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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF IC ENGINE PISTON


USING CATIA AND ANSIS SOFTWARE

Article · May 2015

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DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF IC ENGINE PISTON USING
CATIA AND ANSIS SOFTWARE

DESIGN PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SATHISHKUMAR. S

Register No: 512214408006

In partial fulfillment for the award of the degree


of

MASTER OF ENGINEERING
IN
ENGINEERING DESIGN

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


S.K.P ENGINEERING COLLEGE
THIRUVANNAMALAI– 606 611

MAY 2015

1
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report titled Design and Analysis of IC engine piston using CATIA
and ANSYS software is the bonafide work of Mr. SATHISHKUMAR.S
(Reg.No:512214408006) who carried out the research under my supervision. Certified further,
that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project
report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier
occasion on this or any other candidate.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE

Dr. M.KANNAN Dr. M.KANNAN


PROJECT CO ORDINATOR HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
Department of Mechanical Engg., P.G. Studies ( Mech)
S.K.P Engineering College, S.K.P Engineering College,
Thiruvannamalai-606 611 Thiruvannamalai-606 611

Submitted for the University Examination held on _______________

INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER

2
ABSTRACT

Piston is the part of engine which converts heat and pressure energy liberated by fuel combustion

into mechanical works. Engine piston is the most complex component among the automotives.

This paper illustrate design procedure for a piston for 4 stroke petrol engine for hero splendor –

pro bike and its analysis by its comparison with original piston dimensions used in bike. The

design procedure involves determination of various piston dimensions using analytical method

under maximum power condition. In this paper the combined effect of mechanical and load is

taken into consideration while determining various dimensions. The basic data of the engine are

taken from a located engine type of hero splendor –pro bike

3
TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTE TITLE PAGE


R NO.
NO.
ABSTRACT III
TABLE OF CONTENTS IV
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objectives 02
1.2 major force acting over the piston 03
1.3functions of piston 03
1.4 factor considering for proper functioning the 03
piston 04
1.5 model of piston

2. DESIGN AND PROPERTICS

2.1 Nomenclature Of Piston 06


2.1.1 Piston Head 06
2.1.2 Piston Ring 07
2.1.3 Piston Skirt 07
2.1.4 Piston Pin 08

2.2 Design Consideration Of Piston 08


2.3 Piston Function Design Requirement 08
2.4 Piston Structural Design Requirement 09
2.5 Material For Piston 09
2.6 Failure Modes Of Piston 10
2.6.1 Rough Out Failure 11
2.6.1.1 Damage From Unmixed Fuel 11
2.6.1.2 Damage From Over Speeding
Engine
2.6.1.3 Damage From Detonation 12

4
2.6.1.4 Damage From Heat Seizure 13
2.6.2 Wrong Out Failure 13
2.6.2.1 Damage From Getting Through The 13
Air Filter
2.6.2.2 Damage From Bearing Failure 14

3. MODELLING OF PISTON

3.1 Technical Speciation’s 16


3.2 Theoretical Calculation Of Piston 16-22
3.3 Piston Modeling in CATIA 23

4 DESIGN ANALYSIS 21

4.1 Piston ANSYS Model 22

4.2 Structural Analysis Of Piston 22-25

4.3 APDL Code 26-30

5 RESULT & DISCUSSIONS 30

5.1 Conclusion 31
5.2 Further possible work 31

6 REFERENCES 31

5
LIST OF TABLES

TABLE TITLE PAGE


NO. NO.

2.5 Property of Material 04


3.1 Technical specifications 19
3.2 Parameters dimensions 19

6
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE FIGURE NAME PAGE


NO. NO.

