 0.0226 0.1598
4 209.8679 0.0226 0.4984

4 1 4 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1780


5 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1582
2 4 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1780
5 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1582
252 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT

3 4 190.4997 -0.0026 0.3560


5 190.4997 -0.0026 0.3165

4 4 266.6996 -0.0037 0.4984


5 266.6996 -0.0037 0.4430

5 1 5 106.8516 0.0037 0.1582


6 106.8516 0.0037 0.2136

2 5 106.8516 0.0037 0.1582


6 106.8516 0.0037 0.2136

3 5 213.7031 0.0074 0.3165


6 213.7031 0.0074 0.4273

4 5 299.1844 0.0103 0.4430


6 299.1844 0.0103 0.5982

6 1 6 110.8812 -0.0136 0.2136


7 110.8812 -0.0136 0.0101

2 6 110.8812 -0.0136 0.2136


7 110.8812 -0.0136 0.0101

3 6 221. 7625 -0.0271 0.4273


7 221. 7625 -0.0271 0.0202

4 6 310.4675 -0.0380 0.5982


7 310.4675 -0.0380 0.0283

7 1 7 110.8812 0.0136 0.0101


8 110.8812 0.0136 0.2136

2 7 110.8812 0.0136 0.0101


8 110.8812 0.0136 0.2136

3 7 221. 7625 0.0271 0.0202


8 221. 7625 0.0271 0.4273

4 7 310.4675 0.0380 0.0283


8 310.4675 0.0380 0.5982

8 1 8 106.8516 -0.0037 0.2136


9 106.8516 -0.0037 0.1582

2 8 106.8516 -0.0037 0.2136


9 106.8516 -0.0037 0.1582

3 8 213.7031 -0.0074 0.4273


9 213.7031 -0.0074 0.3165

4 8 299.1843 -0.0103 0.5982


9 299.1843 -0.0103 0.4430
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 253

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

9 1 9 95.2498 0.0013 0.1582


10 95.2498 0.0013 0.1780

2 9 95.2498 0.0013 0.1582


10 95.2498 0.0013 0.1780

3 9 190.4997 0.0026 0.3165


10 190.4997 0.0026 0.3560

4 9 266.6996 0.0037 0.4430


10 266.6996 0.0037 0.4984

10 1 10 74.9528 -0.0081 0.1780


11 74.9528 -0.0081 0.0571

2 10 74.9528 -0.0081 0.1780


11 74.9528 -0.0081 0.0571

3 10 149.9056 -0.0161 0.3560


11 149.9056 -0.0161 0.1141

4 10 209.8679 -0.0226 0.4984


11 209.8679 -0.0226 0.1598

11 1 11 43.9900 0.0087 0.0571


12 43.9900 0.0087 0.1881

2 11 43.9900 0.0087 0.0571


12 43.9900 0.0087 0.1881

3 11 87.9801 0.0175 0.1141


12 87.9801 0.0175 0.3761

4 11 123.1721 0.0245 0.1598


12 123.1721 0.0245 0.5265

12 1 12 1. 0288 -0.0487 0.1881


13 1.0288 -0.0487 -0.5426
2 12 1. 0288 -0.0487 0.1881
13 1. 0288 -0.0487 -0.5426

3 12 2.0576 -0.0974 0.3761


13 2.0576 -0.0974 -1.0851

4 12 2.8806 -0.1364 0.5265


13 2.8806 -0.1364 -1.5192

13 1 14 -44.1713 3.1023 -9.7454


15 -44.1713 -2.5283 -5.4359

2 14 -44.1713 3.1023 -9.7454


15 -44.1713 -2.5283 -5.4359
254 APPENDIXA5

---c-=====--=================================--==================================
ELEMENT FORCES
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
================~--==~=--=============----=====---============~===============~

3 14 -88.3427 6.2046 -19.4908


15 -88.3427 -5.0565 -10.8718
4 14 -123.6797 8.6864 -27.2872
15 -123.6797 -7.0791 -15.2205

14 1 15 -75.4002 2.7707 -5.4359


16 -75.4002 -2.8599 -6.1056
2 15 -75.4002 2.7707 -5.4359
16 -75.4002 -2.8599 -6.1056

3 15 -150.8004 5.5413 -10.8718


16 -150.8004 -5.7198 -12.2112
4 15 -211.1205 7.7579 -15.2205
16 -211.1205 -8.0077 -17.0956

15 1 16 -95.9732 2.8980 -6.1056


17 -95.9732 -2.7326 -4.8636

2 16 -95.9732 2.8980 -6.1056


17 -95.9732 -2.7326 -4.8636
3 16 -191.9463 5.7960 -12.2112
17 -191.9463 -5.4651 -9.7273
4 16 -268.7249 8.1144 -17.0956
17 -268.7249 -7.6512 -13.6182

16 1 17 -107.8327 2.8099 -4.8636


18 -107.8327 -2.8207 -4.9446

2 17 -107.8327 2.8099 -4.8636


18 -107.8327 -2.8207 -4.9446

3 17 -215.6653 5.6198 -9.7273


18 -215.6653 -5.6413 -9.8892
4 17 -301.9314 7.8677 -13.6182
18 -301.9314 -7.8979 -13.8448

17 1 18 -112.1192 2.8681 -4.9446


19 -112.1192 -2.7624 -4.1511

2 18 -112.1192 2.8681 -4.9446


19 -112.1192 -2.7624 -4.1511

3 18 -224.2383 5.7362 -9.8892


19 -224.2383 -5.5249 -8.3022
4 18 -313.9337 8.0307 -13.8448
19 -313.9337 -7.7348 -11. 6231
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 255

E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAO NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================
18 1 19 -110.2778 2.5912 -4.1511
20 -110.2778 -3.0393 -7.5155

2 19 -110.2778 2.5912 -4.1511


20 -110.2778 -3.0393 -7.5155

3 19 -220.5555 5.1824 -8.3022


20 -220.5555 -6.0787 -15.0311

4 19 -308.7777 7.2554 -11. 6231


20 -308.7777 -8.5102 -21. 0435

19 1 20 -110.2778 3.0393 -7.5155


21 -110.2778 -2.5912 -4.1511

2 20 -110.2778 3.0393 -7.5155


21 -110.2778 -2.5912 -4.1511

3 20 -220.5555 6.0787 -15.0311


21 -220.5555 -5.1824 -8.3022

4 20 -308.7777 8.5102 -21. 0435


21 -308.7777 -7.2554 -11.6231

20 1 21 -112.1192 2.7624 -4.1511


22 -112.1192 -2.8681 -4.9446

2 21 -112.1192 2.7624 -4.1511


22 -112.1192 -2.8681 -4.9446

3 21 -224.2383 5.5249 -8.3022


22 -224.2383 -5.7362 -9.8892

4 21 -313.9337 7.7348 -11.6231


22 -313.9337 -8.0307 -13.8448

21 1 22 -107.8327 2.8207 -4.9446


23 -107.8327 -2.8099 -4.8636
2 22 -107.8327 2.8207 -4.9446
23 -107.8327 -2.8099 -4.8636

3 22 -215.6653 5.6413 -9.8892


23 -215.6653 -5.6198 -9.7273

4 22 -301.9314 7.8979 -13.8448


23 -301.9314 -7.8677 -13.6182

22 1 23 -95.9732 2.7326 -4.8636


24 -95.9732 -2.8980 -6.1056

2 23 -95.9732 2.7326 -4.8636


24 -95.9732 -2.8980 -6.1056
256 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

3 23 -191. 9463 5.4651 -9.7273


24 -191.9463 -5.7960 -12.2112

4 23 -268.7249 7.6512 -13.6182


24 -268.7249 -8.1144 -17.0956

23 1 24 -75.4002 2.8599 -6.1056


25 -75.4002 -2.7707 -5.4359

2 24 -75.4002 2.8599 -6.1056


25 -75.4002 -2.7707 -5.4359

3 24 -150.8004 5.7198 -12.2112


25 -150.8004 -5.5413 -10.8718

4 24 -211. 1205 8.0077 -17.0956


25 -211.1205 -7.7579 -15.2205

24 1 25 -44.1713 2.5283 -5.4359


26 -44.1713 -3.1023 -9.7454

2 25 -44.1713 2.5283 -5.4359


26 -44.1713 -3.1023 -9.7454

3 25 -88.3427 5.0565 -10.8718


26 -88.3427 -6.2046 -19.4908

4 25 -123.6797 7.0791 -15.2205


26 -123.6797 -8.6864 -27.2872

25 1 1 -33.7013 -1. 0288 0.5426


14 -33.7013 -1.0288 -9.7454

2 1 -33.7013 -1. 0288 0.5426


14 -33.7013 -1.0288 -9.7454

3 1 -67.4026 -2.0576 1.0851


14 -67.4026 -2.0576 -19.4908

4 1 -94.3636 -2.8806 1.5192


14 -94.3636 -2.8806 -27.2872

26 1 2 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


14 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

2 2 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


14 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

3 2 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000


14 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000

4 2 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000


14 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 257

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

27 1 2 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


15 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

2 2 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


15 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

3 2 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000


15 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000

4 2 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000


15 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000

28 1 3 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


15 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

2 3 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


15 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

3 3 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000


15 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000

4 3 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000


15 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000

29 1 3 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000


16 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000
2 3 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000
16 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000

