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Table 1: Calculation method for water ow pressure in different design codes.

AASHTO General Code Fundamental Code Load Code

Water ow
pressure

is water ow
is the normal value of water is the normal value of water ow is the normal value of water
pressure; is the
ow pressure; is the density of pressure; is the density of water; ow pressure; is the density
density of water;
water; is the design ow velocity is the design ow velocity of of water; is the design ow
Denotation is resistance
of ood; is the water proof of ood; is the water proof of bridge velocity of ood; is the water
of symbols coefficient of
bridge pier; is the gravity pier; is the gravity acceleration; proof of bridge pier; is the
bridge pier; is
acceleration; is the shape is the shape resistance coefficient shape resistance coefficient of
ow velocity of
resistance coefficient of bridge pier of bridge pier bridge pier
ood

Hemicyclic Pier with round end 0.6 Pier with round end 0.6 Pier with round end 0.52
0.7
pier Pier with pointed end 0.7 Pier with pointed end 0.67 Pier with pointed end 0.8
Values of
the shape Circular pier 0.8 Circular pier 0.73 Circular pier 0.73
resistance Square pier 1.4
Square pier 1.5 Square pier 1.33 Square pier 1.55
coefficient
Wedge-
0.8 Rectangular pier 1.3 Rectangular pier 1.47 Rectangular pier 1.5
shaped pier

Notes: [ ] in AASHTO, longitudinal resistance is de ned as the product of the water ow pressure and the projected area of the bridge pier with
respect to the water ow direction.
[ ] In Load Code, the shape resistance coefficient of bridge pier should be multiplied by an in uence factor . e in uence factor denotes the
effect of the depth of water, and it can be applied using the values in Table 2.