1.1 Piston model 03


2.1 Nomenclature Of Piston 03
2.2 Damage From Unmixed Fuel 03
2.3 Damage From Over Speeding Engine 06
2.4 Damage From Detonation 06
2.5 Damage From Heat Seizure 07
2.6 Damage From Heat Seizure 07
2.7 Damage From Getting Through The Air Filter 08
2.8 Damage From Bearing Failure 08
3.1 Line sketch of the piston in CATIA 09
3.2 3D sketch of the piston 14
4.1 ANSYS piston model 22
4.2 DOF analysis 23
4.3 Stress analysis 24

4.4 von misses stress analysis 25

7
Chapter 1

1 INTRODUCTION
Piston is one of n the mechanical component, piston invented in a German scientist
Nicholas August Otto in year 1866

Piston is considered to be one of the most important parts in a reciprocating


Engine, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar
mechanisms in which it helps to convert the chemical energy obtained by the combustion of fuel
into useful (work) mechanical power. The purpose of the piston is to provide a means of
conveying the expansion of gases to the crankshaft via connecting rod, The piston acts as a
movable end of the combustion chamber Piston is essentially a cylindrical plug that moves up &
down in the cylinder It is equipped with piston rings to provide a good seal between the cylinder
wall,

1.1Objectives of the project are as follows

1. To develop structural modeling of piston


2. To develop structural analysis of the piston

8
1.2 Major Force Acting Over Piston
1. Due to explosion of fuel gases
2. Due to compression of fuel gases
3. Side wall friction and forces
4. Thermal load
5. Inertia force due to high frequency of reciprocation of piston
6. Friction and forces at crank pin hole

1.3 Functions Of Piston

1. To reciprocate in the cylinder as a gas tight plug causing suction,


Compression , expansion, and exhaust strokes.
2. To receive the thrust generated by the explosion of the gas in the cylinder
And transmit it to the connecting rod.
3.To form a guide and bearing to the small end of the connecting rod and to take the side
thrust due to obliquity of the rod.

1.4 Factors Considered For Proper Functioning Of Piston

1. The piston should have enormous strength and heat resistance properties to withstand
gas pressure and inertia forces. They should have minimum weight to minimize the
inertia forces.
2. The material of the piston should have good and quick dissipation of heat from the
crown to the rings and bearing area to the cylinder walls. It should form an effective gas
and oil seal.
3. Material of the piston must possess good wearing qualities, so that the piston is able to
maintain sufficient surface-hardness unto the operating temperatures.
4. Piston should have rigid construction to withstand thermal, mechanical distortion and
sufficient area to prevent undue wear. It has even expansion under thermal loads so
should be free as possible from discontinuities

9
1.5 Piston Assemble Model

Fig 1.1

10
Chapter 2

DESIGN AND PROPERTIES

2.1 Nomenclature of Piston

Fig 2.1
2.1.1 Piston Head or Crown
The piston head or crown is designed keeping in view the following two main considerations, i.e.
1. It should have adequate strength to withstand the straining action due to pressure of
explosion inside the engine cylinder, and
2. It should dissipate the heat of combustion to the cylinder walls as quickly as possible. On
the basis of first consideration of straining action, the thickness of the piston head is
determined by treating it as a flat circular plate of uniform thickness, fixed at the outer
edges and subjected to a uniformly distributed load due to the gas pressure over the entire
Cross-section.

11
2.1.2 Piston Rings
The piston rings are used to impart the necessary radial pressure to maintain the seal
between the piston and the cylinder bore. These are usually made of grey cast iron or alloy cast
iron because of their good wearing properties and also they retain spring characteristics even at
high temperatures.
The piston rings are of the following two types :
1. Compression rings or pressure rings, and
2. Oil control rings or oil scraper.
The compression rings or pressure rings are inserted in the grooves at the top portion of the
piston and may be three to seven in number. These rings also transfer heat from the piston to the
cylinder liner and absorb some part of the piston fluctuation due to the side thrust. The oil control
rings or oil scrapers are provided below the compression rings. These rings provide proper
lubrication to the liner by allowing sufficient oil to move up during upward stroke and at the
same time scrap the lubricating oil from the surface of the liner in order to minimize the flow of
the oil to the combustion chamber.
The compression rings are usually made of rectangular cross-section and the diameter of
the ring is slightly larger than the cylinder bore. A part of the ring is cut- off in order to permit it
to go into the cylinder against the liner wall. The gap between the ends should be sufficiently
large when the ring is put cold so that even at the highest temperature, the ends do not touch each
other when the ring expands, otherwise there might be buckling of the ring.