3 3 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000


16 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000

4 3 -61. 6033 0.0000 0.0000


16 -61. 6033 0.0000 0.0000

30 1 4 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


16 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000

2 4 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


16 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000

3 4 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000


16 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000

4 4 71. 2295 0.0000 0.0000


16 71. 2295 0.0000 0.0000

31 1 4 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


17 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000

2 4 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


17 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000
258 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

3 4 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000


17 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000

4 4 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000


17 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000

32 1 5 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


17 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

2 5 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


17 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

3 5 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000


17 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000

4 5 41.6008 0.0000 0.0000


17 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000

33 1 5 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


18 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

2 5 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


18 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

3 5 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000


18 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000

4 5 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000


18 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000

34 1 6 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


18 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

2 6 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


18 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

3 6 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000


18 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000

4 6 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000


18 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000

35 1 6 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


19 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

2 6 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


19 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

3 6 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000


19 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000

4 6 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000


19 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 259

=~=============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

36 1 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


19 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


19 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000


19 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000


19 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000

37 1 7 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000


20 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000


20 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 7.4402 0.0000 0.0000


20 7.4402 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 10.4163 0.0000 0.0000


20 10.4163 0.0000 0.0000

38 1 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


21 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


21 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000


21 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000


21 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000

39 1 8 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


21 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

2 8 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


21 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000
3 8 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000
21 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000

4 8 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000


21 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000

40 1 8 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


22 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

2 8 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


22 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000
260 APPENDIX A5

E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

3 8 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000


22 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000

4 8 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000


22 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000

41 1 9 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


22 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

2 9 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


22 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

3 9 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000


22 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000

4 9 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000


22 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000

42 1 9 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


23 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

2 9 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


23 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

3 9 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000


23 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000

4 9 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000


23 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000

43 1 10 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


23 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000
2 10 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000
23 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000
3 10 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000
23 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000
4 10 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000
23 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000

44 1 10 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


24 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000
2 10 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000
24 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000
3 10 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000
24 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000
4 10 71.2295 0.0000 0.0000
24 71. 2295 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 261

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
===============================================================================

45 1 11 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000


24 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000
2 11 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000
24 -22.00l2 0.0000 0.0000
3 11 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000
24 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000
4 11 -61. 6033 0.0000 0.0000
24 -61. 6033 0.0000 0.0000

46 1 11 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


25 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

2 11 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


25 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

3 11 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000


25 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000

4 11 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000


25 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000

47 1 12 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


25 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

2 12 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


25 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000
3 12 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000
25 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000

4 12 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000


25 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000

48 1 12 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


26 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

2 12 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


26 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

3 12 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000


26 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000

4 12 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000


26 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000

49 1 13 -33.7013 1. 0288 -0.5426


26 -33.7013 1.0288 9.7454

2 13 -33.7013 1.0288 -0.5426


26 -33.7013 1. 0288 9.7454
262 APPENDIX A5

E L E MEN T FOR C E S
ELEM LOAD NODE
NO CASE NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT
==========~====================================================================

3 13 -67.4026 2.0576 -1.0851


26 -67.4026 2.0576 19.4908

4 13 -94.3636 2.8806 -1.5192


26 -94.3636 2.8806 27.2872

=====~=========================================================================
REA C T ION S
NODE LOAD
NO CASE PX PY MOMENT
Units K K K -Ft
1 1 -0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000
2 -0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000
3 -0.0000 67.5000 -0.0000
4 -0.0000 94.5000 -0.0000

13 1 0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000


2 0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000
3 0.0000 67.5000 -0.0000
4 0.0000 94.5000 -0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 263

NOD A L o I S P LAC E MEN T S


NODE LOAD
NO COMB ox DY ROTATION
===============================================================================
Units In In Oeg
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

COMB 2 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 4 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2

1 1 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2257


2 0.0000 0.0000 -0.2257
3 0.0000 0.0000 -0.4513
4 0.0000 0.0000 -0.6318

2 1 0.0009 -0.9094 -0.3013


2 0.0009 -0.9094 -0.3013
3 0.0018 -1.8187 -0.6026
4 0.0025 -2.5462 -0.8436

3 1 0.0388 -1.7591 -0.2490


2 0.0388 -1. 7591 -0.2490
3 0.0775 -3.5182 -0.4980
4 0.1085 -4.9255 -0.6972

4 1 0.1033 -2.4761 -0.1988


2 0.1033 -2.4761 -0.1988
3 0.2066 -4.9521 -0.3977
4 0.2892 -6.9330 -0.5567

5 1 0.1853 -2.9858 -0.1271


2 0.1853 -2.9858 -0.1271
3 0.3706 -5.9717 -0.2542
4 0.5188 -8.3603 -0.3559

6 1 0.2773 -3.2667 -0.0477


2 0.2773 -3.2667 -0.0477
3 0.5545 -6.5333 -0.0955
4 0.7763 -9.1467 -0.1337

7 1 0.3727 -3.3189 0.0000


2 0.3727 -3.3189 0.0000
3 0.7454 -6.6379 0.0000
4 1. 0436 -9.2930 0.0000

8 1 0.4682 -3.2667 0.0477


2 0.4682 -3.2667 0.0477
3 0.9363 -6.5333 0.0955
264 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
===============================================================================

4 1. 3109 -9.1467 0.1337

9 1 0.5602 -2.9858 0.1271


2 0.5602 -2.9858 0.1271
3 1.1203 -5.9717 0.2542
4 1.5684 -8.3603 0.3559

10 1 0.6422 -2.4761 0.1988


2 0.6422 -2.4761 0.1988
3 1. 2843 -4.9521 0.3977
4 1.7980 -6.9330 0.5567

11 1 0.7067 -1. 7591 0.2490


2 0.7067 -1.7591 0.2490
3 1. 4134 -3.5182 0.4980
4 1. 9787 -4.9255 0.6972

12 1 0.7446 -0.9094 0.3013


2 0.7446 -0.9094 0.3013
3 1. 4891 -1. 8187 0.6026
4 2.0847 -2.5462 0.8436

13 1 0.7454 0.0000 0.2257


2 0.7454 0.0000 0.2257
3 1. 4909 0.0000 0.4513
4 2.0872 0.0000 0.6318
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 265

------~====================;=========================== ========================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL OrST
===============================================================================
units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1. 00 X CASE 1

COMB 2 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 4 1.20 X CASE 1


+ 1.60 X CASE 2

1 1 1 1. 0288 0.0487 -0.5426


2 1. 0288 0.0487 0.1881 0.0326 5.48
2 1 1.0288 0.0487 -0.5426
2 1. 0288 0.0487 0.1881 0.0326 5.48

3 1 2.0576 0.0974 -1. 0851


2 2.0576 0.0974 0.3761 0.0653 5.48
4 1 2.8806 0.1364 -1. 5192
2 2.8806 0.1364 0.5265 0.0914 5.48

2 1 2 43.9900 -0.0087 0.1881


3 43.9900 -0.0087 0.0571 -0.0207 6.85

2 2 43.9900 -0.0087 0.1881


3 43.9900 -0.0087 0.0571 -0.0207 6.85
3 2 87.9801 -0.0175 0.3761
3 87.9801 -0.0175 0.1141 -0.0414 6.85
4 2 123.1721 -0.0245 0.5265
3 123.1721 -0.0245 0.1598 -0.0580 6.85

3 1 3 74.9528 0.0081 0.0571


4 74.9528 0.0081 0.1780 -0.0198 8.13

2 3 74.9528 0.0081 0.0571


4 74.9528 0.0081 0.1780 -0.0198 8.13

3 3 149.9056 0.0161 0.1141


4 149.9056 0.0161 0.3560 -0.0397 8.13
4 3 209.8679 0.0226 0.1598
4 209.8679 0.0226 0.4984 -0.0555 8.13

4 1 4 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1780


5 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1582 -0.0282 7.43

2 4 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1780


5 95.2498 -0.0013 0.1582 -0.0282 7.43
266 APPENDIXA5

=====--====-===================================================================
ELEMENT REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
=--======--=-~====================~===============--========================