2.1.3 Piston Skirt


The portion of the piston below the ring section is known as piston skirt. In acts as a
bearing for the side thrust of the connecting rod. The length of the piston skirt should be such
that the bearing pressure on the piston barrel due to the side thrust does not exceed0.25 N/mm2
of the projected area for low speed engines and 0.5 N/mm2 for high speed engines. It may be
noted that the maximum thrust will be during the expansion stroke. The side thrust (R) on the
cylinder liner is usually taken as 1/10 of the maximum gas load on the piston.

12
2.1.4 Piston Pin
The piston pin (also called gudgeon pin or wrist pin) is used to connect the pistonand the
connecting rod. It is usually made hollow and tapered on the inside, the smallest inside diameter
being at the center of the pin. The piston pin passes through the bosses provided on the inside of
the piston skirt and the bush of the small end of the connecting rod. The Centre of piston pin
should be 0.02 D to 0.04 D above the center of the skirt, in order to off-set the turning effect of
the friction and to obtain uniform distribution of pressure between the piston and the cylinder
liner. The material used for the piston pin is usually case hardened steel alloy containing nickel,
chromium, molybdenum or vanadium having tensile strength from 710 MPa to 910 MPa.

2.2 Design Considerations Of A Piston

In designing a piston for I.C. engine, the following points should be taken into
consideration
1. It should have enormous strength to withstand the high gas pressure and inertia forces.
2. It should have minimum mass to minimize the inertia forces.
3. It should form an effective gas and oil sealing of the cylinder.
4. It should provide sufficient bearing area to prevent undue wear.
5. It should disperse the heat of combustion quickly to the cylinder walls.
6. It should have high speed reciprocation without noise.
7. It should be of sufficient rigid construction to withstand thermal and mechanical
distortion.
8. It should have sufficient support for the piston pin.

2.3 Piston Function Design Requirement


1. Easily move to the reciprocating motion inside of cylinder
2. Reducing friction between the connecting rod and piston pin
3. There is no strain occurring the piston pin
4. Piston move even at minimum pressure

13
2.4 Piston Structural Design Requirement

1. Piston designed in cylindrical shape because easily


Move to the up & down direction
2. Piston should be a compact size
3. Piston head geometry (curve, flat) should be in correct shape so that in gives maximum
efficiency

2.5 Material for Pistons


The most commonly used materials for pistons of I.C. engines are cast iron, cast
aluminum, forged aluminum, cast steel and forged steel. The cast iron pistons are used
for moderately rated engines with piston speeds below 6 m / s and aluminum alloy
pistons are used for highly rated engines running at higher piston speeds. It may be noted
1. Since the coefficient of thermal expansion for aluminum is about 2.5 times that of cast
iron, therefore, a greater clearance must be provided between the piston and the cylinder
wall in order to prevent seizing of the piston when engine runs continuously under heavy
loads. But if excessive clearance is allowed, then the piston will develop ‘piston slap’
while it is cold and this tendency increases with wear. The less clearance between the
piston and the cylinder wall will lead to seizing of piston.
2. Since the aluminum alloys used for pistons have high **heat conductivity (nearly four
times that of cast iron), therefore, these pistons ensure high rate of heat transfer and thus
keeps down the maximum temperature difference between the center and edges of the
piston head or crown.
3. Since the aluminum alloys are about three times lighter than cast iron, therefore, its
mechanical strength is good at low temperatures, but they lose their strength (about 50%)
at temperatures above 325°C. Sometimes, the pistons of aluminum alloys are coated with
aluminum oxide by an electrical method.

14
Material Cast aluminum alloy

Young’s Modulus 71GPa

Poison ratio 0.33

Coefficient of conduction 174.15 W/mK

Tensile strength 485MPa

Yield strength 435MPa

Density 2.77E-6 kg/mm

Table 2.5

2.6 FAILURE MODES OF PISTON

There are two types of piston failure

1) Rough out failure

2) Wrong out failure

2.6.1 Rough out failure

 Damage from Running Unmixed Fuel


 Damage from Over-Speeding the Engine
 Damage from Detonation
 Damage from Heat Seizure

15
1) Wrong out failure

 Damage from Debris Getting Through the Air Filter


 Damage From Bearing Failure

 Rough out failure

2.6.1.1 Damage from Running Unmixed Fuel

The piston above has severe scouring on the exhaust skirt with the
heaviest damage on the clutch side of the piston. All of this damage
was caused from running straight fuel. The lack of lubrication on the
piston has caused it to seize to the cylinder wall. The damage you see
was caused in the moments before the piston "stuck," which seized the
engine.

Fig 2.2

This kind of piston damage can also be found on a saw that was run with the carburetor set too
lean or one that was run with an air leak. If you didn't know this saw had been run with no oil in
the fuel, how would you know it wasn't a heat seizure To fully understand the cause of this
failure, it is important to look at the rest of the piston. The photo below is of the same piston. It
shows additional damage that's usually only found on a saw engine that had been run with
unmixed

2.6.1.2 Damage From Over-Speeding The Engine

The piston above has been damaged by over-speeding. Look at the piston material between the
ring-lands. You can see a big chunk of it is missing and some has been "squished" thinner,
creating a super-wide ring-land. Look at the top ring (bottom of photo). You can see the edge is
rounded-over, a sure sign the rings were catching in the exhaust port. When this occurs, this sets
off a high frequency vibration, eventually breaking the ring-land.

16
Fig 2.3

2.6.1.3 Damage from Detonation:

The piston above has been damaged by detonation. Notice the damage on the top and the edges
of the piston. The heat caused by detonation made the piston so hot, the rings stuck and the
piston seized in the cylinder. You can see the seizure marks on the side of the piston. This
damage usually ruins both the cylinder and piston.

Detonation can be caused by a number of things. In this case, changing to higher octane supreme
grade fuel was the answer. See our article on Fuel for more information

Fig 2.4

2.6.1.4 Damage from Heat Seizure:

The piston above shows the most common severe piston damage we see - the exhaust side has
damage caused from excess heat. This damage looks similar to piston damage caused by running
straight gas shown in the first image, but with this piston, conditions under the piston looked
normal.

17
This kind of damage can be caused by over-revving the saw, running the carburetor adjustment
too lean, by ignoring an air leak in the saw's engine, or a combination of factors. The best way to
avoid a such a seizure is to use good quality fuel and mix oil, avoid over-revving the engine, and
always stop running a saw that shows signs of a potential air leak. This kind of damage can also
be caused by a partially plugged fuel filter, which is another reason fuel filters should be
replaced regularly

Fig 2.5 fig 2.6


2.6.2 Wrong out failure

2.6.2.1 Damage from Debris Getting Through the Air Filter

The damage on this piston skirt is caused by debris getting through the air filtering system.
Notice the horizontal machine marks have been scrubbed off all across the bottom indicating
extreme wear on the lower part of the skirt. Not shown, but the other side of the piston looked
perfect. This damage was only found only on the intake side of the piston. This is typical for
damage caused by intake debris. The other side of the piston is not exposed to an intake port, so
it isn't affected at early stages.

What damages the intake skirt is debris from a leaking filter wedging between the piston and
cylinder wall causing scuffing on the piston skirt. Since the piston is made of softer material, the
damage is more pronounced on the skirt than on the cylinder bore's hard surface. This wear on
the piston increases the clearance, which allows the piston to "rock" in the cylinder's bore. As the
skirt becomes thinner and weaker, rocking increases. Eventually the piston will break. When it
does, the engine seizes. On a pro saw, the piston skirt performs another important function. Not
only does it guide the piston, the skirt serves as the engine's intake valve. As the piston travels up
and down the cylinder, its base opens and closes the intake port as it passes. For the engine to run
its best, it is important for this valve to function well .
18
Fig 2.7

2.6.2.2 Damage from Bearing Failure

These fine scratches and "peppering" on the exhaust skirt and lower intake skirt is caused by the
failure of the lower rod bearing or main bearings. Small, but hard pieces of the bearings and
retention cages are breaking loose, causing this piston damage. If you are lucky enough to catch
a piston in this condition, stop running the saw until you find which bearing is giving up
material. If you keep running the saw, eventually the bearing(s) will completely fail. This usually
releases larger pieces of bearing material.