3 4 190.4997 -0.0026 0.3560


5 190.4997 -0.0026 0.3165 -0.0564 7.43

4 4 266.6996 -0.0037 0.4984


5 266.6996 -0.0037 0.4430 -0.0789 7.43

5 1 5 106.8516 0.0037 0.1582


6 106.8516 0.0037 0.2136 -0.0312 7.69

2 5 106.8516 0.0037 0.1582


6 106.8516 0.0037 0.2136 -0.0312 7.69
3 5 213.7031 0.0074 0.3165
6 213.7031 0.0074 0.4273 -0.0624 7.69

4 5 299.1844 0.0103 0.4430


6 299.1844 0.0103 0.5982 -0.0873 7.69

6 1 6 110.8812 -0.0136 0.2136


7 110.8812 -0.0136 0.0101 -0.0192 6.43
2 6 110.8812 -0.0136 0.2136
7 110.8812 -0.0136 0.Oi01 -0.0192 6.43

3 6 221. 7625 -0.0271 0.4273


7 221. 7625 -0.0271 0.0202 -0.0383 6.43

4 6 310.4675 -0.0380 0.5982


7 310.4675 -0.0380 0.0283 -0.0537 6.43

7 1 7 110.8812 0.0136 0.0101


8 110.8812 0.0136 0.2136 -0.0192 8.57
2 7 110.8812 0.0136 0.0101
8 110.8812 0.0136 0.2136 -0.0192 8.57

3 7 221. 7625 0.0271 0.0202


8 221. 7625 0.0271 0.4273 -0.0383 8.57
4 7 310.4675 0.0380 0.0283
8 310.4675 0.0380 0.5982 -0.0537 8.57

8 1 8 106.8516 -0.0037 0.2136


9 106.8516 -0.0037 0.1582 -0.0312 7.31
2 8 106.8516 -0.0037 0.2136
9 106.8516 -0.0037 0.1582 -0.0312 7.31
3 8 213.7031 -0.0074 0.4273
9 213.7031 -0.0074 0.3165 -0.0624 7.31
4 8 299.1843 -0.0103 0.5982
9 299.1843 -0.0103 0.4430 -0.0873 7.31
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 267

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

9 1 9 95.2498 0.0013 0.1582


10 95.2498 0.0013 0.1780 -0.0282 7.57

2 9 95.2498 0.0013 0.1582


10 95.2498 0.0013 0.1780 -0.0282 7.57
3 9 190.4997 0.0026 0.3165
10 190.4997 0.0026 0.3560 -0.0564 7.57

4 9 266.6996 0.0037 0.4430


10 266.6996 0.0037 0.4984 -0.0789 7.57

10 1 10 74.9528 -0.0081 0.1780


11 74.9528 -0.0081 0.0571 -0.0198 6.87

2 10 74.9528 -0.0081 0.1780


11 74.9528 -0.0081 0.0571 -0.0198 6.87

3 10 149.9056 -0.0161 0.3560


11 149.9056 -0.0161 0.1141 -0.0397 6.87

4 10 209.8679 -0.0226 0.4984


11 209.8679 -0.0226 0.1598 -0.0555 6.87

11 1 11 43.9900 0.0087 0.0571


12 43.9900 0.0087 0.1881 -0.0207 8.15

2 11 43.9900 0.0087 0.0571


12 43.9900 0.0087 0.1881 -0.0207 8.15

3 11 87.9801 0.0175 0.1141


12 87.9801 0.0175 0.3761 -0.0414 8.15
4 11 123.1721 0.0245 0.1598
12 123.1721 0.0245 0.5265 -0.0580 8.15

12 1 12 1. 0288 -0.0487 0.1881


13 1. 0288 -0.0487 -0.5426 0.0326 9.52
2 12 1. 0288 -0.0487 0.1881
13 1.0288 -0.0487 -0.5426 0.0326 9.52

3 12 2.0576 -0.0974 0.3761


13 2.0576 -0.0974 -1.0851 0.0653 9.52
4 12 2.8806 -0.1364 0.5265
13 2.8806 -0.1364 -1. 5192 0.0914 9.52

13 1 14 -44.1713 3.1023 -9.7454 3.0869 8.27


15 -44.1713 -2.5283 -5.4359 -0.0166 8.39
2 14 -44.1713 3.1023 -9.7454 3.0869 8.27
15 -44.1713 -2.5283 -5.4359 -0.0166 8.39
268 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

3 14 -88.3427 6.2046 -19.4908 6.1738 8.27


15 -88.3427 -5.0565 -10.8718 -0.0333 8.39

4 14 -123.6797 8.6864 -27.2872 8.6433 8.27


15 -123.6797 -7.0791 -15.2205 -0.0466 8.39

14 1 15 -75.4002 2.7707 -5.4359 4.7996 7.39


16 -75.4002 -2.8599 -6.1056 -0.0401 7.42

2 15 -75.4002 2.7707 -5.4359 4.7996 7.39


16 -75.4002 -2.8599 -6.1056 -0.0401 7.42

3 15 -150.8004 5.5413 -10.8718 9.5993 7.39


16 -150.8004 -5.7198 -12.2112 -0.0803 7.42

4 15 -211.1205 7.7579 -15.2205 13.4390 7.39


16 -211.1205 -8.0077 -17.0956 -0.1124 7.42

15 1 16 -95.9732 2.8980 -6.1056 5.0922 7.73


17 -95.9732 -2.7326 -4.8636 -0.0439 7.66

2 16 -95.9732 2.8980 -6.1056 5.0922 7.73


17 -95.9732 -2.7326 -4.8636 -0.0439 7.66

3 16 -191.9463 5.7960 -12.2112 10.1844 7.73


17 -191. 9463 -5.4651 -9.7273 -0.0879 7.66

4 16 -268.7249 8.1144 -17.0956 14.2582 7.73


17 -268.7249 -7.6512 -13.6182 -0.1231 7.66

16 1 17 -107.8327 2.8099 -4.8636 5.6636 7.49


18 -107.8327 -2.8207 -4.9446 -0.0516 7.50

2 17 -107.8327 2.8099 -4.8636 5.6636 7.49


18 -107.8327 -2.8207 -4.9446 -0.0516 7.50

3 17 -215.6653 5.6198 -9.7273 11. 3273 7.49


18 -215.6653 -5.6413 -9.8892 -0.1032 7.50

4 17 -301.9314 7.8677 -13.6182 15.8582 7.49


18 -301.9314 -7.8979 -13.8448 -0.1445 7.50

17 1 18 -112.1192 2.8681 -4.9446 6.0236 7.65


19 -112.1192 -2.7624 -4.1511 -0.0563 7.59

2 18 -112.1192 2.8681 -4.9446 6.0236 7.65


19 -112.1192 -2.7624 -4.1511 -0.0563 7.59

3 18 -224.2383 5.7362 -9.8892 12.0472 7.65


19 -224.2383 -5.5249 -8.3022 -0.1126 7.59

4 18 -313.9337 8.0307 -13.8448 16.8660 7.65


19 -313.9337 -7.7348 -11. 6231 -0.1577 7.59
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 269

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

18 1 19 -110.2778 2.5912 -4.1511 4.8013 6.91


20 -110.2778 -3.0393 -7.5155 -0.0395 7.07

2 19 -110.2778 2.5912 -4.1511 4.8013 6.91


20 -110.2778 -3.0393 -7.5155 -0.0395 7.07

3 19 -220.5555 5.1824 -8.3022 9.6027 6.91


20 -220.5555 -6.0787 -15.0311 -0.0791 7.07

4 19 -308.7777 7.2554 -11.6231 13.4437 6.91


20 -308.7777 -8.5102 -21.0435 -0.1107 7.07

19 1 20 -110.2778 3.0393 -7.5155 4.8013 8.10


21 -110.2778 -2.5912 -4.1511 -0.0395 7.95

2 20 -110.2778 3.0393 -7.5155 4.8013 8.10


21 -110.2778 -2.5912 -4.1511 -0.0395 7.95

3 20 -220.5555 6.0787 -15.0311 9.6027 8.10


21 -220.5555 -5.1824 -8.3022 -0.0791 7.95
4 20 -308.7777 8.5102 -21. 0435 13.4437 8.10
21 -308.7777 -7.2554 -11. 6231 -0.1107 7.95

20 1 21 -112.1192 2.7624 -4.1511 6.0236 7.37


22 -112.1192 -2.8681 -4.9446 -0.0563 7.42

2 21 -112.1192 2.7624 -4.1511 6.0236 7.37


22 -112.1192 -2.8681 -4.9446 -0.0563 7.42

3 21 -224.2383 5.5249 -8.3022 12.0472 7.37


22 -224.2383 -5.7362 -9.8892 -0.1126 7.42

4 21 -313.9337 7.7348 -11.6231 16.8660 7.37


22 -313.9337 -8.0307 -13.8448 -0.1577 7.42

21 1 22 -107.8327 2.8207 -4.9446 5.6636 7.52


23 -107.8327 -2.8099 -4.8636 -0.0516 7.52

2 22 -107.8327 2.8207 -4.9446 5.6636 7.52


23 -107.8327 -2.8099 -4.8636 -0.0516 7.52

3 22 -215.6653 5.6413 -9.8892 11. 3273 7.52


23 -215.6653 -5.6198 -9.7273 -0.1032 7.52

4 22 -301. 9314 7.8979 -13.8448 15.8582 7.52


23 -301.9314 -7.8677 -13.6182 -0.1445 7.52

22 1 23 -95.9732 2.7326 -4.8636 5.0922 7.29


24 -95.9732 -2.8980 -6.1056 -0.0439 7.35

2 23 -95.9732 2.7326 -4.8636 5.0922 7.29


24 -95.9732 -2.8980 -6.1056 -0.0439 7.35
270 APPENDIXA5

===============================================================================
ELEMENT REPORTS
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
=======-============__ =--==~ ____ s====================================____======_
3 23 -191.9463 5.4651 -9.7273 10.1844 7.29
24 -191.9463 -5.7960 -12.2112 -0.0879 7.35

4 23 -268.7249 7.6512 -13.6182 14.2582 7.29


24 -268.7249 -8.1144 -17.0956 -0.1231 7.35

23 1 24 -75.4002 2.8599 -6.1056 4.7996 7.63


25 -75.4002 -2.7707 -5.4359 -0.0401 7.59

2 24 -75.4002 2.8599 -6.1056 4.7996 7.63


25 -75.4002 -2.7707 -5.4359 -0.0401 7.59
3 24 -150.8004 5.7198 -12.2112 9.5993 7.63
25 -150.8004 -5.5413 -10.8718 -0.0803 7.59
4 24 -211.1205 8.0077 -17.0956 13.4390 7.63
25 -211.1205 -7.7579 -15.2205 -0.1124 7.59

24 1 25 -44.1713 2.5283 -5.4359 3.0869 6.74


26 -44.1713 -3.1023 -9.7454 -0.0166 6.62
2 25 -44.1713 2.5283 -5.4359 3.0869 6.74
26 -44.1713 -3.1023 -9.7454 -0.0166 6.62
3 25 -88.3427 5.0565 -10.8718 6.1738 6.74
26 -88.3427 -6.2046 -19.4908 -0.0333 6.62
4 25 -123.6797 7.0791 -15.2205 8.6433 6.74
26 -123.6797 -8.6864 -27.2872 -0.0466 6.62

25 1 1 -33.7013 -1.0288 0.5426


14 -33.7013 -1.0288 -9.7454 0.0130 5.85
2 1 -33.7013 -1.0288 0.5426
14 -33.7013 -1.0288 -9.7454 0.0130 5.85
3 1 -67.4026 -2.0576 1.0851
14 -67.4026 -2.0576 -19.4908 0.0260 5.85
4 1 -94.3636 -2.8806 1.5192
14 -94.3636 -2.8806 -27.2872 0.0364 5.85

26 1 2 51.6330 0.0000 0.0000


14 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000
2 2 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000
14 51.6330 0.0000 0.0000
3 2 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000
14 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000
4 2 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000
14 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 271

==----======~==================================================================
ELEMENT REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
======================_e============================__====~_=__==_--=__==-===
27 1 2 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000
15 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

2 2 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


15 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

3 2 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000


15 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000

4 2 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000


15 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000

28 1 3 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


15 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

2 3 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


15 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

3 3 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000


15 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000

4 3 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000


15 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000

29 1 3 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000


16 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000

2 3 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000


16 -22.0012 0.0000 0.0000

3 3 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000


16 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000

4 3 -61.6033 0.0000 0.0000


16 -61.6033 0.0000 0.0000

30 1 4 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


16 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000

2 4 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


16 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000

3 4 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000


16 50.8782 0.0000 0.0000
4 4 71.2295 0.0000 0.0000
16 71.2295 0.0000 0.0000

31 1 4 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


17 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000

2 4 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


17 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000
272 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

3 4 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000


17 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000

4 4 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000


17 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000

32 1 5 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


17 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

2 5 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


17 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

3 5 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000


17 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000

4 5 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000


17 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000

33 1 5 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


18 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

2 5 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


18 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

3 5 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000


18 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000

4 5 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000


18 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000

34 1 6 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


18 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

2 6 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


18 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

3 6 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000


18 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000

4 6 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000


18 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000

35 1 6 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


19 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

2 6 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


19 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

3 6 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000


19 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 273

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

4 6 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000


19 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000

36 1 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


19 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


19 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000


19 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000


19 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000

37 1 7 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000


20 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000


20 3.7201 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 7.4402 0.0000 0.0000


20 7.4402 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 10.4163 0.0000 0.0000


20 10.4163 0.0000 0.0000

38 1 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


21 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

2 7 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000


21 -2.7793 0.0000 0.0000

3 7 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000


21 -5.5586 0.0000 0.0000

4 7 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000


21 -7.7821 0.0000 0.0000

39 1 8 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


21 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

2 8 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000


21 -3.4201 0.0000 0.0000

3 8 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000


21 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000

4 8 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000


21 -9.5763 0.0000 0.0000
19 -6.8402 0.0000 0.0000
274 APPENDIX A5

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
=--=============================================================================

40 1 8 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


22 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

2 8 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000


22 5.2743 0.0000 0.0000

3 8 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000


22 10.5485 0.0000 0.0000

4 8 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000


22 14.7679 0.0000 0.0000

41 1 9 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


22 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

2 9 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000


22 -9.2764 0.0000 0.0000

3 9 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000


22 -18.5527 0.0000 0.0000

4 9 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000


22 -25.9738 0.0000 0.0000

42 1 9 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


23 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

2 9 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000


23 14.8574 0.0000 0.0000

3 9 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000


23 29.7149 0.0000 0.0000

4 9 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000


23 41. 6008 0.0000 0.0000

43 1 10 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


23 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000

2 10 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000


23 -15.3449 0.0000 0.0000

3 10 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000


23 -30.6898 0.0000 0.0000

4 10 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000


23 -42.9658 0.0000 0.0000

44 1 10 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


24 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000

2 10 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000


24 25.4391 0.0000 0.0000
TRUSS: Continuous Chords, Pinned Diagonals and Verticals 275

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
==============================================================================:

3 11 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000


24 -44.0024 0.0000 0.0000

4 11 -61. 6033 0.0000 0.0000


24 -61.6033 0.0000 0.0000

46 1 11 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


25 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

2 11 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000


25 37.9932 0.0000 0.0000

3 11 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000


25 75.9864 0.0000 0.0000

4 11 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000


25 106.3810 0.0000 0.0000

47 1 12 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


25 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

2 12 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000


25 -28.6983 0.0000 0.0000

3 12 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000


25 -57.3965 0.0000 0.0000

4 12 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000


25 -80.3551 0.0000 0.0000

48 1 12 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


26 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

2 12 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000


26 51. 6330 0.0000 0.0000

3 12 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000


26 103.2660 0.0000 0.0000

4 12 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000


26 144.5723 0.0000 0.0000

49 1 13 -33.7013 1. 0288 -0.5426


26 -33.7013 1. 0288 9.7454 -0.0130 5.85

2 13 -33.7013 1.0288 -0.5426


26 -33.7013 1.0288 9.7454 -0.0130 5.85

3 13 -67.4026 2.0576 -1. 0851


26 -67.4026 2.0576 19.4908 -0.0260 5.85

4 13 -94.3636 2.8806 -1.5192


26 -94.3636 2.8806 27.2872 -0.0364 5.85
276 APPENDIX AS

===============================================================================
REA C T ION S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT

units : K K K -Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:
COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

COMB 2 1. 00 X CASE 2

COMB 3 1.00 X CASE 1


+ 1.00 X CASE 2

COMB 4 1. 20 X CASE 1
+ 1. 60 X CASE 2

1 1 -0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000


2 -0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000
3 -0.0000 67.5000 -0.0000
4 -0.0000 94.5000 -0.0000

13 1 0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000


2 0.0000 33.7500 -0.0000
3 0.0000 67.5000 -0.0000
4 0.0000 94.5000 -0.0000
APPENDIXA6
5TH FLOOR
GRAVITY LOADS:
10-Story Building
5TH FLOOR GRAVITY LOADS: 10-Story Building 279

============================================~==================================:
NOD A L I N FOR MAT ION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===============================================================================:
units : Ft Ft Kiln Kiln K -In IDeg
1 0.000 0.000 F
2 30.000 0.000 F
3 60.000 0.000 F
4 90.000 0.000 F
5 0.000 12.500
6 30.000 12.500
7 60.000 12.500
8 90.000 12.500
9 0.000 25.000 F
10 30.000 25.000 F
11 60.000 25.000 F
12 90.000 25.000 F