When this occurs, sometimes the crank shaft locks up. But if it keeps running, loose pieces in the
bottom end will travel up through the transfer ports and into the engine. All the parts won't make
the complete trip. Some won't pass through the upper transfer port and when the piston goes by,
it will drive these parts into the cylinder wall, destroying both. To repair this damage, both the
crankshaft assembly and the cylinder and piston must be replace two very expensive
components. We typically see this kind of damage on saw engines that have been over-revved.
For more information see our section on Rod Bearing Failure.

Fig 2.8

19
Chapter 3

SPECIFICATIONS (splendor-pro)

3.1 Technical Specifications

Engine Type Air-cooled, 4-stroke single cylinder OHC


Displacement 97.2 cc
Max. Power 5.66 KW ,@ 5000 rpm
Max. Torque 7.130 N-m @ 2500 rpm
Compression Ratio 9.9 : 1
Starting Kick Start / Self Start
Ignition DC - Digital CDI
Bore 50 mm
Stroke 49 mm

Table 3.1

3.2 THEORETICAL CALCULATION FOR PISTON


1) Torque

P= 𝟔

We know that p=5.6 kw

5.6×e3=2×3.14×7500×T / 60

T=7.130 N-m

2) Diameter of piston

πr2h = cc

Cylinder area = displacement

We know that displacement so to find diameter of piston

20
3.14×r2×0.049=97×E-5 m3

r = radius

Diameter D = 2×r

D = 2*0.025 m =0.05m=50mm

3) Cylinder inside pressure

Pressure = force/area (F/A)

Force =power/velocity (P/V)

We know that power

Velocity =2LN/60=2 0.049*5000/60= 8.16M/S

Force =5.6e3/8.16 = 686.274N

P = F/A

Area = πr2 = 3.14 (0.025)2 = 1.934E-3 M2

P=686.27/1.934E-3 =0.34953Mpa (minimum)

Maximum pressure =15 Pmin

P max =15 0.34953 =5.24 Mpa

Max pressure = 5.24 Mpa

21
THE PROCEDURE FOR PISTON DESIGNS CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING
STEPS:

4) Thickness of piston head

Where
P= maximum pressure in N/mm²
D= cylinder bore/outside diameter of the piston in mm.
σt = permissible tensile stress for the material of the piston.

tH = 4.01mm

5) Radial thickness of ring ( t1)

Where,
D = cylinder bore in mm

Pw= pressure of fuel on cylinder wall in N/mm². Its value is limited from
0.042N/mm². to 0.0667 N/mm² For present material, σt is 152.2Mpa

t1 =1.812mm

6) Axial thickness of ring (t2)

The thickness of the rings may be taken as

t2 = 0.7t1 to t1

22
t2 = 0.92 1.812

t2 =1.66mm

7) Top land thickness (b1)

The width of the top land varies from

b1= tH to 1.2 tH

b1=1.2 4.01

𝐛𝟏 =4.81mm

8) Thickness of other land (b2)


b2= 0.75 t2 𝐭𝐨 t2

b2= 0.75 1.66

𝐛 = 1.242mm

9) Maximum thickness of barrel (t3)

𝐭𝟑 = . 𝟑 𝐃 + 𝐛 + 𝟒. 𝟓𝐦𝐦

b = t1+0.4
b = 1.812+0.4

b = 2.212mm

23
t3= 0.03 D + 2.212+ 4.5mm

𝐭𝟑 = 8.212mm

10) open end of the barrel thickness ( T open )


At the open end the thickness is taken as

T open = (0.20 to0.30Tp)

T open = 0.25 8.212 =2.053

T open = 2.053mm

11) Gap between the rings (T L)

T L= 0.055 × D

T L =2.75 mm

Second ring = 0.04 D =0.04 50 = 2.00mm

12) Depth of ring groove (Dr)

Dr = t1 + 0.4

Dr = 1.812 +0.4

Dr = 2.212 mm

13) Length of piston

24
Lp = Lps + 3× t1 + 3 ×Dr

Here Lps is taken nearly as 0.5 of the piston diameter


(0.5D)

LPs =0.5D =0.5 50 = 25


LPs = 25

LP = 25 + 3× 1.812 + 3 ×2.212

LP = 37.072mm

14) Piston pin diameter

Pdo = 0.3D to 0.45D,

Pdo = 0.32 50

Pdo = 16mm

Pdi = 12mm

25
PARAMETERS CALCULATED VALUES

Piston length 37.072mm


Piston diameter 50mm
Piston hole external diameter 16mm
Piston hole internal diameter 12mm
Piston axial thickness 1.63mm
Piston radial thickness 1.812mm
Depth of ring groove 2.212mm
Gap between the rings 2.75mm
Top land thickness 4.01mm
Piston top end thickness 4.81mm
Piston open end thickness 2.053mm

Table 3.2

26
3.3 MODELING OF PISTON IN CATIA

The 2D sketch of the piston in CATIA sketch window as shown in the fig 1

Fig 3.1 Line Sketch of the Piston

The 3D modeling of the piston as shown in the fig 3.1, it as done by using CATIA
workbench

Fig3.2 3D Sketch of the Piston

27
Chapter 4

DESIGN ANALYSIS

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was first developed in 1943 by R. Courant, who utilized the Ritz
method of numerical analysis and minimization of variational calculus to obtain approximate
solutions to vibration systems. Shortly thereafter, a paper published in 1956 by M. J. Turner, R.
W. Clough, H. C. Martin, and L. J. Topp established a broader definition of numerical analysis.
The paper centered on the "stiffness and deflection of complex structures". By the early 70's,
FEA was limited to expensive mainframe computers generally owned by the aeronautics,
automotive, defense, and nuclear industries. Since the rapid decline in the cost of computers
and the phenomenal increase in computing power, FEA has been developed to an incredible
precision. Present day supercomputers are now able to produce accurate results for all kinds of
parameters

STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

Structural analysis is the determination of the effects of loads on physical structures and
their components. Structures subject to this type of analysis include all that must withstand loads,
such as buildings, bridges, vehicles, machinery, furniture, attire, soil strata, prostheses and
biological tissue. Structural analysis incorporates the fields of applied mechanics, materials
science and applied mathematics to compute a structure's deformations,
internal forces, stresses, support reactions, accelerations, and stability. The results of the analysis
are used to verify a structure's fitness for use, often saving physical tests. Structural analysis is
thus a key part of the engineering design of structures.

28
4.1 MODELLING OF PISTON IN ANSYS SOFTWARE

Single cylinder 4 stroke engine (splendor pro) piston structural analysing in ANSYS software