ELEMENT I N FOR MAT ION


ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
units : Ft Deg
1 1 5 12.500 90.00 1 BEAM
2 2 6 12.500 90.00 2 BEAM
3 3 7 12.500 90.00 2 BEAM
4 4 8 12.500 90.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 30.000 0.00 3 BEAM
6 6 7 30.000 0.00 3 BEAM
7 7 8 30.000 0.00 3 BEAM
8 5 9 12.500 90.00 1 BEAM
9 6 10 12.500 90.00 2 BEAM
10 7 11 12.500 90.00 2 BEAM
11 8 12 12.500 90.00 1 BEAM
280 APPENDIX A6

~=============----===============--=====---==================================
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
Units: KIln 2 In2 In4 Ft
1 W14 x 82 29000 24.1 882
2 W14 x 90 29000 26.5 999
3 W21 x 83 29000 24.299999 1830

E L EM EN T LOA 0 I N FORMAT I 0 N
REC LOAD LOAD LOAD DIST
NO CASE TYPE SYS SPEC DIST PX PY M
-================================-----=========================================
units : Ft K 1Ft K 1Ft Ft-K 1Ft
Description : 1. 20+1. 6L
Element List : 5-7*1
1 1 CONC GLO FRAC B 0.33 0.00 -40.32 0.00
Description : 1.2D+1.6L
Element List : 5-7*1
2 1 CONC GLO FRAC B 0.67 0.00 -40.32 0.00
Description : 1.2D+0.5L
Element List : 5-7*1
3 2 CONC GLO FRAC B 0.33 0.00 -28.44 0.00
Description : 1.2D+0.5L
Element List : 5-7*1
4 2 CONC GLO FRAC B 0.67 0.00 -28.44 0.00
5TH FLOOR GRAVITY LOADS: 10-Story Building 281

----a========~~============================= __ ~~======= _
_========~_e==~========

NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S


NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
============--~================================----=====~==-===================
units In In Deq
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1


COMB 2 1.00 X CASE 2

5 1 0.0000 -0.0039 -0.0966


2 0.0000 -0.0028 -0.0682

6 1 0.0000 -0.0082 0.0115


2 0.0000 -0.0058 0.0081

7 1 0.0000 -0.0082 -0.0115


2 0.0000 -0.0058 -0.0081

8 1 0.0000 -0.0039 0.0966


2 0.0000 -0.0028 0.0682
==-~=======-=================================----=========~=================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
=====-=========================================================================
units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1


COMB 2 1.00 X CASE 2

1 1 1 -18.3635 -11.5035 47.9311


5 -18.3635 -11.5035 -95.8622 0.0375 8.33

2 1 -12.9528 -8.1140 33.8085


5 -12.9528 -8.1140 -67.6171 0.0264 8.33

2 1 2 -42.1165 1.5477 -6.4486


6 -42.1165 1.5477 12.8973 -0.0045 8.33

2 2 -29.7072 1.0917 -4.5486


6 -29.7072 1.0917 9.0972 -0.0031 8.33

3 1 3 -42.1165 -1.5477 6.4487


7 -42.1165 -1.5477 -12.8975 0.0045 8.33

2 3 -29.7072 -1.0917 4.5487


7 -29.7072 -1.0917 -9.0973 0.0031 8.33

4 1 4 -18.3634 11.5034 -47.9310


8 -18.3634 11. 5034 95.8621 -0.0375 8.33
282 APPENDIX A6

===============================================================================
E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================

2 4 -12.9528 8.1140 -33.8085


8 -12.9528 8.1140 67.6170 -0.0264 8.33

5 1 5 0.0000 36.7270 -191. 7244 175.5449 10.00


6 0.0000 -43.9130 -299.5167 -0.3603 14.15

2 5 0.0000 25.9056 -135.2342 123.8218 10.00


6 0.0000 -30.9744 -211. 2663 -0.2541 14.15

6 1 6 0.0000 40.3200 -273.7222 129.4783 20.00


7 0.0000 -40.3200 -273.7220 -0.2555 15.00

2 6 0.0000 28.4400 -193.0719 91. 3285 20.00


7 0.0000 -28.4400 -193.0718 -0.1802 15.00

7 1 7 0.0000 43.9131 -299.5169 175.5453 20.00


8 0.0000 -36.7269 -191. 7242 -0.3603 15.85

2 7 0.0000 30.9744 -211.2664 123.8221 20.00


8 0.0000 -25.9056 -135.2340 -0.2541 15.85

8 1 5 18.3635 -11. 5035 95.8622


9 18.3635 -11. 5035 -47.9311 -0.0375 4.17

2 5 12.9528 -8.1140 67.6171


9 12.9528 -8.1140 -33.8085 -0.0264 4.17

9 1 6 42.1165 1. 5477 -12.8973


10 42.1165 1. 5477 6.4486 0.0045 4.17

2 6 29.7072 1. 0917 -9.0972


10 29.7072 1. 0917 4.5486 0.0031 4.17

10 1 7 42.1165 -1.5477 12.8975


11 42.1165 -1.5477 -6.4487 -0.0045 4.17

2 7 29.7072 -1.0917 9.0973


11 29.7072 -1.0917 -4.5487 -0.0031 4.17

11 1 8 18.3634 11. 5034 -95.8621


12 18.3634 11. 5034 47.9310 0.0375 4.17

2 8 12.9528 8.1140 -67.6170


12 12.9528 8.1140 33.8085 0.0264 4.17
5TH FLOOR GRAVITY LOADS: 10-Story Building 283

REA C T ION S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
units : K K K -Ft
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

COMB 2 1.00 X CASE 2

1 1 11. 5035 18.3635 -47.9311


2 8.1140 12.9528 -33.8085

2 1 -1.5477 42.1165 6.4486


2 -1.0917 29.7072 4.5486

3 1 1.5477 42.1165 -6.4487


2 1.0917 29.7072 -4.5487

4 1 -11. 5034 18.3634 47.9310


2 -8.1140 12.9528 33.8085

9 1 -11. 5035 18.3635 -47.9311


2 -8.1140 12.9528 -33.8085

10 1 1.5477 42.1165 6.4486


2 1. 0917 29.7072 4.5486

11 1 -1. 5477 42.1165 -6.4487


2 -1.0917 29.7072 -4.5487

12 1 11.5034 18.3634 47.9310


2 8.1140 12.9528 33.8085
APPENDIXA7
10-STORY
OFFICE BUILDING:
Wind Loads
1Q-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 287

===============================================================================:
NOD A L I N FOR MAT ION
NODE NODAL COORDINATES SUPPORT CONDITIONS
NO X Y CODE PX STIFF PY STIFF M STIFF
===============================================================================:
units : Ft Ft Kiln Kiln K -In IDeg

1 0.000 0.000 F
2 30.000 0.000 F
3 60.000 0.000 F
4 90.000 0.000 F
5 0.000 25.000
6 30.000 25.000
7 60.000 25.000
8 90.000 25.000
9 0.000 37.500
10 30.000 37.500
11 60.000 37.500
12 90.000 37.500
13 0.000 50.000
14 30.000 50.000
15 60.000 50.000
16 90.000 50.000
17 0.000 62.500
18 30.000 62.500
19 60.000 62.500
20 90.000 62.500
21 0.000 75.000
22 30.000 75.000
23 60.000 75.000
24 90.000 75.000
25 0.000 87.500
26 30.000 87.500
27 60.000 87.500
28 90.000 87.500
29 0.000 100.000
30 30.000 100.000
31 60.000 100.000
32 90.000 100.000
33 0.000 112.500
34 30.000 112.500
35 60.000 112.500
36 90.000 112.500
37 0.000 125.000
38 30.000 125.000
39 60.000 125.000
40 90.000 125.000
41 0.000 137.500
42 30.000 137.500
43 60.000 137.500
44 90.000 137.500
288 APPENDIX A7