4.2 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF PISTON

Deformed shape of piston


Fig 4.1

29
DOF solution for Y direction DOF solution for Z direction

Fig 4.2

30
DOF solution for X direction

Stress analysis in X direction Stress analysis in Y direction

Fig 4.3

31
Stress analysis in Z direction

VONMISSES STRESS
Fig 4.4

32
FACTOR OF SAFETY

Ultimate stress = 0.155e10


Normal stress = 152.2e6

𝐭𝐦 𝐭 𝐭 𝟏𝟓𝟓 𝟏
Factor of safety = = = 10.157
𝐨 𝐦 𝐭 𝟏𝟓 𝟔

Factor of safety = 10.157

4.3 APDL CODE

finish
/clear WPOFFS,-15,-9,
/title,Piston rectng,0,30,0,18
/prep7 VOFFST,1,-4
ET,1,SOLID45 VSYMM,X,1
YS=71e9 FLST,3,2,6,ORDE,2
PR=0.33 FITEM,3,1
MP,KXX,1,175 FITEM,3,-2
MP,C,1,960 VSBV, 36,P51X
MP,DENS,1,2700 WPOFFS,15,0,
MP,EX,1,YS WPROTA,0,0,90
MP,PRXY,1,PR FLST,2,30,6,ORDE,4
k,1,25.5,0 FITEM,2,3
k,2,28.5,0 FITEM,2,8
k,3,28.5,29.5 FITEM,2,-35
k,4,25.5,29.5 FITEM,2,37
k,5,25.5,30.5 VSBW,P51X
k,6,28.5,30.5 WPOFFS,30,0,
k,7,28.5,31.5 WPROTA,0,0,-90

33
k,8,25.5,31.5 FLST,2,34,6,ORDE,9
k,9,25.5,32.5 FITEM,2,1
k,10,28.5,32.5 FITEM,2,-2
k,11,28.5,34 FITEM,2,4
k,12,25.5,34 FITEM,2,-7
k,13,25.5,35.5 FITEM,2,9
k,14,28.5,35.5 FITEM,2,-32
k,15,28.5,41.5 FITEM,2,34
k,16,25.5,41.5 FITEM,2,-36
k,17,19.5,41.5 FITEM,2,38
k,18,19.5,40 VSBW,P51X
k,19,0,40 !!delete volumes!!
k,20,0,35.5 FLST,2,28,6,ORDE,19
k,21,23,35.5 FITEM,2,1
k,22,23,30.5 FITEM,2,3
k,23,25.5,37 FITEM,2,-5
k,24,18,37 FITEM,2,8
k,25,23,5 FITEM,2,-11
k,26,25.5,5 FITEM,2,13
k,30,23,20 FITEM,2,-15
k,31,13,20 FITEM,2,17
k,32,13,35.5 FITEM,2,-19
l,1,2 FITEM,2,21
l,2,3 FITEM,2,-23
l,3,4 FITEM,2,25
l,4,5 FITEM,2,-27
l,5,6 FITEM,2,29
l,6,7 FITEM,2,-31
l,7,8 FITEM,2,33
l,8,9 FITEM,2,35
l,9,10 FITEM,2,39

34
l,10,11 FITEM,2,-41
l,11,12 VDELE,P51X, , ,1
l,12,13
l,13,14 wpro,,,-50.000000
l,14,15 FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2
l,15,16 FITEM,2,37
l,16,17 FITEM,2,42
l,17,18 VSBW,P51X
l,18,19 !!!!!!!!!!!!!
lfillt,17,18,1.5 FLST,2,1,6,ORDE,1
l,19,20 FITEM,2,34
l,20,32 FLST,3,2,5,ORDE,2
L,32,21 FITEM,3,34
l,21,22 FITEM,3,135
lfillt,21,22,5 VSBA,P51X,P51X,SEPO,KEEP,KEEP
l,22,30 !!!!!!!!
l,30,25 VDELE, 6, , ,1
l,25,26 !!!!!!!!!!!
l,26,1 FLST,2,1,6,ORDE,1
l,22,5 FITEM,2,2
l,24,27 FLST,3,1,5,ORDE,1
L,13,23 FITEM,3,35
L,23,24 VSBA,P51X,P51X,SEPO,KEEP,KEEP
L,24,28 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
l,23,16 VDELE, 6, , ,1FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2
l,5,8 FITEM,2,7
l,9,12 FITEM,2,-8
l,26,4 VADD,P51X
l,30,31 FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2
l,31,32 FITEM,2,2
TYPE,1 FITEM,2,34