===============================================================================:
E L E MEN T I N FOR MAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===============================================================================:
Units : Ft Deg
1 1 5 25.000 90.00 1 BEAM
2 2 6 25.000 90.00 2 BEAM
3 3 7 25.000 90.00 2 BEAM
4 4 8 25.000 90.00 1 BEAM
5 5 6 30.000 0.00 10 BEAM
6 6 7 30.000 0.00 10 BEAM
7 7 8 30.000 0.00 10 BEAM
8 5 9 12.500 90.00 3 BEAM
9 6 10 12.500 90.00 4 BEAM
10 7 11 12.500 90.00 4 BEAM
11 8 12 12.500 90.00 3 BEAM
12 9 10 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
13 10 11 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
14 11 12 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
15 9 13 12.500 90.00 3 BEAM
16 10 14 12.500 90.00 4 BEAM
17 11 15 12.500 90.00 4 BEAM
18 12 16 12.500 90.00 3 BEAM
19 13 14 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
20 14 15 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
21 15 16 30.000 0.00 11 BEAM
22 13 17 12.500 90.00 5 BEAM
23 14 18 12.500 90.00 6 BEAM
24 15 19 12.500 90.00 6 BEAM
25 16 20 12.500 90.00 5 BEAM
26 17 18 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
27 18 19 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
28 19 20 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
29 17 21 12.500 90.00 5 BEAM
30 18 22 12.500 90.00 6 BEAM
31 19 23 12.500 90.00 6 BEAM
32 20 24 12.500 90.00 5 BEAM
33 21 22 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
34 22 23 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
35 23 24 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
36 21 25 12.500 90.00 7 BEAM
37 22 26 12.500 90.00 8 BEAM
38 23 27 12.500 90.00 8 BEAM
39 24 28 12.500 90.00 7 BEAM
40 25 26 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
41 26 27 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
42 27 28 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
43 25 29 12.500 90.00 7 BEAM
44 26 30 12.500 90.00 8 BEAM
45 27 31 12.500 90.00 8 BEAM
46 28 32 12.500 90.00 7 BEAM
47 29 30 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
48 30 31 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
49 31 32 30.000 0.00 12 BEAM
50 29 33 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
51 30 34 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
52 31 35 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
53 32 36 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
54 33 34 30.000 0.00 13 BEAM
55 34 35 30.000 0.00 13 BEAM
56 35 36 30.000 0.00 13 BEAM
57 33 37 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
58 34 38 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
1O-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 289

-==============================================================================:
E L E MEN T I N FOR MAT ION
ELEM NE PE ELEM BETA PROP ELEM NE PE
NO NODE NODE LENGTH ANGLE TYPE TYPE HINGE HINGE
===============================================================================:
59 35 39 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
60 36 40 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
61 37 38 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
62 38 39 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
63 39 40 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
64 37 41 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
65 38 42 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
66 39 43 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
67 40 44 12.500 90.00 9 BEAM
68 41 42 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
69 42 43 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
70 43 44 30.000 0.00 14 BEAM
290 APPENDIX A7

===============================================================================
PRO PER T Y I N FOR MAT ION
PROP SECTION
NO NAME MODULUS AREA I DIST
===============================================================================
units : K lIn 2 In2 In4 Ft

1 W14 x 145 29000 42.700001 1710


2 W14 x 233 29000 68.5 3010
3 W14 x 90 29000 26.5 999
4 W14 x 132 29000 38.799999 1530
5 W14 x 82 29000 24.1 882
6 W14 x 90 29000 26.5 999
7 W14 x 61 29000 17.9 640
8 W14 x 68 29000 20 723
9 W14 x 43 29000 12.6 428
10 W24 x 104 29000 30.6 3100
11 W21 x 93 29000 27.299999 2070
12 W21 x 83 29000 24.299999 1830
13 W21 x 57 29000 16.700001 1170
14 W21 x 50 29000 14.7 984
===============================================================================
NOD A L LOA 0 I N FOR MAT ION
REC LOAD LOAD PX PY M
NO CASE TYPE OX DY BETA
===============================================================================
units : K K Ft-K
Ft Ft Deg
Description : 1.0W
Node List 5
1 1 FORCE 6.52 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 9
2 1 FORCE 5.08 0.00 0.00
Description : 1. OW
Node List 13
3 1 FORCE 5.59 0.00 0.00
Description : 1. OW
Node List 17
4 1 FORCE 5.75 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 21
5 1 FORCE 6.08 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 25
6 1 FORCE 6.44 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 29
7 1 FORCE 6.67 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 33
8 1 FORCE 6.90 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 37
9 1 FORCE 7.12 0.00 0.00
Description : 1.0W
Node List 41
10 1 FORCE 3.63 0.00 0.00
1O-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 291

===============================================================================
NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB OX DY ROTATION
===============================================================================
units In In Deg
LOAD COMBINATIONS:
COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

2 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

3 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

4 1 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000

5 1 0.6929 0.0109 -0.0820

6 1 0.6909 -0.0003 -0.0728

7 1 0.6896 0.0003 -0.0727

8 1 0.6891 -0.0109 -0.0818

9 1 0.9921 0.0175 -0.0788

10 1 0.9904 -0.0004 -0.0715

11 1 0.9892 0.0004 -0.0715

12 1 0.9886 -0.0175 -0.0788

13 1 1.2727 0.0228 -0.0769

14 1 1.2701 -0.0006 -0.0638

15 1 1. 2688 0.0006 -0.0638

16 1 1. 2689 -0.0228 -0.0768

17 1 1. 5639 0.0272 -0.0785

18 1 1.5617 -0.0008 -0.0602


292 APPENDIX A7

NO D A L D I S P LA C EM E N T S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
===~===========================================================================

19 1 1.5603 0.0008 -0.0601

20 1 1.5595 -0.0272 -0.0784

21 1 1.8283 0.0304 -0.0697

22 1 1.8256 -0.0009 -0.0523

23 1 1.8240 0.0009 -0.0523

24 1 1.8237 -0.0304 -0.0696

25 1 2.0829 0.0333 -0.0591

26 1 2.0803 -0.0010 -0.0428

27 1 2.0787 0.0010 -0.0427

28 1 2.0779 -0.0333 -0.0591

29 1 2.2893 0.0351 -0.0499

30 1 2.2863 -0.0010 -0.0331

31 1 2.2845 0.0010 -0.0331

32 1 2.2841 -0.0351 -0.0496

33 1 2.4989 0.0364 -0.0502

34 1 2.4949 -0.0009 -0.0328

35 1 2.4923 0.0009 -0.0327

36 1 2.4912 -0.0364 -0.0495

37 1 2.6499 0.0369 -0.0310

38 1 2.6452 -0.0008 -0.0226


1Q-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 293

--============--==============================================~================

NOD A L DIS P LAC E MEN T S


NODE LOAD
NO COMB DX DY ROTATION
--============-=================================================================

39 1 2.6422 0.0008 -0.0227

40 1 2.6410 -0.0370 -0.0315

41 1 2.7192 0.0371 -0.0146

42 1 2.7165 -0.0008 -0.0091

43 1 2.7149 0.0008 -0.0092

44 1 2.7145 -0.0371 -0.0156


294 APPENDIX A7

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================
Units K K K -Ft K -Ft lIn Ft

LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1: 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 1 44.9754 10.5393 -151.4637


5 44.9754 10.5393 112.0198 0.0857 6.92

2 1 2 -1. 6923 19.4081 -273.4123


6 -1. 6923 19.4081 211. 7890 0.0829 6.70

3 1 3 1.6589 19.3649 -272.8454


7 1. 6589 19.3649 211. 2769 0.0828 6.70

4 1 4 -44.9420 10.4677 -150.5110


8 -44.9420 10.4677 111.1819 0.0853 6.92

5 1 5 -5.1163 -10.9898 168.1979


6 -5.1163 -10.9898 -161.4973 -0.0506 6.64

6 1 6 -3.1602 -10.5846 158.7930


7 -3.1602 -10.5846 -158.7460 -0.0441 6.34

7 1 7 -1.2746 -10.9681 161.2344


8 -1.2746 -10.9681 -167.8086 0.0505 23.37

8 1 5 33.9856 9.1356 -56.1780


9 33.9856 9.1356 58.0171 -0.0093 9.76

9 1 6 -1.2871 17.4520 -108.5012


10 -1.2871 17.4520 109.6492 -0.0109 9.83

10 1 7 1. 2754 17.4792 -108.7035


11 1.2754 17.4792 109.7867 -0.0109 9.83

11 1 8 -33.9739 9.1931 -56.6267


12 -33.9739 9.1931 58.2875 -0.0092 9.77

12 1 9 -3.8493 -7.0098 106.9141


10 -3.8493 -7.0098 -103.3805 -0.0476 6.59

13 1 10 -2.5969 -6.9473 104.2070


11 -2.5969 -6.9473 -104.2120 0.0433 23.66

14 1 11 -1. 3073 -7.0144 103.4327


12 -1. 3073 -7.0144 -106.9994 0.0476 23.41
1Q-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 295

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
================================================================================