35
MAT,1 VDELE,P51X
AL,1,2,3,35,26 !!!!glue!!!!!
al,22,24,25,35,4,27 vsel,s,volu,,1,6
al,5,6,7,33 vsel,a,volu,,12
al,9,10,11,34 vsel,a,volu,,16
al,33,8,34,12,29,30,31,23,27 vsel,a,volu,,20
al,13,14,15,32,29 vsel,a,volu,,24
AL,30,28,19,16,32 vsel,a,volu,,28
al,28,31,21,20,17,18 vsel,a,volu,,32
al,21,23,22,36,37 VADD,all
Vrotat,1,,,,,,19,20,360 !*
Vrotat,2,,,,,,19,20,360 TYPE, 1
Vrotat,3,,,,,,19,20,360 MAT, 1
Vrotat,4,,,,,,19,20,360 REAL,
Vrotat,5,,,,,,19,20,360 ESYS, 0
Vrotat,6,,,,,,19,20,360 SECNUM,
Vrotat,7,,,,,,19,20,360 !*
Vrotat,8,,,,,,19,20,360 ESIZE,0.5,0,
FLST,2,4,6,ORDE,2 MSHAPE,1,3D
FITEM,2,1 MSHKEY,0
FITEM,2,-4 !*
VADD,P51X VSEL, s,volu , ,2
FLST,2,4,6,ORDE,2 CM,_Y1,VOLU
FITEM,2,5 CHKMSH,'VOLU'
FITEM,2,-8 CMSEL,S,_Y
VADD,P51X !*
!!!! VMESH,_Y1
WPOFFS,30,-20,0 !*
WPROTA,0,0,90 CMDELE,_Y
CYL4,,,25,180 CMDELE,_Y1
VOFFST,1,-70 CMDELE,_Y2

36
FLST,2,2,6,ORDE,2 !*
FITEM,2,1 /SOL
FITEM,2,33 FLST,2,3,5,ORDE,3
VSBV,P51X, 2 FITEM,2,69
!!!!!! FITEM,2,238
WPOFFS,0,40,-7 FITEM,2,249
CYL4,,,11.5,-180 DA,P51X,ALL,0
VOFFST,1,-10 !*
VSYMM,X,2 !*
VOFFST,9,11.5, , asel,s,area,,45
VSYMM,X,5 asel,a,area,,60
WPOFFS,,,7 asel,a,area,,59
CYL4, , ,8.5, , , ,-70 asel,a,area,,157
FLST,2,6,6,ORDE,2 CM,top_land,area
FITEM,2,1 CMSEL,S,top_land
FITEM,2,-6 SFA,top_land,1,PRES,5.24e6
VSBV,P51X, 7 allsel
SOLVE
!! FINISH

5 . RESULT AND DISCUSSION

From von misses stress analysis the ultimate stress obtained using analytical method yields the
value is 0.155e10
The stress assumed for the design calculation is 152e6 therefore the design is safe as for the
assumed stress value
Also the parameter of piston (refer table 3.2) are safe as for the assumed condition

37
5.1. CONCLUSION

The fundamental concepts and design methods concerned with single cylinders petrol engine
have been studied in this paper the results found by the use of this analytical method are nearly
equal to the actual dimensions used now a days. Hence it provides a fast procedure to design a
piston which can be further improved by the use of various software and methods. The most
important part is that very less time is required to design the piston and only a few basic
specification of the engine.

5.2 FURTHER POSSIBLEWORK

The ANSYS analysis of the model designed on the basis of the dimensions found in this paper
can be done. This will help to get the idea whether the design is safe or not and what further
changes can be made in the design considering into mind the reduction of wt. of the piston i.e
work towards the weight minimization. The analysis can be done with change in material of
piston can be changed for better strength and light weight

6.REFERENCES

[1] Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Piston Mechanism of Four Stroke S.I. Engine.
[2] Mathura M.L., Sharma, A Course in Internal Combustion EngineR.P. Dhanpat Rai
Publication 1997 (i, ii, iii).
[3] Amitabha Ghosh, Ashok Kumar Malik, Theory of Mechanism and Machines, third Edition,
Affiliated press pvt limited New De 1998.
[4] Shigley, Joseph Edward, Theory of Machines and Mechanisms, Tata McGraw Hill, New
York, 2003.
[5] Khurmi, R.S. and Gupta, J.K., A Textbook of Theory of Machine,4th Edition, Eurasia
Publishing House (Pvt.), Ltd, New Delhi, 2003

38

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