15 1 9 26.9758 7.9049 -48.8970


13 26.9758 7.9049 49.9144 -0.0078 9.79

16 1 10 -1. 2245 16.1996 -97.9383


14 -1. 2245 16.1996 104.5568 -0.0116 9.66

17 1 11 1. 2083 16.1896 -97.8580


15 1. 2083 16.1896 104.5120 -0.0116 9.66

18 1 12 -26.9595 7.8859 -48.7119


16 -26.9595 7.8859 49.8617 -0.0078 9.79

19 1 13 -5.6649 -6.4651 100.1690


14 -5.6649 -6.4651 -93.7829 -0.0474 6.82

20 1 14 -2.7955 -6.2041 93.0691


15 -2.7955 -6.2041 -93.0541 -0.0387 6.34

21 1 15 0.0753 -6.4563 93.6819


16 0.0753 -6.4563 -100.0069 0.0473 23.18

22 1 13 20.5107 7.9798 -50.2546


17 20.5107 7.9798 49.4930 0.0088 2.69

23 1 14 -0.9636 13.3302 -82.2952


18 -0.9636 13.3302 84.3327 -0.0133 9.78

24 1 15 0.9561 13.3188 -82.2240


19 0.9561 13.3188 84.2611 -0.0132 9.78

25 1 16 -20.5032 7.9611 -50.1453


20 -20.5032 7.9611 49.3691 0.0088 2.69

26 1 17 -4.1806 -5.5632 87.3772


18 -4.1806 -5.5632 -79.5178 -0.0492 7.02

27 1 18 -2.8622 -5.1789 77.6900


19 -2.8622 -5.1789 -77.6770 -0.0365 6.34

28 1 19 -1.5519 -5.5567 79.4423


20 -1. 5519 -5.5567 -87.2599 0.0491 22.99

29 1 17 14.9475 6.4104 -37.8842


21 14.9475 6.4104 42.2463 -0.0088 9.53
296 APPENDIX A7

======================================================= =================~======:

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================:

30 1 18 -0.5793 12.0118 -72.8751


22 -0.5793 12.0118 77.2726 -0.0130 9.68

31 1 19 0.5783 12.0085 -72.8583


23 0.5783 12.0085 77.2475 -0.0130 9.68

32 1 20 -14.9465 6.4093 -37.8909


24 -14.9465 6.4093 42.2253 -0.0088 9.54

33 1 21 -5.3429 -4.8051 75.7985


22 -5.3429 -4.8051 -68.3539 -0.0433 7.08

34 1 22 -3.0433 -4.5113 67.6733


23 -3.0433 -4.5113 -67.6667 -0.0318 6.34

35 1 23 -0.7437 -4.8017 68.3151


24 -0.7437 -4.8017 -75.7356 0.0433 22.92

36 1 21 10.1424 5.6734 -33.5522


25 10.1424 5.6734 37.3649 -0.0107 9.54

37 1 22 -0.2856 9.7122 -58.7546


26 -0.2856 9.7122 62.6474 -0.0147 9.66

38 1 23 0.2879 9.7089 -58.7343


27 0.2879 9.7089 62.6272 -0.0147 9.66

39 1 24 -10.1448 5.6656 -33.5104


28 -10.1448 5.6656 37.3090 -0.0107 9.54

40 1 25 -4.9711 -3.8993 61. 9930


26 -4.9711 -3.8993 -54.9853 -0.0365 7.19

41 1 26 -3.2089 -3.6923 55.3872


27 -3.2089 -3.6923 -55.3804 -0.0260 6.34

42 1 27 -1. 4495 -3.8975 54.9627


28 -1. 4495 -3.8975 -61. 9631 0.0364 22.81

43 1 25 6.2432 4.2044 -24.6281


29 6.2432 4.2044 27.9273 -0.0082 9.49

44 1 26 -0.0785 7.9500 -47.7251


30 -0.0785 7.9500 51. 6497 -0.0124 9.62
1Q-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 297

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
==========================================================================-====:

45 1 27 0.0826 7.9495 -47.7159


31 0.0826 7.9495 51. 6532 -0.0124 9.62

46 1 28 -6.2473 4.2160 -24.6540


32 -6.2473 4.2160 28.0465 -0.0083 9.48

47 1 29 -5.9307 -3.0674 49.6192


30 -5.9307 -3.0674 -42.4032 -0.0310 7.44

48 1 30 -3.3820 -2.8637 42.9654


31 -3.3820 -2.8637 -42.9453 -0.0202 6.34

49 1 31 -0.8050 -3.0532 42.2422


32 -0.8050 -3.0532 -49.3530 0.0307 22.57

50 1 29 3.1758 3.4651 -21. 6919


33 3.1758 3.4651 21. 6220 0.0076 2.65

51 1 30 0.1252 5.4013 -33.7189


34 0.1252 5.4013 33.7978 -0.0118 9.85

52 1 31 -0.1068 5.3725 -33.5342


35 -0.1068 5.3725 33.6225 -0.0118 9.85

53 1 32 -3.1941 3.4110 -21. 3065


36 -3.1941 3.4110 21. 3311 -0.0075 9.85

54 1 33 -5.4066 -1. 9492 31. 6291


34 -5.4066 -1.9492 -26.8463 -0.0312 7.48

55 1 34 -3.4368 -1. 8110 27.1771


35 -3.4368 -1. 8110 -27.1534 -0.0200 6.35

56 1 35 -1.4792 -1. 9281 26.6122


36 -1.4792 -1. 9281 -31.2310 0.0306 22.54

57 1 33 1. 2266 1.9717 -10.0071


37 1. 2266 1.9717 14.6387 -0.0090 8.87

58 1 34 0.2633 3.4316 -20.2256


38 0.2633 3.4316 22.6692 -0.0098 9.52

59 1 35 -0.2239 3.4149 -20.1431


39 -0.2239 3.4149 22.5435 -0.0097 9.52
298 APPENDIX A7

E L E MEN T REP 0 R T S
ELEM LOAD NODE SIGN CONVENTION : BEAM DESIGNERS
NO COMB NO AXIAL SHEAR MOMENT MAX MOM/DEFL DIST
===============================================================================:

60 1 36 -1. 2660 1.9318 -9.8999


40 -1.2660 1.9318 14.2479 -0.0087 8.90

61 1 37 -5.5768 -0.9586 15.3428


38 -5.5768 -0.9586 -13.4164 -0.0172 7.29

62 1 38 -3.4621 -1. 0576 15.8536


39 -3.4621 -1.0576 -15.8750 0.0139 23.65

64 1 37 0.2679 0.4285 -0.7040


41 0.2679 0.4285 4.6521 -0.0056 7.49

65 1 38 0.1644 1. 3169 -6.6009


42 0.1644 1. 3169 9.8598 -0.0062 8.83

66 1 39 -0.1383 1. 3650 -6.9017


43 -0.1383 1. 3650 10.1610 -0.0063 8.86

67 1 40 -0.2940 0.5196 -1. 3411


44 -0.2940 0.5196 5.1543 -0.0056 7.73

68 1 41 -3.2015 -0.2679 4.6521


42 -3.2015 -0.2679 -3.3859 -0.0067 8.39

69 1 42 -1. 8847 -0.4323 6.4739


43 -1.8847 -0.4323 -6.4950 0.0057 23.64

70 1 43 -0.5196 -0.2940 3.6660


44 -0.5196 -0.2940 -5.1543 0.0076 21. 49
10-STORY OFFICE BUILDING: Wind Loads 299

==============================--=================================================
REA C T ION S
NODE LOAD
NO COMB PX PY MOMENT
================================================:===============================
units : K K K -Ft
LOAD COMBINATIONS:

COMB 1 1.00 X CASE 1

1 1 -10.5393 -44.9754 151.4637

2 1 -19.4081 1. 6923 273.4123

3 1 -19.3649 -1.6589 272.8454

4 1 -10.4677 44.9420 150.5110


I SPECIFICATION SECTION INDEXI

Section Pages Section Pages

A2.2 26, 31, 32, 35, 83, 125


A3.1 2 J1.9 85,86
A3.2 2 Jl.10 86
A3.5 2 J1.11 86
A3.6 84 J2.1 77
A4 60 76,77,78
J2.2
A4.1 17,66
J2.4 78
A5.1 15,31,83
A5.3 15,17 J2.5 76,88
A7.1 100 J3.1 87
J3.2 86,100
B1 100 J3.3 84,100
B2 85, 91, 100, 116 ]3.5 80,86
B3 100, 101, 116 J3.6 86
B4 133 J3.7 84,88
B5.1 70, 74, 126, 128 J3.8 88
B5.2 15 J3.9 88
B5.3 70 J3.10 87
B7 68,73,126
J5.1 92
C1 26, 124, 125, 130, 138, 139, 144 J9 95
C2 15 J10 99
C2.2 125
K1 101
D1 68, 73, 84, 100, 116 K1.2 102,108
K1.3 102,108
E1.2 15 K1.4 103,109
E2 31, 75, 109, 125, 126, 133, 138, 141, K1.5 105,109
143, 144 K1.6 106,109
K1.7 107
Fl.1 15 K1.9 109
F1.2 15, 47, 48, 49, 50, 71
F2 K2 53, 55, 57, 59
53, 55, 56, 58, 63
F2.1 17 K3 4,100
F2.2 17
11 4
HI 139 L2 4
Hl.1 69, 71, 127, 135, 136, 139, 144 L3 4, 53, 55, 57, 59
H1.2 71,125 L4 4
L5 4
11 15
13.1 61
M2.4 91,92
15 84
15.2 61
Appendices
JI.2 91,93,100
J1.3 93,101 B5.3 70
JI.7 92
J1.8 77,92 K3 4
SUBJECT INDEX
I I
American Concrete Institute (AC!) Bolted connections (see Connections)
ACI 318-95, 99 bearing, 86
ACI 349, Appendix B, 99 examples, 109-118
anchor bolt design, 99, 117 slip-critical, 86-88
American Society for Testing and Materials Braced columns, 123
(ASTM) Specifications, 1-6 Braced frames, 129-131
American Welding Society (AWS), 3 Buckling, 123
Analysis, elastic (see Chapter 2)
frames, multi-story, 34-45
frames, single-story, 18-33
gravity load, 43, 44 Cantilever-Suspended-span System, 30,
roof, ponding on, 53-55, 57, 59 32-34,56-59
secondary moment effects, 20 advantages, 32, 33
trusses, 65 analysis, 33, 34
wind load, 35, 45 deSign, 56-59
Anchor bolts, 84, 99 Coefficients
design example, 111-116 Cb, bending, 47,48
Axial compression Cm , end moment, 27, 129, 130
columns, 126
Q" slenderness, 70
structural tees, 68-72
Columns (Chapter 6)
Axial shortening (see Secondary effects)
axial compression and bending, 126,
127,129
Base plates, column, 95-99 anchor bolts, 84, 99, 117
Beam Selection Table (BST) (Appendix AI), base plates, 95-99,111-121
147-210 braced, 129, 130
Beam-columns, 123 connections, examples, 111-121
Beams (see Chapter 3) defined, 124
cantilever-suspended span, 56-59 design, 125, 134-145
composite, 59-62 design strength, 126, 127, 129
defined, 123 effective unbraced length, 126
deflection, 53, 55, 57, 59, 62 moment magnification factor (see Pt.),
design strength, 48-52 124, 125, 135
elastic analysiS (see Analysis) multi-story example, 34-45
ponding, 53, 55, 57, 59 one-story examples, 18-33
shear, 17
(Pt.) moment magnification (see Sec-
types of construction, 18, 20, 26, 31-35
ondary effects)
Bi-axial bending, 126
Bolts, 85-88 slenderness effects, 126
anchor, 99, 116, 117 slender elements, 69-71
ASTM Specifications, 85 splices, 86
design strength (Table 5.2), 89 structural tees, 65
high-strength, 85-87 Composite design
holes, area deducted, 86 beam with slab, 59-62
ordinary, 86 deflection, 62
prying action, 78-80 shear connectors (stud), 62, 84
304 SUBJECT INDEX

Compression, axial, 125 Elongation, 7-8


Connections (Chapter 5) Erection, 9-10
anchor bolt, 84, 99, 116, 117 Euler effect (see Columns; Moment magni-
base plate, 95-99, 111-121 fication), 130
bearing, 86-88
bolted, 85-88
column bearing, 95-99,111-121 Fabrication, 9
design, 92-95 Factors (see Coefficients)
examples, 109-121 effective length (K), 69, 126, 129, 131
flexible, 93-95, 100 load, 17, 18
fully restrained (Type FR), 83 resistance (cf», 15, 17, 48, 68, 84, 123
minimum, 92 Fasteners (see Anchor bolts; Bolts; Welds;
moment, 101 Connectors; Rivets)
partially restrained (Type PR), 83 Fatigue resistance, 4
rotations, 93-95 Fillet welds, strength of, 76, 91
shared stress, 86, 93 effective area of, 76, 90
shear connector (see Composite de- end returns, 76, 78
sign) maximum size of, 75, 76
simple shear, 100 minimum size of, 76
slip-critical, 87, 88 Flexural members, 15
specification requirements, 100 Flexural design strength, 15, 16, 48
splices, 86 Frames (see Analysis; Chapter 2)
stiffeners (in), 101-109 Framing details (see Connections; Chapter
tension, 100, 101 5)
web shear in, 107-109 Fully restrained construction (Type PR) (see
weld sequence (see Lamellar tearing) Construction, types 00
Connectors, composite design, 84
Construction, types of, 18, 83
fully restrained (Type FR), 20, 31, 32,
83 Grades (of steel), 3
partially restrained (Type PR), 32, 83 base plates, 111, 118, 119
simple framing (Type SF), 32, 33 beams, 19, 52, 54, 56, 58, 59
Corrosion resistance, 4 columns, 19, 137-145
specifications (Table 1.1)
truss design, 66
Definitions, 123
Deflection,53,55,50 59,62,81
Drift (see Sidesway; Column design) High-strength bolts (see Connections;
analysis, 20, 31 Joints)
definition, 124 bearing-type connections, 86-88
limits, 35, 63 connection examples (see Connections)
design strength, 89
slip-critical connections, 87, 88
Eccentric loads (see Moment) specification, 85
Eccentricity (see Connections) Holes, 86
Economics, 11
Effective area of fillet welds, 90
Effective length (see K), 69, 126, 129 Impact loads, 86
Effective length factor (K), 69, 126, 129, 131 Inelastic deformations, 7, 83, 93
Elastic analysis (see Chapter 2) Inspection, field, 9
SUBJECT INDEX 305

Joists, 52, 54, 57 One-story frames


Joints, 109 analysis examples, 18-30
design examples, 18, 19

K, effective length factor, 69, 126, 129, 131


p(.~) effects (see Secondary effects), 129,
131
Lamellar tearing, 91-92 Panel zone web shear, 107-108
Lateral deflection, 124 Partially restrained construction (Type PR)
Lateral displacement, 124 (see Construction, types 00
Load factors, 17, 18 Plates
Load combinations, 17, 18, 66 base, column base, 95-99, 111-121
Loads, 17, 18, 66 Ponding, 53, 55,57, 59
dead, 17-19, 66 Prestressed Concrete Institute, 99
factored, 18-19, 66 Prying action, 78-80
floor, 59
impact, 86
live, 17-19,66 Resistance factors (4)), 15, 17,48,68,84,123
reduction,43-44,60 Rivets (see Fasteners; Connections), 84
service, 66 design requirements, 84, 85
wind, 35, 38, 45 specifications, 84, 85
Local flange bending, 102 design strength (Table 5.1), 85
Local web yielding, 102-103 Roof framing
one-story examples, 18-30
ponding, 53, 55,57, 59
Minimum
connections, 92
depths, beam, 52, 55, 58 Secondary effects (see p~ effect; Axial
Mill tests, 8 Shortening; Shear Deformation), 20, 26,
Modulus of elasticity, 8, 61 31
Moment axial length changes, 20, 26, 31
analysis, elastic (see Chapter 2) moment magnifiers, 124-125
connections (see Connections) Serviceability, 15, 81
magnifiers, 124-125 Shear
secondary, frames, 129 assumptions, 17
secondary, trusses, 65 composite sections, 62
Moment diagrams design, examples, 53, 55, 56, 58
cantilever-suspended span system, 30, effective section, 16
33, 34 stiffeners, 101-109
multi-story frames, 40-42 Shear deformation, 20, 26, 31
one-story frames, 21-25, 27-30 Sidesway (see Drift; P~), 124
truss, top chord, 67 Simple shear connections, 100
Moment of inertia Slender compression elements, 70
composite, 62 Slenderness effects, columns
joists, 54, 57, 59 arbitrary solution, 133-134
roof deck, 53, 57, 59 axial load, braced, 126
braced frame, 129-131
coefficients (see Coefficients)
Net sections, 100 compression and flexure, 126
Nomenclature, columns, 123-125 rational solution, 134
306 SUBJECT INDEX

Slenderness parameter (A e ), 70, 126 Vibration, 86


Slip-critical connections, 86-88
Splices, 86
Stability (see Slenderness effects; Secondary
Moment; Pb.) Web buckling, 105
Stiffeners, web, 101-109 Web crippling (see Web stiffeners), 103
Strain,5-8 Web stiffeners, 101-109
Weight (see Cost)
comparison of designs, 11, 12
Tees, structural, 69 index for buildings (psO, 11
slender elements, 70 Welding
Tests, mill, 8-9 connections, examples, 75-78
Trusses (Chapter 4),65-81 fillet, 88, 90-91
analysis, 67, (Appendix A5), 245-276 lamellar tearing of, (see Sequence), 91,
axial length changes, 65 92
chords, 68-69 sequence of, 91, 92
combined flexure and compression, Wind
69-72 analysis, 22-26, 35-36, 38-40, 42, 45
connections, end, 75-81 connections, 32, 33, 83, 101
design example, 66-75 Loads, 35, 45

Unbraced column, 124


Unbraced, frame, 131-133 Yield strength (yield point), 5-7